Sample records for include educational efforts

  1. Adolescents' perceptions of flavored tobacco products, including E-cigarettes: A qualitative study to inform FDA tobacco education efforts through videogames. (United States)

    Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K


    Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. APS Education and Diversity Efforts (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore


    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  3. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen


    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  4. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.


    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level

  5. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.


    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  6. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  7. 12 CFR 906.12 - What outreach efforts are included in this program? (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What outreach efforts are included in this program? 906.12 Section 906.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE... Minorities, Women, or Individuals With Disabilities § 906.12 What outreach efforts are included in this...

  8. 12 CFR 361.6 - What outreach efforts are included in this program? (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What outreach efforts are included in this program? 361.6 Section 361.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.6 What outreach efforts...

  9. Physics Education Research efforts to promote diversity: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Brahmia, Suzanne


    We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.

  10. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP) (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015


    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  11. Korean efforts for education and training network in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyong-Won; Lee, Eui-Jin


    education programs along with a career in the nuclear fields at home and abroad should raise young generation's interests. Global network will serve as a vehicle that drives nuclear education and training forward. NTC of KAERI has developed the ANENT temporary web site ( for the IAEA Consultancy Meting on Establishment of ANENT held in June 2003 at KAERI. According to the results from the discussion of the meeting, KAERI has requested to continue to work toward establishment of a web site for all activities related to ANENT. The followings are KAERI's efforts made for the ANENT: Installation of a portable cyber education system (Edu-V producer) and cyber studio for the effective production of VOD materials; Production of VOD type learning materials: 3 IAEA courses containing 52 lectures. For the progress of the establishment of ANENT, it is believed that exchange of informational and materials on education and training should be considered in advance among the member states. The followings are our suggestions for the exchange of information and materials to be discussed among member states: Formulation of a working group; Identification of the scope of activities; Establishment of cooperative mechanism; Design of ANENT web, and loading of existing information and materials on the web; Production and loading of new materials including cyber education and training materials; Sustainable operation of ANENT web site

  12. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts (United States)

    Tung, Rosann


    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  13. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.


    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  14. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.S.


    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts

  15. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.


    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at

  16. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  17. The Value of Home Education Including Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iradge Ahrabi-Fard


    Full Text Available There is a false notion that public school can educate great students. Facing diversity of students’ potential, different timing of growth pattern and varieties of home preparation of students to be a assiduous learner it is serious challenging task. Schools offer a general education to all with some attention to the diversity of students. It is home education, dealing with concentration habits during learning process, valuing educational process and respecting the rules of group learning that are influential in acquiring most from the educational opportunities. School is not able to go against the home culture and re-educate students to behave as a concern and diligent learner if these habits are not emphasized or supported at home. Public education in US is ranked between 18 to 22 in the world (according to different sources. Comparing with the world, American schools as the whole rank first for school structures, are number one for allocation of school budget, the emphasis and requirements of teacher education is number one. America expenditure per student exceed the top ten of the world combined. It is the lack of home education of learning demeanor and respecting the learning process that causes the inferiority. Physical education faces the same general dilemma at school having a very diverse group of students within variety of growth stages, potentials, sizes and capabilities based on their previous experiences. Decent general physical education at school can only offer a limited advancement. It is the responsibilities of parents to learn about the specifics of healthy growth and suitable skill development for their unique child. It is their parental task to act responsibly for the healthy growth of their child concerning: bone density and health, muscular strength, size and endurance, heart development to endure the stress of activities and function well, the range of motion of joints and finally their weight management. All the above

  18. Inequality of Effort in an Egalitarian Education System (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji


    Japanese compulsory education is considered as relatively egalitarian since poorer regions receive more funding from the central government, which standardizes the quality of education nationwide. Nevertheless, the literature indicates socioeconomic status-based achievement and educational attainment gaps. As parts of explanations of these gaps,…

  19. Life Science Professional Societies Expand Undergraduate Education Efforts (United States)

    Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.


    The "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by…

  20. Enhancing school-based asthma education efforts using computer-based education for children. (United States)

    Nabors, Laura A; Kockritz, Jennifer L; Ludke, Robert L; Bernstein, Jonathan A


    Schools are an important site for delivery of asthma education programs. Computer-based educational programs are a critical component of asthma education programs and may be a particularly important education method in busy school environments. The objective of this brief report is to review and critique computer-based education efforts in schools. The results of our literature review indicated that school-based computer education efforts are related to improved knowledge about asthma and its management. In some studies, improvements in clinical outcomes also occur. Data collection programs need to be built into games that improve knowledge. Many projects do not appear to last for periods greater than 1 year and little information is available about cultural relevance of these programs. Educational games and other programs are effective methods of delivering knowledge about asthma management and control. Research about the long-term effects of this increased knowledge, in regard to behavior change, is needed. Additionally, developing sustainable projects, which are culturally relevant, is a goal for future research.

  1. ITs in Engineering Education: Joining Efforts Between SPEE and IGIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardoso


    Full Text Available The International Society for Engineering Education (IGIP and The Portuguese Society for Engineering Education (SPEE, the first being the oldest European Society for Engineering Education in Europe and the second the very young Society for Engineering Education in Portugal, have been intensifying the collaboration between the two societies as well as the exchange and dissemination of information about their relevant activities, whilst promoting understanding and cooperation between their respective members. One possible way is to create joint working groups, open to the members of both societies, on common topics of interest. In fact, both societies already kicked off this activity. The first initiative happened during the 1st World Engineering Education Flash Week (WEE, Lisbon, 2011. The SPEE-IGIP Flash Moment was a one day event integrated in the main Conference, which was dedicated to “Information & Communication Technologies in Engineering Education”.
    ITs allow the development of different teaching strategies which contribute to enhance the learning outcomes of students. ITs are also particularly suited to develop Life Long Learning tools, in a broad range of Engineering subjects, either open to the general market or oriented to a very specific public.
    Examples of teaching strategies involving ITs have been addressed during the Flash Moment SPEE-IGIP which took place during WEE, and some are described in detail in the present work.

  2. Beyond Effort and Cleverness: Technology, Language, and Community in Education (United States)

    Hawk, Benson S.


    This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of different models of education. The author, a teacher of humanities at Newark Academy in New Jersey, aims to move beyond some of the rhetoric about "progress" or rhetoric that implies there is something inherently right or wrong about different systems for organizing schools and…

  3. Multidisciplinary Special Education Efforts: A Transactional-Ecological Approach. (United States)

    Buktenica, Norman A.

    The rationale and philosophy for multidisciplinary activities by school psychologists and educators are presented with an emphasis on the acquisition of information on the social context of children's behavior and needs. Multidisciplinary training teams (MDTT) established over an eight-year period in elementary schools in Nashville, Kentucky, are…

  4. Join the Party: Successful Educational Branding is a Group Effort (United States)

    Moore, Robert M.


    The education market is becoming more competitive and far more crowded. The economic downturn has caused many families to reconsider their priorities, re-evaluate their budgets, and refocus their attention. Once considered one of the dark arts, whose very tenets were unacceptable in a mission-based environment, branding is now widely regarded as…

  5. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan


    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  6. Efforts and Models of Education for Parents: the Danish Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendal Jensen, Niels


    Full Text Available The report examines the relationship between day care institutions, schools and so called “parents unfamiliar to education” as well as the relationship between the institutions. With in Danish public and professional discourse concepts like parents unfamiliar to education are usually referring to environments, parents or families with either no or just very restricted experience of education except for the basic school (folkeskole. The “grand old man” of Danish educational research, Prof. Em. Erik Jørgen Hansen, defines the concept as follows: Parents who are distant from or not familiar with education, are parents without tradition of education and by that fact they are not able to contribute constructively in order to back up their own children during their education. Many teachers and pedagogues are not used to that term; they rather prefer concepts like “socially exposed” or “socially disadvantaged” parents or social classes or strata. The report does not only focus on parents who are not capable to support the school achievements of their children, since a low level of education is usually connected with social disadvantage. Such parents are often not capable of understanding and meeting the demands from side of the school when sending their children to school. They lack the competencies or the necessary competence of action. For the moment being much attention is done from side of the Ministries of Education and Social Affairs (recently renamed Ministry of Welfare in order to create equal possibilities for all children. Many kinds of expertise (directions, counsels, researchers, etc. have been more than eager to promote recommendations aiming at achieving the ambitious goal: 2015 95% of all young people should complement a full education (classes 10.-12.. Research results are pointing out the importance of increased participation of parents. In other word the agenda is set for ‘parents’ education’. It seems necessary

  7. 76 FR 22740 - Comment Request on Existing Private and Public Efforts To Educate Investors (United States)


    ... Existing Private and Public Efforts To Educate Investors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Request for comment. SUMMARY: In connection with a study regarding financial literacy among investors as... private and public efforts to educate investors. DATES: Comments should be received on or before June 21...

  8. Innovation Efforts in Education and School Administration: Views of Turkish School Administrators (United States)

    Akin, Ugur


    Problem Statement: In the current information era, nearly all organizations make efforts to make innovations in the fields of information, communication, technology, etc. Educational organizations are no exception to this trend. Moreover, it can be argued that educational institutions make a particular effort to rapidly keep pace with change. In…

  9. The Machinery Of Climate Anti-Science, Its Efforts Against Education, Top To Bottom (United States)

    Mashey, J. R.


    "There's always one every year" a fine local science teacher said after once again being hassled by a vocal parent for teaching appropriate climate science in school. How does that happen? The machinery of climate anti-science starts from the top with funders working through a maze of money paths, think tanks and front groups, employing spokespeople who can be portrayed as experts. While much of the money flows are still dark, some have been exposed over the last few years, and the effects finally filter down to the state and local levels of education. Among others, the Heartland Institute has a long history of trying to inject anti-science into K-12 and college education, having sent books, DVDs or brochures to teachers or school boards, as well as monthly newsletters to state legislators. Such are aimed at the top of the state or local organizations that affect education. For a vocal subset of the citizenry, a constant flow of misinformation from books, blogs, newsletters and some newspapers and magazines stirs action such as writing letters to editors, complaining to schools, calling on pseudo-experts and demanding equal time for pseudoscience. As the teacher said, it only takes one person to cause trouble at the local level. After a brief review of the overall machinery, this focuses on examples of anti-education tactics seen already, with some brief advice for climate scientists and educators who need to understand the machinery that supports such tactics. Some earlier history is included in, but other attempts have surfaced in last few years, including state-wide efforts to reject Common Core Educational standard to avoid teaching climate science. Fortunately, school boards sometimes respond quite well, including one just recently in Pennsylvania.

  10. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra


    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  11. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts (United States)

    English, Leona M.


    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  12. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia. (United States)

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  13. Using Authentic Science in the Classroom: NASA's Coordinated Efforts to Enhance STEM Education (United States)

    Lawton, B.; Schwerin, T.; Low, R.


    A key NASA education goal is to attract and retain students in science, technology engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. When teachers engage students in the examination of authentic data derived from NASA satellite missions, they simultaneously build 21st century technology skills as well as core content knowledge about the Earth and space. In this session, we highlight coordinated efforts by NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) programs to enhance educator accessibility to data resources, distribute state-of -the-art data tools and expand pathways for educators to find and use data resources. The group discussion explores how NASA SMD EPO efforts can further improve teacher access to authentic NASA data, identifies the types of tools and lessons most requested by the community, and explores how communication and collaboration between product developers and classroom educators using data tools and products can be enhanced.

  14. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education. (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W


    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  15. Cultural Clash and Educational Diversity: Immigrant Teachers' Efforts To Rescue the Education of Immigrant Children in Israel. (United States)

    Epstein, Alek D.; Kheimets, Nina G.


    Presents the results of a study on the Mofet system (Israel), founded by immigrant teachers in 1991 as an effort to educate Russian immigrant children. Argues that although the success of the system is linked to the general education system's failure to meet immigrants' needs, it does not express Russian immigrant's desire for socio-cultural…

  16. Enhancing the "Science" in Elementary Science Methods: A Collaborative Effort between Science Education and Entomology. (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Frazier, Maryann; Appel, Heidi; Weiss, Robinne

    Teachers' subject matter knowledge is a particularly important issue in science education in that it influences instructional practices across subject areas and at different grade levels. This paper provides an overview of efforts to develop a unique elementary science methods course and related field experience through a partnership between…

  17. Restructuring Vocational Special Needs Education through Interdisciplinary Team Effort: Local Motion in the Pacific Basin. (United States)

    Smith, Garnett J.; Stodden, Robert A.


    The Restructuring through Interdisciplinary Team Effort project focuses on changing the culture and structure of vocational special needs education in the Pacific Basin. Its three dimensions are cognitive core (best practices, outcome-focused design, strategic planning); team network of stakeholders; and systemic renewal (school-to-work…

  18. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners (United States)

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.


    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  19. Including Voices from the World through Global Citizenship Education (United States)

    Heilman, Elizabeth E.


    Linking to voices from the world is exciting for both students and teachers, but everyone needs to understand that global education is a form of citizenship education. The activities of the nation have a great effect on people in the rest of the world, whether in the realm of economics, diplomacy, the media, or the environment. Some states, like…

  20. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.


    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  1. Changes in Accounting Education Include Increased Use of Writing Tasks. (United States)

    McCleary, Bill


    The future of accounting education has already arrived at the Department of Accountancy at the University of Illinois-Champaign, United States' top accounting school. "Project Discovery" is a 5-year-old program that incorporates many current trends in educational innovation, such as writing across the curriculum, collaborative learning,…

  2. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija


    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  3. Pesantren dan Upaya Pendidikan Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja (Pesantren and Adolescent Reproductive Health Education Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Pranata


    Full Text Available Background: Although there was Pesantren Health Post, but the promotion and education of reproductive health did notproceed well. Students at the Pesantren are mostly teenagers, therefore sexuality and reproduction problems in pesantrenhad become potential threats. This study described there productive health education in pesantren, that focused on theeducation system, material, and factors supporting and inhibiting reproductive health education efforts. Methods: This was a qualitative study. The data were collected by means of purposive sampling. The study was conducted at two pesantrens in Sampang, Balikpapan and West Lombok regencies. Data were collected by indepth interviews to managers, teachers and students. Results: This study indicated that reproductive education was not something new to the pesantren. The Classic Buku Kuning had been the reference of reproductive education among santri. The kyai used bandongan teaching methods which tend to be monologue. Further more this method did not employ evaluation system. The large number of santri, the high commitment and responsibility of the manager of pesantren, and the availibility of 24 hours assistance were factors that supported reproductive health education in pesantren. The inhibiting factors were limited understanding of reproductive health issues, lack of transparency of the pesantren community regarding issues that were considered taboo, and limitations of supporting infrastructure. Another aspect was the lack of external support that were relevance to the issue of adolescent reproductive health services. Recomendations: It is recommended to enrich the materials on reproductive health education in pesantren,

  4. Defining English Language Proficiency for Malaysian Tertiary Education: Past, Present and Future Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Swee Heng


    Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.

  5. Effects of efforts to optimise morbidity and mortality rounds to serve contemporary quality improvement and educational goals: a systematic review. (United States)

    Smaggus, Andrew; Mrkobrada, Marko; Marson, Alanna; Appleton, Andrew


    The quality and safety movement has reinvigorated interest in optimising morbidity and mortality (M&M) rounds. We performed a systematic review to identify effective means of updating M&M rounds to (1) identify and address quality and safety issues, and (2) address contemporary educational goals. Relevant databases (Medline, Embase, PubMed, Education Resource Information Centre, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Healthstar, and Global Health) were searched to identify primary sources. Studies were included if they (1) investigated an intervention applied to M&M rounds, (2) reported outcomes relevant to the identification of quality and safety issues, or educational outcomes relevant to quality improvement (QI), patient safety or general medical education and (3) included a control group. Study quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale-Education instruments. Given the heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures, results were analysed thematically. The final analysis included 19 studies. We identified multiple effective strategies (updating objectives, standardising elements of rounds and attaching rounds to a formal quality committee) to optimise M&M rounds for a QI/safety purpose. These efforts were associated with successful integration of quality and safety content into rounds, and increased implementation of QI interventions. Consistent effects on educational outcomes were difficult to identify, likely due to the use of methodologies ill-fitted for educational research. These results are encouraging for those seeking to optimise the quality and safety mission of M&M rounds. However, the inability to identify consistent educational effects suggests the investigation of M&M rounds could benefit from additional methodologies (qualitative, mixed methods) in order to understand the complex mechanisms driving learning at M&M rounds. © Article author(s) (or their

  6. Leveraging the International Polar Year Legacy: Providing Historical Perspective for IPY Education, Outreach and Communication Efforts (United States)

    Tsukernik, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.


    As the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is fast approaching, it is important to look back and learn from the previous experience. Over 125 years ago, when an Austrian explorer and naval officer Lt. Karl Weyprecht called for an international yearlong intensive effort to study the Polar Regions, he probably never imagined that his model for international collaboration would become so widely popular. Frustrated by the lack of coordinated, international collaboration in research activities, Weyprecht proposed an intensive burst of research activity over the course of at least a year. The first IPY began in 1882 with 12 nations establishing 13 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere. The initial yearlong plan did not go beyond data collection. However, the idea lived in the minds of scientists worldwide and the second IPY followed the first one 50 years later. By 1932, technology evolved significantly, and on top of ground-based meteorological and geophysical measurements, data collection also included radiosonde and acoustic atmospheric measurements. Occurring during a global economic depression, and between world wars, the second IPY faced many challenges. However, 40 permanent stations were established, some of which are still active. Scientific exploration also reached remote frontiers from Antarctica to the Earth's ionosphere. Less than a decade after the WWII, the idea of the next IPY started to circulate in scientific circles. The world was focused on space exploration and the word "polar" seemed too narrow for the gigantic projects planned for the 1957. That is why the initial idea of the third IPY evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY), although polar regions were still a major focus. The success of the IGY is almost overwhelming the first Earth orbiting satellites, a traverse of Antarctica, a discovery of the Radiation Belt, a series of science education films about IGY activities and research themes are just a few

  7. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  8. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  9. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn


    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  10. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks


    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  11. Communicating with the business community. A hospital launches two outreach efforts to educate community leaders. (United States)

    Lofgren, C; Schieffer, T


    Several years ago the management of Saint Francis Medical Center in Peoria, IL, decided that, with healthcare issues becoming increasingly complex, the hospital needed to find ways to share information with its community. Saint Francis's outreach effort began in 1991 with the launching of a Leadership Roundtable. Under its auspices, local leaders in business, finance, government, education, religion, and the media gather once a month to hear hospital staff members outline some aspect of healthcare or healthcare reform. A question-and-answer period follows. In 1993 James Moore, a Saint Francis administrator, began writing a monthly column on healthcare reform for a business publication that serves central Illinois. Moore's column explains to businesspeople how various healthcare reform proposals could affect them. With the column, as with the Leadership Roundtable, Saint Francis has strengthened its communication with the community.

  12. 'More effort and more time.' Considerations in the establishment of interprofessional education programs in the workplace. (United States)

    Kent, Fiona; Nankervis, Katrina; Johnson, Christina; Hodgkinson, Marisa; Baulch, Julie; Haines, Terry


    The argument for integrating interprofessional education (IPE) activities into the workplace has been made concurrently with the call for collaborative clinical practice. An exploratory case study investigation of existing activities in a large metropolitan health care network was undertaken to inform the development of future IPE initiatives. Purposive sampling invited clinicians involved in the design or delivery of workplace IPE activities to participate in a semi-structured interview to discuss their existing programs and the opportunities and challenges facing future work. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed. In total, 15 clinicians were interviewed representing medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, psychology, social work and speech pathology. The IPE programs identified included one medical and midwifery student workshop, several dedicated new graduate or intern programs combining the professions and multiple continuing professional development programs. Three dominant themes were identified to inform the development of future work: clinician factors, organisational factors and IPE considerations. In addition to the cultural, physical and logistical challenges associated with education that integrates professions in the workplace, the time required for the design and delivery of integrated team training should be accounted for when establishing such programs. Considerations for sustainability include ongoing investment in education skills for clinicians, establishment of dedicated education roles and expansion of existing education activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muth‘im


    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that the quality of teachers correlates with the quality of students‘ learning. This implies that if the quality of teachers is good the quality of students‘ learning will be good too. On the contrary, if the quality of teachers is bad the quality of students‘ learning will be bad too. The following data may justify this belief. First, the results of UKA (Uji Kompetensi Awal and UKG (Uji Kompetensi Guru held by the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2012 indicate that the mean score of the first was 42.25 whereas the mean score of the second was 45.82 – lower than the passing grade of UN (Ujian Nasional. When they are correlated with the results of study carried out by PISA on mathematics, natural sciences and language in 2009 and the study conducted by TIMSS on mathematics and natural sciences in 2007 and 2011 the belief may have its justification. PISA‘s study uncovered that Indonesian students were only in level 3 (out of 6 levels. Whereas, TIMSS‘ study revealed that around 95% of Indonesian junior high school students could only reach intermediate level (among five levels. Based on the above data, there must some efforts that must be done to improve the quality of teachers so that the quality of students‘ learning can be made better too. Revitalization of language teacher education is suggested to be one of the solutions.

  14. NASA's Coordinated Efforts to Enhance STEM Education: Bringing NASA Science into the Library (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Thomas, C.; Eyermann, S.; Mitchell, S.; LaConte, K.; Hauck, K.


    Libraries are community-centered, free-access venues serving learners of all ages and backgrounds. Libraries also recognize the importance of science literacy and strive to include science in their programming portfolio. Scientists and educators can partner with local libraries to advance mutual goals of connecting the public to Earth and Space Science. In this interactive Special Interest Group (SIG) discussion, representatives from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) community's library collaborations discussed the opportunities for partnership with public and school libraries; explored the resources, events, and programs available through libraries; explored NASA science programming and professional development opportunities available for librarians; and strategized about the types of support that librarians require to plan and implement programs that use NASA data and resources. We also shared successes, lessons learned, and future opportunities for incorporating NASA science programming into library settings.

  15. What Is Humane Education and Why It Should Be Included in Modern Education (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.


    Humane education has existed since at least the 18th century (Unti & DeRosa, 2003). This brief chapter begins with a brief definition of humane education and examples of how it can be incorporated in linguistics, cross cultural studies and foreign language education. Next, the chapter discusses why humane education constitutes an important…

  16. A collaborative effort of medical and educational facilities for radiation safety training of nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki


    The proper understanding of radiation safety by nursing staffs in hospitals are essential not only for radiation protection of themselves against occupational radiation exposure but for quality nursing for patients who receive medical radiation exposure. The education program on radiation in nursing schools in Japan is, however, rather limited, and is insufficient for nurses to acquire basic knowledge of radiation safety and protection. Therefore, the radiation safety training of working nurses is quite important. A hospital-based training needs assignment of radiation technologists and radiologists as instructors, which may result in temporary shortage of these staffs for patients' services. Additionally, the equipments and facilities for radiation training in a hospital might not be satisfactory. In order to provide an effective education regarding radiation for working nurses, the radiation safety training course has been conducted for nurse of the university hospital by the collaboration of medical and educational staffs in Nagasaki University. This course was given for 6 hours in Radioisotope Research Center, a research and education facility for radiation workers using radioisotopes. The curriculum of this course included basics of radiation, effects of radiation on human health, procedures in clinical settings for radiation protection and practical training by using survey meters, which were mainly based on the radiation safety training for beginners according to the Japanese law concerning radiation safety with a modification to focus on medical radiation exposure. This course has been given to approximately 25 nurses in a time, and held 13 times in May 2000 through October 2003 for 317 nurse overall. The pre-instruction questionnaire revealed that 60% of nurses felt fears about radiation diagnosis or therapy, which reduced to less than 15% in the post-instruction surveillance. The course also motivated nurses to give an answer to patients' questions about

  17. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen


    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  18. Establishing cause for developing and implementing a broad-based marketing effort for the health education field. (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce


    What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education.

  19. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Price Azano


    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.

  20. 76 FR 24914 - Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers... (United States)


    ... Digital River Education Services acquired Journey Education Marketing (JEM) in August 2010. Some workers... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,975] Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI...

  1. A Review of the Electronic Coursework Efforts of the University of Nebraska-Omaha in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (United States)

    Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N.


    The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been a state leader in helping Nebraska teachers embrace earth systems science education, with a special emphasis in online coursework. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with a total of 167 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. UNO is currently involved in expanding its earth system science courses, modules, and educational research. We are also integrating these courses into several degree programs, including a Masters of Science in Education, a new Middle School Endorsement, a Certificate in Urban Education, and the Graduate Program for the Department of Geography/Geology. UNO is beginning to examine teacher content learning and science reasoning within its coursework. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings already indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will describe the UNO earth system science efforts (emphasizing ESSEA coursework), and describe past efforts and teacher perceptions, as well as new strategies being undertaken to more closely examine content learning and science reasoning impact with course participants. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one on the global amphibian crisis, and also the impact of urbanization on a local native prairie environment.

  2. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised? (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip


    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  3. New Orleans's Unique School Reform Effort and Its Potential Implications for Special Education (United States)

    Morse, Timothy E.


    Four years following the decimation of the New Orleans Public Schools by Hurricane Katrina the city has been described as the center of a unique urban public school reform effort. This effort is a combination of events that transpired just before the storm and those that have occurred as a result of it. In particular some claim that the emerging…

  4. Leveling the Playing Field: Giving Girls An Equal Chance for Basic Education--Three Countries' Efforts. EDI Learning Resources Series. (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly; Murphy, Paud

    This booklet examines the efforts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malawi to increase the enrollment of girls in their schools. Each country has severe problems of access to education for girls; the gender gap in the gross enrollment rate at the primary school level is at least 10 percentage points in each country. What is noteworthy about these three…

  5. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint


    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  6. The Efforts of the American Geophysical Union Space Physics and Aeronomy Section Education and Public Outreach Committee to Use NASA Research in Education and Outreach (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Dusenbery, P.; Gross, N. A.; Johnson, R.; Lopez, R. E.; Lysak, R. L.; Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Reiff, P. H.; Scherrer, D. K.; Thieman, J.; Wawro, M.; Wood, E. L.


    The American Geophysical Union Space Physics and Aeronomy Section Education and Public Outreach Committee (AGU SPA-EPO Committee) was established in 1990 to foster the growth of a culture of outreach and community engagement within the SPA Section of the AGU. The SPA was the first AGU Section to establish an EPO Committee. The Committee has initiated several key Section EPO programs that have grown to become Union programs. NASA sponsored research is central to the mission of the SPE-EPO. Programs highlighting NASA research include the Student Paper Competition, Exploration Station, a precursor to the GIFT workshops, the Student mixer, and more. The Committee played a key role in coordinating the AGU's outreach activities relating to the International Heliophysical Year in 2007-2008. This paper will review the triumphs, the failures, and the lessons learned about recruiting colleagues to join with us from the last quarter century of effort.

  7. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education (United States)

    Palmer, Steve


    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  8. Change Makers: Empowering Ourselves Thro' the Education and Culture of Aboriginal Languages: A Collaborative Team Effort. (United States)

    McLeod, Yvonne


    A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…

  9. Untied Efforts: The Challenges for Improved Research, Extension and Education Linkages (United States)

    Eneyew, Adugna


    Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by smallholders farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. Research, extension, education and farmers are the main pillars of agricultural knowledge systems and their effectiveness largely depends on strong linkage among each other. However, the existing…

  10. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum (United States)

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben


    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  11. Effortful echolalia. (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T


    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  12. Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference? (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen


    A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.

  13. Children's engagements in their institutional life and the educational effort of the institutional practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jakob Waag

    and the becoming of the child. Instead, they have called for attention towards the child as a being, underlining the importance of children´s current life and well-being. However, both approaches are conceptualized based on a substance ontology which emphasizes the present and permanent aspect of the phenomenon......Over the last decades the Danish Day-care service has undergone dramatic changes, based on the inclusion of an educational perspective, with a strong emphasis on learning-orientated practices. As a counter reaction, various researchers have made an ethical argument against this focus on education...

  14. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period. (United States)

    Watanabe, Kae; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Shuster, Jonathan J; Philip, Joseph


    The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points ( p  < 0.001). When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45-60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  15. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe


    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  16. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity? (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo


    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  17. The Link between Educational Expectations and Effort in the College-for-All Era (United States)

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George


    From the Wisconsin status attainment model to rational choice, classical sociological, social-psychological, and economic theories of student educational transitions have assumed that students' expectations are positively related to their ultimate attainment. However, the growth of the college-for-all ethos raises questions about that assumption.…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard


    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  19. Servicemembers Civil Relief Act: Information on Mortgage Protections and Related Education Efforts (United States)


    activities; legal assistance attorneys provide counseling; and a number of outreach media , such as publications and websites, are aimed at servicemembers. DOD and the Consumer Federation of America also conduct the Military Saves Campaign every year, a social marketing campaign to...theft, and insurance scams targeted at servicemembers and their families. DOD established its financial education partnerships by signing memorandums

  20. Texas Telecommunication Satellite Demonstration Project. Planning Effort for Application of Communication Satellites in Education. (United States)

    Education Service Center Region 4, Houston, TX.

    The primary goal of the Texas Telecommunication Satellite Demonstration consortium is to install, operate, and evaluate a comprehensive communication service delivery system which would provide the citizens of Texas with greater opportunity for equal access to education and information. The four major objectives of the demonstration are (1) to…

  1. Struggling for a New Identity: A Critique of the Curriculum Research Effort in Technology Education. (United States)

    Zuga, Karen F.

    Historically, technology education evolved from several strands: Bacon's realism, Pestalozzi's belief in the practical application of knowledge, Rousseau's naturalism, Herbart's sense realism, Dewey's progressive and social reconstructionist thinking, and the influence of vocationalism. The mainstream practice of industrial arts was more a study…

  2. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback. (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott


    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  3. The ASPIRE-to-Excellence Program: A Global Effort to Improve the Quality of Medical Education. (United States)

    Hunt, Dan; Klamen, Debra; Harden, Ronald M; Ali, Farzand


    Publications and organizations ranking medical schools rely heavily on schools' research-oriented and grant-success data because those are the publicly available data. To address the vacuum of evidence for medical education quality, in 2012 the Association of Education in Europe (AMEE) introduced an initiative entitled A Schools Programme for International Recognition of Excellence in Education (ASPIRE) awards. ASPIRE panels of international experts in specific areas of medical education have developed internationally peer-based criteria to benchmark excellence in social accountability, student engagement, student assessment, faculty development, and simulation; they plan to publish criteria on curriculum design and development in 2018. Schools are encouraged to use ASPIRE criteria to challenge themselves and, for a fee, may submit evidence that they have met the criteria for excellence in one or more of the five areas. The international panels then judge the evidence submitted by the school and determine whether an award of excellence is merited.The authors share lessons learned from five years of program experience. Of the 88 schools submitting evidence, 38 have been recognized for their excellence in one of the ASPIRE topic areas. As the number of representatives from the schools that are awarded ASPIRE recognition continues to increase and those individuals find new ways to contribute, hopes are high for this program. Challenges remain in how to better define excellence in low-resources settings, what new areas to take on, and how to keep infrastructure costs down. However, as an example of continuing global interaction for quality improvement, optimism prevails.

  4. A collaborative effort of medical and educational facilities for radiation safety training of nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki


    The radiation safety training course has been conducted for nurses of the university hospital by the collaboration of medical and educational staffs in Nagasaki University. This course was given for 6 hours covering basics of radiation, effects on human body, tips for radiation protection in clinical settings, and practical training, to more than 350 nurses overall. The pre-instruction survey by questionnaire revealed that 60% of nurses felt fears about radiation when they care for patients, which reduced to less than 15% in the post-instruction survey. The course also motivated nurses to give an answer patients' questions about radiation safety. In contrast, more than 30% of nurses were aware of neither their glass badge readings nor the maximum dose limit of radiation exposure even after the course. These results suggested that medical-educational collaborative training for nurses were effective on reducing nurses' fears about radiation and that repeated and continuous education would be necessary to establish their practice for radiation protection. (author)

  5. The beginning of medical education in Hong Kong 125 years ago...its unique features in comparison with similar efforts in China. (United States)

    Ho, Faith C S


    Medical education in Hong Kong began with the inauguration of the College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887. Although training in western medicine for Chinese had been started half a century earlier in the mainland of China, with a few exceptions, much of it was in the form of apprenticeships without a formal course of study, such that by the end of the 19th century medical education in China was still on the whole poorly developed. This paper presents some examples of significant efforts in western medical education on the Chinese mainland during the 19th century. It compares the Hong Kong College with these efforts, and examines those features which, together, made the College unique. These included its independent status as an educational institution, its use of English as a medium of instruction together with the attendant advantages that brings, the availability of students with the requisite language skills to undertake such studies, the availability of teachers, support of the public, and access to autopsies and dissection. Moreover, opportunities for employment in the public sector and in private practice gradually became available for its graduates, thus accelerating the acceptance of western medicine by the Chinese population and the development of these services in Hong Kong. The College, at its inception, could rightfully claim a leading position in these various aspects. Its story should be a source of inspiration and pride, and of encouragement for the local medical profession to continue this 125-year-old tradition of service and leadership.

  6. Intensive educational efforts combined with external quality assessment improve the preanalytical phase in general practitioner offices and nursing homes. (United States)

    Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Bjelkarøy, Wenche Iren; Berg, Kari van den; Saga, Anne Lise; Hager, Helle Borgstrøm; Sandberg, Sverre


    Errors in the preanalytical phase in clinical laboratories affect patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive educational efforts together with external quality assessment (EQA) of the preanalytical phase from 2013 to 2015 to improve patient identification in primary health care in Norway. In addition, routines for venous and capillary blood sampling were investigated. A preanalytical EQA was circulated in 2013 by the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations (Noklus) to general practitioner offices and nursing homes (n=2000) to obtain information about important issues to focus on before launching an intensive educational program with courses, posters and visits in 2013-2015. Preanalytical EQA surveys were further circulated in 2014 and 2015. The response rate varied between 42% and 55%. The percentages of participants asking for the patients' name and the Norwegian identification number increased from about 8% in 2013 to about 35% in 2015. The increase was similar for those participating in only one EQA survey and for those who participated in EQA surveys both in 2013 and 2015. Guidelines for venous and capillary blood sampling were not always followed. Educational efforts more than the preanalytical EQA influenced the actions and resulted in an increase in the percentages of participants that followed the guidelines for patient identification. Some aspects of blood sampling routines need improvement.

  7. Radioactive waste, from myth to reality: the stakes for Andra's educational communication efforts - 59287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle


    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Andra is responsible for proposing and implementing industrial management solutions for France's radioactive waste. Andra's goal is to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to make up his or her own mind on a subject that generates such heated debate within our society. This duty of communication is enshrined in law and is an integral part of Andra's activities, in the same way as research, industry and risk management. Because the subject of radioactive waste is a complex one and concerns such a variety of audiences, Andra adapts its communication policy so that it is accessible to all, according to individual needs and levels of interest. For the 'non-specialists' (general public, young people, etc.) Andra proposes a system built around education and awareness-raising. Its aim is to make the subject of radioactive waste accessible to and comprehensible to as many as possible. Its educational communication approach is built on 3 pillars: first and foremost information, the keystone of any system of communication, then explanation and finally sharing with the legitimate stakeholders in this pedagogical approach. Providing dependable information Andra offers information that is appropriate to the level of knowledge of its audiences and uses all communication media

  8. Including Adulthood in Music Education Perspectives and Policy: A Lifespan View (United States)

    Myers, David E.


    Music learning among adults is witnessing rapid escalation as an important area of research and practice among music education professionals. In contrast to the years encompassed by childhood and adolescence, a significant challenge in teaching adults is that average life expectancies in developed countries include some 55 to 65 years beyond age…

  9. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  10. Rethinking the Structure of Student Recruitment and Efforts to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Griffin


    Full Text Available While researchers, institutional leaders, and policymakers have made significant progress towards increasing undergraduate student diversity in the United States, diversity in graduate education has been less often studied and a more challenging goal on which to make progress. This qualitative study explores the roles and work of graduate diversity officers (GDOs in student recruitment activities with a focus on how race and issues of diversity manifest and influence this process. Interviews with fourteen GDOs at 11 different research universities in the United States highlight the phases in the graduate recruitment process, the manner in which diversity is considered at each stage, and GDOs’ perceptions of their ability to shape this process. Findings suggest that GDOs are important institutional agents in diversification efforts; however, faculty engagement and broad institutional commitment are required to increase diversity in graduate education due to GDOs’ often limited involvement in the admissions stage of the recruitment process, where race becomes the most salient in decision making.

  11. E-education in pathology including certification of e-institutions. (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Ogilvie, Robert; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Kayser, Gian


    E-education or electronically transferred continuous education in pathology is one major application of virtual microscopy. The basic conditions and properties of acoustic and visual information transfer, of teaching and learning processes, as well as of knowledge and competence, influence its implementation to a high degree. Educational programs and structures can be judged by access to the basic conditions, by description of the teaching resources, methods, and its program, as well as by identification of competences, and development of an appropriate evaluation system. Classic teaching and learning methods present a constant, usually non-reversible information flow. They are subject to personal circumstances of both teacher and student. The methods of information presentation need to be distinguished between static and dynamic, between acoustic and visual ones. Electronic tools in education include local manually assisted tools (language assistants, computer-assisted design, etc.), local passive tools (slides, movies, sounds, music), open access tools (internet), and specific tools such as Webinars. From the medical point of view information content can be divided into constant (gross and microscopic anatomy) and variable (disease related) items. Most open access available medical courses teach constant information such as anatomy or physiology. Mandatory teaching resources are image archives with user-controlled navigation and labelling, student-oriented user manuals, discussion forums, and expert consultation. A classic undergraduate electronic educational system is WebMic which presents with histology lectures. An example designed for postgraduate teaching is the digital lung pathology system. It includes a description of diagnostic and therapeutic features of 60 rare and common lung diseases, partly in multimedia presentation. Combining multimedia features with the organization structures of a virtual pathology institution will result in a virtual pathology

  12. The Case for Including Adverse Childhood Experiences in Child Maltreatment Education: A Path Analysis (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A


    Context The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. Objective To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Design Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners’ reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Main Outcome Measures Medical practitioners’ ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). Results The optimized path diagram (χ2SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable “knowledge about ACEs” as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. Conclusion This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs. PMID:29616910

  13. The Case for Including Adverse Childhood Experiences in Child Maltreatment Education: A Path Analysis. (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A


    The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners' reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Medical practitioners' ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). The optimized path diagram (χ 2 SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R 2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable "knowledge about ACEs" as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs.

  14. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro


    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  15. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R


    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  16. Investigating antenatal nutrition education preferences in South-East Queensland, including Maori and Pasifika women. (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrea; Porteous, Helen E; Palmer, Michelle A


    Little is reported about the nutrition-related needs and preferences of women seeking maternity services, particularly Maori and Pasifika (M&P) women who have higher chronic disease rates in Queensland. Nutrition-related knowledge, needs, behaviours and education preferences were compared between women of M&P ancestry and non-Maori and Pasifika women (NMP). Women (≥18 years) admitted to the postnatal ward were surveyed. Anthropometry, dietary quality, nutrition education preferences, country of birth and ancestry were collected. Analysis included chi-squared and t-tests. The survey was completed by 399 eligible women. Country of birth data suggested 4% of respondents were Pasifika and failed to separately identify New Zealand Maori, whereas 18% of respondents (n=73) reported M&P ancestry. Descriptors were similar between groups (28±5 years; 91% any breastfeeding; 18% gestational diabetes mellitus; p>0.05). However M&P women were less often university educated (M&P:6(9%); NMP:71(22%), p2 children (M&P: 30(54%); NMP:70(30%), p75%) women did not know their recommended weight gain. Many respondents reported inadequate intake of vegetables (95%), fruit (29%) and dairy (69%) during pregnancy. Two-fifths (38-41%) reported interest in perinatal nutrition education, with topics including healthy eating postpartum. Findings enable targeted service delivery according to women's preferences. Collecting ancestral and maternal data to facilitate the provision of appropriate nutrition education may be critical for achieving optimal maternal outcomes in Maori and Pasifika women. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational predictors of physical education students' effort, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity: a multilevel linear growth analysis. (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn; Spray, Christopher M


    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), the current study explored whether physical education (PE) students' psychological needs and their motivational regulations toward PE predicted mean differences and changes in effort in PE, exercise intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over the course of one UK school trimester. One hundred and seventy-eight students (69% male) aged between 11 and 16 years completed a multisection questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of a school trimester. Multilevel growth models revealed that students' perceived competence and self-determined regulations were the most consistent predictors of the outcome variables at the within- and between-person levels. The results of this work add to the extant SDT-based literature by examining change in PE students' motivational regulations and psychological needs, as well as underscoring the importance of disaggregating within- and between-student effects.

  18. Educational and Community Outreach Efforts by the United States Polar Rock Repository during the International Polar Year (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Codispoti, J. E.


    The US Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) houses more than 19,000 rock samples from polar regions and these samples are made available to the scientific, educational and museum community. The USPRR has been active in promoting polar earth science to educational and community groups. During the past year, outreach efforts reached over 12,000 people. The USPRR outreach involve tours of the facility, school presentations, online laboratory exercises, working with the Columbus Metro Parks, teaching at summer camps, teaching special geology field assignments at the middle school level, as well as offering an ‘Antarctic Rock Box’ that contains representative samples of the three types of rocks, minerals, fossils, and books and activities about geology and Antarctica. The rock box activities have been designed and reviewed by educators and scientists to use as an educational supplement to the Earth Science course of study. The activities have been designed around the Academic Content Standards: k-12 Science manual published by the Ohio Department of Education to ensure that the activities and topics are focused on those mandated by the state of Ohio. The USPRR website has a Virtual Web Antarctic Expedition with many activities for Middle to High School age students. The students learn about how to plan a field season, safety techniques, how to make a remote field camp, identify what equipment is needed, learn about the different transportation choices, weather issues, understanding GPS, etc. Educational and community networks have been built in part, by directly contacting individuals at an institution and partnering with them on educational outreach. The institutions have been very interested in doing this because it brings scientists to the classroom and to the public. This type of outreach has also served as an opening for children to consider possible career choices in science that they may not have considered before. In many of the presentations, a female geologist

  19. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant... (United States)


    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  20. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  1. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack


    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  2. 38 CFR 21.7120 - Courses included in programs of education. (United States)


    ... officiating, or other sport or athletic courses, except courses of applied music, physical education, or... programs of education. 21.7120 Section 21.7120 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational...

  3. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Mathematics Courses Included in the Primary School Teacher Education Program (United States)

    Serin, Mehmet Koray; Incikabi, Semahat


    Mathematics educators have reported on many issues regarding students' mathematical education, particularly students who received mathematics education at different departments such as engineering, science or primary school, including their difficulties with mathematical concepts, their understanding of and preferences for mathematical concepts.…

  4. The Efforts to Increase Artistic Sensitivity of Unesa’s Art Education Students by Painting with Watercolor and Wax Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno


    Full Text Available Artistic abilities of students who had been enrolled in Arts Educations Department of UNESA, in general, were a lack in realizing artistic aspect. It created the problems in learning and teaching of art. The purpose of this research was to increase the students’ sensitivity in creating their work. One way to solve this problem was by doing the work as much as possible, but the results were not fully obtained. So far, there were no standardized guidelines to help the improvement of the work quality in term artistic achievement level. While it became a problem in learning, there was an effort to find a simple and effective way by mixed media watercolor paint and wax. The method in this research was the design of class action research, where the research was conducted in the learning process of each cycle. Every cycle consists of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The result of this research shows an increasing of artistic quality regarding practical grades of art. However, there are other alternatives must be sought to increase students’ ability to create, view, appreciate something that is artistic. 

  5. An association between paying physician-teachers for their teaching efforts and an improved educational experience for learners. (United States)

    Ashar, Bimal; Levine, Rachel; Magaziner, Jeffrey; Shochet, Robert; Wright, Scott


    Medical schools often rely on faculty volunteerism to address clinical teaching needs for students. Increasing time pressures on physicians has made it difficult to secure commitments for clinical instruction. In the 2005-2006 academic year, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) launched the Colleges Program, recruiting 24 salary-supported physician-faculty to serve as advisors to students as well as teachers of the second year course, 'clinical skills'. We hypothesized that compensating physician educators would have a measurable positive impact on the students' experiences in this course. Students' assessments of paid colleges faculty (CF) preceptors from the 2005-2006 year were compared to those of volunteer preceptors from the two prior years (2003-2005 academic years) along six different teaching parameters linked to the course's objectives. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the factors independently associated with higher preceptor scores. Fifty-eight preceptors taught clinical skills over the 3-year study period. The overall response rate for preceptor evaluations by medical learners was 77% (277/359). CF, more likely than volunteer preceptors to have a full-time academic appointment (100 vs 63%, p evaluation domains were higher for CF compared to those from the two previous years combined (all p evaluation scores (Odds Ratio 4.3, 95% CI 1.01-18.20). Salary support for teaching efforts in the time-intensive CS course coupled with the prestige of being appointed to the CF was associated with higher student evaluations.

  6. Reforming Lao Teacher Education to Include Females and Ethnic Minorities--Exploring Possibilities and Constraints (United States)

    Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise


    This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…

  7. Putting "Entrepreneurial Finance Education" on the Map: Including Social Capital in the Entrepreneurial Finance Curriculum (United States)

    Macht, Stephanie Alexandra


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to "entrepreneurial finance education", an aspect of entrepreneurship education that is widely taught but neglected by the educational literature. It does so by exploring how social capital, a key resource for entrepreneurs, can be incorporated into entrepreneurial finance…

  8. 12 CFR 303.46 - Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and services. 303.46 Section 303.46 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Branches and Offices § 303.46 Financial education programs that include the provision of bank products and...

  9. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.


    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Adıgüzel


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigating the Levels of Strain, From the Point of Various Variables (according to gender, branch, working at a job which provides financial gain, the reason to prefer the teaching profession, the number of digests of related field which have been followed, the frequency of weekly using internet, the aim of using internet, the frequency of weekly utilization from a library at studies related with branch, and the number of read books monthly , at Their Efforts of Obtain Information of Preservice Teachers’ of Secondary Education. Study carried out by general screening model and data has been collected by content validity and reliability has been through a survey. The opinions of 115 teachers were included in the study. The scale developed by the researcher used in the research. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale has been determined as .968. The value of the normal distribution of the data set as 6.57. Preservice teachers’ in their efforts to obtain information, the information needed to identify, access to information, assessment, use and in this process to consider the ethical and legal values of stages have been forced from time to time. Preservice teachers’ views on the strain level did not vary according to personal characteristics. Preservice teachers in the social field to learn to work less hard than Preservice teachers in the fields of science and mathematics. Study skills and habits of the prospective teachers to learn to be scraped in pre-service education and in-service training of vocational qualifications to support this have been proposed.

  11. Bringing Psychological Science to the Forefront of Educational Policy: Collaborative Efforts of the American Psychological Association's Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer


    The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…

  12. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier


    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  13. Including a Programming Course in General Education: Are We Doing Enough? (United States)

    Ferguson, Roger C.; Leidig, Paul M.; Reynolds, John H.


    General education is more than a list of required courses a student must take to complete their degree. For most universities, general education is the groundwork for the student's university experience. These courses span multiple disciplines and allow students to experience a wide range of topics on their path to graduation. Programming classes,…

  14. The NASA Global Climate Change Education Project: An Integrated Effort to Improve the Teaching and Learning about Climate Change (Invited) (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Pippin, M. R.; Welch, S.; Spruill, K.; Matthews, M. J.; Person, C.


    The NASA Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) Project, initiated in 2008, seeks to: - improve the teaching and learning about global climate change in elementary and secondary schools, on college campuses, and through lifelong learning; - increase the number of people, particularly high school and undergraduate students, using NASA Earth observation data, Earth system models, and/or simulations to investigate and analyze global climate change issues; - increase the number of undergraduate students prepared for employment and/or to enter graduate school in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Through an annual solicitation, proposals are requested for projects that address these goals using a variety of approaches. These include using NASA Earth system data, interactive models and/or simulations; providing research experiences for undergraduate or community college students, or for pre- or in-service teachers; or creating long-term teacher professional development experiences. To date, 57 projects have been funded to pursue these goals (22 in 2008, 18 in 2009, and 17 in 2010), each for a 2-3 year period. The vast majority of awards address either teacher professional development, or use of data, models, or simulations; only 7 awards have been made for research experiences. NASA, with assistance from the Virginia Space Grant Consortium, is working to develop these awardees into a synergistic community that works together to maximize its impact. This paper will present examples of collaborations that are evolving within this developing community. It will also introduce the opportunities available in fiscal year 2011, when a change in emphasis is expected for the project as it moves within the NASA Office of Education Minority University Research and Education Program (MUREP).

  15. Educational program in crisis management for cardiac surgery teams including high realism simulation. (United States)

    Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Raemer, Daniel B; Schneider, Robert C; Frankel, Allan S; Berry, William R; Agnihotri, Arvind K


    Cardiac surgery demands effective teamwork for safe, high-quality care. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a comprehensive program to sharpen performance of experienced cardiac surgical teams in acute crisis management. We developed and implemented an educational program for cardiac surgery based on high realism acute crisis simulation scenarios and interactive whole-unit workshop. The impact of these interventions was assessed with postintervention questionnaires, preintervention and 6-month postintervention surveys, and structured interviews. The realism of the acute crisis simulation scenarios gradually improved; most participants rated both the simulation and whole-unit workshop as very good or excellent. Repeat simulation training was recommended every 6 to 12 months by 82% of the participants. Participants of the interactive workshop identified 2 areas of highest priority: encouraging speaking up about critical information and interprofessional information sharing. They also stressed the importance of briefings, early communication of surgical plan, knowing members of the team, and continued simulation for practice. The pre/post survey response rates were 70% (55/79) and 66% (52/79), respectively. The concept of working as a team improved between surveys (P = .028), with a trend for improvement in gaining common understanding of the plan before a procedure (P = .075) and appropriate resolution of disagreements (P = .092). Interviewees reported that the training had a positive effect on their personal behaviors and patient care, including speaking up more readily and communicating more clearly. Comprehensive team training using simulation and a whole-unit interactive workshop can be successfully deployed for experienced cardiac surgery teams with demonstrable benefits in participant's perception of team performance. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multifaceted intervention including education, rounding checklist implementation, cost feedback, and financial incentives reduces inpatient laboratory costs. (United States)

    Yarbrough, Peter M; Kukhareva, Polina V; Horton, Devin; Edholm, Karli; Kawamoto, Kensaku


    Inappropriate laboratory testing is a contributor to waste in healthcare. To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted laboratory reduction intervention on laboratory costs. A retrospective, controlled, interrupted time series (ITS) study. University of Utah Health Care, a 500-bed academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah. All patients 18 years or older admitted to the hospital to a service other than obstetrics, rehabilitation, or psychiatry. Multifaceted quality-improvement initiative in a hospitalist service including education, process change, cost feedback, and financial incentive. Primary outcomes of lab cost per day and per visit. Secondary outcomes of number of basic metabolic panel (BMP), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio tests per day; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day readmissions. A total of 6310 hospitalist patient visits (intervention group) were compared to 25,586 nonhospitalist visits (control group). Among the intervention group, the unadjusted mean cost per day was reduced from $138 before the intervention to $123 after the intervention (P analysis showed significant reductions in cost per day, cost per visit, and the number of BMP, CMP, and CBC tests per day (P = 0.034, 0.02, <0.001, 0.004, and <0.001). LOS was unchanged and 30-day readmissions decreased in the intervention group. A multifaceted approach to laboratory reduction demonstrated a significant reduction in laboratory cost per day and per visit, as well as common tests per day at a major academic medical center. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:348-354. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process. (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.


    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  18. Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education. (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris


    Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

  19. `INCLUDING' Partnerships to Build Authentic Research Into K-12 Science Education (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Lev, E.; Newton, R.; Xu, C.


    Opportunities for authentic research experiences have been shown effective for recruiting and retaining students in STEM fields. Meaningful research experiences entail significant time in project design, modeling ethical practice, providing training, instruction, and ongoing guidance. We propose that in order to be sustainable, a new instructional paradigm is needed, one that shifts from being top-weighted in instruction to a distributed weight model. This model relies on partnerships where everyone has buy-in and reaps rewards, establishing broadened networks for support, and adjusting the mentoring model. We use our successful Secondary School Field Research Program as a model for this new paradigm. For over a decade this program has provided authentic geoscience field research for an expanding group of predominantly inner city high school youth from communities underrepresented in the sciences. The program has shifted the balance with returning participants now serving as undergraduate mentors for the high school student `researchers', providing much of the ongoing training, instruction, guidance and feedback needed. But in order to be sustainable and impactful we need to broaden our base. A recent NSF-INCLUDES pilot project has allowed us to expand this model, linking schools, informal education non-profits, other academic institutions, community partners and private funding agencies into geographically organized `clusters'. Starting with a tiered mentoring model with scientists as consultants, teachers as team members, undergraduates as team leaders and high school students as researchers, each cluster will customize its program to reflect the needs and strengths of the team. To be successful each organization must identify how the program fits their organizational goals, the resources they can contribute and what they need back. Widening the partnership base spreads institutional commitments for research scientists, research locations and lab space

  20. The mediating effect of effort-reward imbalance in household and family work on the relationship between education and women's health. (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried


    Occupational stress as a key determinant for explaining health inequalities has been well established while the impact of stress related to family work has rarely been considered. This study investigates whether stress in household and family work may contribute to health inequalities in women. We used a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3129) to determine the total, direct and indirect effects of education on somatic complaints by means of OLS regression-based mediation models. Inference about indirect effects was determined by 95% bias corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. Education was assessed by a measure combining school education and vocational training. Stress was measured using the adopted effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire for household and family work. The von Zerssen list of somatic complaints was used as measure of subjective health. We found a significant total effect of education on somatic complaints (p ≤ 0.001) as well as significant indirect effects through 'effort' (p = 0.006) and 'reward' in household and family work (p ≤ 0.001). However, the subscales of ERI pointed into different directions: while levels of 'effort' increased with women's educational attainment, levels of distress related to low 'reward' decreased with higher levels of education. Our findings suggest that the effect of women's education on somatic complaints is mediated through stress related to low reward for household and family work. In particular, lack of 'societal esteem' for household and family work contributed to health disadvantages in lower educated mothers. We conclude that research on health inequality would benefit from taking stressful experiences in household and family work greater into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Annual Reviews: How to Include Pupils with Learning Difficulties in their Educational Reviews (United States)

    Hayes, Julia


    The challenge for schools, following the Green Paper Every Child Matters (HM Treasury, 2003) and the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (DfES, 2001), is to enable young people to give their views about matters affecting their lives. Whilst these recommendations are a welcome step to enable the effective inclusion of all young people,…

  2. Recommended Syllabus Components: What Do Higher Education Faculty Include in Their Syllabi? (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Siudzinski, Robert A.


    Syllabus use in higher education instruction is ubiquitous, yet what actually constitutes a syllabus remains unclear. The authors assessed the contents of 1000 syllabi, sampled from the Internet, based on 26 criteria determined from a literature review of recommended syllabus components. Syllabi contents were assessed according to four categories:…

  3. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; Including International Sources. Volume 27. 1985 Edition. (United States)

    Freedson, Patty S., Ed.

    This compilation lists research completed in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, dance, and allied areas during 1984. The document is arranged in two parts. In the index, references are arranged under the subject headings in alphabetical order. Abstracts of master's and doctor's theses from institutions offering graduate programs…

  4. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul


    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  5. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  6. Truly included? A literature study focusing on the social dimension of inclusion in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja


    Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based

  7. A Multidisciplinary Health Care Team's Efforts to Improve Educational Attainment in Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia and Cerebral Infarcts (United States)

    King, Allison; Herron, Sonya; McKinstry, Robert; Bacak, Stephen; Armstrong, Melissa; White, Desiree; DeBaun, Michael


    The primary objective of this study was to improve the educational success of children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and cerebral infarcts. A prospective intervention trial was conducted; a multidisciplinary team was created to maximize educational resources for children with SCD and cerebral infarcts. Students were evaluated systematically…

  8. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  9. Equity Efforts as Boundary Work: How Symbolic and Social Boundaries Shape Access and Inclusion in Graduate Education (United States)

    Posselt, Julie Renee; Reyes, Kimberly A.; Slay, Kelly E.; Kamimura, Aurora; Porter, Kamaria B.


    Background/Context: Education scholars have examined how state policy and informal practice can widen or reproduce racial and gender inequalities in graduate education. Just one empirical study, which focused on psychology programs, has identified organizational practice that supports recruitment and retention of graduate students of color. Focus…

  10. The Process of Planning and Designing Research for an Educational Telecommunications Effort. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0209. (United States)

    Connolly, A. J.; And Others

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) designed research for a satellite-based communication system that would transmit educational television programs. Their procedures were subject to a series of external and internal evaluations by the project sponsors, the National Institute of Education. In regard to external evaluation, STD recommended…

  11. 75 FR 15772 - Feasibility of Including a Volunteer Requirement for Receipt of Federal Education Tax Credits (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Feasibility of Including a Volunteer Requirement for Receipt of Federal... Internal Revenue Code. Taxpayers may claim a lifetime learning credit for 20 percent of up to $10,000 of expenses for tuition and required fees per taxpayer for a maximum credit of $2,000. The lifetime learning...

  12. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.


    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  13. Efforts regarding acoustical education for architectural students at the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (Peruvian University of Applied Sciences), UPC (United States)

    Moy, Jorge


    The lack of knowledge in acoustics among the vast majority of Peruvian architects results in acoustical problems in buildings from a lack of such considerations in the design stage. This paucity of knowledge on the part of the architects may be attributed to the lack of emphasis on the role of acoustics in most architectural curricula in Peruvian universities. A purpose in this paper is to present a brief report on last year's efforts to implement courses in Architectural Acoustics and Noise Control for architecture students at UPC.

  14. The New Departure Debate Surrounding Congressional Efforts to Create a National System of Education, 1871-1889 (United States)

    Groen, Mark


    Congressman George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts introduced a bill "to establish a system of national education" on February 25, 1870. This bill, and others that followed, opened an acrimonious political debate that lasted for twenty years. The opening salvos of that debate, and the regional issues of ethnicity and religion that framed…

  15. Fitness-Specific Epistemic Beliefs, Effort Regulation, Outcomes, and Indices of Motivation in High School Physical Education (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Gao, Zan


    Epistemic beliefs are deeply held convictions about the nature of knowledge, knowing, and learning. In this study, approximately 500 ninth and tenth-grade physical education (PE) students completed fitness-specific measures assessing their epistemic beliefs in the simplicity and stability of knowledge and the speed of its acquisition along with…

  16. Effort of NGO in Promoting Comprehensive Sexuality Education to Improve Quality of Life among Local and Refugee Communities (United States)

    Yeo, Kee Jiar; Lee, Shih Hui; Handayani, Lina


    Federation of Reproductive Health Association, Malaysia (FRHAM) is a pioneer Non-governmental Organization (NGO) in disseminating the knowledge and services of sexual reproductive health in Malaysia. A qualitative case study research design was employed to explore the roles of FRHAM in promoting Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) for the…

  17. High School Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Extra Effort during Educational Reform: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency Beliefs (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric


    Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…

  18. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views. (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona


    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  19. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi


    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children... (United States)


    ... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of special... special educator, school psychologist, speech therapist, or a reading specialist, in conformity with the... a multidisciplinary team and shall include a teacher or other specialist with knowledge in the areas...

  1. Mass cardiopulmonary resuscitation 99--survey results of a multi-organisational effort in public education in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Fong, Y T; Anantharaman, V; Lim, S H; Leong, K F; Pokkan, G


    Mass cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 99 in Singapore was a large-scale multi-organisational effort to increase awareness and impart basic cardiac life support skills to the lay public. Mass CPR demonstrations followed by small group manikin practice with instructor guidance was conducted simultaneously in three centres, four times a day. The exercise enlisted 15 community organisations and received the support of 19 other organisations. Three hundred and ninety-eight manikins and 500 instructors ('I's) were mobilised to teach an audience of 6000 participants ('P's). Two surveys, for 'I's and 'P's were conducted with respondent rates of 65.8% and 50%, respectively. 73.6% of the P-respondents ('P-R's) indicated that they attended the event to increase their knowledge. 66.9% were willing to attend a more comprehensive CPR course. Concerns and perceptions in performing bystander CPR were assessed.

  2. Does the U.S. Supreme Court's Recent Activism in Reviewing Educational Disputes Make the Attempt To Implement a Code of Professional Ethics for Educators a Vain Effort? (United States)

    Petronicolos, Loucas

    This paper explores whether or not the recent increase of interest by the U.S. Supreme Court in educational disputes results in a gradual reduction in the role that professional ethics plays in educators' everyday decisions. It is argued that there are links between an educator's professional ethics and constitutional justice. The increase in…

  3. Worldwide effort against smoking. (United States)


    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  4. Problem-based learning in dental education: what's the evidence for and against...and is it worth the effort? (United States)

    Winning, T; Townsend, G


    All Australian dental schools have introduced problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to their programmes over the past decade, although the nature of the innovations has varied from school to school. Before one can ask whether PBL is better than the conventional style of education, one needs to consider three key issues. Firstly, we need to agree on what is meant by the term PBL; secondly, we need to decide what "better" means when comparing educational approaches; and thirdly, we must look carefully at how PBL is implemented in given situations. It is argued that PBL fulfils, at least in theory, some important principles relating to the development of new knowledge. It also represents a change in focus from teachers and teaching in conventional programmes to learners and learning. Generally, students enjoy PBL programmes more than conventional programmes and feel they are more nurturing. There is also some evidence of an improvement in clinical and diagnostic reasoning ability associated with PBL curricula. The main negative points raised about PBL are the costs involved and mixed reports of insufficient grounding of students in the basic sciences. Financial restraints will probably preclude the introduction of pure or fully integrated PBL programmes in Australian dental schools. However, our research and experience, as well as other published literature, indicate that well-planned hybrid PBL programmes, with matching methods of assessment, can foster development of the types of knowledge, skills and attributes that oral health professionals will need in the future.

  5. Evaluation of a novel educational strategy, including inhaler-based reminder labels, to improve asthma inhaler technique. (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K


    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.

  6. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT). (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard


    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  7. Reform in Secondary Education: The Continuing Efforts to Reform Secondary Education, and a Modest Proposal. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 340. (United States)

    Saylor, Galen

    The author begins by examining the functions of the school and the basic principles governing the provision of education in the American democracy as a way of providing a framework for analyzing proposals for the reform of secondary education. He then examines proposals for reform. His major focus is on ten proposals made by agencies,…

  8. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools (United States)

    Azano, Amy Price; Stewart, Trevor Thomas


    Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to…

  9. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training. (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason


    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  10. Short-term Evaluation of a Comprehensive Education Program Including Inhaler Training and Disease Management on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Chung, Wou Young; Park, Joo Hun; Hwang, Sung Chul; Kim, Tae Eun; Oh, Min Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Sang Ha; Yum, Ho Kee


    Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (pmanagement and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (peducation program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  11. The European platform for financial education as incentive for the national efforts in implementing financial literacy programs: The case of the Association of Serbian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredojević Slađana


    Full Text Available A sustainable financial system relies on two pillars: the functional and healthy financial institutions, as well as the financially competent customers-investors-entrepreneurs. The responsibility for the implementation of training programs and preparation for the well-informed choice does not lie only with the natural persons and legal entities. This is a shared responsibility of different stakeholders: individuals, families, small and medium enterprises, public administration, the Ministry of Education, the financial services sector, employers and representatives of trade unions and consumer protection organizations as well as other civil society initiatives. A prime example of such an integrated approach towards the same goal is the European Platform for Financial Education, an initiative launched by the European Banking Federation, the European Banking Training Network and other institutions (professional associations, in February 2017 in Brussels as an incentive for the national level efforts in implementing the respective financial literacy programs. In this paper we analyzed the importance and role of the European Platform for Financial Education in the case of the Serbian banking sector through the activities of the Association of Serbian Banks. These activities will be implemented by the Association of Banks of Serbia continuously throughout the year, and after the celebration of the European Money Week on 27-31 March 2017.

  12. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries. (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick


    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  13. High educational impact of a national simulation-based urological curriculum including technical and non-technical skills. (United States)

    de Vries, Anna H; Schout, Barbara M A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Pelger, Rob C M; Koldewijn, Evert L; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Wagner, Cordula


    Although simulation training is increasingly used to meet modern technology and patient safety demands, its successful integration within surgical curricula is still rare. The Dutch Urological Practical Skills (D-UPS) curriculum provides modular simulation-based training of technical and non-technical basic urological skills in the local hospital setting. This study aims to assess the educational impact of implementing the D-UPS curriculum in the Netherlands and to provide focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants. Educational impact was assessed by means of qualitative individual module-specific feedback and a quantitative cross-sectional survey among residents and supervisors. Twenty out of 26 Dutch teaching hospitals participated. The survey focussed on practical aspects, the D-UPS curriculum in general, and the impact of the D-UPS curriculum on the development of technical and non-technical skills. A considerable survey response of 95 % for residents and 76 % for supervisors was obtained. Modules were attended by junior and senior residents, supervised by a urologist, and peer teaching was used. Ninety percent of supervisors versus 67 % of residents judged the D-UPS curriculum as an important addition to current residency training (p = 0.007). Participants' aggregated general judgement of the modules showed a substantial percentage favorable score (M ± SE: 57 ± 4 %). The impact of training on, e.g., knowledge of materials/equipment and ability to anticipate on complications was high, especially for junior residents (77 ± 5 and 71 ± 7 %, respectively). Focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants include adaptation of the training level to residents' level of experience and focus on logistics. The simulation-based D-UPS curriculum has a high educational impact. Residents and supervisors consider the curriculum to be an important addition to current residency

  14. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, F; Grose, Jane; Huss, N; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, IM; A, Schweizer


    INTRODUCTION: Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited

  15. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J


    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Including Ideology (United States)

    Allan, Julie


    Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…

  17. Should CAM and CAM Training Programs Be Included in the Curriculum of Schools That Provide Health Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of School of Health and Vocational School of Health students toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Methods: Three hundred thirty-three (333 students studying at the Mehmet Akif Ersoy University School of Health and the Golhisar Vocational School of Health in Burdur, Turkey, were included in the study. Research data were collected by using a survey method based on the expressed opinions of the participants. Results: Of the participants, 69.7% were female and 97% were single (unmarried. Of cigarette users and those with chronic illnesses, 46.8% and 47.8%, respectively, used CAM. Those using CAM were statistically more likely to be female (P < 0.021, to have higher grades (P < 0.007, to be single (P < 0.005, to be vocational school of health graduates (P < 0.008, and to have fathers at work (P < 0.021. While 9.6% of the students thought CAM to be nonsense, 10.8% thought that the methods of CAM should be tried before consulting a doctor. Conclusion: A majority of the students in the study population were found to use complementary and alternative medicine, but that they lacked information about its methods. As a way to address this, CAM should be included in the curriculum of schools that provide health education, and CAM training programs should be given to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge of CAM. In Turkey, many more studies should be performed to determine nurses’ and doctors’ knowledge of and attitudes about CAM methods so that they can give correct guidance to society and take more active responsibility in improving patient safety.

  18. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  19. 34 CFR 99.7 - What must an educational agency or institution include in its annual notification? (United States)


    ... notify parents of students currently in attendance, or eligible students currently in attendance, of... has a policy of disclosing education records under § 99.31(a)(1), a specification of criteria for...

  20. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette


    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  1. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.


    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  2. Teacher Educators' and Student Teachers' Beliefs about Preparation for Working with Families Including Those from Diverse Socioeconomic and Cultural Backgrounds (United States)

    D'Haem, Jeanne; Griswold, Peter


    This mixed-methods study examined teacher preparation for developing family partnerships. The attitudes and practices of teacher educators and the attitudes and experiences of student teachers were explored in focus groups, documents, and a survey instrument. Results indicated that although partnerships were considered important by faculty and…

  3. Impact of a multifaceted educational intervention including serious games to improve the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Ferrer, R; Zaragoza, R; Llinares, P; Maseda, E; Rodríguez, A; Quindós, G

    Infections caused by Candida species are common in critically ill patients and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. The EPICO Project (Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 studies) recently used a Delphi approach to elaborate guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in critically ill adult patients. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 recommendations. Specialists anonymously responded to two online surveys before and after a multifaceted educational intervention consisting of 60-min educational sessions, the distribution of slide kits and pocket guides with the recommendations, and an interactive virtual case presented at a teleconference and available for online consultation. A total of 74 Spanish hospitals. Specialists of the Intensive Care Units in the participating hospitals. Specialist knowledge and reported practices evaluated using a survey. The McNemar test was used to compare the responses in the pre- and post-intervention surveys. A total of 255 and 248 specialists completed both surveys, in both periods, respectively. The pre-intervention surveys showed many specialists to be unaware of the best approach for managing invasive candidiasis. After both educational interventions, specialist knowledge and reported practices were found to be more in line with nearly all the recommendations of the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 guidelines, except as regards de-escalation from echinocandins to fluconazole in Candida glabrata infections (p=0.055), and the duration of antifungal treatment in both candidemia and peritoneal candidiasis. This multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico Project recommendations improved specialist knowledge of the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort (United States)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher


    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  5. A Study Examining the Extent of Including Competencies of Inclusive Education in the Preparation of Special Education Teachers in Saudi Universities (United States)

    Alquraini, Turki Abduallh S.; Rao, Shaila M.


    Educators all over the world are trying to revise and/or build their teacher education programmes to ensure pre-service teachers working on their teaching credentials are competent and ready to manage classrooms from day one. This study surveyed 179 faculty from 30 colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia to find out the extent to which they…

  6. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers. (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard


    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  7. Education (United States)


    1 EDUCATION ABSTRACT United States schools are better than ever, but they are not assuring competitive advantage . Unequal access to quality...Development Network, Washington, DC Defense Logistics Agency, Corporate Planning (J-1), Ft Belvoir, VA International : Department for Education and...influencing all aspects of the US education system in an effort to improve student achievement, enhance national competitive advantage , and promote

  8. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators]. (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J


    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  9. A synergistic effort among geoscience, physics, computer science and mathematics at Hunter College of CUNY as a Catalyst for educating Earth scientists. (United States)

    Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.


    The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships for academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Led by Earth scientists the Program awarded scholarships to students in their junior or senior years majoring in computer science, geosciences, mathematics and physics to create two cohorts of students that spent a total of four semesters in an interdisciplinary community. The program included mentoring of undergraduate students by faculty and graduate students (peer-mentoring), a sequence of three semesters of a one-credit seminar course and opportunities to engage in research activities, research seminars and other enriching academic experiences. Faculty and peer-mentoring were integrated into all parts of the scholarship activities. The one-credit seminar course, although designed to expose scholars to the diversity STEM disciplines and to highlight research options and careers in these disciplines, was thematically focused on geoscience, specifically on ocean and atmospheric science. The program resulted in increased retention rates relative to institutional averages. In this presentation we will discuss the process of establishing the program, from the original plans to its implementation, as well as the impact of this multidisciplinary approach to geoscience education at our institution and beyond. An overview of accomplishments, lessons learned and potential for best practices will be presented.

  10. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram. (United States)

    Addison, Paul S


    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effectiveness and Cost of Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition Education for Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Yu; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Estabrooks, Paul; Davy, Brenda


    Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health concern. With the completion of the Diabetes Prevention Program, there has been a proliferation of studies attempting to translate this evidence base into practice. However, the cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these adapted interventions is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle diabetes prevention interventions and compare effects by intervention delivery agent (dietitian vs non-dietitian) and channel (in-person vs technology-delivered). English and full-text research articles published up to July 2015 were identified using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, CAB Direct, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Sixty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Most employed both dietary and physical activity intervention components (four of 69 were diet-only interventions). Changes in weight, fasting and 2-hour blood glucose concentration, and hemoglobin A1c were extracted from each article. Heterogeneity was measured by the I 2 index, and study-specific effect sizes or mean differences were pooled using a random effects model when heterogeneity was confirmed. Participants receiving intervention with nutrition education experienced a reduction of 2.07 kg (95% CI 1.52 to 2.62; Phemoglobin A1c level changes ranged from small to medium. The meta-regression analysis revealed a larger relative weight loss in dietitian-delivered interventions than in those delivered by nondietitians (full sample: -1.0 kg; US subsample: -2.4 kg), and did not find statistical evidence that the delivery channel was an important predictor of weight loss. The average cost per kilogram weight loss ranged from $34.06 over 6 months to $1,005.36 over 12 months. The cost of intervention per participant delivered by dietitians was lower than interventions delivered by non

  12. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael


    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  13. 体育纳入高考制度的理性思考%Rational thinking about including physical education in the National College Entrance Examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      我国高考的目的是选拔德、智、体全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人。将体育纳入高考的改革,有利于落实国家相关政策,保持基础教育阶段学生健康教育的连续性,加强素质教育,促进学校体育地位的提高和体育活动的开展,但也受到政治、经济、社会、技术等因素的制约。%  The purpose of National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) in China is to select morally, intellectu-ally and physically developed socialist constructors and successors. Including physical education in the reform of NCEE is conducive to implementing related state policies, maintaining the continuity of student health education at the basic education stage, enhancing makings education, and boosting the promotion of school physical education status and the development of physical education activities, but also affected and restricted by factors such as poli-tics, economy, society, technology etc.

  14. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.


    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  15. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.


    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  16. An Examination of Higher Educational Stakeholders' Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Retention Efforts That Impact Student Persistence from Freshman to Sophomore Year (United States)

    Lantta, Melissa M.


    The first year of college is critical to the growth and retention of the freshman college student. Students enter college with a wide range of backgrounds, skills and dispositions and it is the responsibility of the institution to do all it can to assist students in achieving their education goals. The purpose of this mixed methods research design…

  17. The Effort of Education Management in Conducting Deradicalization of Boarding School (Study in the Village of Tenggulun Subdistrict Solokuro Lamongan East Java Province) (United States)

    Setiobudi, Eko


    This study, generally aims to know the background of the rise of radicalism and a portrait of the role, the Education Management reduced the radical movements, especially in the village of Tenggulun Subdistrict Solokuro Lamongan East Java Province. The study used a qualitative approach with grounded theory method. Analysis of data using open…

  18. Violence against Women in the Family Home: Acknowledging the Role of Education and the Opportunities to Utilise Technology in Prevention Efforts (United States)

    Guggisberg, Marika


    Professionals in the health and education sector require knowledge and understanding of issues of family violence. Violence in the family home against women and children continues to present alarming problems. Significant evidence suggests that not only current and former female partners, but also children, are exposed to violence in the home.…

  19. A case for the expansion of effort and the adoption of a modified approach in Australia to education and research on the engineering and technology of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.W.K.


    A positive initiative needs to be taken to place more emphasis on undergraduate education in the field of nuclear engineering in Australia. Excellent facilities exist at the AAEC to aid tertiary institutions. Many excellent opportunities also exist for developing post-graduate research projects in nuclear technology

  20. An Examination of Secondary School Teachers' Technology Integration Recommended by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and School Principal Support for Teacher Technology Efforts (United States)

    Esposito, Maria


    The National Educational Technology Standards for teachers (NETS-T) was adopted by New York State, and was critical to the development of students entering a global society. This study examines teachers' use of digital tools to promote student learning and reflection, promote digital citizenship, communicate and collaborate with parents and…

  1. ¿Donde situar los esfuerzos de mejora?: política educativa, escuela y aula Where should we focus our improvement efforts? Educational policies, schools and classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bolívar


    Full Text Available El artículo hace una revisión de las teorías actuales del cambio educativo, en particular del papel del establecimiento escolar como una unidad base de la acción educativa y de la mejora. Se da cuenta del "viaje" recorrido en la búsqueda de la mejora: de las políticas centralizadas externas a situar la escuela como unidad estratégica y, en la última década, convertir el incremento del aprendizaje de los alumnos en el espacio privilegiado. De acuerdo con las lecciones aprendidas, un nuevo paradigma de la política educativa y de la innovación aboga por un equilibrio entre las presiones externas que estimulen la mejora con la necesaria autonomía escolar, donde el aprendizaje de todos los alumnos se constituyen en el foco del cambio. A su servicio se subordinan los cambios curriculares, organizativos o apoyos de la política educativa que puedan promoverlo.This paper reviews the current theories on educational changes, specifically the role of educational establishments as basic units of educational action and improvement. It accounts for the ground covered in search of this improvement: from external centralized policies that make school into a strategic unit to, in the past decade, highlighting the increase in student learning as a privileged topic. Based on the lessons learned, a new paradigm of educational policy and innovation argues for a balance between the external pressures that stimulate improvement and the necessary school autonomy, where the learning of all of the students becomes the focus of changes. Bearing this in mind, we look into curricular and organizational changes or supports for educational policies that can promote such changes.

  2. Implementación TIC en la docencia universitaria: estudio de los esfuerzos en vigas = Implementing ITC in higher education: study of effort on beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Blasco Gutierrez


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta una práctica académica que aporta una visión de la evolución de los esfuerzos resultantes en vigas debido a las cargas concentradas o distribuidas en vigas isostáticamente apoyadas. Debido a la versatilidad del sistema se pueden realizar medidas dinámicas cambiando la disposición geométrica de la carga o su valor observando en tiempo real el cambio en los esfuerzos medidos. Por contraposición a las medidas clásicas de esfuerzos, consistentes en la sucesión de medidas estáticas costosas en tiempo y que suelen conllevar que los alumnos “desconecten” de la práctica, la capacidad de realizar medidas dinámicas permite que los alumnos adquieran una comprensión rápida y más intuitiva de cómo cambian los esfuerzos que afectan a la viga (elemento estructural en función de la carga. El coste de los materiales y la infraestructura necesarios para esta práctica es lo suficientemente bajo como para que sea posible su implementación en casi cualquier centro formativo. Abstract This work shows a new teaching practice focused on a better understanding of the efforts on beams, both owing to concentrated or distributed loads in isostatically supported beams. Due to the system versatility, it can obtain dynamic measurements changing the geometric arrangement of the load or its values. The system allows us to obtain, in real time, the measurements of efforts. By contrast to the classical measurements, that consist in the succession of static measures which during for so long and entail the students don’t pay attention to the practice. This ability to get dynamic measurements allows that students get an intuitive knowledge and a better understanding of how the efforts affect the beam (structural element versus the load. The cost of materials needed to carry out this practice and its own infrastructure is very low and because of that, is affordable for the most academic centers.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  5. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes. (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S


    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.


    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  7. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Li, Daoquan


    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  8. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States. (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B


    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  9. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru


    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  11. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick


    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  12. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C


    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  13. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina


    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  14. Pocket money and child effort at school


    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat


    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  15. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros


    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators

  16. Efforts and models of education for parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal


    Artiklen omfatter en gennemgang af modeller for forældreuddannelse, der fortrinsvis anvendes i Danmark. Artiklen indlejrer modellerne i nogle bredere blikke på uddannelsessystemet og den aktuelle diskurs om ansvarliggørelse af forældre.   Udgivelsesdato: Marts 2010...

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report IV, Volume 4, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Gas Plant (Plant 7). The Gas Plant (Plant 7) receives feed gas streams from various process plants. The Gas Plant compresses, treats, and fractionates the gas streams into intermediate and final products. The following information is included for the plant described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  19. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.


    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  1. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.


    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  2. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report IV, Volume 6 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) produces makeup hydrogen for H-COAL Preheating and Reaction (Plant 3), and produces a medium Btu fuel gas for consumption in fired heaters. The following information is included: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume. Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) utilizes process technology from three licensors: gasification of vacuum bottoms using the Texaco process, shift conversion using the Haldor Topsoe process, and purification of fuel gas and shifted gas using the Allied Chemical Selexol process. This licensed technology is proprietary in nature. As a result, this volume does not contain full disclosure of these processes although a maximum of information has been presented consistent with the confidentiality requirements. Where data appears incomplete in this volume, it is due to the above described limitations. Full data concerning this plant are available for DOE review at the Houston offices of Bechtel Petroleum, Inc.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report IV, Volume 5, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), and the Sulfur Plant (Plant 10). Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8) purifies the purge gas stream from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4) to a 93% purity hydrogen product. Sour Water Treating (Plant 9) removes free ammonia and acid gases from sour water and separates them to recover a high quality anhydrous ammonia product. The Sulfur Plant (Plant 10) recovers, as a saleable liquid product, approximately 95% of the sulfur in feed streams from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), Gasification and Purification (Plant 12, described in Report IV, Volume 6), and Stack Gas Scrubbing (Plant 35, described in Report V, Volume 3). The following information is included for each of the three plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  4. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued. (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y


    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report IV, Volume 3, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5), H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6), and H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17). H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5) receives a slurry stream from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4), and then pumps the slurry through hydrocyclones, producing two slurry streams. One, dilute in solids is recycled back to the reactor. The other, concentrated in solids, is further processed to recover liquid products and is then transferred to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6) compresses and recycles back to the reactor system hydrogen-rich vapor from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4). This recycling maintains a hydrogen partial pressure and gas flow through the reactor vessel. H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17) processes products from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4) and H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation to produce light naphtha for the Gas Plant (Plant 7), middle and heavy distillates for tank farms, and heavy naphtha for Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The following information is included for each of the three plants: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, heat and material balance (if applicable), and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  6. Eight is enough. The 8 millennium development goals for cutting poverty are affordable and within reach... if we can renew the push to do it. The push includes a special global effort to build up science and technology in the poorest countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.D.; McArthur, J.W.


    This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, a total of 147 Heads of State gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions - income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion - while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability, with quantitative targets set for the year 2015. The UN committed to reviewing progress towards the goals in 2005, recognising that by this time only a decade would be left to fulfil the MDGs. We are now at the 5-year juncture with a stark realisation: many of the poorest regions of the world, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, are far off-track to achieve the goals. Yet the MDGs are still achievable. The lives of hundreds of millions of people could be dramatically improved and millions could be saved every year, but only if the world takes bold steps in 2005. The UN Millennium Project, an independent advisory body of Secretary-General Kofi Annan, was launched in 2002 to identify practical steps for achieving the Goals. In the course of the project's work, it became clear that the scarcity of financial resources is a critical constraint in the poorest countries. Increased financing, linked to effective governance structures in low-income countries, can produce dramatic results.Reaching the MDGs will bring tremendous benefits worldwide. If the goals are achieved over the next ten years: More than 500 million people will be lifted out of poverty in 2015; More than 300 million people will no longer suffer from hunger; Roughly 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthdays, and about 20 million fewer will die compared with the current declining trajectory of child mortality. More than 2 million others will be saved. Safe drinking water will become accessible for another 350 million people, and the benefits of basic

  7. Validating the Need to Include the Economic Returns of Graduates as a Metric of a Higher Education Institutions Level of Sustainability (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros


    Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators too. The research presented in this paper validates…

  8. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.


    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  9. Civil Society Advocacy for Construction of Education Legislation in Brazil: Education Diplomacy in a National Network (United States)

    Cara, Daniel; Pellanda, Andressa


    Advocacy efforts often contribute to broader Education Diplomacy goals. The Brazilian Campaign for the Right to Education coordinated an effort among diverse civil society stakeholders to ensure their voice was included in developing Brazil's National Education Plan (NEP). As a result of their advocacy strategy, civil society participated in…

  10. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan


    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  11. Directory of Regional Centers and Educational Programs Providing Services to Deaf/Blind Children and Youth in the United States (Including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). (United States)

    Alonso, Lou, Comp.

    Listed in the directory are over 200 educational programs and services for deaf blind children in the United States and U. S. territories. It is noted that the 10 coordinators of regional centers for services to deaf blind children have aided in compilation of the directory. Listings are arranged by state within the New England, Mid-Atlantic…

  12. Short- and medium-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke


    Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in

  13. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.


    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  14. Learning Environment and Student Effort (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  15. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan


    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  16. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback. (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke


    Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic

  17. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.


    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  18. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin


    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  19. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A


    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  20. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  1. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration


    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger


    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  2. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014


    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  3. Watching the Art Education Pendulum Swing. (United States)

    Hausman, Jerome J.

    A literature review of material from 1965 to the present that influenced the art education field, including publications outside of art education, is identified. "The Process of Education" by Jerome Bruner (1965) is discussed initially. An analysis of how the Pennsylvania State Seminar (1965) called for art educators to make an effort to…

  4. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home. (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Taveras, Elsie M; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resnick, Elissa A; Lee, Grace M; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A


    Good hand hygiene may reduce the spread of infections in families with children who are in out-of-home child care. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers rapidly kill viruses that are commonly associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multifactorial campaign centered on increasing alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand-hygiene education reduces illness transmission in the home. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted of homes of 292 families with children who were enrolled in out-of-home child care in 26 child care centers. Eligible families had > or =1 child who was 6 months to 5 years of age and in child care for > or =10 hours/week. Intervention families received a supply of hand sanitizer and biweekly hand-hygiene educational materials for 5 months; control families received only materials promoting good nutrition. Primary caregivers were phoned biweekly and reported respiratory and GI illnesses in family members. Respiratory and GI-illness-transmission rates (measured as secondary illnesses per susceptible person-month) were compared between groups, adjusting for demographic variables, hand-hygiene practices, and previous experience using hand sanitizers. Baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 1802 respiratory illnesses occurred during the study; 443 (25%) were secondary illnesses. A total of 252 GI illnesses occurred during the study; 28 (11%) were secondary illnesses. The secondary GI-illness rate was significantly lower in intervention families compared with control families (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.90). The overall rate of secondary respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups (IRR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.30). However, families with higher sanitizer usage had a marginally lower secondary respiratory illness rate than those with less usage (IRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65-1.09). A

  5. Education in the family as a factor of pedagogical correction of legal consciousness in juvenile probation and parole, including registered in criminal-executive inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gud M. B.


    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "legal consciousness of minors", the peculiarities of its formation in adolescence, and a pedagogical process of correction of legal consciousness adolescents in conditions of serving criminal sentences, when registration with the penal inspection. Analyzes one of the factors of correction of legal consciousness – raising in the family of convicted minors consisting on the account in the criminal-Executive inspection. The specifics of family upbringing and their impact on the efficiency of re-socialization of minors consisting on the account in criminally-executive inspection, as well as reducing recidivism. Examples of departmental statistics on the role of the family in preventing delinquency and crime among convicted adolescents. The basic directions of improvement of family education in the framework of the activities of employees of criminally-executive inspections.

  6. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective? (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F


    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  7. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort. (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David


    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  8. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts. (United States)

    Davis, Dwight B.


    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  9. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  10. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.


    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  11. Pedagogical experiment of the first rector of the Ural state mining institute P.P. Von Weymarn as an effort to reform the higher education institution in 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Валиев


    Full Text Available Based on sources recently discovered and included in the database of scientific publications, the article analyzes the pedagogical activity of the scientist-chemist, the first rector and founder of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg Petr Petrovich von Weymarn, whose name is now almost forgotten. The article shows that this activity can be evaluated as a pedagogical experiment on reformation of the higher education institution system, which could have been adopted in Russia if Bolsheviks lost the Civil War. Pedagogical activity of von Weymarn has a theoretical basis that he developed under the influence of Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize winner in chemistry and the idealist philosopher, as well as the example of the Petrograd (Petersburg Mining Institute, which for von Weymarn was not only an alma mater but an example of a reformist attitudes toward the scientific and pedagogical process in higher education.The article gives a detailed analysis of the currently available philosophical and pedagogical essays of P.P. von Weymarn, known as «Essays on the Energy of Culture», as well as the practical application of these theoretical works on the basis of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg and in Vladivostok.With the advent of Soviet power, von Weymarn's pedagogical experiment was forcibly interrupted, and he became «persona non-grata» in the Soviet Union, but now his name is being restored. Unfortunately, he is known either as a chemist or as the founder and first rector of the current Ural State Mining University, but not as a teacher who offered his view of reforming the higher school system. This article fills this gap, revealing not only the work of von Weymarn, but also describing the difficult period of changing the old scientific school system, which could have taken a completely different development path.

  12. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews


    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  13. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)


    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  14. The Health Educator as Death Educator: Professional Preparation and Quality Control. (United States)

    Crase, Darrell


    Health education curriculum has responded to the need to include teacher preparation experiences in death education. While death education is gaining wide acceptance, little effort has been made to guarantee quality instruction. A list of competencies are provided for the edification of the effective death educator. (JN)

  15. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  16. The Vatican and Unesco Link Efforts for World Literacy (United States)

    Ryan, Leo V., Brother


    The problem of functional literacy has been recognized as a moral issue and offers a special challenge to religious authorities. Founded at the Vatican level in March 1969, the Committee on Human Development was commissioned to promote and animate efforts in: (a) basic education; (b) leadership training; (c) vocational education; (d) opinion…

  17. STAR Infrastructure Database: An effort to know each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J.C.; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Vesterbacka, Pia; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Barnett, Catherine; Beresford, Nick [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC-CEH (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Stockholm University (Sweden); Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Wilrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Vanhoudt, Nathalie [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Komperoed, Mari [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)


    Effort over the last decade to make radioecology stronger and sustainable within Europe crystallized in the creation of the European Radioecology Alliance. The first step for this integrative effort was the establishment of a network of excellence (NoE) under the EU FP7 Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR project which commenced in 2011. One of the project objectives was to share knowledge of European radioecological capabilities. To help achieve this, a register of these capabilities at each of the STAR laboratories has been created. An Infrastructure Database was designed and programmed using web 2.0 technologies on a 'wiki' platform. Its intended use was to identify what assets were held and where improvements could be made. Information collated includes an inventory of the radioanalytical or conventional equipment and methods, bio-informatics equipment and methods, sample and data archives held, and models and codes used. It also provides a summary of the radioecological expertise of the 170 radio-ecologists at STAR institutes whose knowledge is wide-ranging and encompasses: atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental radiation protection, environmental surveillance, foodstuffs, terrestrial, freshwater and marine radioecology, modelling, radiobiology and radionuclide analyses, emergency preparedness, education and training, amongst others. In 2013, the EU FP7 Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology (COMET, project, involving the STAR partners and additionally one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes, was initiated. The capabilities of these additional partners will be added to the database in 2014. The aim of the database was to gather information to: - avoid duplication of effort and thereby increase efficiency, - improve synergy and collaboration between the STAR project partners and others involved in

  18. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment. (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan


    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards.

  19. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO. (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K


    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  20. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates. (United States)

    Muller, Martin N


    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Raharjo


    Full Text Available Abstract: Difficulties found in Senior High School (SMA TMI Roudlatul Qur’an, teachers were not able to integrate character value into their lesson plan and to identify which behaviour must be success indicators of character education. Out of 18 Character value existed, the measurement of students’success as the better change of their behaviour, some only covering observation and lack of triangulation consideration to more accountable result. Worskhop potentially becomes one of the ways to up grade teachers’performance in determining the instrument of character value education, at the same time, train them the way composing lesson plan which integrates character education. This school action research was aimed to carry out workshop at SMA TMI Roudlatul Qur’an of Metro Municipal City, to improve teachers’performance in composing evaluation instrumen of value character education, to improve teachers’performance in composing integrated character value education.The research took place at SMA TMI Roudlatul Qur’an, located at Mulyojati, Metro Barat, Metro Municipal City. It was done in odd semester, continually to one month. Started in early Academic Year 2015/2016, July to August.The researcher concluded that teachers of SMA TMI Roudlatul Qur’an improved their performance well in composing evaluation instrument of value character education and integrated value character lesson plan through workshop. Facts: Workshop process was considered fair 11 teachers, good by 16 teachers, and very good by 12 teachers. At cycle II, the performance of composing evaluation instrument of character education showed 11 teachers were less sufficient performance, 16 teachers were good performance, and 12 teachers were very good. And the performance of composing integrated character value at cycle II showed 8 moderate teachers, 19 good teachers, and 12 excellent teachers. Key words: Workshop, Lesson Plan, Character Education Evaluation

  2. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.


    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  3. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser


    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  4. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.


    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  5. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen


    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  6. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron


    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  7. The RBANS Effort Index: base rates in geriatric samples. (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Spering, Cynthia C; O'Bryant, Sid E; Beglinger, Leigh J; Moser, David J; Bayless, John D; Culp, Kennith R; Mold, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G


    The Effort Index (EI) of the RBANS was developed to assist clinicians in discriminating patients who demonstrate good effort from those with poor effort. However, there are concerns that older adults might be unfairly penalized by this index, which uses uncorrected raw scores. Using five independent samples of geriatric patients with a broad range of cognitive functioning (e.g., cognitively intact, nursing home residents, probable Alzheimer's disease), base rates of failure on the EI were calculated. In cognitively intact and mildly impaired samples, few older individuals were classified as demonstrating poor effort (e.g., 3% in cognitively intact). However, in the more severely impaired geriatric patients, over one third had EI scores that fell above suggested cutoff scores (e.g., 37% in nursing home residents, 33% in probable Alzheimer's disease). In the cognitively intact sample, older and less educated patients were more likely to have scores suggestive of poor effort. Education effects were observed in three of the four clinical samples. Overall cognitive functioning was significantly correlated with EI scores, with poorer cognition being associated with greater suspicion of low effort. The current results suggest that age, education, and level of cognitive functioning should be taken into consideration when interpreting EI results and that significant caution is warranted when examining EI scores in elders suspected of having dementia.

  8. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé


    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  9. Role of the Diabetes Educator in Inpatient Diabetes Management. (United States)


    It is the position of American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) that all inpatient interdisciplinary teams include a diabetes educator to lead or support improvement efforts that affect patients hospitalized with diabetes or hyperglycemia. This not only encompasses patient and family education but education of interdisciplinary team members and achievement of diabetes-related organizational quality metrics and performance outcomes.

  10. Role of the Diabetes Educator in Inpatient Diabetes Management. (United States)


    It is the position of American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) that all inpatient interdisciplinary teams include a diabetes educator to lead or support improvement efforts that affect patients hospitalized with diabetes or hyperglycemia. This not only encompasses patient and family education but education of interdisciplinary team members and achievement of diabetes-related organizational quality metrics and performance outcomes.

  11. "The Teachers Put Effort into Teaching Us about Life, and What's Right and What's Wrong": Values and Moral Education in Publicly-Managed Schools in Ireland (United States)

    O'Flaherty, J.; Liddy, M.; McCormack, O.


    In light of cultural and demographic changes in the Republic of Ireland, there is an important and urgent need for research on the articulation of values education in Irish publicly-managed schools. This article reports the findings from a research project on the moral, religious and spiritual values and traditions of staff and students in…

  12. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.


    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  13. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain


    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail


    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  14. The Relationship Between the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Psychosocial Health in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Roshangar


    Full Text Available The health of nurses as providers of health affects the quality of care provided by health care organizations to patients. The effort-reward imbalance is accompanied by repressive responses that can lead to physical and psychological diseases as well as stressful experiences in nurses’ activity. Regarding the existence of some discrimination in the system of health, the present study was conducted to determine the relationship between the effort-reward imbalance and psychosocial health in nurses. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 270 nurses working in five medical-educational centers in Tabriz participated through random-quota sampling. The research tool included a demographic questionnaire, Siegrist effort- reward imbalance questionnaire and Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS V18 and descriptive and inferential statistics. In the present study, 54.8% of the patients were suffering from effort- reward imbalance model (occupational stress. The relatively high prevalence of this can be attributed to the conditions of the hospital's working environment. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between psychosocial health and balance of reward and effort in nurses and also the findings of the research showed a positive and significant relationship between mental and social health and the score of effort-reward imbalance model (0.95 = R, and P <0.05. There was a significant relationship between effort and work commitment and job burnout. Considering the stressful nature of the profession among many reasons, the mental health of nurses is at a higher risk than that of other groups in the society. Because some factors related to the imbalance in the effort and reward (stress is inevitable, it is necessary in the profession of nursing for managers to review their employees' position and characteristics to find out their staff’s attitudes and behaviors and direct them in the right path.

  15. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort]. (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E


    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  17. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.


    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  18. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.


    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  19. Creating an Integrated Community-Wide Effort to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Weingroff, M.


    Supporting the development and sustenance of a diverse geoscience workforce and improving Earth system education for the full diversity of students are important goals for our community. There are numerous established programs and many new efforts beginning. However, these efforts can become more powerful if dissemination of opportunities, effective practices, and web-based resources enable synergies to develop throughout our community. The Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE; has developed a working group and a website to support these goals. The DLESE Diversity Working Group provides an open, virtual community for those interested in enhancing diversity in the geosciences. The working group has focused its initial effort on 1) creating a geoscience community engaged in supporting increased diversity that builds on and is integrated with work taking place in other venues; 2) developing a web resource designed to engage and support members of underrepresented groups in learning about the Earth; and 3) assisting in enhancing DLESE collections and services to better support learning experiences of students from underrepresented groups. You are invited to join the working group and participate in these efforts. The DLESE diversity website provides a mechanism for sharing information and resources. Serving as a community database, the website provides a structure in which community members can post announcements of opportunities, information on programs, and links to resources and services. Information currently available on the site includes links to professional society activities; mentoring opportunities; grant, fellowship, employment, and internship opportunities for students and educators; information on teaching students from underrepresented groups; and professional development opportunities of high interest to members of underrepresented groups. These tools provide a starting point for developing a community wide effort to enhance

  20. Efforts by Atomic Energy Society of Japan to improve the public understanding on nuclear power. With an additional review on the present status of nuclear engineering education at universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, K.; Kudo, K.; Ishigure, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Kimura, I.; Madarame, H.


    On variety of recent public occasions crucial for the progress of Japanese nuclear fuel cycle, the public has expressed their incredulous and reserved attitudes toward further expansion of nuclear power utilization. The typical examples are (1) local town political votes with an issue to decide on the acceptance of a proposed nuclear power plant, ending up with a conclusion against the proposal, and (2) the local dissatisfaction expressed against a proposed, deep-underground research facility, which is intended to produce cold-simulation data on the behavior of high level waste nuclides. Realizing that the dissemination of systematic and correct informations is indispensable for gaining public understanding on the importance of energy resources and nuclear power, the Educational Committee, Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), has initiated various public relations activities since 1994. In the following we sketch such activities, namely: (1) Reviews conducted on high school textbooks. (2) A request submitted to the Government for revisions of high-school textbooks and governmental guidelines defining these textbooks. (3) Preparations of a source book on nuclear energy and radiations. In addition, (4) the review conducted on the present status of nuclear engineering education in universities over the country with and without nuclear engineering program will be given. (author)

  1. Parents' Views of Schools' Involvement Efforts (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Blatz, Erin T.; Elbaum, Batya


    Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 96 parents of students with disabilities in 18 schools to explore parents' views of schools' efforts to engage them in their child's education. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify and evaluate the relative importance of eight themes related to schools' efforts…

  2. Inpo/industry job and task analysis efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, W.W.


    One of the goals of INPO is to develop and coordinate industrywide programs to improve the education, training and qualification of nuclear utility personnel. To accomplish this goal, INPO's Training and Education Division: conducts periodic evaluations of industry training programs; provides assistance to the industry in developing training programs; manages the accreditation of utility training programs. These efforts are aimed at satisfying the need for training programs for nuclear utility personnel to be performance-based. Performance-based means that training programs provide an incumbent with the skills and knowledge required to safely perform the job. One of the ways that INPO has provided assistance to the industry is through the industrywide job and task analysis effort. I will discuss the job analysis and task analysis processes, the current status of JTA efforts, JTA products and JTA lessons learned

  3. Student Recruitment and Retention Efforts in PETE: Cloudy Skies or Silver Linings (United States)

    Bulger, Sean M.; Braga, Luciana; DiGiacinto, Kacey; Jones, Emily M.


    This article addresses current issues and trends related to teacher candidate recruitment in physical education teacher education programs. It highlights the efforts of program leaders in three different higher education institutions to recruit and retain well-qualified physical education majors. The key lessons learned from these cases serve as a…

  4. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.


    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. The Role of Student-Teacher Ratio in Parents' Perceptions of Schools' Engagement Efforts (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Elbaum, Batya


    Research suggests a positive relationship between schools' efforts to engage parents and parents' involvement in their child's education. The authors investigated school socioeconomic status, school size, grade level, and student-teacher ratio as predictors of schools' efforts to engage parents of students receiving special education services. The…

  6. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate. (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen


    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance. (United States)

    Shutts, Joe


    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  8. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  9. NASA Education Recommendation Report - Education Design Team 2011 (United States)

    Pengra, Trish; Stofan, James


    NASA people are passionate about their work. NASA's missions are exciting to learners of all ages. And since its creation in 1958, NASA's people have been passionate about sharing their inspiring discoveries, research and exploration with students and educators. In May 2010, NASA administration chartered an Education Design Team composed of 12 members chosen from the Office of Education, NASA's Mission Directorates and Centers for their depth of knowledge and education expertise, and directed them to evaluate the Agency's program in the context of current trends in education. By improving NASA's educational offerings, he was confident that the Agency can play a leading role in inspiring student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) as few other organizations can. Through its unique workforce, facilities, research and innovations, NASA can expand its efforts to engage underserved and underrepresented communities in science and mathematics. Through the Agency's STEM education efforts and science and exploration missions, NASA can help the United States successfully compete, prosper and be secure in the 21st century global community. After several months of intense effort, including meeting with education experts; reviewing Administration policies, congressional direction and education research; and seeking input from those passionate about education at NASA, the Education Design Team made six recommendations to improve the impact of NASA's Education Program: (1) Focus the NASA Education Program to improve its impact on areas of greatest national need (2) Identify and strategically manage NASA Education partnerships (3) Participate in National and State STEM Education policy discussions (4) Establish a structure to allow the Office of Education, Centers and Mission Directorates to implement a strategically integrated portfolio (5) Expand the charter of the Education Coordinating Committee to enable deliberate Education Program design (6

  10. The Waqf of Money as a Community Economic Empowerment Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Farid


    Full Text Available Waqaf is basically seen as one of the religious institutions in Islam which is relevant and functionally efforts to solve socio-economic problems and humanity, such as poverty alleviation, human resource development, and economic empowerment. The endowments are absolutely an important role in achieving a just social order. From the perspective of shapes, endowment money is seen as one of the solutions that can make endowments to be more productive. Because the money here will no longer to be used as a means of exchange, but more than it, we can explore it as a commodity to produce in the terms of economic development. Therefore, the cash money in the form of waqaf of money can result any benefit for the community. Appearances distribution of endowments can be used to productive activity in the era of economic downturn of the Islamic community in Indonesia. Now it should become the primary choice. In another sense, it is a productive waqaf endowment that must be a priority and dedicated its efforts to more fruitful. Thus, the sizes of different paradigms are done by the consumptive waqaf, because it gives a new hope for the majority of the Muslim community. Endowments are not willing to lead in worship of mahdhah which is directed to the consumptive waqaf. Using the findings of waqaf has been prioritized to give benefit in a very broad, including for economic empowerment, such as public facilities and worship activities, social facilities and educational activities as well as health, aid to poor people, displaced children, orphans, scholarship, progress and economic improvement for the people who needs the advancement of public welfare other non-contrary to the sharia business law.

  11. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro


    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  12. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasburg, R.H.


    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  13. The role of grassroots efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, C. [Plug-in America, El Segundo, CA (United States)


    This presentation chronicled the demise of the electric vehicle, despite the fact that zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) avoid significant emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide. It provided information on ZEVs and plug-in electric hybrid's (PHEVs) with particular reference to the volume of avoided emissions. Photographs of several types of electric vehicles developed over the years were provided along with the number of electric vehicles made, leased and crushed at General Motors, Ford, and Toyota. Plug-in America partners in the city of Austin, Texas gathered over 8,000 soft fleet orders and signed on 74 American cities with orders pending. A new vehicle, the 2010 Chevy Volt was illustrated and presented. Other new competitors were also displayed in photographs, including Toyota Prius, Volvo Recharge, Ford Escape, Daimler Sprinter, Mitsubishi Miev, Saturn Vue, Audi Metroproject, Daimler Smart, and Nissan Mixim. The presentation also described a partnership between Ford and Southern California Edison Company to evaluate the complete energy system impacts of fully certified PHEVs on the utility grid. The presentation also noted that Fisker has also planned for 15,000 units a year at a cost of under $100,000. PHEVs are popular in literacy circles and several books were noted and illustrated in the presentation. Last, the presentation discussed policy with respect to electric vehicles. tabs., figs.

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni


    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  16. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  17. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.


    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  18. Transversalidad de conceptos de educación ambiental para un desarrollo sostenible presentes en la legislación argentina Environmental education as a crosscutting issue for sustainable developement concepts included in Argentine regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré


    instituciones de educación superior. Se asegura el derecho a la información, todo habitante podrá obtener de las autoridades la información ambiental que administren y que no se encuentre contemplada legalmente como reservada. Los aspectos más importantes acerca de la educación ambiental y el desarrollo sostenible son ejes transversales de leyes de distinta jurisdicción, pero deberá bregarse por el cumplimiento y control de dichos principios, debido a las características con las que se percibe al derecho ambiental, de baja eficacia y eficiencia.Population environmental education must be conveyed in all educational levels, in order to contribute to a deep knowledge of environmental protection laws. These include contents about environmental education, but with scarce diffusion and low adhesion. If environmental education could force a detailed knowledge about regulations, its application could be demanded by community actions. Moreover, environmental education is considered in regulations as a fundamental tool for sustainable development. There is a profuse legislation in Argentina, with more than 3,000 legal instruments of different hierarchical order and jurisdictional level. Three argentine laws were studied and compared: Environmental General Law (national: Law 25,675; La Pampa Environmental Law (province order: Law 1,914; and Environmental Education Law of Buenos Aires (city order: Law 1,687. These laws regulate the incorporation of environmental education in formal system (public and private schools and institutions, for all levels: initial, primary, secondary and university studies, non formal system (extra-curricular activities and/or extension inside the institutions, and non formal education (by means of massive instruments of communication and information. Environmental education is considered as the basic tool to generate values, behavior and attitudes according to a balanced environment, tending to the preservation of natural resources and their sustainable

  19. The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law: Including a Systematic Analysis of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. International Studies in Human Rights, 82 (United States)

    Beiter, Klaus Dieter


    A trend has emerged of not defining education as a "human right" anymore, but of rather calling it a "human need". This has paved the way for an ever increasing commercialisation of education, excluding the poor from access to education. A problem at a different level is that states often do not know what is expected of them…

  20. Baseline Analysis on ICT in General Education of Mongolia (United States)

    Uyanga, Sambuu


    These days ICT has penetrated into almost all sectors of the economy and society of Mongolia. More and more effort and attention is being paid to integrating ICT into the education sector. The current education reforms have a big component related to ICT, which includes the development of a Master plan for ICT in the Education sector, addressing…

  1. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.


    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  2. Brain Drain and the Disenchantment of Being a Higher Education Student in Portugal (United States)

    Cerdeira, Luísa; Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; Cabrito, Belmiro; Patrocínio, Tomás; Brites, Rui; Gomes, Rui; Lopes, João Teixeira; Vaz, Henrique; Peixoto, Paulo; Magalhães, Dulce; Silva, Sílvia; Ganga, Rafaela


    The efforts made by most countries to accelerate economic development have included a significant investment in education. It has been argued that investment in education, particularly higher education, was itself a potential factor in economic development. Education has become a relatively easy means of improving access to the labour market.…

  3. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh


    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  4. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises? (United States)

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R


    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  5. Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belue, Lisa


    .... Unequal access to quality education leaves millions ill equipped for today's workplace. The "No Child Left Behind Act" is an effective point of departure, yet it too fails to adequately address the myriad issues affecting quality education...

  6. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.


    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  7. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort


    Schnedler, Wendelin


    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  8. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel


    Full Text Available When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves. Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  9. Environmental Education: Going Green Is a Library-Wide Effort (United States)

    Helmer, Jodi


    Going green is a hot topic. Everyone from Hollywood to the White House is talking about the need to reduce, reuse, and recycle. Often, the messages are targeted to making changes at home: taking canvas bags to the supermarket, installing low flow showerheads and starting a compost pile. While these changes can make a big difference, such…

  10. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.


    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  11. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference. (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.


    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  12. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz


    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  13. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.


    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  14. Closing the patient-oncologist communication gap: a review of historic and current efforts. (United States)

    Pham, A Khoa; Bauer, Marianne T; Balan, Stefan


    Effective communication is essential in developing any relationship--this is particularly true between oncologists and their patients. The patient-oncologist relationship is one of the most delicate in medicine, and given the strong emotions associated with cancer, successful communication plays a paramount role in the wellbeing of patients and oncologists. Significant advances to close the communication gap have occurred over the past several decades, largely by addressing deficiencies in the various stages of an oncologist's lengthy training: undergraduate medical education, residency and fellowship, and continuing medical education. Stemming from several milestones achieved by highly motivated groups of individuals, including the creation of consensus statements and guidelines by communication education experts, progress has been made to improve patient-oncologist communication. This progress is marked by the development of evidence-based communication skills training programs, such as Oncotalk and Comskil, in addition to the creation of distant-learning modalities, such as the Studying Communication in Oncologist-Patient Encounters trial. This review article outlines the history of communication education during medical education and training, and brings to light more recent efforts to promote competent, communication-minded physicians necessary for effective cancer care.

  15. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  16. 78 FR 43889 - Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine... (United States)


    ... regenerative medicine products have generated a great deal of interest. These efforts include standards... is done to coordinate the various existing efforts. In the public workshop, FDA hopes to bring...

  17. Education (United States)


    program) steadily declined from 15% in 1970 to 10.7% in 2001.16 Data from the National Center for Education Statistics show that the number of...academic institutions, and corporate education and training institutions. By size, it’s defined in terms of distribution of funds, facilities , and...of students entering four-year colleges and universities require some remedial education .”9 Given statistics such as these, concerns for the US

  18. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability. (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y


    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  19. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language (United States)

    Rice, J. R.


    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  20. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen


    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  2. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy


    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  3. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014. (United States)


    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  4. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  5. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013. (United States)


    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  6. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T


    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.


    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  8. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles


    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  9. Reduction of voluntary dehydration during effort in hot environments (United States)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Gilat, T.; Tennenbaum, J.; Nir, M.


    During an experimental marching trip the daily positive fluid balance was preserved by providing a wide choice of beverages during the hours of the day. It was found that the beverage most suitable for drinking in large quantities during periods of effort was a cold drink with sweetened (citrus) fruit taste. Carbonated drinks, including beer, but milk also, were found unsuitable for this purpose.

  10. Seasonal abundance, distribution and catch per unit effort of fishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    included a note on the ecology of the estuary and Hanekom. (1982) has completed a ... Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fish in the Krom estuary was obtained by means ...... Structural and functional aspects of the surf-zone fish community in the ...



    Orlova Elena V.


    The article deals with the prerequisites of shift of music education paradigm in the XXI century, tells about emergence of new forms in the creative efforts of musicians enrolled in primary schools, and at secondary and highest education levels. Different types and genres of the multimedia creativity are considered. They were in demand by musicians at various events-contests, including Russian and international festivals and competitions in terms of which the music was called upon to play a l...

  12. A Web-based database for pathology faculty effort reporting. (United States)

    Dee, Fred R; Haugen, Thomas H; Wynn, Philip A; Leaven, Timothy C; Kemp, John D; Cohen, Michael B


    To ensure appropriate mission-based budgeting and equitable distribution of funds for faculty salaries, our compensation committee developed a pathology-specific effort reporting database. Principles included the following: (1) measurement should be done by web-based databases; (2) most entry should be done by departmental administration or be relational to other databases; (3) data entry categories should be aligned with funding streams; and (4) units of effort should be equal across categories of effort (service, teaching, research). MySQL was used for all data transactions (, and scripts were constructed using PERL ( Data are accessed with forms that correspond to fields in the database. The committee's work resulted in a novel database using pathology value units (PVUs) as a standard quantitative measure of effort for activities in an academic pathology department. The most common calculation was to estimate the number of hours required for a specific task, divide by 2080 hours (a Medicare year) and then multiply by 100. Other methods included assigning a baseline PVU for program, laboratory, or course directorship with an increment for each student or staff in that unit. With these methods, a faculty member should acquire approximately 100 PVUs. Some outcomes include (1) plotting PVUs versus salary to identify outliers for salary correction, (2) quantifying effort in activities outside the department, (3) documenting salary expenditure for unfunded research, (4) evaluating salary equity by plotting PVUs versus salary by sex, and (5) aggregating data by category of effort for mission-based budgeting and long-term planning.

  13. Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birmingham, Rob


    Over the past century, the US education system facilitated the development of history's greatest economic and military power, and that same system continues to provide adequate human resources for our national security...

  14. Using Outreach and Engagement Efforts to Inform the Makah Tribe's Climate Adaptation Plan (United States)

    Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.


    The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.

  15. Education programs catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Since its formation in 1977, US DOE has been authorized to support education programs that help ensure an adequate supply of scientists, engineers, and technicians for energy-related research, production activities, and technology transfer. A national conference in 1989 produced a clear vision of the important role that DOE, its facilities, and its 169,000 Federal and contract employees can play in the educational life of their communities and the Nation. Many of the programs listed in this catalog are the result of this new vision; others have existed for many years. Purpose of this catalog is to make all DOE education efforts more widely known so that more teachers, students, and others can benefit. Supporting the hundreds of education programs (precollege, undergraduate, graduate, public) is the network of DOE national laboratories, technology centers, and other research facilities. Brief descriptions of each facility, its programs, and contact information for its education personnel are included.

  16. Effort-Reward Imbalance for Learning Is Associated with Fatigue in School Children (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Yamano, Emi; Joudoi, Takako; Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawatani, Junko; Takano, Miyuki; Tomoda, Akemi; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Miike, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi


    We examined relationships among fatigue, sleep quality, and effort-reward imbalance for learning in school children. We developed an effort-reward for learning scale in school students and examined its reliability and validity. Self-administered surveys, including the effort reward for leaning scale and fatigue scale, were completed by 1,023…

  17. Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.


    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.

  18. Lean education an overview of current issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Kahlen, Franz-Josef


    This edited volume presents a structured approach to a new lean education curriculum, implemented for the education of engineers, managers, administrators as well as human resources developers. The authorship comprises professors and lecturers, trainers and practitioners who educate future professionals in Lean Thinking principles and tools. This edited book provides a platform for authors to share their efforts in building a Body of Knowledge (BoK) for Lean Education. The topical spectrum is state-of-the-art in this field, but the book also includes a glimpse into future developments. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book, providing valuable insight for scholars with an interest in Lean Education.

  19. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador


    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  20. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel


    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions

  1. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  2. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.


    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  3. Reasonable limits to radiation protection efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.


    It is shown that change in life expectancy (ΔLE) is an improved estimate for risks and safety efforts, reflecting the relevant social goal. A cost-effectiveness index, safety investment/ΔLE, is defined. The harm from low level radiation is seen as a reduction of life expectancy instead of an increased probability of contracting cancer. (author)

  4. Changing Systems to Provide Inclusive Higher Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Raynor, Olivia; Hayward, Katharine; Francis, Wilbert; Campisi, Catherine


    For several decades, institutions of higher education (IHE) have been addressing the need for postsecondary education (PSE) for students with intellectual disabilities (ID). These efforts have increased significantly since 2008 with passage of the Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA). The law includes a defined set of services and activities…

  5. Paradigms, Power, and PR in New York City: Assessing Two School Accountability Implementation Efforts (United States)

    Peck, Craig


    This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…

  6. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode. (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M


    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.


    One of the major problems facing countries with nuclear power and nuclear waste management programs is that of promoting public confidence in the waste management system. This paper discusses the need for education in the field of radioactive waste management as a means for speaking the same language and as the gateway to the solution, no matter what the ultimate solution may be

  8. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Education Program aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo, the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP

  9. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Education Program aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo, the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP, Brazil

  10. Summary of process research analysis efforts (United States)

    Burger, D. R.


    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  11. Career Education of Hearing-Impaired Students: A Review. (United States)

    Bullis, Michael, Ed.; Watson, Douglas, Ed.

    This monograph reviews the many efforts that have been made in the fields of education and vocational rehabilitation to develop and refine career preparation services for hearing-impaired individuals. The following papers are included in the volume: "Career Education: A Literature Review," by Charlene Dwyer; "A Current Profile of Career Education…

  12. The Administration of Educational Development in Latin America. (United States)

    Olivera, Carlos E.

    Based on the realization that 20 years of educational development efforts in Latin America have had little result, this author identified problems in educational administration at the national and regional levels that are largely responsible for the lack of progress. A number of structural and legal problems were identified, including the…

  13. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.


    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  14. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.


    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  15. Evaluative language, cognitive effort and attitude change.


    van der Pligt, J.; van Schie, E.C.M.; Martijn, C.


    Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...

  16. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  17. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly


    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  18. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort


    McDonald, Scott


    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  19. Trends in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.


    Today's nuclear curricula have the purpose to fulfil labor requirements of the nuclear market, both power and applications, as well as keeping up the academic level required for research and development in nuclear sciences. This work analyses the power and applications markets and the situation of nuclear education in several countries, including Mexico, as well as collective efforts promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other organizations. Conclusions are obtained about the status and trends in nuclear education, emphasizing the role of the academic and users sectors to fit the future demand and the availability of skilled personnel. (author)

  20. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy. (United States)

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie


    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  1. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools. (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J


    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  2. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil


    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  3. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis


    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  4. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald


    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  5. Construction Students Aid in Hurricane Recovery Efforts (United States)

    Massiha, G. H.; Houston, Shelton


    According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning, officially defined in 1967, is "a form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities intentionally designed to promote student learning and development." Service-learning combines academic study,…

  6. Teacher Mentoring as a Community Effort (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill; Lee, Jean Sangmin; Mosier, Gina


    This article presents the findings from a study of a mentoring program for novice mathematics and science teachers, which was provided by their teacher education program. This study reports the findings of interviews with novice math and science teachers, their mentors, and the mentoring program administrators to explore stakeholder perceptions of…

  7. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk


    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  8. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao


    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  9. A Study of National Physician Organizations’ Efforts to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United States (United States)

    Peek, Monica E.; Wilson, Shannon C.; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F.


    Purpose To characterize national physician organizations’ efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. Results The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organiza-tional characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Conclusions Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts. PMID:22534593

  10. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.


    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  11. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort. (United States)

    Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian


    New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unifying a fragmented effort: a qualitative framework for improving international surgical teaching collaborations. (United States)

    Fallah, Parisa Nicole; Bernstein, Mark


    Access to adequate surgical care is limited globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To address this issue, surgeons are becoming increasingly involved in international surgical teaching collaborations (ISTCs), which include educational partnerships between surgical teams in high-income countries and those in LMICs. The purpose of this study is to determine a framework for unifying, systematizing, and improving the quality of ISTCs so that they can better address the global surgical need. A convenience sample of 68 surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicians, residents, nurses, academics, and administrators from the U.S., Canada, and Norway was used for the study. Participants all had some involvement in ISTCs and came from multiple specialties and institutions. Qualitative methodology was used, and participants were interviewed using a pre-determined set of open-ended questions. Data was gathered over two months either in-person, over the phone, or on Skype. Data was evaluated using thematic content analysis. To organize and systematize ISTCs, participants reported a need for a centralized/systematized process with designated leaders, a universal data bank of current efforts/progress, communication amongst involved parties, full-time administrative staff, dedicated funds, a scholarly approach, increased use of technology, and more research on needs and outcomes. By taking steps towards unifying and systematizing ISTCs, the quality of ISTCs can be improved. This could lead to an advancement in efforts to increase access to surgical care worldwide.

  13. Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Privacy Conflict, and Burnout Among Hospital Employees. (United States)

    Häusler, Nadine; Bopp, Matthias; Hämmig, Oliver


    Studies investigating the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and work-privacy conflict for burnout risk between professional groups in the health care sector are rare and analyses by educational attainment within professional groups are lacking. The study population consists of 1422 hospital employees in Switzerland. Multivariate linear regression analyses with standardized coefficients were performed for the overall study population and stratified for professional groups refined for educational attainment. Work-privacy conflict is a strong predictor for burnout and more strongly associated with burnout than effort-reward imbalance in the overall study population and across all professional groups. Effort-reward imbalance only had a minor effect on burnout in tertiary-educated medical professionals. Interventions aiming at increasing the compatibility of work and private life may substantially help to decrease burnout risk of professionals working in a health care setting.

  14. Effect of Active Videogames on Underserved Children's Classroom Behaviors, Effort, and Fitness. (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Zhang, Dachao


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active videogames (AVGs) on underserved minority children's on-task classroom behavior, academic effort, and fitness. A one group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was used. In Fall 2013, 95 fourth grade children (57 boys, 38 girls; 96% of minority) from three classes at an underserved urban elementary school participated in teacher-supervised AVG activities (e.g., Wii Sports, Xbox Just Dance). Specifically, students participated in a 50-minute weekly AVG program at school for 6 weeks. Children's academic effort was evaluated by classroom teachers using a validated scale that assessed activity, attention, conduct, and social/emotional behavior. Moreover, children's classroom behavior was observed immediately before and after each AVG session by trained researchers. Finally, cardiovascular fitness was also measured. A paired t-test was used to assess teacher-rated student effort, while one-way (gender) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed to analyze children's on-task classroom behavior. There was a significant effect on children's effort between the first (mean = 3.24, SD = 0.75) and last week (mean = 3.41, SD = 0.73) assessments, t = 2.42, P = 0.02. In addition, there was a significant effect on classroom behavior, F = 33.103, P < 0.01. In detail, children scored significantly higher on on-task behavior during the post-AVG observation (mean = 81.4, SD = 12.3) than seen during the pre-AVG observation (mean = 69.8, SD = 14.9). However, no main effect was indicated for gender, F = 0.39, P = 0.54. No significant improvement in cardiovascular fitness was observed, although slight improvements were seen. Offering an AVG program at school could improve underserved minority children's classroom on-task behavior and academic effort. Future studies may include a control group to further confirm the effectiveness of AVG

  15. Directed-energy process technology efforts (United States)

    Alexander, P.


    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  16. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  17. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith


    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  18. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.


    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  19. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos". (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna


    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Education Program of IPEN aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo: the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP. Since its creation, in 1976, the Program was evaluated with grade A by the Federal Government Evaluation (CAPES), the highest in this classification. In 2003 CAPES changed the evaluation criteria; since then, it has been considered a program of Excellence, with grade 6. Levels 6 and 7 are granted only to those programs having internationally recognized expertise. Level 6 was maintained in the last evaluation considering the period 2010-2012. Along its 37 years the Nuclear Technology Program awarded 2,217 titles: 1,511 masters and 706 doctoral degrees. The institution is also responsible for the Professional Master Degree - Lasers in Dentistry, in partnership with the School of Dentistry from University of Sao Paulo. IPEN has a Scientific Initiation Program for undergraduate students aiming to stimulate young people to enter the scientific research career. This program allows the student to have the opportunity to develop a specially assigned study under the guidance of a supervisor. CNEN and CNPq are the main funding agencies supporting this Program. The institute also offers, since 2000, undergraduate disciplines for students of University of Sao Paulo. A total of 33 disciplines have been approved by the University. In the period considered over 1,000 students attended the courses. There is also a Scholarship Program for graduate students, funded by CNPq, CAPES and IPEN. Scholarships funded by FAPESP and CNEN are also available on demand, according to the conditions set forth in the respective notices. Concerning scientific information support, there is available a central specialized library, which offers, beyond traditional collections and services

  1. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Education Program of IPEN aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo: the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP. Since its creation, in 1976, the Program was evaluated with grade A by the Federal Government Evaluation (CAPES), the highest in this classification. In 2003 CAPES changed the evaluation criteria; since then, it has been considered a program of Excellence, with grade 6. Levels 6 and 7 are granted only to those programs having internationally recognized expertise. Level 6 was maintained in the last evaluation considering the period 2010-2012. Along its 37 years the Nuclear Technology Program awarded 2,217 titles: 1,511 masters and 706 doctoral degrees. The institution is also responsible for the Professional Master Degree - Lasers in Dentistry, in partnership with the School of Dentistry from University of Sao Paulo. IPEN has a Scientific Initiation Program for undergraduate students aiming to stimulate young people to enter the scientific research career. This program allows the student to have the opportunity to develop a specially assigned study under the guidance of a supervisor. CNEN and CNPq are the main funding agencies supporting this Program. The institute also offers, since 2000, undergraduate disciplines for students of University of Sao Paulo. A total of 33 disciplines have been approved by the University. In the period considered over 1,000 students attended the courses. There is also a Scholarship Program for graduate students, funded by CNPq, CAPES and IPEN. Scholarships funded by FAPESP and CNEN are also available on demand, according to the conditions set forth in the respective notices. Concerning scientific information support, there is available a central specialized library, which offers, beyond traditional collections and services

  2. Development Education and Disarmament Education. (United States)

    Burns, Robin


    Discusses development education as an educational process aimed at preparing people for participation in change and examines the implications for disarmament education. Development education is interpreted to include adult literacy education as well as a system of spreading basic concepts and encouraging and developing local initiatives. (DB)

  3. Dopamine, Effort-Based Choice, and Behavioral Economics: Basic and Translational Research. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yang, Jen-Hau; Rotolo, Renee; Presby, Rose


    Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease). Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.

  4. Dopamine, Effort-Based Choice, and Behavioral Economics: Basic and Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Salamone


    Full Text Available Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease. Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.

  5. Educational Resources for Global Health in Otolaryngology. (United States)

    Hancock, Melyssa; Hoa, Michael; Malekzadeh, Sonya


    Advances in modern communications and information technology have helped to improve access to, and quality of, health care and education. These enhancements include a variety of World Wide Web-based and mobile learning platforms, such as eLearning, mLearning, and open education resources. This article highlights the innovative approaches that have fostered improved collaboration and coordination of global health efforts in otolaryngology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leadership Education Priorities in a Democratic Society (United States)

    Page, William Tyler


    Is there still an effort to include democratic ideals in public education? Some claim that it is no longer a priority, the result of a lack of common definition or perceived benefits. In today's policy driven climate, school leaders must transition to new and more effective approaches to enhancing learning and teaching. Aspiring principals/leaders…

  7. Redesigning Technology Integration into World Language Education (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio C.


    This article describes how a multi-institutional, proficiency-based program engages stakeholders in design thinking to discover and explore solutions to perennial problems in technology integration into world language education (WLE). Examples of replicable activities illustrate the strategies used to fuel innovation efforts, including fostering…

  8. Collaborative innovation effort and size in alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Anna-Leena; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    of organisational and marketing innovations. Additionally, small firms were more likely (than large) to engage into alliances as a part of their strategy. On more general level our data also confirm that factors such as: number of highly educated employees, foreign ownership of a firm and presence of firm......This study presents quantitative investigation of the factors that influence the process of forming strategic alliances with a special focus on the role of innovation strategies and firm’s size in alliance building process. The empirical sample is based on a large scale data from the Community...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrick, Sharon S.; Vincent, Charles D.


    This report provides the summary of a project whose purpose was to support the costs of developing a nuclear engineering awareness program, an instruction program for teachers to integrate lessons on nuclear science and technology into their existing curricula, and web sites for the exchange of nuclear engineering career information and classroom materials. The specific objectives of the program were as follows: OBJECTIVE 1: INCREASE AWARENESS AND INTEREST OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; OBJECTIVE 2: INSTRUCT TEACHERS ON NUCLEAR TOPICS; OBJECTIVE 3: NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMS WEB-SITE; OBJECTIVE 4: SUPPORT TO UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY MATCHING GRANTS AND REACTOR SHARING; OBJECTIVE 5: PILOT PROJECT; OBJECTIVE 6: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING ENROLLMENT SURVEY AT UNIVERSITIES

  10. Comparative assessment of world research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Rutherford, P.H.


    This report presents a comparative assessment of the world's four major research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion, including a comparison of the capabilities in the Soviet Union, the European Community (Western Europe), Japan, and the United States. A comparative evaluation is provided in six areas: tokamak confinement; alternate confinement approaches; plasma technology and engineering; and fusion computations. The panel members are involved actively in fusion-related research, and have extensive experience in previous assessments and reviews of the world's four major fusion programs. Although the world's four major fusion efforts are roughly comparable in overall capabilities, two conclusions of this report are inescapable. First, the Soviet fusion effort is presently the weakest of the four programs in most areas of the assessment. Second, if present trends continue, the United States, once unambiguously the world leader in fusion research, will soon lose its position of leadership to the West European and Japanese fusion programs. Indeed, before the middle 1990s, the upgraded large-tokamak facilities, JT-60U (Japan) and JET (Western Europe), are likely to explore plasma conditions and operating regimes well beyond the capabilities of the TFTR tokamak (United States). In addition, if present trends continue in the areas of fusion nuclear technology and materials, and plasma technology and materials, and plasma technology development, the capabilities of Japan and Western Europe in these areas (both with regard to test facilities and fusion-specific industrial capabilities) will surpass those of the United States by a substantial margin before the middle 1990s

  11. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress. (United States)

    Kendall, S


    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded.

  12. Investigation of Science Faculty with Education Specialties within the Largest University System in the United States


    Bush, Seth D; Pelaez, Nancy; Rudd, James A, II; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy, PhD


    Efforts to improve science education include university science departments hiring Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES), scientists who take on specialized roles in science education within their discipline. Although these positions have existed for decades and may be growing more common, few reports have investigated the SFES approach to improving science education. We present comprehensive data on the SFES in the California State University (CSU) system, the largest university ...

  13. Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: a large-scale cross-sectional study. (United States)

    de Jonge, J; Bosma, H; Peter, R; Siegrist, J


    This study investigated the effects of the Job Demand-Control (JD-C) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model on employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 11,636 employed Dutch men and women. Logistic regression analyses were used. Controlling for job sector, demographic characteristics (including educational level) and managerial position, employees reporting high job demands (i.e. psychological and physical demands) and low job control had elevated risks of emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic and physical health complaints and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios ranged from 2.89 to 10.94). Odds ratios were generally higher in employees reporting both high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards (i.e. poor salary, job insecurity and low work support): they ranged from 3.23 to 15.43. Furthermore, overcommitted people had higher risks of poor well-being due to a high effort-low reward mismatch (ORs: 3.57-20.81) than their less committed counterparts (ORs: 3.01-12.71). Finally, high efforts and low occupational rewards were stronger predictors of poor well-being than low job control when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. In conclusion, our findings show independent cumulative effects of both the JD-C Model and the ERI Model on employee well-being and are not significantly different in men and women as well as in young and old people. In particular, high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards adversely affected employee well-being. Preliminary findings also indicate excess risks of poor well-being in overcommitted persons suffering from high cost--low gain conditions at work.

  14. [The globalization of medical education]. (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J


    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  15. Education between discourse and matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Greve; Fjeldsted, Kristoffer Lolk


    education should be based on. Inspired by the speculative realists we argue that the focus on language and discourse to a wide degree has gone too far, especially when dealing with issues linked to education and nature. This is by no means a cry for a return to naïve realism, but to a greater degree......This article takes the central concepts of the emergent philosophical movement speculative realism and applies them to notions linked to education and nature. In doing that we argue that it is now time to delimit the role of discursive approaches as the sole road to a coherent understanding of what...... an effort to insist that it is important to include a focus on a material Real and perhaps take it easy when pushing language, discourse, and notions like social constructivism when engaging with issues linked to nature and education. Our aim is not to promote a certain kind of education, but to argue...

  16. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran. (United States)

    Aghajanian, A


    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  17. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ... (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  18. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael


    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

  19. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA (United States)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin


    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  20. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (United States)

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.


    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  1. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormanjieva, Olga; Abran, A.; Braungarten, R.; Dumke, R.; Cuadrado-Gallego, J.; Brunekreef, J.


    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient

  2. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  3. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts. (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.


    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  4. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  5. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo


    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  6. Tarihsel Canlandırmanın Tanımı, Sınıflandırılma Çabası, Tarih Eğitimi İle Olan İlişkisi The Definition of Historical Reenactment, Classification Effort, Its Relation With History Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neval AKÇA BERK


    Full Text Available The concept of reenactment is used in different disciplines so these disciplines are expressed different definitions. Reenactment is also divided into various types of history. Except for the use of different disciplines and definitions, these are living history performances, museum exhibits, historic theatre, films and travelogues. In reviewing the literature of historical reenactment, it is observed that applications were not performed within spesific classification. Most of the time students participated in these applications as a spectator carried out within the framework of organizations such as special days, weeks and festivals. In these study, the definition of historical reenactment, classification effort and its relation to history education are discussed. In this context, application of historical reenactment samples are examined in the world and Turkey and historical reenactment applications are classified according to historical period, historical place and types of museums. Under this classification, relation between history education and historical reenactment are discussed and as a result of this it is obtained that historical reenactment which is put into practice under the leadership of municipal goverments and non-govermental organizations on special days and weeks, is not sufficiently used in history education. In history class, it is expected that students can live their personal experience by using their knowledge about history in historical reenactment. It is advised that historical reenactments should take place in history lessons to provide developments of metacognition skills and also to make more significant of historical awareness with their own personal experience. Canlandırma kavramı farklı disiplinlerde kullanılmakta ve söz konusu bu disiplinlerde farklı tanımlamalarla ifade edilmektedir. Farklı disiplinlerde kullanılmasının ve tanımlanmasının dışında canlandırma çeşitli tarih konulu türlere de

  7. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  8. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.


    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  9. JAEA's efforts for regional transparency in the area of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffheins, Barbara; Kawakubo, Yoko; Inoue, Naoko


    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has undertaken a joint R and D project with the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) for the purposes of developing an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) for regional nonproliferation cooperation since July 2011. This project builds on nearly twenty years of technical cooperation between JAEA, its predecessor organizations and the DOE including the activities to define, develop and test transparency technologies and other multilateral efforts. The objective of current project is to design a viable information sharing process to support the goals of building confidence in the peaceful nature of regional nuclear programs. At the end of a two-year-effort, project partners, JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), have defined the comprehensive requirements for an ISF that will ensure nonproliferation transparency success and sustainability. In October 2011, a parallel project with the similar title and objective was launched under the arrangement between the US DOE/NNSA and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Since then, JAEA, SNL, the Korea Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) have jointly carried out the project in a form of informal, multilateral cooperation. The project partners have identified needs and audience for ISF, and initiated the discussion to develop requirements for ISF through workshops, meetings, regular telephone conferences, etc. The activities include conducting a survey to identify stakeholders' needs and requirements for an ISF, launching a website to practice information sharing concepts, and presenting papers. This paper provides the historical context of the current project to establish ISF, and reports the progress to date and speculates on future directions. (author)

  10. An Investigation of the Attitudes of School Administrators and School Board Presidents Toward Career Education in Public Schools of New Mexico. (United States)

    Conley, Howard Keaton

    In an effort to assess, compare, and contrast the attitudes of school administrators and board of education presidents toward career education in the public schools of New Mexico, 88 school districts in the State were surveyed. Findings included: (1) Most of the respondents agreed with the existing State-adopted career education definition with…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murfi


    Full Text Available This research to reveal comparative Islamic Education (PAI with Christian Education (PAK through a textbook’s lesson in terms of content values of multicultural education. The comparative’s analysis includes three aspects, differences, similarities, and common platform. The results showed that substance of values of multicultural education contained in the textbooks have much in similarities which eventually became common platform both than the differences that exist, so that PAI and PAK should move bind themselves to each other in one joint effort to raise the noble values of multicultural, where both scientific traditions stand firm through efforts integration and comprehension charge of teaching materials.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying motivation of mental versus physical effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Schmidt


    Full Text Available Mental and physical efforts, such as paying attention and lifting weights, have been shown to involve different brain systems. These cognitive and motor systems, respectively, include cortical networks (prefronto-parietal and precentral regions as well as subregions of the dorsal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen. Both systems appeared sensitive to incentive motivation: their activity increases when we work for higher rewards. Another brain system, including the ventral prefrontal cortex and the ventral basal ganglia, has been implicated in encoding expected rewards. How this motivational system drives the cognitive and motor systems remains poorly understood. More specifically, it is unclear whether cognitive and motor systems can be driven by a common motivational center or if they are driven by distinct, dedicated motivational modules. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to scan healthy participants while performing a task in which incentive motivation, cognitive, and motor demands were varied independently. We reasoned that a common motivational node should (1 represent the reward expected from effort exertion, (2 correlate with the performance attained, and (3 switch effective connectivity between cognitive and motor regions depending on task demand. The ventral striatum fulfilled all three criteria and therefore qualified as a common motivational node capable of driving both cognitive and motor regions of the dorsal striatum. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between a common motivational system and the different task-specific systems underpinning behavioral performance might occur within the basal ganglia.

  13. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.


    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  14. Professional Learning: Trends in State Efforts. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mire, Mary Elizabeth


    This report presents a multi-year study of how states are implementing their state college- and career-readiness standards. In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB's) Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards project studied state efforts in 2014-15 and 2015-16 to foster effective…

  15. Why education in public schools should include religious ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Merry, M.S.


    This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive

  16. conservation efforts of kihansi spray toad nectophrynoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr and Mrs Goboro

    facilities. The KSTs in the facilities are under intensive medical care that includes the determination ... were sterilized to prevent the possible spread of chytrid fungi from equipment and .... medical drops on an individual toad, dipping .... materials and equipment for the teaching of .... Makange M, Kulaya N, Biseko E, Kalenga.

  17. Microgravity Outreach and Education (United States)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Rosenberg, Carla B.


    The NASA Microgravity Research Program has been actively developing classroom activities and educator's guides since the flight of the First United States Microgravity Laboratory. In addition, various brochures, posters, and exhibit materials have been produced for outreach efforts to the general public and to researchers outside of the program. These efforts are led by the Microgravity Research Outreach/Education team at Marshall Space Flight Center, with classroom material support from the K-12 Educational Program of The National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion (NCMR), general outreach material development by the Microgravity Outreach office at Hampton University, and electronic/media access coordinated by Marshall. The broad concept of the NCMR program is to develop a unique set of microgravity-related educational products that enable effective outreach to the pre-college community by supplementing existing mathematics, science, and technology curricula. The current thrusts of the program include summer teacher and high school internships during which participants help develop educational materials and perform research with NCMR and NASA scientists; a teacher sabbatical program which allows a teacher to concentrate on a major educational product during a full school year; frequent educator workshops held at NASA and at regional and national teachers conferences; a nascent student drop tower experiment competition; presentations and demonstrations at events that also reach the general public; and the development of elementary science and middle school mathematics classroom products. An overview of existing classroom products will be provided, along with a list of pertinent World Wide Web URLs. Demonstrations of some hands on activities will show the audience how simple it can be to bring microgravity into the classroom.

  18. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) - An Oregon Effort (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.


    The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during

  19. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  20. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.


    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mariani Noor


    Full Text Available Religious education which is taught in schools has a significant role in forming religious exclusivism and inclusivism, especially in Indonesia. It influences student’s views on others. It also depends on the way those religion educations taught. There is also a need to have more efforts to bring the idea of interfaith dialogue into educational system including in higher educational level. There are some educational institutions which already involved in inter-faith dialogue in their curriculum such as the CRCS (Center for Religious and Cross Cultural Studies and the ICRS (Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies at Gadjah Mada University. However, the number of primary educational institutions which involves interfaith dialogue is still limited. This work suggests that, for today’s situation in Indonesian multicultural society, a need for reforming religion education curriculum in primary education is emerging. To make interfaith dialogue real in schools, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Religious Affairs is in a front line to arrange a new curriculum on religious education to be more pluralistic and affirm religious diversity in Indonesia including multi-religious education or inter religious education. Key words: religious, multicultural, education, interfaith.

  2. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Amand, David C; Hodgins, Bradley


    .... The process improvement efforts described in this paper began in the 1990s and early 2000s. Their process improvement tool sets included the Capability Maturity Model, the Capability Maturity Model (CMM...

  3. Systematic Identification of Stakeholders for Engagement with Systems Modeling Efforts in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA (United States)

    Even as stakeholder engagement in systems dynamic modeling efforts is increasingly promoted, the mechanisms for identifying which stakeholders should be included are rarely documented. Accordingly, for an Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) mode...

  4. School-University Partnerships: A Means for the Inclusion of Policy Studies in Music Teacher Education (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa R.


    The need for music educators to become more actively involved in policy issues, including analysis, design, implementation, and research, is critical to the future of music education. Bridging the gap between policy and practice requires a collaborative effort among music professionals. This article explores the inclusive use of policy studies in…

  5. International Experiences as Professional Development to Enhance Classroom Practice: Beyond Educational Tourism (United States)

    Johnson, John William, III


    Professional development of educators is a central feature in education reform efforts (Bredeson, 2000) and school improvement (Guskey & Huberman, 1995). The purpose of the study was to describe personal and professional gains from an international experience, notably the Fulbright-Hays Group Study Abroad Program, including new knowledge and…

  6. Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Maya


    In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

  7. Technology in Education, 1988. Working Papers of Planning and Development Research. Working Paper 88-2. (United States)

    Sharon, Donna

    This report on technology in education has been prepared, primarily for TVOntario staff, to highlight new and growing educational applications and to summarize recent evaluations of earlier application efforts. The descriptions of trends and developments are classified by media format. Representative applications of the media include: (1)…

  8. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  9. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity. (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A


    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  10. Fiscal Decentralization and Disparity of Access to Primary Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Doriza


    Full Text Available In education, one crusial issue of development is the disparity of primary education access. Using 440 regions database from 2005-2009, this study is aim to analize the impact of fiscal decentralization in reducing the enrolement of primary education in Indonesia. Three factors were included, i.e fiscal decentralization, socioeconomic factors and regional characteristics. The result of panel data estimation using fixed-effect approach on this study is that DAK for Education, DAK Non Education, and PAD have significant impact in reducing education acess disparity along with poverty and regional characteristic such as Java-non Java regions. For education level, another variable was also found significant including education of the society and regional characteristic such as proliferated-non proliferated regions. In general there is a facts and proves that fiscal decentralization improve education access equality, but several effort need to done to optimalize the equalization of primary education access in Indonesia.

  11. A disjointed effort: paediatric musculoskeletal examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Irwin


    Musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are a frequent cause of emergency department attendance for children, and while most often indicative of benign or self-limiting disease, such symptoms can occasionally be the first presentation of serious illness such as leukaemia or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MSK examination, however, is often not included as part of the routine paediatric examination. The authors aimed to evaluate how often and how thoroughly MSK examination was performed during admissions to the paediatric ward and to compare it with the examination of other symptoms in relation to the presenting complaint and eventual diagnosis.

  12. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs. (United States)

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W


    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  13. The role of low cognitive effort and negative symptoms in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M


    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. RESULTS indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement. (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie


    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  15. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.


    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the σ y and σ z plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses

  16. The Dow Chemical Company's synchrotron radiation effort - A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubeck, R.A.; Bare, S.R.; DeKoven, B.M.; Heaney, M.D.; Rudolf, P.R.


    Synchrotron radiation is used in a broad array of technologies to study everything from molecular orientation at interfaces, through the structure of active catalyst phases. It is also a key to understanding structure-property relationships and providing fundamental information in polymers, ceramics, and other materials. The Dow Synchrotron User group, formed in 1991, has developed a long-term plan for effective utilization of synchrotron technology. The current efforts at Brookhaven National Lab. and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source are examined, as will the long-term commitment at the Advanced Photon Source. Current examples included are in-situ studies of polymer processing, surface and interfaces characterization, and real-time deformation studies. The APS is one of only three open-quotes Third Generationclose quotes synchrotron sources that are planned world-wide, the others being in France and Japan. With a scheduled completion date of mid-1995, the APS has remained both on-budget and ahead-of-schedule since ground-breaking in the spring of 1990. The DuPont - Northwestern University - Dow Collaborative Access Team (DND-CAT) is the first CAT to successfully pass all the necessary hurdles before beamline construction can begin. Some of the goals of the DND-CAT program are mentioned, together with the strengths of this unique collaborative effort

  17. Legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco. (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Norwood, B D; Garner, D W; Tye, J B


    Public health laws intended to prevent children from smoking have been enacted in many states. We surveyed the relevant laws in all states and the District of Columbia. The efficacy of one such law prohibiting the sale of tobacco to individuals under the age of 18 years was assessed with the cooperation of an 11-year-old girl. She was successful in 75 of 100 attempts to purchase cigarettes. On the basis of this experience and a review of existing laws, we have made recommendations for a model law. These include a prohibition of the possession of tobacco by minors, a prohibition of the sale of tobacco to minors, a requirement for a warning sign at the point of sale, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a reward for individuals reporting violators of vending laws.

  18. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts (United States)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.


    Earth science department chairs are generally scientists who have little/no formal administrative training. The common rotation of faculty members in three-six year cycles distributes the heavy leadership responsibilities but involves little preparation beforehand to deal with budgets, fundraising, personnel issues, confrontations, and crises. The amount of information exchange and support upon exit and handoff to the next chair is variable. Resources for chairs include workshops, meetings (ranging from annual meetings of geoscience chairs to monthly meetings of small groups of chairs from various disciplines on a campus), discussions, and online resources. These resources, some of which we designed in the past several years, provide information and support for chairs, help them share best practices, and reduce time spent “reinventing the wheel”. Most of these resources involve groups of chairs in our discipline who meet together. The AGU Board of Heads and Chairs of Earth and Space Science Departments offers annual one-day workshops at the Fall AGU meeting. The specific topics vary from year to year; they have included goals and roles of heads and chairs, fundraising and Advisory Boards, student recruitment, interdisciplinarity, dual-career couples, and undergraduate research. The workshop provides ample opportunities for open discussion. Annual one-two day meetings of groups of geoscience department chairs (e.g., research universities in a particular region) provide an opportunity for chairs to share specific data about their departments (e.g., salaries, graduate student stipends, information about facilities) and discuss strategies. At the College of William and Mary, a small group of chairs meets monthly throughout the year; each session includes time for open discussion as well as a more structured discussion on a particular topic (e.g., merit review, development and fundraising, mentoring early career faculty and the tenure process, leadership styles

  19. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)


    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  20. Efforts toward an autonomous wheelchair - biomed 2011. (United States)

    Barrett, Steven; Streeter, Robert


    An autonomous wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those with significant physical challenges. The overall goal of the project is to develop a wheelchair that is fully autonomous with the ability to navigate about an environment and negotiate obstacles. As a starting point for the project, we have reversed engineered the joystick control system of an off-the-shelf commercially available wheelchair. The joystick control has been replaced with a microcontroller based system. The microcontroller has the capability to interface with a number of subsystems currently under development including wheel odometers, obstacle avoidance sensors, and ultrasonic-based wall sensors. This paper will discuss the microcontroller based system and provide a detailed system description. Results of this study may be adapted to commercial or military robot control.

  1. ARES Education and Public Outreach (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Galindo, Charles; Graff, Paige; Willis, Kim


    The ARES Directorate education team is charged with translating the work of ARES scientists into content that can be used in formal and informal K-12 education settings and assisting with public outreach. This is accomplished through local efforts and national partnerships. Local efforts include partnerships with universities, school districts, museums, and the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) to share the content and excitement of space science research. Sharing astromaterials and exploration science with the public is an essential part of the Directorate's work. As a small enclave of physical scientists at a NASA Center that otherwise emphasizes human space operations and engineering, the ARES staff is frequently called upon by the JSC Public Affairs and Education offices to provide presentations and interviews. Scientists and staff actively volunteer with the JSC Speaker's Bureau, Digital Learning Network, and National Engineers Week programs as well as at Space Center Houston activities and events. The education team also participates in many JSC educator and student workshops, including the Pre-Service Teacher Institute and the Texas Aerospace Scholars program, with workshop presentations, speakers, and printed materials.

  2. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.


    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  3. Effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing (United States)

    Chai, G. R.; Cai, Z.; Su, Y. N.; Zong, S. L.; Zhai, G. Y.; Jia, J. H.


    Compared with traditional manufacturing mode, could networked manufacturing improve effort levels of the partners? What factors will affect effort level of the partners? How to encourage the partners to improve their effort levels? To answer these questions, we introduce network effect coefficient to build effort level model of the partners in networked manufacturing. The results show that (1) with the increase of the network effect in networked manufacturing, the actual effort level can go beyond the ideal level of traditional manufacturing. (2) Profit allocation based on marginal contribution rate would help improve effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing. (3) The partners in networked manufacturing who wishes to have a larger distribution ratio must make a higher effort level, and enterprises with insufficient effort should be terminated in networked manufacturing.

  4. US effort on HTS power transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, S., E-mail: [Waukesha Electric Systems, 400 S. Praire Avenue, Waukesha, WI 53186 (United States)


    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  5. US effort on HTS power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.


    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  6. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra


    Full Text Available First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola

  7. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.


    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public

  8. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Cos


    Full Text Available How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  9. The Genetic Etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-Scale Collaborative Efforts on the Precipice of Discovery (United States)

    Georgitsi, Marianthi; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Mathews, Carol A.; State, Matthew; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Paschou, Peristera


    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. It has a complex etiology with multiple genes likely interacting with environmental factors to lead to the onset of symptoms. The genetic basis of the disorder remains elusive. However, multiple resources and large-scale projects are coming together, launching a new era in the field and bringing us on the verge of discovery. The large-scale efforts outlined in this report are complementary and represent a range of different approaches to the study of disorders with complex inheritance. The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics (TSAICG) has focused on large families, parent-proband trios and cases for large case-control designs such as genomewide association studies (GWAS), copy number variation (CNV) scans, and exome/genome sequencing. TIC Genetics targets rare, large effect size mutations in simplex trios, and multigenerational families. The European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS) seeks to elucidate gene-environment interactions including the involvement of infection and immune mechanisms in TS etiology. Finally, TS-EUROTRAIN, a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, aims to act as a platform to unify large-scale projects in the field and to educate the next generation of experts. Importantly, these complementary large-scale efforts are joining forces to uncover the full range of genetic variation and environmental risk factors for TS, holding great promise for identifying definitive TS susceptibility genes and shedding light into the complex pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:27536211

  10. The genetic etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-scale collaborative efforts on the precipice of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Georgitsi


    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. It has a complex etiology with multiple genes likely interacting with environmental factors to lead to the onset of symptoms. The genetic basis of the disorder remains elusive;however, multiple resources and large-scale projects are coming together, launching a new era in the field and bringing us on the verge of discovery. The large-scale efforts outlined in this report, are complementary and represent a range of different approaches to the study of disorders with complex inheritance. The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics (TSAICG has focused on large families, parent-proband trios and cases for large case-control designs such as genomewide association studies (GWAS, copy number variation (CNV scans and exome/genome sequencing. TIC Genetics targets rare, large effect size mutations in simplex trios and multigenerational families. The European Multicentre Tics in Children Study (EMTICS seeks to elucidate gene-environment interactions including the involvement of infection and immune mechanisms in TS etiology. Finally, TS-EUROTRAIN, a Marie Curie Initial Training Network, aims to act as a platform to unify large-scale projects in the field and to educate the next generation of experts. Importantly, these complementary large-scale efforts are joining forces to uncover the full range of genetic variation and environmental risk factors for TS, holding great promise for indentifying definitive TS susceptibility genes and shedding light into the complex pathophysiology of this disorder.

  11. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance. (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  12. 78 FR 58861 - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in... (United States)


    ..., good governance, education, leadership, agriculture and food security, poverty reduction, livelihoods... system, including in areas that impact Zimbabwe's ability to investigate and prosecute trafficking cases...

  13. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Ashcroft; C Eshelman


    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission

  14. Instrument demonstration effort for the CLARREO mission (United States)

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo; Taylor, Joe; Girard, Frédéric; Larouche, Martin; Veilleux, James


    NASA and other national agencies ask the National Research Council (NRC) once every decade to look out ten or more years into the future and prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations. The latest such scientific community consultation referred to as the Decadal Survey (DS), was completed in 2007 [1]. DS thematic panels developed 35 missions from more than 100 missions proposed, from which the DS Executive Committee synthesized 17 missions, with suggested order presented in three time-phased blocks. The first block with aim for near term launch (2010-2013) included four missions. The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is one of them. The CLARREO mission was classified as a Small Mission to be contained in a 300 M US$ budgetary envelope. CLARREO will provide a benchmark climate record that is global, accurate in perpetuity, tested against independent strategies that reveal systematic errors, and pinned to international standards. The long term objective thus suggests that NOAA or NASA will fly the CLARREO instrument suite on an operational basis following the first scientific experiment The CLARREO missions will conduct the following observations: 1. Absolute spectrally-resolved measurements of terrestrial thermal emission with an absolute accuracy of 0.1 K in brightness temperature (3σ or 99% confidence limits.) The measurements should cover most of the thermal spectrum. 2. Absolute spectrally-resolved measurements of the solar radiation reflected from Earth. The measurements should cover the part of the solar spectrum most important to climate, including the near-ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared. 3. Independent measurements of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity using Global Positioning System (GPS) occultation measurements of atmospheric refraction. 4. Serve as a high accuracy calibration standard for use by the broadband CERES instruments on-orbit. Following

  15. Furthering Medical Education in Texas. (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John


    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  16. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther


    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  17. 'Good-faith efforts' are enough to avoid punitive damages. (United States)


    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers who make "good faith efforts" to comply with Federal civil rights laws cannot be forced to pay punitive damages for their managers' discriminatory conduct. [Name removed], an employee of the American Dental Association, sued her employer when she was passed over for a promotion. [Name removed] alleged sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Evidence showed that the employer rewrote a job description to favor a male candidate. To recover punitive damages, an employee must demonstrate that the employer acted with malice or reckless indifference. The Americans with Disabilities Act specifically uses Title VII with regard to discrimination, including its terms for punitive damages.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.

  19. Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort (United States)

    Anastassiou, Dimitris


    The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

  20. Hearing Handicap and Speech Recognition Correlate With Self-Reported Listening Effort and Fatigue. (United States)

    Alhanbali, Sara; Dawes, Piers; Lloyd, Simon; Munro, Kevin J

    To investigate the correlations between hearing handicap, speech recognition, listening effort, and fatigue. Eighty-four adults with hearing loss (65 to 85 years) completed three self-report questionnaires: the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Effort Assessment Scale, and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly. Audiometric assessment included pure-tone audiometry and speech recognition in noise. There was a significant positive correlation between handicap and fatigue (r = 0.39, p speech recognition and fatigue (r = 0.22, p speech recognition both correlate with self-reported listening effort and fatigue, which is consistent with a model of listening effort and fatigue where perceived difficulty is related to sustained effort and fatigue for unrewarding tasks over which the listener has low control. A clinical implication is that encouraging clients to recognize and focus on the pleasure and positive experiences of listening may result in greater satisfaction and benefit from hearing aid use.

  1. Partnership for Environmental Technology Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Paul R.; Fosse, Richard


    The need for broad cooperative effort directed toward the enhancement of science and mathematics education, including environmental science and technology has been recognized as a national priority by government, industry, and the academic community alike. In an effort to address this need, the Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (PETE) has been established in the five western states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada and Utah. PETE'S overall objectives are to link the technical resources of the DOE, ERA, and NASA Laboratories and private industry with participating community colleges to assist in the development and presentation of curricula for training environmental-Hazardous Materials Technicians and to encourage more transfer students to pursue studies in environmental science at four-year institutions. The program is co-sponsored by DOE and EPA. DoD participation is proposed. PETE is being evaluated by its sponsors as a regional pilot with potential for extension nationally. (author)

  2. Optimizing and joining future safeguards efforts by 'remote inspections'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zendel, M.; Khlebnikov, N.


    Full-text: Remote inspections have a large potential to save inspection effort in future routine safeguards implementation. Such inspections involve remote activities based on the analysis of data acquired in the field without the physical presence of an inspector, shifting the inspectors' priorities further toward unannounced inspections, complementary access activities and data evaluation. Large, automated and complex facilities require facility resident and specific safeguards equipment systems with features for unattended and remotely controlled operation as well as being integrated in the nuclear process. In many instances the use of such equipment jointly with the SSAC/RSAC and the operator is foreseen to achieve affordable effectiveness with a minimum level of intrusiveness to the facility operation. Where it becomes possible to achieve independent conclusions by this approach, the IAEA would make full use of the SSAC/RSAC, involving State inspectors and/or facility operators to operate inspection systems under remotely controlled IAEA mechanisms. These mechanisms would include documented procedures for routine joint-use, defining arrangements for data sharing, physical security and authentication mechanisms, recalibration and use of standards and software, maintenance, repair, storage and transportation. The level of cooperation and willingness of a State to implement such measures requested and properly justified by the IAEA will demonstrate its commitment to full transparency in its nuclear activities. Examples of existing remote inspection activities, including joint-use activities will be discussed. The future potential of remote inspections will be assessed considering technical developments and increased needs for process monitoring. Enhanced cooperation with SSAC/RSAC within the framework of remote inspections could further optimize the IAEA's inspection efforts while at the same time maintaining effective safeguards implementation. (author)

  3. Military efforts in nanosensors, 3D printing, and imaging detection (United States)

    Edwards, Eugene; Booth, Janice C.; Roberts, J. Keith; Brantley, Christina L.; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Whitley, Michael; Kranz, Michael; Seif, Mohamed; Ruffin, Paul


    A team of researchers and support organizations, affiliated with the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), has initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for advanced weaponry, aviation, and autonomous air/ground systems applications. The main objective of this research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weaponry. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based sensors, analysis of 3D printing constituents, and nano-based components for imaging detection. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) weaponry systems by significantly reducing the size, weight, and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of carbon nanotube sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing; the application of current methodologies to assess materials used for 3D printing; and the assessment of components to improve imaging seekers. The status of current activities, associated with these key areas and their implementation into AMRDEC's research, is outlined in this paper. Section #2 outlines output data, graphs, and overall evaluations of carbon nanotube sensors placed on a 16 element chip and exposed to various environmental conditions. Section #3 summarizes the experimental results of testing various materials and resulting components that are supplementary to additive manufacturing/fused deposition modeling (FDM). Section #4 recapitulates a preliminary assessment of the optical and electromechanical components of seekers in an effort to propose components and materials that can work more effectively.

  4. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte

    experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...

  5. Safety enhancement efforts after Fukushima accident in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, U.C., E-mail: [Nuclear Safety & Security Commission, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    , 2011. The regulatory function was hence completely separated from the promotion and utilization of nuclear power. Since its establishment, NSSC has continuously been putting in effort to strengthen regulatory practice and system up to international standards. In particular, it has been proceeding with statute revision in relation to obligating severe accident evaluation, enhancing periodic safety evaluation etc and reviewing safety evaluation measure during extreme disaster situation. Additionally, it is revising the bill to expand regulatory scope to include the operator, design, manufacture, supply, qualification test companies throughout the life cycle of NPPs. Furthermore, 'Coordination Committee on Nuclear Safety Policy' (tentative) is to be established for the purpose of supporting and promoting consistency in nuclear safety related policies such as nuclear safety research, accident-failure information, safety of food and medical equipment, radiation in agriculture-livestock-marine product and ground water which are under jurisdiction of different Ministries. One of the most important lessons-learned from the Fukushima accident is communication with the public. NSSC has been emphasizing active and transparent disclosure of information through websites, blogs, SNS etc in order to relieve anxiety and restore public confidence. Other efforts include securing constant communication channel by organizing regional conference to disclose information, discuss issues, and receive feedbacks. Apart from the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, the Korean Government is expanding its efforts to ensure nuclear safety in other areas such as CFSI issues. It is pushing forward to broaden regulatory scope to include the operator, design, manufacture, supply as well as investigation agencies. As for the management of performance verification agencies, it is to be under direct jurisdiction of the regulatory body. (author)

  6. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, W.H.; Gluckstern, R.L.


    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Islamic Education Foundation: An Axiological Philosophy of Education Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sri Rahayu


    Full Text Available This article is a literature study (library research, which aims to assess the qualitative description of the basis of Islamic education Axiological if viewed in the perspective of philosophy of education. To obtain the results of the study, the researcher uses several methods, among others: deductive, inductive, historical, and contextual. The type of research using library research (library research with descriptive-analytic approach to data (primary and secondary are qualitative. The results obtained is that Islam is the sistem of values that guide the Islamic way of life, in accordance with the guidance of Allah SWT. Axiology cornerstone of Islamic Education with regard to values, goals, and targets to be achieved in Islamic education. Those values must be included in the curriculum of Islamic education, among others: contains instructions morals; efforts for improving the welfare of human life on earth and happiness in the hereafter; contains endeavor to achieve a good life; contains values that can combine the interests of this world and the hereafter. So axiology Islamic education is understood as the value, benefits or educational function of Islam associated with various things in it. Islamic values that can be obtained from two main sources namely the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet became a reference of the concepts laden education and moral values of humanity itself. So, will created the order of life "future society" is so envisioned as something new to mankind.

  8. 34 CFR 364.42 - What objectives and information must be included in the State plan? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What objectives and information must be included in the State plan? 364.42 Section 364.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE...

  9. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements (United States)

    Kassab, Mohamed; Daneva, Maya; Ormandjieva, Olga

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient attention to this need. This paper presents a flexible, yet systematic approach to the early requirements-based effort estimation, based on Non-Functional Requirements ontology. It complementarily uses one standard functional size measurement model and a linear regression technique. We report on a case study which illustrates the application of our solution approach in context and also helps evaluate our experiences in using it.

  10. Clinical Teaching of Prosthodontics in Undergraduate Courses in a German Dental School: Patients, Visits, Efforts, and Incentives. (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Behrend, Florian


    It is unknown what disadvantages are faced by patients deciding for a prosthodontic treatment by inexperienced students. Commonly, the related extra effort and time are compensated by cost reduction of treatment fees. Thereby, the dental schools subsidize treatments to teach clinical prosthodontics. The aim of this study was to clarify the benefits to patients as well as the efforts of the dental school. Data collected from three courses in a dental school in Germany were patient gender, age, occupation, zip code, number of visits, scope of treatment including costs, financial discount, and remaining copayment. Travel costs were calculated based on zip code. Balance of travel costs and treatment discount was defined as financial benefit. The results showed that 185 patients (95 male) aged 32 to 82 years (median=58) were treated with fixed restorations (FR, n=110), telescopic dentures (TD, n=87), complete dentures (CD, n=17), or other (RD, n=3). The mean number of visits was 11 for FR, 12 for TD, and 9 for CD. Single distance to the clinic ranged from 0.6 to 65 miles (median=12). Total costs of prosthodontics were reduced by 19% on average. The mean financial benefit was 429 USD (median=298, min=-482, max=4025). The financial benefits were found to differ widely, including additional expenditures of patients. Participation, travel burden, and copayment did not depend on age, gender, or occupation. The financial benefit was relativized because students needed at least twice the sessions of a dentist. As a result, the financial efforts of dental schools are significant and compromise a cost-covering education.

  11. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  12. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov


    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  13. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey. (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem


    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  14. Paradigmatic Homeostasis in the Educational Management Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Emiro Arrieta Pérez


    Full Text Available This contribution aims to unveil considerations about the management of education in the third millennium, and the requirements of revision for the paradigmatic transformational impulse of performance in the educational context. The homeostatic processes and the mimicry guarantee of permanence of paradigms in the educational management praxis, represent disturbing elements of the desired management model, delineated in the varied management fundamentals, but not fully perceived in the various spaces of Venezuelan education. It is necessary to rethink transformational strategies of managerial performance that go beyond the fundamentals for holistically conceived educational management and organization, including the transformation of the educational manager's education, whose arguments for innovation are not supported by merely Rhetoric. The theme is related to the area of Management and Educational Leadership, particularly with the need to seek the transformation of educational quality, based on a hermeneutic methodology associated with the theoretical contributions of Malinowski (2016 and Cornejo (2014. As reflective considerations, it is argued that it is necessary to direct efforts to establish transformational processes of managerial praxis towards the construction of responses required by the educational dynamics, including ongoing formation, strategic and organizational updates.

  15. Constructivism in Music Education (United States)

    Shively, Joseph


    Over the past twenty years, constructivism, as a theory of learning, has taken on an increasingly important role in music education. Efforts to shift music education toward a more constructivist practice have significant implications for policymaking at all levels of music education. In this article, I seek to recalibrate our thinking about what…

  16. Moral Education in Pakistan. (United States)

    Haq, Shafiqua


    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  17. Education and War (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.


    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  18. Effort-reward imbalance and depression among private practice physicians. (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawanami, Shoko; Horie, Seichi


    Current private practice physicians provide medical services in a harsh economic situation. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model puts its emphasis on an imbalance between high efforts spent and low rewards received in occupational life. ERI model includes three different reward factors from task to organizational levels. We examined whether ERI in terms of low organizational reward (poor prospective and job insecurity) could be the most relevant and strongly associated with depression among private practice physicians. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 1,103 private practice physicians who were currently working in clinical settings and completed the data of exposure and outcome. The study questionnaire was mailed to all the physicians listed as members of a local branch of the Japan Medical Association (n = 3,441) between November and December 2008. Outcomes were prevalence of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of depression with respect to ERI. Fifty-seven percent of physicians were exposed to ERI, and 18% of the physicians were depressed. Logistic regression analyses revealed that ERI was significantly associated with depression (OR and 95% confidence interval = 3.57; 2.43-5.26). ERI with regard to organizational reward was most prevalent (60%) and had the strongest association with depression (5.14; 3.36-7.92). Predominant prevalence of ERI in terms of organizational level low reward and strong associations between the ERI component and depression suggests that countermeasures from social perspective are crucial.

  19. p-charts in the quality control of the grading process in the high education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mirko


    Full Text Available European countries are making efforts to change their educational system These changes include implementation of the ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System and are based on the Bologna Declaration. Adoption of ECTS will necessitate new quality standards in higher education especially in grading procedures. With only small modifications, the control charts(such as p-charts used in production and distribution applications can be applied to educational purposes.

  20. Fourteen Years of Education and Public Outreach for the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer Mission


    Cominsky, Lynn; McLin, Kevin; Simonnet, Aurore; Team, the Swift E/PO


    The Sonoma State University (SSU) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) group leads the Swift Education and Public Outreach program. For Swift, we have previously implemented broad efforts that have contributed to NASA's Science Mission Directorate E/PO portfolio across many outcome areas. Our current focus is on highly-leveraged and demonstrably successful activities, including the wide-reaching Astrophysics Educator Ambassador program, and our popular websites: Epo's Chronicles and the Gamma...

  1. California Master Plan for Migrant Education, 1976 Edition (Plan Maestro de California para Educacion Migrante, Edicion de 1976). (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Based on the national migrant education plan, California's master plan aims to mobilize the necessary State and Federal resources, and to unify and assist the efforts of local educational agencies to end the migrant child's failure in school. The plan includes provisions for: instructional activities on a regular and extended year basis designed…

  2. The U.S. Military Academy and the Issue of Race in Higher Education: A Perspective. Revised. (United States)

    Morgovsky, Joel

    The history of the racial problem in the United States is discussed as it affects higher education. The role several universities are playing to ease the problem is considered, including efforts at the U.S. Military Academy to admit larger numbers of minority students. The impact of higher education for minority students on the Army is also…

  3. Investigating Teacher Learning Supports in High School Biology Curricular Programs to Inform the Design of Educative Curriculum Materials (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Delgado, Cesar; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Krajcik, Joseph


    Reform efforts have emphasized the need to support teachers' learning about reform-oriented practices. Educative curriculum materials are one potential vehicle for promoting teacher learning about these practices. Educative curriculum materials include supports that are intended to promote both student "and" teacher learning. However, little is…

  4. Analyzing and Predicting Effort Associated with Finding and Fixing Software Faults (United States)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina


    Context: Software developers spend a significant amount of time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the actual effort needed to fix software faults. Objective: The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) analysis of the effort needed to fix software faults and how it was affected by several factors and (2) prediction of the level of fix implementation effort based on the information provided in software change requests. Method: The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Predictions are made using three supervised machine learning algorithms and three sampling techniques aimed at addressing the imbalanced data problem. Results: Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle activities did not require significant effort. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% overall accuracy using the original, imbalanced data. Using oversampling techniques improved the overall accuracy up to 77%. More importantly, oversampling significantly improved the prediction of the high level effort, from 31% to around 85%. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance of tying software failures to changes made to fix all associated faults, in one or more software components and/or in one or more software artifacts, and the benefit of studying how the spread of faults and other factors affect the fix implementation

  5. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko


    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward a Rational and Mechanistic Account of Mental Effort. (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Musslick, Sebastian; Lieder, Falk; Kool, Wouter; Griffiths, Thomas L; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M


    In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits. This review explores recent advances in computational modeling and empirical research aimed at addressing these questions at the level of psychological process and neural mechanism, examining both the limitations to mental effort exertion and how we manage those limited cognitive resources. We conclude by identifying remaining challenges for theoretical accounts of mental effort as well as possible applications of the available findings to understanding the causes of and potential solutions for apparent failures to exert the mental effort required of us.

  7. Employee effort - reward balance and first-level manager transformational leadership within elderly care. (United States)

    Keisu, Britt-Inger; Öhman, Ann; Enberg, Birgit


    Negative aspects, staff dissatisfaction and problems related to internal organisational factors of working in elderly care are well-known and documented. Much less is known about positive aspects of working in elderly care, and therefore, this study focuses on such positive factors in Swedish elderly care. We combined two theoretical models, the effort-reward imbalance model and the Transformational Leadership Style model. The aim was to estimate the potential associations between employee-perceived transformational leadership style of their managers, and employees' ratings of effort and reward within elderly care work. The article is based on questionnaires distributed at on-site visits to registered nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists (high-level education) and assistant nurses (low-level education) in nine Swedish elderly care facilities. In order to grasp the positive factors of work in elderly care, we focused on balance at work, rather than imbalance. We found a significant association between employees' effort-reward balance at work and a transformational leadership style among managers. An association was also found between employees' level of education and their assessments of the first-level managers. We conclude that the first-level manager is an important actor for achieving a good workplace within elderly care, since she/he influences employees' psychosocial working environment. We also conclude that there are differences and inequalities, in terms of well-being, effort and reward at the work place, between those with academic training and those without, in that the former group to a higher degree evaluated their first-level manager to perform a transformational leadership style, which in turn is beneficial for their psychosocial work environment. Consequently, this (re)-produce inequalities in terms of well-being, effort and reward among the employees at the work place. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Teaching and values education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Ochoa Cervantes


    Full Text Available Our social context suffers profound gaps that have to interact with the ethical dimension. Education is regarded as a one of the basic tools to overcome these shortcomings. Based of the before premise, there was conducted an reserach with 50 teachers from primary level of the city of Querétaro (Mexico. The aim consist on to know if carrying out education in values, the purpose pursued with these themes working thereon and assessment situations generated for that purpose. The result shows that teachers say they are working on values education. However, there is some inconsistency between the purpose pursuing that claim and the efforts to achieve this. The above said implies that the fact of to tray to implement curricular changes, it not necessarily has an impact on the construction of new practices to improve educational processes. It seems that the results of this work can be useful for policy makers of the educational management, it’s because it is necessary to make training in teachers, covering not only the conceptual formation, but also the individual and the process to make values. This should be included as part of the deontological and professional development of teachers

  9. Social Justice and Resisting Neoliberal Education Reform in the USA (United States)

    Au, Wayne


    Efforts to reform public education along free-market, corporate-styled models have swept across many nations. In the USA these reforms have included an intense focus on the use of high-stakes, standardized tests to quantify students, teachers, and schools for market comparisons, the deprofessionalization of teaching, and the establishment of…

  10. New Technologies in Maritime Education and Training, Turkish Experiment (United States)

    Erdogan, Oral; Demirel, Ergun


    The aim of this study is to introduce new technologies and approaches in the maritime education and training (MET) and Turkish experiment/acquisitions/contributions including some analysis which may be helpful for the future studies on this subject. As an example of such an effort, Turkish experiment/contribution on seafaring officer education…

  11. Effort-Based Career Opportunities and Working Time


    Bratti, M.; Staffolani, S.


    The authors evaluate the economic effects of the hypothesis of effort-based career opportunities, described as a situation in which a firm creates incentives for employees to work longer hours than bargained (or desired), by making career prospects depend on relative working hours. Firms' personnel management policies may tend to increase working time (or workers' effort) in order to maximize profits. Effort-based career opportunities raise working time, production and output per worker, and ...

  12. The Role of Cognitive Effort in Framing Effects


    Krzysztof Przybyszewski; Dorota Rutkowska


    Framing effects are a common bias in people making risky decisions. The account for this bias is found in the loss aversion derived from Prospect Theory. Most often in the decision making literature this is the effortful processes that are claimed to reduce framing effects in risky choice tasks i.e. investing of mental effort should de-bias the decision makers. However, in goal framing studies, effortful mental processes may produce those effects. In our experiment participants were primed wi...

  13. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes. (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R


    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  14. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, W J [comp.


    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations.

  15. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective. (United States)

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J


    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  16. Compilation of piping benchmark problems - Cooperative international effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.


    This report is the culmination of an effort initiated in 1976 by the IWGFR to evaluate detailed and simplified analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IWGFR countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends, to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analysis results. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory agreed to coordinate this activity, including compilation of the original problems and the final analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used. These were issued in December 1977. As a follow-on activity, addenda were issued that provided additional data or corrections to the original problem statement. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this report. All solutions submitted have also been included in order to provide users of this report the information necessary to make their own comparisons or evaluations

  17. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis. (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel


    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  18. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan


    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  19. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long


    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  20. Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in upper elementary school. (United States)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Majoor, Marieke; Peetsma, Thea


    The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes. This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students' achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school. Participants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68). Students reported on their achievement goals and effort in language and mathematics three times in grade 5 to grade 6. Teachers rated students' general school effort. Achievement scores were obtained from school records. Goal profiles were derived with latent profile and transition analyses. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted. Theoretically favourable goal profiles (high mastery and performance-approach goals, low on performance-avoidance goals), as well as transitions from less to more theoretically favourable goal profiles, were associated with higher levels and more growth in effort for language and mathematics and with stronger language achievement gains. Overall, these results provide support for the multiple goal perspective and show the sustained benefits of favourable goal profiles beyond effects of cognitive ability and background characteristics. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  1. Performance Measures for Teachers and Teacher Education: Corporate Education Reform Opens the Door to New Legal Issues (United States)

    Pullin, Diana


    Recent efforts to change the teaching profession and teacher preparation include a number of innovations to use portfolio assessment, value added measures (VAM), accountability metrics and other corporate education reform ideas. These approaches may provoke considerable potential legal consequences. Traditional constitutional and civil rights…

  2. Learning curves in health professions education. (United States)

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A


    Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.

  3. Trying to remember: Effort mediates the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and memory performance. (United States)

    Hirst, Rayna B; Young, Kaitlyn R; Sodos, Louise M; Wickham, Robert E; Earleywine, Mitch


    While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance. Sixty-two participants (74% male, mean age = 19.25 years) who met criteria for chronic cannabis use (four or more days per week for at least 12 months) completed a neuropsychological battery including the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) and the Rey Complex Figure (RCF) as measures of learning and memory, and the Word Memory Test (WMT) as a measure of effort put forth during neuropsychological assessment. Participants who more frequently used cannabis exhibited poorer effort (as measured by WMT performance; p cannabis use and CVLT-II Learning (Sum of Trials 1-5), CVLT-II Delayed Recall, and RCF Delayed Recall, but not RCF Immediate Recall. Age of onset of cannabis use was not significantly related to effort. Findings indicate that effort mediates the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and performance on learning and memory measures, suggesting that effort performance should be measured and controlled for in future studies assessing cognition in frequent cannabis users.

  4. Advancing Social Work Education for Health Impact (United States)

    Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie


    Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540

  5. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky


    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  6. "I put in effort, therefore I am passionate": Investigating the path from effort to passion in entrepreneurship


    Gielnik, Michael Marcus; Spitzmuller, Matthias; Schmitt, Antje; Klemann, Katharina; Frese, Michael


    Most theoretical frameworks in entrepreneurship emphasize that entrepreneurial passion drives entrepreneurial effort. We hypothesize that the reverse effect is also true, and investigate changes in passion as an outcome of effort. Based on theories of self-regulation and self-perception, we hypothesize that making new venture progress and free choice are two factors that help to explain why and under which conditions entrepreneurial effort affects entrepreneurial passion. We undertook two stu...

  7. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support. (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M


    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Best-effort Support for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Todirica, Edward Alexandru


    This paper describes the RTMM Virtual Seminar Room, an interactive distributed multimedia application based on a platform with a simple middleware architecture, using best effort scheduling and a best effort network service. Emphasis has been placed on achieving low latency in all parts...

  9. Development Efforts Of Oil Companies As Perceived By Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the host communities are highly satisfied with companies' efforts (projects and services) to them. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Key words: Oil producing communities; oil exploration/production; company's development efforts; Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol.4(1) 2004: 60-71 ...

  10. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.


    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  11. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the...

  12. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort was obtained for the fish of the Sundays .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (numbers and weight/net) of fish in the estuary was obtained from 55 .... Table 1 CPUE (number and mass) of fish caught monthly using gill-net over 12·h periods with 55 nettings at .... The abundance of some other species may.

  13. Quantifying commercial catch and effort of monkfish Lophius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch-per-unit-effort (cpue) data of vessels targeting monkfish and sole (the two ... analysed using two different methods to construct indices of abundance. ... in Namibia to all tail-weight classes is not appropriate for the current fishery and needs ... Keywords: catch per unit effort, Generalized Linear Model, Lophius vaillanti, ...

  14. Determinants of Tourists Information Search Effort: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines tourist information search effort prior to the visit to a selected destination. The focus was on identifying the key variables that influence the information search effort of Ghana's international visitors from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Dummy Multiple Regression ...

  15. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne


    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  16. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It


    David Scott


    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  17. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten


    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  18. Private Speech Moderates the Effects of Effortful Control on Emotionality (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Neal, Amy; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: In addition to being a regulatory strategy, children's private speech may enhance or interfere with their effortful control used to regulate emotion. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether children's private speech during a selective attention task moderated the relations of their effortful control to their…

  19. The Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE): Progress and Opportunities for Engagement (United States)

    Marlino, M. R.; Pandya, R. E.


    The Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) is a community-led, NSF-funded effort to promote access to high-quality digital resources for teaching and learning about the Earth. Now in its fourth year of development, DLESE is used by tens of thousands of educators and learners a month, and provides access to over 5000 educational resources. These resources include a variety of media formats, from text-based lesson plans to sophisticated tools for interactive three-dimensional visualization of authentic scientific data. In August of 2003, DLESE introduced Version 2.0 of the library. The new version features enhanced educational services including: the ability to search by National Science and Geography Standards, the ability to search over multiple, discrete collections, and annotation services that allow educators to evaluate resources and supply tips for their effective use. With version 2.0, DLESE can better provide services to support researchers through the entire cycle of their educational and outreach efforts. These services are of particular value to researchers when developing, disseminating, and evaluating educational materials in their efforts to meet the National Science Foundation's Criteria Two, for proposals. To support development efforts, we have published best-practices guides for developing resources; we actively broker relationships between the scientific community, instructional designers, and educational researchers; and we are leading efforts to integrate data into educational materials. The DLESE Evaluation Services offers broad support to a variety of research efforts. The DLESE Program Center provides technology integration and operational systems to support partnerships with the research community.

  20. Predicting Consumer Effort in Finding and Paying for Health Care: Expert Interviews and Claims Data Analysis. (United States)

    Long, Sandra; Monsen, Karen A; Pieczkiewicz, David; Wolfson, Julian; Khairat, Saif


    For consumers to accept and use a health care information system, it must be easy to use, and the consumer must perceive it as being free from effort. Finding health care providers and paying for care are tasks that must be done to access treatment. These tasks require effort on the part of the consumer and can be frustrating when the goal of the consumer is primarily to receive treatments for better health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that result in consumer effort when finding accessible health care. Having an understanding of these factors will help define requirements when designing health information systems. A panel of 12 subject matter experts was consulted and the data from 60 million medical claims were used to determine the factors contributing to effort. Approximately 60 million claims were processed by the health care insurance organization in a 12-month duration with the population defined. Over 292 million diagnoses from claims were used to validate the panel input. The results of the study showed that the number of people in the consumer's household, number of visits to providers outside the consumer's insurance network, number of adjusted and denied medical claims, and number of consumer inquiries are a proxy for the level of effort in finding and paying for care. The effort level, so measured and weighted per expert panel recommendations, differed by diagnosis. This study provides an understanding of how consumers must put forth effort when engaging with a health care system to access care. For higher satisfaction and acceptance results, health care payers ideally will design and develop systems that facilitate an understanding of how to avoid denied claims, educate on the payment of claims to avoid adjustments, and quickly find providers of affordable care. ©Sandra Long, Karen A. Monsen, David Pieczkiewicz, Julian Wolfson, Saif Khairat. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (, 12.10.2017.