WorldWideScience

Sample records for include early years

  1. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  2. A 4-year non-randomized comparative phase-IV study of early rheumatoid arthritis: integrative anthroposophic medicine for patients with preference against DMARDs versus conventional therapy including DMARDs for patients without preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamre HJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harald J Hamre,1 Van N Pham,2 Christian Kern,3 Rolf Rau,4 Jörn Klasen,3 Ute Schendel,5 Lars Gerlach,6 Attyla Drabik,2 Ludger Simon6,† 1Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology at the Witten/Herdecke University, Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Statistics in Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Department of Integrative Medicine, Asklepios Westklinikum, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of Rheumatology, Evangelisches Fachkrankenhaus Ratingen, Ratingen, Germany; 5Department of Rheumatology, m&i-Fachklinik Bad Pyrmont, Bad Pyrmont, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Filderklinik, Filderstadt, Germany †Dr Ludger Simon passed away on June 10, 2016 Background: While disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs are a mainstay of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA, some patients with early RA refuse DMARDs. In anthroposophic medicine (AM, a treatment strategy for early RA without DMARDs has been developed. Preliminary data suggest that RA symptoms and inflammatory markers can be reduced under AM, without DMARDs. Patients and methods: Two hundred and fifty-one self-selected patients aged 16–70 years, starting treatment for RA of <3 years duration, without prior DMARD therapy, participated in a prospective, non-randomized, comparative Phase IV study. C-patients were treated in clinics offering conventional therapy including DMARDs, while A-patients had chosen treatment in anthroposophic clinics, without DMARDs. Both groups received corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Primary outcomes were intensity of RA symptoms measured by self-rating on visual analog scales, C-reactive protein, radiological progression, study withdrawals, serious adverse events (SAE, and adverse drug reactions in months 0–48. Results: The groups were similar in most baseline characteristics, while A-patients had longer disease duration (mean 15.1 vs 10.8 months, p<0

  3. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  4. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  5. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  6. Network contact changes in early and later postseparation years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhell, E.L.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explains changes in contact frequency in relationships of the preseparation personal network in the early and later years after partners separate. The explanation includes general and separation-related characteristics of the network relationship and the individual. Personal interviews

  7. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  8. Challenges of Early Years Leadership Preparation: A Comparison between Early and Experienced Early Years Practitioners in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Leadership has been under-researched in the Early Years (EY) sector of primary schools in England, especially in leading change for professional development. The aim of this paper is to theorise what the leadership culture for EY practitioners looks like, and how Initial Teacher Training providers and schools are preparing practitioners for…

  9. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  10. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  11. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  12. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  13. Building Self-Esteem in the Early Years

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Jenny Lukito

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practical ways of building self-esteem in the early years. It describes the concepts of self-esteem and characteristics of children with high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem. The practical ways of building self-esteem are discussed under the five essential components of self-esteem pointed out by Reasoner and Dusa (1991), which include sense of security, identity, belonging, purpose, and personal competence.Key words: self-esteem, sense of security, sense ...

  14. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  15. Dyslexia in the Early Years: A Handbook for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…

  16. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  17. The early years of molecular biology: personal recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robin

    2003-05-01

    The early years of molecular biology were characterized by a strong interaction between theory and experiment. This included the elucidation of the structure of DNA itself; genetic fine structure, recombination and repair; DNA replication; template-directed protein synthesis; the universality of the triplet genetic code, and the co-linearity of the DNA sequence of structural genes and the sequence of amino acids in proteins. The principle of co-linearity was later modified when split genes were discovered. It is suggested that accurate splicing of gene transcripts might also be template directed. In 1958 Crick proposed a 'central dogma' of molecular biology stating that information could not be transmitted from proteins to DNA. Nevertheless, proteins can chemically modify DNA, and this is now known to have strong effects on gene expression.

  18. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  19. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  20. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  1. Building multilingual learning environments in early years education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.

  2. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  3. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  4. Waldorf Schools: Seventy-Six Years of Early Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascues, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…

  5. Strengthening Parents and Families during the Early Childhood Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…

  6. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  7. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  8. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  9. 26 CFR 1.83-2 - Election to include in gross income in year of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subsequent appreciation in the value of the property is not taxable as compensation to the person who....83-2 Election to include in gross income in year of transfer. (a) In general. If property is... fair market value of the property at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any lapse...

  10. Language Development in the Early School Years: The Importance of Close Relationships with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…

  11. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  12. VETEM -- a very early time electromagnetic system -- year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, L.; Pfeifer, M.C.; Labson, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    In electrically conductive conditions common in environmental characterization studies the minimum depth of investigation for traditional electromagnetic (EM) sounding techniques is roughly 5 meters, while ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems often investigate no more than the top meter or so when clay minerals are present in the soil. Bridging this gap is essential to the characterization of buried waste, contaminant plumes, and other environmental and hydrogeological targets located in the shallow subsurface. The Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system is designed to ascertain the conductivity and dielectric properties of the shallow subsurface in conductive terrain. Hence, the one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling algorithms, developed in the first year of the project, contain the full solution to the EM problem including both displacement and conduction currents. The VETEM system fills a gap between EM and GPR, but all three methods are necessary to successfully image the shallow subsurface. To achieve the goal of fully 3-D subsurface imaging, the VETEM project is hosting the Electromagnetic Integrated Demonstration (EMID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Cold Test Pit (INEL's CTP). Over a dozen EM systems will acquire data over the same survey area for interpretation in conjunction with the VETEM team. The prototype time-domain instrument employs a magnetic dipole transmitter and receiver and operates from 10 nano-second to a micro-second. The USGS high frequency sounder (HFS), which served as the VETEM proof-of-concept, uses the same antenna geometry as the time-domain instrument and acquires data from 30 kHz to 30 MHz. The first VETEM survey was recently conducted at the INEL's CTP as a part of the EMID. The electromagnetic migration technique is being investigated for interpretation of the VETEM data

  13. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  14. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  15. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  16. The early years of Bruno Maximovich Pontecorvo at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of September 1950, while on a short vacation in Italy with his family, Bruno Pontecorvo suddenly disappeared. Nobody knew of him until 4 March 1955, when he gave a press conference in Moscow at the Academy of Sciences where he explained the motivations that had led him to decide to live in Russia. He arrived in Moscow in September 1950 and at the end of October of the same year he moved in Dubna and started his research work at the Institute of Nuclear Problems where, at the time, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world was in operation. A historical reconstruction of the early years of his scientific activity is done through the pages of his first logbook. This “laboratory notebook”, dated November 1, 1950, contains unpublished notes, ideas and considerations that Bruno wrote by hand, mostly in English, at the beginning of his work in Russia.

  17. Areva - Updated Reference Document 2015 Including the 2016 half-year financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 40,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Persons responsible; 2 - Information on operations and recent events (Overview of the Group's operations, Simplified organization chart of the Group, Implementation of the Group's strategic roadmap and Restructuring Plan, Deployment of the performance plan, Other significant transactions since the filing of the Reference Document, Review of third quarter 2016 operations, Press releases); 3 - Financial information (2016 Half-year financial report, Statutory auditors' report on the half-year financial information for the period January 1 to June 30, 2016, Unaudited consolidated pro-forma financial information, Statutory auditors' report on the pro-forma financial information); 4 - Risk factors (Risks related to the Restructuring Plan, Legal risks, Industrial and environmental risks, Operational risks, Liquidity and market risks); 5 - Cash and capital resources (Financial outlook, 12-month liquidity); 6 - Governance; 7 - Workforce - jobs (Voluntary departure plan and change in the Group's workforce, Signature of a memorandum of understanding ensuring the stability of labor agreements, Reorganization and refinancing of the Group); 8 - Share

  18. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  20. Making the best of the early years: the Tambellup way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C

    2010-01-01

    Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close

  1. Including persistency of impairment in mild cognitive impairment classification enhances prediction of 5-year decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) show elevated rates of conversion to dementia as a group, heterogeneity of outcomes is common at the individual level. Using data from a prospective 5-year longitudinal investigation of cognitive change in healthy older adults (N = 262, aged 64-92 years), this study addressed limitations in contemporary MCI identification procedures which rely on single occasion assessment ("Single-Assessment [SA] MCI") by evaluating an alternate operational definition of MCI requiring evidence of persistent cognitive impairment over multiple-testing sessions ("Multiple-Assessment [MA] MCI"). As hypothesized, prevalence of SA-MCI exceeded that of MA-MCI. Further, the MA-MCI groups showed lower baseline cognitive and functional performance and steeper cognitive decline compared with Control and SA-MCI group. Results are discussed with reference to retest effects and clinical implications.

  2. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  3. Supporting Child Participation in the Early Years of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…

  4. Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-11-01

    The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.

  5. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  6. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  7. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  8. Social geography of developmental health in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    What happens to children in their earliest years is critical for their development throughout the life course. The years from zero to school age are foundational for brain and biological development. Attachment and face recognition; impulse control and regulation of physical aggression; executive function in the prefrontal cortex and focused attention; fine and gross motor functions and coordination; receptive and expressive language; and understandings of quantitative concepts are all established during this time and become embedded in the architecture and function of the brain (Doherty 1997; Kolb 2009; McCain and Mustard 1999). Brain and biological development are in turn expressed through three broad domains of development of the whole child: physical, social-emotional and language-cognitive, which together are the basis of "developmental health" (Keating and Hertzman 1999). Developmental health influences many aspects of well-being, including obesity and stunting, mental health, heart disease, competence in literacy and numeracy, criminality and economic participation throughout life (Irwin et al. 2007). Accordingly, developmental health is the central concern of this article.

  9. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  10. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  11. The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-10-01

    This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story

  12. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  13. The early years. Keys to child nutrition and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, L.

    2005-01-01

    Four of the eight Millennium Development Goals highlight the importance of adequate nutrition for human health and development. The IAEA is assisting Member States in their efforts to achieve these goals by providing technical support for strategies to combat undernutrition. In particular, the IAEA contributes technical expertise in the use of stable isotope techniques in the development and evaluation of nutrition interventions. Stable isotope techniques have been used as research tools in nutrition for many years. However, the application of stable isotope techniques in programme development and evaluation is a relatively new approach, where the IAEA has a unique opportunity to contribute. As only stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are used, the techniques can be applied in the most vulnerable population groups, i.e., infants and children. The use of stable isotope techniques adds value by increasing the sensitivity and specificity of measurements as compared to conventional techniques. This brief overview highlights selected activities in infant nutrition where stable isotope techniques have been used. They include projects to measure human milk intake in breast-fed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and bioavailability of iron in infants and young children

  14. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  15. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  16. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  17. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  18. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childcare and education (ECE is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2–5 years, in the ECE setting. Methods Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Results Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (−4.4 ± 14.2 % time, −29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02. Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = −0.37, p < 0.05 and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05. Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of

  19. Early-Years Teachers' Professional Upgrading in Science: a Long-Term Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at developing and implementing curriculum activities to which they would contribute and thus meaningfully engaging them in their own learning. The programme used a `collaborative partnership' model for the development of the activities. In this model, the collaborative notion is defined as an act of `shared creation': partners share a goal and members bring their expertise to the partnership. Within this context, the partners were a researcher in science education with a background in physics, who also served as a facilitator, and six in-service early-years teachers with a background in early-years pedagogy and developmental sciences, who had many years of experience (classroom experts). These teachers participated in the programme as co-designers, but were involved to a significantly lesser degree than the researcher. The programme procedures comprised group work and individual teachers' class work. Data sources included teachers' essays, field-notes, lesson recordings and group-work records. Data were qualitatively analysed. The main results indicate improvement of teachers' `transformed' knowledge of the subject matter, development/improvement of knowledge of instructional strategies, including factors related to quality of implementation of the activities, knowledge of the pupils and improvement of the teachers' efficacy.

  20. The Stockholm Studio EMS during its Early Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2008-01-01

    so called abstract electronic music to political performance-related text-sound pieces. So far there has been very little academic writing about this. Going into the conflict and the very heterogeneous material, questions appear which I believe haven’t been raised properly in earlier writings...... was even before its opening very famous, but also difficult to work. The Sound Workshop was available to the artists 24 hours a day and much easier to handle, and therefore most pieces were produced here. In the early 1970s a conflict emerged between the composers and the studio director Knut Wiggen....... In his eager and idealistic search for “the music of the future” he believed in continuing the earlier experiments within musique concrète and elektronische Musik through research into sound and sound perception. Most of the composers, mainly from the Swedish “Text Sound” milieu, wanted to produce pieces...

  1. Early versus late tracheostomy in pediatric intensive care unit: does it matter? A 6-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Alessandro; Picconi, Enzo; Piastra, Marco; Genovese, Orazio; Biasucci, Daniele G; Conti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the clinical data of children who underwent tracheostomy during their stay in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), in order to describe the relationship between the timing of tracheostomy, the length of PICU stay and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This is a retrospective cohort study that collects all patients undergoing tracheostomy during their PICU stay over a six-year period. Data collection included PICU length of stay, days of intubation, days of mechanical ventilation, primary indication for tracheostomy, information about VAP and decannulations. The early tracheostomy group was defined as patients who had ten or fewer days of continuous ventilation, whereas the late tracheostomy group had more than ten days of continuous ventilation. A significant decrease in the rate of VAP incidence was noticed in the early tracheostomy group vs. late group (P=0.004, OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.85). No differences were observed about decannulation, need of long-term ventilation and death rate. Significant decreases of days of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were found in subgroup of patients who underwent early tracheostomy and were decannulated within 18 months. No standard timing for tracheostomy placement has been established in the pediatric population. Early tracheostomy can shorten the days of ventilation and hospitalization in PICU and reduce the incidence of VAP, but further studies are needed to identify patient categories in which it can be of benefit.

  2. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Years Learning, Play Pedagogy and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…

  4. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  5. Disrupting Communities of Practice? How "Reluctant" Practitioners View Early Years Workforce Reform in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…

  6. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  7. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  8. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

  9. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  10. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  11. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves João

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  12. A Grounded Theory of Mothering in the Early Years for Women Recovering From Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellus, Lenora

    2017-08-01

    Women in recovery from addiction experience significant sociostructural barriers to reestablishing self, family, and home after having a baby. The aim of this grounded theory study was to describe pathways that women and their families followed and how transitions were experienced in the early years after receiving services through an integrated community-based maternity program. Eighteen women completed questionnaires and participated in a series of semistructured interviews over 2 years. The overall process women experienced was that of holding it together, which women did by restoring their sense of self during recovery, becoming a strong center for their family, and creating a sense of home no matter what the circumstances. Key elements supporting women in their transition to recovery and parenthood included longer term health, social, and recovery programs and services that addressed determinants of health (in particular, gender, housing, and income), and receiving support provided from strengths-based perspectives.

  13. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  14. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  16. The Inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in Early Asthma (START) study 5-year follow-up: effectiveness of early intervention with budesonide in mild persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, William W; Pedersen, Søren; Pauwels, Romain A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Inhaled Steroid Treatment as Regular Therapy in Early Asthma (START) study enrolled 7241 patients aged 5 to 66 years with recent-onset, mild persistent asthma to assess early intervention with the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide on long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: The open......-label phase of the START study was included to determine the effect on lung function and asthma control of adding budesonide to the reference group patients who had not initially received inhaled corticosteroids. METHODS: Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with budesonide, 200 mug (those aged...

  17. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Ghada RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2% had one episode, 23(62.1% had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6% continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4% achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7% achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable.

  18. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  19. Individual Patterns of Complexity in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota, Including Predator Bacteria, over a 1-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Caballero, Juan; Vida, Rafael; Cobo, Marta; Máiz, Luis; Suárez, Lucrecia; Galeano, Javier; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Del Campo, Rosa

    2017-09-26

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities. Fifteen adult CF patients, stratified according to their pulmonary function into mild ( n = 5), moderate ( n = 9), and severe ( n = 1) disease, were recruited at the CF unit of the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid, Spain). Each patient contributed three or four induced sputum samples during a 1-year follow-up period. Lung microbiota composition was determined by both cultivation and NGS techniques and was compared with the patients' clinical variables. Results revealed a particular microbiota composition for each patient that was maintained during the study period, although some fluctuations were detected without any clinical correlation. For the first time, Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio predator bacteria were shown in CF lung microbiota and reduced-genome bacterial parasites of the phylum Parcubacteria were also consistently detected. The newly designed computational model allows us to hypothesize that inoculation of predators into the pulmonary microbiome might contribute to the control of chronic colonization by CF pathogens in early colonization stages. IMPORTANCE The application of NGS to sequential samples of CF patients demonstrated the complexity of the organisms present in the lung (156 species) and the constancy of basic individual colonization patterns, although some differences between samples from the same patient were

  20. Multisystem Disease, Including Eosinophilia and Progressive Hyper-Creatine-Kinase-emia over 10 Years, Suggests Mitochondrial Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder (MID. Here, we report a patient with clinical features suggesting a MID and permanent eosinophilia, multisystem disease, and progressive hyper-creatine-kinase (CK-emia for at least 10 years. Materials and Methods: Methods applied included a clinical exam, blood chemical investigations, electrophysiological investigations, imaging, and invasive cardiological investigations. The patient was repeatedly followed up over several years. He required replacement cardiac surgery. Results: In a 57-year-old male, eosinophilia was first detected at the age of 44 years and has remained almost constantly present until today. In addition to eosinophilia, he developed progressive hyper-CK-emia at the age of 47 years. His history was further positive for hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture, double vision, exercise intolerance, muscle aching, mild hypoacusis, sensory neuropathy, seizures, and mitral insufficiency/stenosis requiring valve replacement therapy, oral anticoagulation, and pacemaker implantation. Based on the multisystem nature of his abnormalities and permanent hyper-CK-emia, a MID was suspected. Conclusion: Eosinophilia can be associated with a MID with myopathy, possibly as a reaction to myofiber necrosis. If eosinophilia is associated with progressive hyper-CK-emia and multisystem disease, a MID should be suspected.

  1. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  2. Reframing Leadership as a Participative Pedagogy: The Working Theories of Early Years Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall

    2013-01-01

    Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…

  3. Language at preschool in Europe: Early years professionals in the spotlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.C.; Kuiken, F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades early years education throughout Europe has experienced many changes due to higher numbers of children attending centres for early childhood education and care (ECEC), a growing linguistic and cultural diversity in society and a shift from care to education with the focus

  4. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  5. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  6. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  7. The Development of Executive Function and Language Skills in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…

  8. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  9. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. High and specialty-related musculoskeletal disorders afflict dental professionals even since early training years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru YI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%, shoulders (50.8%-65.1%, lower back (27.1%-51.2% and upper back (25.6%-46.5%, with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%, hips (3.4%-16.3% and ankles (5.1%-11.6%. Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible.

  11. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-12-01

    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  12. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  13. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  14. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  15. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  16. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  17. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-01-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  18. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  19. REVIEW: The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  20. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  1. Language development in the early school years: The importance of close relationships with teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Harrison, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children’s receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral

  2. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  3. Early Years Educators' Perceptions of Professional Development in England: An Exploratory Study of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of professional development held by a selection of early years educators who have experience of working in statutory and private early years settings in the north of England. The research participants (n = 20) reflected on their experiences of professional development in early years. The research process is…

  4. Healthy eating in early years settings: a review of current national to local guidance for North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Katie; Capewell, Simon; Abba, Katharine; Goodall, Mark; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion

    2011-06-01

    To determine the extent to which national and local UK guidelines for the early years sector address key recommendations for encouraging healthy eating based on best available evidence. Phase 1 comprised a literature review to identify new evidence to assess current relevance of the Caroline Walker Trust (CWT) 'Eating well for under-5 s in child care' guidelines. Phase 2 assessed the completeness of seven local to national-level government guidelines by comparison with the 'gold standard' CWT guidelines. Desk-based review using secondary data. Research literature and statutory guidelines on healthy eating in early years settings. Phase 1 retrieved seventy-five papers, of which sixty were excluded as they addressed compliance with nutritional and food-based standards only. One report examined a social marketing tool and was deemed too narrow. The remaining fourteen documents assessed interventions to encourage healthy eating in early years settings. Following quality assessment, seven documents were included. Nine key recommendations were identified: (i) role of government; (ii) early years setting policy/guidelines; (iii) training; (iv) menu planning; (v) parents; (vi) atmosphere and encouragement; (vii) learning through food; (viii) sustainability; and (ix) equal opportunities. Phase 2 identified that all seven guidelines included the nine key recommendations but sporadic cover of sub-key recommendations. More detail is needed on how early years settings can encourage children to eat healthily. Research is required to develop second-layer guidance for interactive materials. Clear processes of communication and support for parents are required. Ways food relates to children's wider learning and social development need further thought, requiring collaboration between the Department of Health and the Department for Education.

  5. Early childhood severe scalds in a developing country: A 3-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Agbenorku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The burns intensive care unit (BICU staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions as a result of increase injuries associated with the scald burns. A retrospective study was conducted to identify scalds demographics, etiologies, and mortality risk factors. This descriptive study comprised a total of 166 patients aged 0-5 years, who were admitted to the BICU of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit (RPSBU through the Accident and Emergency (A and E Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH from May 1 st 2009 to April 30 th 2012. Source of information was the BICU Computerized Database System. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcomes. The study population was 166; 92 (55.4% males and 74 (44.6% females. Scalds admissions were 141 (84.9%; 13 (9.2% of them died, 83 (58.9% discharged, and 45 (31.9% transferred-out to another burn ward and pediatric surgery ward in the hospital. Scald patients' demographics included 78 males (55.3% and 63 females (44.7%; mean age was 2.18 years. Mortality risk factors identified were age <3 years (P = 0.044; scalds from hot water (P = 0.033, total burns surface area >30% (P = 0.017, and multiple body parts affected (P = 0.049. The current study showed age, hot water, and Total Burns Surface Area (TBSA as risk factors of early childhood scalds. Education on scalds prevention targeting mothers/caregivers is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds.

  6. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  7. [Ten years of early complex geriatric rehabilitation therapy in the DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G; Breuninger, K; Gronemeyer, S; van den Heuvel, D; Lübke, N; Lüttje, D; Wittrich, A; Wolff, J

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric medicine, as a specialized form of treatment for the elderly, is gaining in importance due to demographic changes. Especially important for geriatric medicine is combining acute care with the need to maintain functionality and participation. This includes prevention of dependency on structured care or chronic disability and handicap by means of rehabilitation. Ten years ago, the German DRG system tried to incorporate procedures (e.g., "early rehabilitation in geriatric medicine") in the hospital reimbursement system. OPS 8-550.x, defined by structural quality, days of treatment, and number of therapeutic interventions, triggers 17 different geriatric DRGs, covering most of the fields of medicine. OPS 8-550.x had been revised continuously to give a clear structure to quality aspects of geriatric procedures. However, OPS 8-550.x is based on proven need of in-hospital treatment. In the last 10 years, no such definition has been produced taking aspects of the German hospital system into account as well as aspects of transparency and benefit in everyday work. The German DRG system covers just basic reimbursement aspects of geriatric medicine quite well; however, a practicable and patient-oriented definition of "hospital necessity" is still lacking, but is absolutely essential for proper compensation. A further problem concerning geriatric medicine reimbursement in the DRG system is due to the different structures of providing geriatric in-hospital care throughout Germany.

  8. Characteristics of children under 6 years of age treated for early childhood caries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.

  9. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  10. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  11. Early drinking onset: a study of prevalence and determinants among 13-year-old adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsen, Frode; Strøm, Henriette Kyrrestad; Martinussen, Monica; Natvig, Henrik; Eisemann, Martin; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Koposov, Roman

    2014-10-01

    Early drinking onset is associated with different psychosocial adjustment problems among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess determinants associated with early drinking and to identify factors predicting early drinking onset among adolescents. The study included 1,550 eighth-graders with a mean age of 13.5 years from 41 schools. A total of 24% (boys 29%, girls 19%) had ever drunk alcohol, while 14% had drunk some alcohol in the last 30 days. Further, early drinking was associated with gender, religion, school performance, smoking and bullying in the bivariate tests. Predictors of early drinking onset were identified by generalized linear mixed models with two multivariable models created. The first model included social and environmental variables. Entering intentions, expectancies, attitudes and norms into the multivariable analysis resulted in a significant improvement of the model fit constituting 86% in the second model. The percentage correctly classified those (56%) who had been drinking in the second model which was two times higher compared to the first model. Gender, religion and smoking emerged as significant predictors of drinking in both models. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 59 years: early recovery and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Marja Kaarina; Juuti, Anne; Jaser, Nabil; Mustonen, Harri

    2011-08-01

    Bariatric surgery has shown to be safe for patients over 60 years with good results especially considering resolving of comorbidities. Sleeve gastrectomy is considered to be safer than gastric bypass (GBP) and more effective than gastric banding with less adverse symptoms. Weight loss may be more modest than after GBP, but the effect on vitamins may also be milder. Since 2007, we collected prospectively 12-month follow-up data from 55 sleeve gastrectomy patients of whom 12 were over 59 years of age. Vitamin and calcium supplements were used postoperatively. The recovery from the operation was recorded during hospital stay, at 1- and 12-month follow-up visits using a standard protocol including laboratory tests. The results between patients over and under 59 years were compared. The preoperative weight and weight loss were comparable between the groups. Operation time was shorter and hospital stay was longer for older patients, p = ns. There was no operative mortality. Early major complications were seen more often in the older age group, 42% vs 9% (p = 0.02), but late complications were more common in younger patients, 17% vs 44%, p = ns. Early complications were mostly bleedings, which did not lengthen the hospital stay, neither were re-operations nor endoscopic procedures needed. Excess weight loss and resolving of comorbidities after 12 months was comparable between the groups. However, vitamin deficiencies and hypoalbuminemia were more common in the older age group, 42% and 23% for vitamins and 44% and 29% for proteins, p = ns. The older patients had more adverse effects related to surgery, 25% vs 9%, and younger had more adverse psychiatric effects, p = ns. Sleeve gastrectomy is effective and safe for older bariatric patients. Weight loss is comparable to younger patients and enough to resolve the comorbidities in most of the patients. With standardized nutritional supplementation, the older patients had more often vitamin deficiencies and

  13. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2016-01-01

    , five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years......, patients were also evaluated by their clinicians at least biweekly. Baseline and early-course predictors of long-term course were identified with linear mixed-model analyses. RESULTS: Four variables provided significant, additive predictions of longer time in psychosis during the ten-year follow...

  14. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning How to Do Up Buttons: Professionalism, Teacher Identity and Bureaucratic Subjectivities in Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Early years education in Europe and elsewhere around the world is currently in the spotlight due to political and economical changes and subsequent promises of effective investment into its provision. In this article we analyse everyday preschool practices in Slovakia in terms of tensions between policies, the teachers workforce and the concept of…

  16. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  17. An Ecological Perspective on Early Years Workforce Competences in Italian ECEC Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Tassara, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Based on an ecological perspective on competence, this study analyzed the attitudes, skills, and knowledge of practitioners in educational services for 0-6-years-old children in Italy, examining competence profiles in the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) workforce. Our study considered three areas of competence, which previously have…

  18. Narrative Making and Remaking in the Early Years: Prelude to the Personal Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peggy J.; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to…

  19. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    , but due to variable data quality, data is most often used only from 1981 onwards, and birth registers in other countries may have similar problems for the early years. We wanted to examine whether the data can be used for identification of children born SGA and used in future research....

  20. Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science: 25 Years of Early College STEM Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The University of North Texas's Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science began admitting students to its 2-year early college entrance science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program in the fall of 1988. This program provided accelerated entry for top students in Texas in the areas of mathematics and science. Approximately 200…

  1. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  2. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  3. A Healthy Start: Promoting Mental Health and Well-Being in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefai, Carmel; Camilleri, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems in children represent a significant international health concern, with up to one in five children using mental health services during the course of any given year. Identifying the processes of what prevents social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD) and promotes healthy development from an early age can make a…

  4. Geometry in Early Years: Sowing Seeds for a Mathematical Definition of Squares and Rectangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…

  5. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  6. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  7. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  8. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  9. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  10. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  11. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...... of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation...

  12. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of early diagnosis in spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee - A case series with six year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W; Aparajit, Prasad; Docker, Charles; Udeshi, Umesh; El-Shazly, Mohi

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee has an unknown aetiology. Management options include conservative, surgical and pharmacological interventions. The aim of this study was to report the experience of the authors in conservative management of SONK using non-operative measures by analysing the functional outcome and need for surgical intervention. All patients treated for SONK between 1st August 2001 and 1st April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment consisted of touch-down weight bearing for around six weeks. MR imaging was evaluated for size of lesion, the condyles involved and the time taken for resolution. Tegner Activity Scale, VAS pain, Lysholm, WOMAC and IKDC scores were recorded at presentation and final follow-up (mean six years, range six months to 13years). Forty cases were included; the mean age of the group was 55.3years and 67.5% were male. The medial femoral condyle was the most commonly affected (52.5%). A statistically significant improvement was reported in all functional outcome measures (p<0.001). Only one patient required arthroscopic surgical intervention and no patients required arthroplasty during the follow-up period. Early stage spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee can be managed successfully without surgery if diagnosed early. Thus early investigation of acute knee pain with MRI scanning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A.

    2017-01-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining

  15. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volume of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 shown two ways—we base one on a 52-week reporting...

  17. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  18. Radiotherapy of early tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Imai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of treatment for early mobile tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years. Methods and Materials: Between January 1967 and September 1992, 70 patients less than 40 years old (young age group) with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial radiotherapy at the Osaka University Hospital (OUH). All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up (median: 13 years). External radiotherapy (median: 30 Gy) was combined in 25 cases. The treatment results were compared with those for two older age groups (middle age: 40-64 years old; old age: 65 years old or more). Results: The 5-year probability of cause-specific survival (CSS) rate for the young age group was 80%, which was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 71% for old age. However, male patients of young age showed significantly worse rates than those of middle and old age (p = 0.02). The 5-year local control rate for the young age group was 78%. It was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 70% for old age. The incidence of regional lymph node metastasis was 32% for T1, 48% for T2, 56% for males, and 24% for females. The regional failure rate of young males was significantly higher than those of the two older groups: 32% for middle and 22% for old age (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The overall treatment results for patients with early tongue cancer less than 40 years old were not worse than those of older age groups. However, male gender was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and CSS

  19. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  20. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  1. 26 CFR 301.9100-18T - Election to include in gross income in year of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is made section 33(a) does not apply with respect to such property, and any subsequent appreciation... connection with which property is transferred which at the time of transfer is not transferable by the... the taxable year in which such property is transferred, the excess of the fair market value of such...

  2. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  3. Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L.; Vestergaard, C. H.; Moeller, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex- and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS. METHODS: Pa...

  4. An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Jacobs, Zenobia; Schoville, Benjamin J; Oestmo, Simen; Fisher, Erich C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Matthews, Thalassa

    2012-11-22

    There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on symbolically specific proxies, such as artistic expression, to document the origins of complex cognition. Advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production are also proxies, as these often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language. Some argue that advanced technologies in Africa appear and disappear and thus do not indicate complex cognition exclusive to early modern humans in Africa. The origins of composite tools and advanced projectile weapons figure prominently in modern human evolution research, and the latter have been argued to have been in the exclusive possession of modern humans. Here we describe a previously unrecognized advanced stone tool technology from Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 on the south coast of South Africa, originating approximately 71,000 years ago. This technology is dominated by the production of small bladelets (microliths) primarily from heat-treated stone. There is agreement that microlithic technology was used to create composite tool components as part of advanced projectile weapons. Microliths were common worldwide by the mid-Holocene epoch, but have a patchy pattern of first appearance that is rarely earlier than 40,000 years ago, and were thought to appear briefly between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago in South Africa and then disappear. Our research extends this record to ~71,000 years, shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (~11,000 years), and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring; a small sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any

  5. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  6. Dentofacial morphology in adolescent or early adult patients with cleft lip and palate after a treatment regimen that included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, H; Lilja, J

    1994-06-01

    Dentofacial morphology was evaluated in 94 adolescent or early adult patients born with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. As well as lip closure, the primary treatment included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair. Roentgencephalometric measurements as well as classification of the patients into different classes of dentofacial deformity indicated development of bimaxillary retrognathia with severe midfacial deficiency in about a quarter of the cases. Our results were similar to those reported by other teams who used similar surgical regimen.

  7. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  8. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Brianti, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  9. Relationship between caries experience and demarcated hypomineralised lesions (including MIH) in the permanent dentition of 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, Jan; Kabary, Lamiaa; Malyk, Yuri; Rothmaier, Katrin; Metz, Isabel; Hickel, Reinhard; Heinrich, Joachim; Manton, David; Standl, Marie

    2018-06-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the caries experience in 15-year-olds with and without demarcated hypomineralised lesions (DHL) in permanent teeth. One thousand three hundred and two 15-year-old adolescents from two ongoing birth cohorts (GINIplus15 and LISAplus15) were examined to determine non-cavitated carious lesions (NCCL) and the DMF index. Furthermore, DHL was scored on all permanent teeth/surfaces according to the molar-incisor hypomineralisation criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (MIH/EAPD). Adolescents with DHL were categorised into those with a minimum of one DHL in the permanent dentition (DHL ≥ 1), with DHL on at least one first permanent molar (MIH/EAPD) and with DHL on at least one first permanent molar and permanent incisor (MIH/Severe). The study was conducted in the metropolitan area of Munich. The proportion of children without caries amounted to 63.7% (DMF > 0) and 26.0% (D 1-4 MF > 0); the caries experience was mean = 4.0(SD = 5.2) NCCL/T and 0.9(1.7) DMF/T. Existence of DHL ≥ 1, MIH/EAPD and MIH/Severe was detected in 40.2, 17.2 and 9.8% of all adolescents, respectively. The corresponding DMF/T values were: no DHL 0.9(1.7); DHL ≥ 1 1.0(1.7); MIH/EAPD 1.1(1.6); MIH/Severe 1.1(1.7). The group of adolescents with MIH/EAPD and MIH/Severe were found to have statistically higher caries rates in comparison to those with no DHL. Caries and DHL are prevalent and influenced the dental health of 15-year-old adolescents. A significant positive association existed between the presence of caries and DHL. Children with MIH/EAPD or MIH/Severe had a higher probability to develop carious lesions in the permanent dentition.

  10. Teacher Development: A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Teachers in Their First Year of Teaching 1988-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Margaret; Ebbeck, M. A.

    A study of graduates of the de Lissa Institute of Early Childhood Studies and the School of Early Childhood Studies (SECS) at the University of Melbourne in Australia identified changes in the professional attitudes of teachers during their first year of teaching. Early childhood teachers working in junior primary schools, preschool kindergartens,…

  11. Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a New South Wales child population at age 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa J; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Laurens, Kristin R; Dean, Kimberlie; Kariuki, Maina; Harris, Felicity; O'Reilly, Nicole; Chilvers, Marilyn; Brinkman, Sally A; Carr, Vaughan J

    2018-06-01

    Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age. We used binary data from 16 subdomains of the Australian Early Development Census to determine classes of children with shared patterns of Australian Early Development Census-defined vulnerability using latent class analysis. Covariates, which included demographic features (sex, socioeconomic status) and exposure to child maltreatment, parental mental illness, parental criminal offending and perinatal adversities (i.e. birth complications, smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight), were examined hierarchically within latent class analysis models. Four classes were identified, reflecting putative risk states for mental disorders: (1) disrespectful and aggressive/hyperactive behaviour, labelled 'misconduct risk' ( N = 4368; 6.5%); (2) 'pervasive risk' ( N = 2668; 4.0%); (3) 'mild generalised risk' ( N = 7822; 11.6%); and (4) 'no risk' ( N = 52,495; 77.9%). The odds of membership in putative risk groups (relative to the no risk group) were greater among children from backgrounds of child maltreatment, parental history of mental illness, parental history of criminal offending, socioeconomic disadvantage and perinatal adversities, with distinguishable patterns of association for some covariates. Patterns of early childhood developmental vulnerabilities may provide useful indicators

  12. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  13. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  14. Three year outcomes in an early intervention service for psychosis in a multicultural and multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Persaud, Albert; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2008-12-01

    Concern has been expressed that it may be difficult to provide certain interventions to some ethnic groups in an Early Intervention Service for Psychosis, and that as a consequence, three-year outcomes for the different Ethnic Groups may be different in different groups. To test whether there are differences between the three year outcomes of different ethnic groups represented in the patient population of an Early Intervention service for Psychosis. The three-year outcomes for the first group of 62 Patients to receive three years treatment in the Early Intervention Service in Luton, Bedfordshire were examined. This group well represented the ethnic mix of the population of Luton. It does not appear that there are major differences between the three-year outcomes of any one of the three groups studied. However the South Asian Patients appear to present earlier, with shorter DUPs, seemed more likely to marry, live with their families, and seem more likely to return to higher education after a first psychotic episode of psychosis compared to the Caucasians. Afro-Carribeans and South Asians were more likely to be unemployed, but many South Asians were employed, as were Caucasians. The fewest persons employed were in the Afro-Caribbean group. While slightly more South Asians and Afro-Carribeans were admitted compulsorily under the mental health act over the three years, 60% of each of the two non-white groups were never admitted compulsorily. This is different from the reported national trends of the Mental Health act being used excessively with the Afro-Caribbean population. No previous study has looked at the outcomes of Early Intervention Services for First Psychotic Episodes according to the Ethnic Origin of the Clients. The better outcomes seen with South Asians are probably due to cultural factors among the South Asians born in this country, rather than to issues related to the Psychotic Illness itself. These findings are important in planning services in areas

  15. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  16. Prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in 5-10-year-old school children in Chidambaram town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Shaheed Ahamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. Aim : The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. Settings and Design : A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. Materials and Methods : An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Statistical Analysis Used : Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows (version 10.0. Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P 0.05. The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%, and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%. It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study

  17. Prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in 5-10-year-old school children in Chidambaram town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, S Syed Shaheed; Reddy, Venugopal N; Krishnakumar, R; Mohan, Muthu G; Sugumaran, Durai K; Rao, Arun P

    2012-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls) between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P loss of primary teeth, but no differences were observed between genders (P > 0.05). The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%), and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%). It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study.

  18. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Marianne; Berry, Tanya; Holt, Nicholas L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2014-05-17

    Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non-screen-based sedentary behavior for children

  19. Influences on Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Science Teaching Practices and the Science Content Covered in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Refika

    2015-01-01

    The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…

  20. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the rapid development during the early years (0-4 years, an understanding of the health implications of physical activity is needed. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured physical activity and health indicators in the early years. Methods Electronic databases were originally searched in April, 2016. Included studies needed to be peer-reviewed, written in English or French, and meet a priori study criteria. The population was apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 59.99 months/4.99 years. The intervention/exposure was objectively and subjectively measured physical activity. The comparator was various volumes, durations, frequencies, patterns, types, and intensities of physical activity. The outcomes were health indicators ranked as critical (adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, fitness and important (bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, and risks/harm. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE framework was used to assess the quality of evidence for each health indicator by each study design. Results Ninety-six studies representing 71,291 unique participants from 36 countries were included. Physical activity interventions were consistently (>60% of studies associated with improved motor and cognitive development, and psychosocial and cardiometabolic health. Across observational studies, physical activity was consistently associated with favourable motor development, fitness, and bone and skeletal health. For intensity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity were not consistently associated with any health indicators, whereas moderate- to vigorous-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity were consistently favourably associated with multiple health indicators. Across study designs, consistent favourable associations with

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life up to Six Years After 125I Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeloffzen, Ellen M.A.; Lips, Irene M.; Gellekom, Marion P.R. van; Roermund, Joep van; Frank, Steven J.; Battermann, Jan J.; Vulpen, Marco van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after prostate brachytherapy has been extensively described in published reports but hardly any long-term data are available. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess long-term HRQOL 6 years after 125 I prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 127 patients treated with 125 I brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer between December 2000 and June 2003 completed a HRQOL questionnaire at five time-points: before treatment and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years after treatment. The questionnaire included the RAND-36 generic health survey, the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30), and the tumor-specific EORTC prostate cancer module (EORTC-PR25). A change in a score of ≥10 points was considered clinically relevant. Results: Overall, the HRQOL at 6 years after 125 I prostate brachytherapy did not significantly differ from baseline. Although a statistically significant deterioration in HRQOL at 6 years was seen for urinary symptoms, bowel symptoms, pain, physical functioning, and sexual activity (p 125 I prostate brachytherapy. HRQOL scores returned to approximately baseline values at 1 year and remained stable up to 6 years after treatment. 125 I prostate brachytherapy did not adversely affect patients' long-term HRQOL.

  2. Good-quality diet in the early years may have a positive effect on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Foster, Jonathan K; Hickling, Siobhan; Jacques, Angela; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between early diet and academic performance during childhood. Participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 2287). Frequency of consumption of food and beverages was collected at the one-, two- and three-year follow-ups, using a 24-hour food recall. Diet scores were developed from the number of eating occasions. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) data from grades five (age 10) and seven (age 12) were linked to the Raine study using The Western Australian Data Linkage System. The association between diet scores and WALNA scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. A higher (i.e. better quality) diet score at one year of age was associated with significantly higher scores in mathematics, reading, writing and spelling at both grades five and seven. Associations were observed between a higher diet score at two years and academic scores for mathematics, writing and spelling at grade seven. Higher dairy consumption at ages one, two and three, and higher fruit consumption at age one were associated with higher academic scores at all ages. Quality of early diet may be a predictor for later academic achievement. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Early results of Latitude primary total elbow replacement with a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh S; Watts, Adam C; Talwalkar, Sumedh C; Birch, Ann; Nuttall, David; Trail, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present outcomes of primary Latitude total elbow replacement (TER) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with prospective outcome data collection for the latest outcome. Included were 63 consecutive primary Latitude TERs in 58 patients performed during a period of 5 years at a specialist orthopedic hospital. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (33-85 years). Five primary TERs (4 patients) were lost to follow-up. The primary diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis in 49, osteoarthritis in 8, and trauma in 6 elbows. The mean flexion-extension arc was 75° preoperatively and 97° postoperatively. Mean postoperative Elbex pain score was 19/100, and function score was 37/100. Mean postoperative scores were 42/100 for the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and 38/50 for the elbow-specific American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment. Four patients died of unrelated causes, and 8 of 63 underwent further surgical intervention, including explantation and conversion from unlinked to linked implant. On radiographic review of 41 surviving TERs, aseptic radiologic loosening was observed of the humeral component in 4 elbows and of the ulnar component in 9. Seven elbows had no radial component, and of the remaining 34 elbows, 16 (47%) had signs of loosening of the radial implant. Complications included 1 heterotopic ossification, 1 olecranon fracture, and 3 further procedures for ulnar nerve entrapment. The results indicate that the early outcome of Latitude TER is comparable to that of other prostheses. There is concern about early radiologic loosening of the radial component. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Image and Politics of Coca-Cola: From the Early Years to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Othman, Dalia

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Coca-Cola from its early years to the present and discusses how the Company perpetuated the various images it sought for Coke through brilliant leadership, marketing, and the manipulation of events, and how it was able to develop and use its political connections to overcome government-created obstacles and cultural resistance to its products both within and without the United States. The paper will discuss the history of Coca-Cola’s inter...

  6. The female dragons awake: women, sport and society in the early years of the new China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J

    2001-01-01

    This article, based on archival records, published documents, interviews with elite sportswomen and three regional case studies, deals with the radical social, economic, cultural and political changes in the early years of the Communist China, the consequent changes in women's lives and the eventual extraordinary impact on elite women's sport. It analyses the complicated relations between the communist system, gender ideology, sports policy, international politics and elite women's sport. With the establishment of a variety of sports institutions, systems and structures women in increasing numbers took part in competitive sport and produced even increasingly remarkable achievements.

  7. Determinants of early-stage hearing loss among a cohort of young workers with 16-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; Wood, Douglas J; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Pickett, William

    2012-07-01

    The authors had a unique opportunity to study the early impacts of occupational and recreational exposures on the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a cohort of 392 young workers. The objectives of this study were to estimate strength of associations between occupational and recreational exposures and occurrence of early-stage NIHL and to determine the extent to which relationships between specific noise exposures and early-stage NIHL were mitigated through the use of hearing protection. Participants were young adults who agreed to participate in a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. While the follow-up study was designed to observe long-term effects (up to 16 years) of a hearing conservation intervention for high school students, it also provided opportunity to study the potential aetiology of NIHL in this worker cohort. Study data were collected via exposure history questionnaires and clinical audiometric examinations. Over the 16-year study period, the authors documented changes to hearing acuity that exceeded 15 dB at high frequencies in 42.8% of men and 27.7% of women. Analyses of risk factors for NIHL were limited to men, who comprised 68% of the cohort, and showed that risks increased in association with higher levels of the most common recreational and occupational noise sources, as well as chemical exposures with ototoxic potential. Use of hearing protection and other safety measures, although not universal and sometimes modest, appeared to offer some protection. Early-stage NIHL can be detected in young workers by measuring high-frequency changes in hearing acuity. Hearing conservation programmes should focus on a broader range of exposures, whether in occupational or non-occupational settings. Priority exposures include gunshots, chainsaws, power tools, smoking and potentially some chemical exposures.

  8. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  9. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Olivier Le; Grunder, Ueli

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL) and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland) enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST) was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1-5.4) years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3-5.9) years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland). In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5%) and 23 TST implants (1.5%) failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  10. A Critical Examination of Education Reforms Implemented in the Early Years of the Turkish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yılmaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fundamental reforms in different spheres of Turkey’s institutions were swiftly implemented in a top-down manner in the early years of the Turkish Republic under Atatürk’s leadership. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the alphabet and language reforms put into practice in the years between the 1920s and 1930s. Since an analysis of socio-cultural and socio-political context is fundamental to understanding any reform initiatives, the article examines the alphabet and language reforms within the larger social, cultural, and political context within which they were carried out. In order to evaluate these reforms from a broader perspective, the article also scrutinizes the assumptions, beliefs, ideologies, and goals of those politicians or reformers who implemented them.

  11. Arterial stiffness in 10-year-old children: current and early determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian; Larsen, Dorthe; Martyn, Christopher; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that CVD has its origins in early life. An impairment of fetal growth and early postnatal nutrition may have programming effects on cardiovascular physiology. In addition, traditional risk factors for CVD may initiate the atherosclerotic process during childhood. We explored the effect of fat intake, physical activity and lipid profile in childhood, and birth weight, growth during infancy and breast-feeding on arterial stiffness in a cohort study of ninety-three 10-year-old children followed during infancy and re-examined at the age of 10 years. Arterial stiffness in two arterial segments (aorto-radial and aorto-femoral) was measured as pulse wave velocity. Arterial stiffness was inversely associated with physical activity (a regression coefficient in cm/s (95 % CI) of -6.8 (-11.2, -2.4) and -3.9 (-6.9, -0.8) per h of high physical activity/d in the aorto-radial and aorto-femoral segments, respectively). Arterial stiffness was also positively associated with dietary fat energy percentage (3.1 (95 % CI 0.9, 5.2) and 1.8 (95 % CI 0.2, 3.2) per fat energy percentage in the aorto-radial and aorto-femoral segments, respectively) but was not related to body composition, insulin resistance or lipid profile. Arterial stiffness was also positively associated with duration of breast-feeding for the aorto-femoral segment only (2.1 (95 % CI 0.4, 3.7) per month) but was not associated with growth in early life. In conclusion, patterns of physical activity and diet, and history of breast-feeding in infancy, have an influence on the stiffness of the large arteries in children. The long-term effects of this are unknown.

  12. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  13. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The cross‐lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874

  15. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  17. Differences in risk factors for voluntary early retirement and disability pension: a 15-year follow-up in a cohort of nurses' aides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L. D.; Ryom, P. K.; Christensen, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    of nurses' aides established in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. SETTING: Nurses' aides working in nursery homes, homecare or hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 3332 gainfully employed nurses' aides at the time of inclusion in the study. OUTCOME: Disability pension or early voluntary retirement. RESULTS: 16......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of early retirement and to examine risk factors for voluntary early retirement and disability pension in a cohort of nurses' aides. DESIGN: Register study including baseline questionnaire and register data covering all transfer incomes from 1991 to 2008 in a cohort.......2% of the population was granted disability pension and 27.1% entered early voluntary retirement in the follow-up period representing 11 186 lost working years with a direct cost in transfer payment amounting about euro410 million. Health-related risk factors for disability pension was long-lasting low-back pain (HR 2...

  18. A randomized controlled study of early headgear treatment on occlusal stability--a 13 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Kiuttu, Päivi; Julku, Johanna; Silvola, Anna-Sofia; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the long-term occlusal stability in a group treated early with headgear (HG) compared with a control group. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3), randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately, while in the control group only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Fixed appliance treatment, if needed, including extraction of permanent teeth due to crowding, was undertaken after the completion of early treatment. The records were available from the start of the early treatment and at follow-up after 2, 4, 8, and 13 years. The US-weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, graded according to the severity of malocclusion, was used to evaluate occlusal stability. Little's Irregularity Index (LII)and intercanine distance in the lower arch were measured at all time periods. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) scores was used for evaluation of dental aesthetics at the last follow-up. Parametric tests were applied for statistical analyses, except for the evaluation of aesthetics, where a non-parametric test was used. No significant differences were found when long-term stability between the HG and control groups was evaluated at the 13 year follow-up. Lower PAR scores were observed in patients treated without extraction of teeth. A greater irregularity in lower incisor alignment before treatment was found in subjects later treated with extractions. The findings of this study seem to suggest that treatment timing has only a minor influence on stability.

  19. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  20. All that's mine I carry with me. Early life disease and adult health in Sweden during 250 years

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study early life risk exposures in relation to adult health and mortality in Sweden during 250 years. A number of causal mechanisms by which exposure to diseases and stressful economic and social conditions early in life may lead to increased morbidity and mortality later in life are discussed (paper I). The early life exposures investigated are the foetal origins (nutrition) and the inflammation hypotheses. Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for indi...

  1. Radiotherapy in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture. Long-term results after 13 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, Nicolas; Ott, Oliver J.; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer; Adamietz, Boris; Keilholz, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In early-stage Dupuytren's contracture, radiotherapy is applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term outcome and late toxicity of the treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Patients and Methods: Between 12/1982 and 02/2006, 135 patients (208 hands) were irradiated with orthovoltage (120 kV; 20 mA; 4-mm Al filter), in two courses with five daily fractions of 3.0 Gy to a total dose of 30 Gy; separated by a 6- to 8-week interval. The extent of disease was described according to a modified classification of Tubiana et al. Long-term outcome was analyzed at last follow-up between 02/2008 and 05/2008 with a median follow-up of 13 years (range, 2-25 years). Late treatment toxicity and objective reduction of symptoms as change in stage and numbers of nodules and cords were evaluated and used as evidence to assess treatment response. Results: According to the individual stages, 123 cases (59%) remained stable, 20 (10%) improved, and 65 (31%) progressed. In stage N 87% and in stage N/I 70% remained stable or even regressed. In more advanced stages, the rate of disease progression increased to 62% (stage I) or 86% (stage II). 66% of the patients showed a long-term relief of symptoms (i.e., burning sensations, itching and scratching, pressure and tension). Radiotherapy did not increase the complication rate after surgery in case of disease progression and only minor late toxicity (skin atrophy, dry desquamation) could be observed in 32% of the patients. There was no evidence for a second malignancy induced by radiotherapy. Conclusion: After a mean follow-up of 13 years radiotherapy is effective in prevention of disease progression and improves patients' symptoms in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture (stage N, N/I). In case of disease progression after radiotherapy, a ''salvage'' operation is still feasible. (orig.)

  2. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  5. A "Politics against Social Submission": Of Early Years Teachers' Accessibility and Work with Children in Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the claim that teachers' subjective experiences can lead to social change through the perspective of the early years teacher in Quebec. Fourteen early childhood teachers participated in memory writing and individual interviews. Data were inductively coded and analysed in terms of the teachers' subjective experiences of:…

  6. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  7. Motor Development Skills of 1- to 4-Year-Old Iranian Children with Early Treated Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU in children in the age range of 1–4 years. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up, Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalaninerestricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2–6 mg/dL or 120–360 mmol/L. Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2, and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results: The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (±11.6 and 29.7 (±11.3 months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05. The fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (P<0.001 and total (P=0.001 DMQs. Conclusion: It seems that ETPKU Iranian children, regardless of following a phenylalanine-restricted diet or not, have lower motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  8. Motor development skills of 1- to 4-year-old Iranian children with early treated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Sepideh; Rohani, Farzaneh; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Setoodeh, Arya

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) in children in the age range of 1-4 years. Methods : A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up), Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalanine-restricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2-6 mg/dL or 120-360 μmol/L). Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2), and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results : The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (± 11.6) and 29.7 (± 11.3) months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs) showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (p fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (p motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  9. The Brookline Early Education Project: a 25-year follow-up study of a family-centered early health and development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfrey, Judith S; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Bronson, Martha B; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Sirin, Selcuk; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-07-01

    Clinicians, scientists, and policy makers are increasingly taking interest in the long-term outcomes of early intervention programs undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, which were intended to improve young children's health and educational prospects. The Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) was an innovative, community-based program that provided health and developmental services for children and their families from 3 months before birth until entry into kindergarten. It was open to all families in the town of Brookline and to families from neighboring Boston, to include a mixture of families from suburban and urban communities. The goal of the project, which was administered by the Brookline Public Schools, was to ensure that children would enter kindergarten healthy and ready to learn. Outcome studies of BEEP and comparison children during kindergarten and second grade demonstrated the program's effectiveness during the early school years. The goal of this follow-up study was to test the hypotheses that BEEP participants, in comparison with their peers, would have higher levels of educational attainment, higher incomes, and more positive health behaviors, mental health, and health efficacy during the young adult period. Participants were young adults who were enrolled in the BEEP project from 1973 to 1978. Comparison subjects were young adults in Boston and Brookline who did not participate in BEEP but were matched to the BEEP group with respect to age, ethnicity, mother's educational level, and neighborhood (during youth). A total of 169 children were enrolled originally in BEEP and monitored through second grade. The follow-up sample included a total of 120 young adults who had participated in BEEP as children. The sample differed from the original BEEP sample in having a slightly larger proportion of college-educated mothers and a slightly smaller proportion of urban families but otherwise resembled the original BEEP sample. The demographic features of

  10. Early medical skull surgery for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis 5,000 years ago.

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    Pierpaolo Petrone

    Full Text Available Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP. Morphological, X-ray and 3D-CT scan skull-cap evaluation revealed that the main orifice was produced by scraping, obtained by clockwise rotary motion of a right-handed surgeon facing the patient, while the partial trephination was carried out by using a stone point as a drilling tool. In both cases, bone regrowth is indicative of the individual's prolonged postoperative survival and his near-complete recovery. The right femur shows a poorly healed mid-shaft fracture presumably induced by a high energy injury, and a resulting chronic osteomyelitis, affecting both femurs by hematogenous spread of the infection. Our observations on the visual and radiological features of skull and femur lesions, along with evidence on the timing of experimental bone regrowth vs. healing of lower limb fractures associated to long-term bone infections now suggest that this young man underwent a double skull trephination in order to alleviate his extremely painful condition induced by chronic osteomyelitis, which is thought to have been the cause of death.

  11. Sociophysiology 25 years ago: early perspectives of an emerging discipline now part of social neuroscience.

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    Barchas, Patricia R; Barchas, Jack D

    2011-08-01

    Sociophysiology was a term used early in the history of sociology and then again 25 years ago to describe interactions between the "social" and the "biological" worlds. Social scientists had largely viewed biology and the brain as a "black box" that was not an active aspect of their work or theories. A landmark, unpublished conference in 1986 brought together social scientists and biologists dedicated to the idea that bringing sociological conceptualizations and approaches together with those of physiology might create new ways to understand human behavior. The umbrella question for sociophysiology was dual: how do social processes impact the physiology of the organism, and how does that altered physiology affect future social behavior? This paper summarizes that conference with the goal of providing a glimpse into the early history of social neuroscience and to demonstrate the variety of individuals and interests that were present at the emergence of this new field. The late Patricia R. Barchas organized and chaired the conference. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya

    2018-01-01

    aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during...... variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate...... of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression...

  13. An early colonisation pathway into northwest Australia 70-60,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kasih; Inglis, Josha; Clarkson, Chris; Faith, J. Tyler; Shulmeister, James; Harris, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Colonisation of Sahul 70-60 thousand years ago (kya) represents the first great maritime migration undertaken by anatomically modern humans in one of the final phases of the Out of Africa dispersal. Visual connectivity network analyses, agent-based simulations and ocean current modelling reveal that modern humans could follow numerous northern and southern migration pathways into Sahul. Our results support a southern route out of Africa through South Asia with entry into ISEA through the Banda Arc, culminating in an early colonisation of Sahul on the northwest shelf. Our results show multiple colonisation events through other entry points were also probable, and raise interesting possibilities for complex regional migration and population histories.

  14. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

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    Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.

  15. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  16. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

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    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  17. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Avigdor; Barnett, Lisa M; Rose, Lauren; Brooks, Lyndon O; Molyneux, Maxine; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian; Salmon, Jo

    2012-10-22

    Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick) is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: 'Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools'. Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1), five (T2) and eight years (T3) for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no) and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0) was used. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560). Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73). Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002), but intervention boys did not (p = .591). At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801). Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  18. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  19. Evaluation of early and late complications in patients with congenital lobar emphysema: A 12 year experience

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    Nazem Masood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is characterised by over distension of one lobe and pressure on the adjacent lobe and mediastinum. In this study, we review the pathological results of our paediatric patients with CLE, highlighting the early and late complications that occurred in these patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study from 1996 to 2008, we evaluated 30 patients with CLE diagnosis. Variables collected included sex, age at the time of diagnosis, radiological diagnostic method, type of treatment, pathological analysis, surgical findings and early postoperative complications. Parents were asked to refer to our clinic for follow-up and evaluation of late complications. Results: Thirty patients and males accounted for majority of the study population (n = 20, 67%. The mean age of male and female patients (at admission was 7.2 ± 2.3 and 4.7 ± 1.2 months respectively (P = not significant. The main diagnostic method was chest x-ray (CXR in all patients. Abnormal bronchial cartilage was found in 71% of patients. The most affected lobe was left upper lobe (50%. Associated anomalies were seen in four patients. Early postoperative periodhadtwo cases of pneumothoraces. At six month follow up, five (25% males and four females (40% had delayed weight gain. Permanent oxygen dependency was seen in two patients. Twenty- six patients underwent thoracotomy. Mortality rate was 13%. Base deficit at the time of admission was greater in those patients who eventually died, (-8.6 ± 1.2 versus -3.1 ± 0.4 (P = 0.0003. There were two deaths in the bilobar involvement group and two in the unilobar involvement group (P = 0.07, near significant. Conclusion: This study confirms that the number of affected lobes and base deficit at the time of admission were associated with significantly increased mortality.

  20. Two-year outcomes of the Early Risers prevention trial with formerly homeless families residing in supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Lee, Susanne; Morrell, Nicole; August, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This article reports 2-year outcomes from a cluster randomized, controlled trial of the Early Risers (ER) program implemented as a selective preventive intervention in supportive housing settings for homeless families. Based on the goals of this comprehensive prevention program, we predicted that intervention participants receiving ER services would show improvement in parenting and child outcomes relative to families in treatment-as-usual sites. The sample included 270 children in 161 families, residing in 15 supportive housing sites; multimethod, multi-informant assessments conducted at baseline and yearly thereafter included parent and teacher report of child adjustment, parent report of parenting self-efficacy, and parent-child observations that yielded scores of effective parenting practices. Data were modeled in HLM7 (4-level model accounting for nesting of children within families and families within housing sites). Two years' postbaseline, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses indicated that parents in the ER group showed significantly improved parenting self-efficacy, and parent report indicated significant reductions in ER group children's depression. No main effects of ITT were shown for observed parenting effectiveness. However, over time, average levels of parenting self-efficacy predicted observed effective parenting practices, and observed effective parenting practices predicted improvements in both teacher- and parent-report of child adjustment. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate prevention effects of a program for homeless families residing in family supportive housing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Larger Subcortical Gray Matter Structures and Smaller Corpora Callosa at Age 5 Years in HIV Infected Children on Early ART

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    Steven R. Randall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of HIV infected (HIV+ children. Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV/AIDS has transitioned to a chronic condition where central nervous system (CNS damage may be ongoing. Although, most guidelines recommend early ART to reduce CNS viral reservoirs, the brain may be more vulnerable to potential neurotoxic effects of ART during the rapid development phase in the first years of life. Here we investigate differences in subcortical volumes between 5-year-old HIV+ children who received early ART (before age 18 months and uninfected children using manual tracing of Magnetic Resonance Images. Participants included 61 Xhosa children (43 HIV+/18 uninfected, mean age = 5.4 ± 0.3 years, 25 male from the children with HIV early antiretroviral (CHER trial; 27 children initiated ART before 12 weeks of age (ART-Before12Wks and 16 after 12 weeks (ART-After12Wks. Structural images were acquired on a 3T Allegra MRI in Cape Town and manually traced using MultiTracer. Volumetric group differences (HIV+ vs. uninfected; ART-Before12Wks vs. ART-After12Wks were examined for the caudate, nucleus accumbens (NA, putamen (Pu, globus pallidus (GP, and corpus callosum (CC, as well as associations within infected children of structure volumes with age at ART initiation and CD4/CD8 as a proxy for immune health. HIV+ children had significantly larger NA and Pu volumes bilaterally and left GP volumes than controls, whilst CC was smaller. Bilateral Pu was larger in both treatment groups compared to controls, while left GP and bilateral NA were enlarged only in ART-After12Wks children. CC was smaller in both treatment groups compared to controls, and smaller in ART-After12Wks compared to ART-Before12Wks. Within infected children, delayed ART initiation was associated with larger Pu volumes, effects that remained significant when controlling for sex and duration of treatment interruption (left β = 0.447, p = 0.005; right β = 0

  2. Learning and teaching natural science in the early years: A case study of three different contexts

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    Angela James

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.

  3. Analysis of texts produced by students of the early years: guidelines for a possible diagnosis

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    Terezinha da Conceição Costa-Hübes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of students’ texts requires from the teacher scientific knowledge about language which provides him subsidies for the diagnosis of the writings. Thus, this paper aims to present some reflections on the possibilities of using a diagnostic table, designed with the purpose of guiding the teacher – when assessing the student’s text – in the identification of the mastered and non-mastered aspects in writing. The designing of the table is the result of studies carried out by a study group on Portuguese language, consisting of teachers of the early years and supported by the theories of speech genres (BAKHTIN, 2003 and text genres (BRONCKART, 2003, the concept of text as a teaching unit (GERALDI, 1984 and, more specifically, the discussions on practices of linguistic analysis (GERALDI, 1984 and 1997. In order to test the use of the table, we will take texts of the genre ‘note’ produced by students of the 3rd year of elementary school, considering genre, text and spelling aspects.

  4. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-12-30

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  5. An Early Years Toolbox for Assessing Early Executive Function, Language, Self-Regulation, and Social Development: Validity, Reliability, and Preliminary Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Melhuish, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years Toolbox (EYT) offers substantial advantages for early assessment of language, EF, self-regulation, and social development. In the current study, results of our large-scale administration of this toolbox to 1,764 preschool and early primary school students indicated very good reliability, convergent validity with existing measures, and developmental sensitivity. Results were also suggestive of better capture of children's emerging abilities relative to comparison measures. Preliminary norms are presented, showing a clear developmental trajectory across half-year age groups. The accessibility of the EYT, as well as its advantages over existing measures, offers considerably enhanced opportunities for objective measurement of young children's abilities to enable research and educational applications.

  6. Prosthetic rehabilitation in a four-year-old child with severe early childhood caries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; de Souza-E-Silva, Cintia Maria; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a 4-year-old girl presenting early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is highly prevalent in developing countries and its severity increases with age. This disease implies serious consequences for the development of the stomatognathic system and for the child's quality of life. As young children are usually anxious about dental treatment, their level of co-operation is limited, leading to a challenging situation. A 4-year-old girl was brought by her mother for dental treatment with the complaint of pain. The clinical examination revealed extensive carious coronary destructions. After preventive and curative measures, the oral rehabilitation was performed; it included the use of stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns with previous cementation of glass post pins when necessary, an amalgam restoration, orthodontic treatment, and a partial removable prosthesis. The child has been monitored in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at 4-monthly intervals. The oral rehabilitation was able to reestablish the oral health in the primary arches mutilated by early childhood caries. This is important for the establishment of an adequate mixed and permanent dentition, for proper facial and maxillary growth, and to the child's psychological and social development. The full management, including preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with severe ECC was found successful after 8 months of follow up. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns, and partial removable prosthesis to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psycho-social development.

  7. Impact of a Comprehensive Early Clinical Exposure Program for Preclinical Year Medical Students

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    Sumitra Govindarajan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the impact of an early clinical exposure program designed to provide a wide variety (cognitive, affective and psychomotor of learning experiences for the preclinical year students. Method: One hundred and fifty preclinical students were posted in small groups to selected departments – Transfusion medicine, Catheterization lab, Simulation lab, Radiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Respiratory medicine and General surgery. Each student had atleast ten hours  of clinical exposure under this program. The program was evaluated through a series of pre and post-test questionnaires, which were designed based on the learning objectives of each session. Students who wished to participate in the program evaluation gave informed consent, took up the pre / post test and were also asked to give their written open comments about the program. Results: There was a significant increase in the post-test scores (ranging from 9.14±2.67 to 36.65±6.62 when compared to the pre-test scores (ranging from 7.94±2.31 to 28.69±6.11 for all the sessions (p value <0.001, n=144. Analysis of the open feedback showed that the program had significant impact on the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. “Application of basic sciences in clinical practice”, “motivation to learn”, “got familiar with various specialties”, “insight about what the patient undergoes” were the themes identified from the open comments. Conclusion: The innovative use of early clinical exposure program to teach/learn clinical skills like phlebotomy and Basic Life Support had been well appreciated by the students. The present design involving a variety of learning experiences has been successful in introducing the various dimensions of medical profession like scientific, ethical, interpersonal, professional and social to the new entrants in addition to enhancing their motivation to learn. Keywords: Attitude, Learning, Simulation lab, Medical education, Curriculum

  8. The Early Years of Molecular Dynamics and Computers at UCRL, LRL, LLL, and LLNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansigh Karlsen, Mary Ann

    I'm the young woman in the picture shown in Fig. 12.1 that appeared with the invitation to the Symposium to celebrate Berni Alder's ninetieth birthday. I worked with Berni for over 25 years on the computer programs that provided the data he needed to write the fifteen papers published in scientific journals on Studies in Molecular Dynamics. My name appears at the end of each one thanking me for computer support. It has been interesting to look on the Internet to find my name in the middle of many foreign languages, including Japanese characters and Russian Cyrillic script. It shows how Berni's work has been of interest to many scientists all over the world from the earliest years. Figure 12.1 was also included with articles written when he received the National Medal of Science from President Obama in 2009…

  9. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  10. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  11. Impact of Early Head Start in North Carolina on Dental Care Use Among Children Younger Than 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Jacqueline M; Preisser, John S; Weinberger, Morris; King, Rebecca S; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS), an early education program for low-income children younger than 3 years and their families, on dental care use among children. We performed a quasi-experimental study in which we interviewed 479 EHS and 699 non-EHS parent-child dyads at baseline (2010-2012) and at a 24-month follow-up (2012-2014). We estimated the effects of EHS participation on the probability of having a dental care visit after controlling for baseline dental care need and use and a propensity score covariate; we included random effects to account for EHS program clustering. The odds of having a dental care visit of any type (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.74, 3.48) and having a preventive dental visit (adjusted OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.63) were higher among EHS children than among non-EHS children. In addition, the adjusted mean number of dental care visits among EHS children was 1.3 times (95% CI = 1.17, 1.55) the mean number among non-EHS children. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that EHS participation increases dental care use among disadvantaged young children.

  12. The early years of Title V: extending and improving care for children with special health care needs, 1935-1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Laurel Iverson; Mulvihill, Beverly A

    2011-02-01

    This historical study examines the early years of the federal program of services for children with physical disabilities in the United States (US) during the 1930s, known today as services for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). Established as part of the Social Security Act (SSA) of 1935, the Crippled Children Services (CCS) program was one of the first medical programs for children supported by the federal government. Under the SSA, states and territories quickly developed state-level CCS programs during the late 1930s. The US Children's Bureau administered the program for the federal government and helped states to incorporate preventive services and interdisciplinary approaches to service provision into state-level CCS programs. Factors that influenced the implementation of these programs included the availability of matching state funds, the establishment of state programs for crippled children prior to the SSA, and the accessibility of qualified health care professionals and facilities. The early efforts of this federal program on behalf of children with disabilities can be seen in services for CSHCN today.

  13. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  14. Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.

  15. The Identification of Teaching Interactions Used in One-to-One Teaching of Number in the Early Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on phase one of an investigation of video recorded intensive one-to-one teaching interactions with 6-7-year-old students who were in their second year of schooling in Australia and identified by the their teacher as low attaining in early number. The two-phased study from which this paper emerges was originally…

  16. Continuous education of teachers of elementary school (early years key in the context of meeting and intergenerational exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Henrique da Silva Ramos

    2017-03-01

    This study is based on a Master’s research in progress thataims to analyze that formative relationships are established betweenbeginning young teachers, recently graduated or with a maximum of fiveyears of teaching experience - and experienced teachers - aged forty yearsor more and about fifteen or more years of teaching, within an elementaryschool (early years, conceived as a training space. It has been hypothesized

  17. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  18. Margaret and Rachel McMillan: Their Influences on Open-Air Nursery Education and Early Years Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebovich, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Rachel and Margaret McMillan created an open-air nursery in Deptford, London that has influenced early years education for 100 years. Their vision for young children living in poverty and deprivation to have access to fresh air through outdoor learning, nutritious meals, and an enriching environment to explore and develop has been embraced and…

  19. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  20. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  1. Early maternal depressive symptom trajectories: Associations with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Predictors of receiving therapy among very low birth weight 2-year olds eligible for Part C early intervention in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2013-07-11

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Part C) authorizes states to establish systems to provide early intervention services (e.g., therapy) for children at risk, with the incentive of federal financial support. This study examines family and neighborhood characteristics associated with currently utilizing physical, occupational, or speech therapy among very low birthweight (VLBW) 2-year-old children who meet Wisconsin eligibility requirements for early intervention services (EI) due to developmental delay. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the Newborn Lung Project, a regional cohort study of VLBW infants hospitalized in Wisconsin's newborn intensive care units during 2003-2004. We included the 176 children who were age two at follow-up, and met Wisconsin state eligibility requirements for EI based on developmental delay. Exact logistic regression was used to describe child and neighborhood socio-demographic correlates of parent-reported receipt of therapy. Among VLBW children with developmental delay, currently utilizing therapy was higher among children with Medicaid (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 28.3) and concomitant developmental disability (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 13.3) and lower for those living in a socially more disadvantaged neighborhood (aOR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.98, per tertile). Among a sample of VLBW 2-year olds with developmental delays who are EI-eligible in WI, 4 out of 5 were currently receiving therapy, per parent report. Participation in Medicaid positively influences therapy utilization. Children with developmental difficulties who live in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods are at highest risk for not receiving therapy.

  3. Normative monocular visual acuity for early treatment diabetic retinopathy study charts in emmetropic children 5 to 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-07-01

    To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Cross-sectional study. A total of 252 Native American (Tohono O'odham) children aged 5 to 12 years. On the basis of cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia < or =0.25 diopter [D] spherical equivalent, hyperopia < or =1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism < or =0.50 D in both eyes). Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using 1 ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE) and another for the left eye (LE). Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE versus the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for 5-year-olds (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining whether a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 6- to 12-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 6- to 12-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 6- to 12-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a child's visual acuity results should

  4. Early Loading of Single-Piece Implant for Partially Edentulous Posterior Arch: A Prospective One-Year Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Beldar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant therapy is now well established, and there is an increasing need for shorter rehabilitation time. Original prerequisites of osseointegration have been reassessed to satisfy continuously increasing patient's expectation of reduced treatment time, improved esthetics, and increased comfort. Shorter healing time may be appropriate in some circumstances, and examples of early loading have been reported in animal and human studies. However, to date there are insufficient data to determine a universally acceptable opinion on early loading of implants for single-tooth replacement. This case report involves early loading, combined with construction of a restoration, inserted directly after 6 weeks of implant surgery and followup of one year.

  5. Archigregarines of the English Channel revisited: New molecular data on Selenidium species including early described and new species and the uncertainties of phylogenetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Rueckert

    Full Text Available Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l. and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.. While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules features.In this study we revisited five of the early-described species of the genus Selenidium including the type species Selenidium pendula, with special focus on surface ultrastructure and molecular data. We were also able to describe three new species within this genus. All species were characterized at morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy data and molecular (SSU rDNA sequence data levels. Gregarine specimens were isolated from polychaete hosts collected from the English Channel near the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France: Selenidium pendula from Scolelepis squamata, S. hollandei and S. sabellariae from Sabellaria alveolata, S. sabellae from Sabella pavonina, Selenidium fallax from Cirriformia tentaculata, S. spiralis sp. n. and S. antevariabilis sp. n. from Amphitritides gracilis, and S. opheliae sp. n. from Ophelia roscoffensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data showed archigregarines clustering into five separate clades and support previous doubts about their monophyly.Our phylogenies using the extended gregarine sampling show that the archigregarines are indeed not monophyletic with one strongly supported clade of Selenidium sequences around the type species S. pendula. We suggest the revision of the whole archigregarine taxonomy with only the species within this clade remaining in the genus

  6. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Bingham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring physical activity (PA and sedentary time (ST in young children (<5 years is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ. In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6% questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4% were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD = 1.1. All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47 and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA(ICC = 0.35. The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1 and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1 limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19 and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30. The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not

  8. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  9. Quality Improvement in Early Years Settings in Hong Kong and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Campbell-Barr, Verity; Leeson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    With a growing awareness of the importance of early childhood education, the governments of Hong Kong and England have both increased investment through providing fee assistance to parents for buying services and providing funding to providers for offering "free" places, respectively. Alongside the increased funding of early childhood…

  10. Introducing Bruner: A Guide for Practitioners and Students in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Sandra Smidt takes the reader on a journey through the key concepts of Jerome Bruner, a significant figure in the field of early education whose work has spanned almost a century. His wide-ranging and innovative principles of early learning and teaching are unpicked here using everyday language and the links between his ideas and those of other…

  11. Observing and Assessing Young Children's Digital Play in the Early Years: Using the Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Bird, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education settings are characterized by the use of play-based learning and the assessment of children's play by teachers to promote further learning. A problem with technology use in early childhood settings is that little is known about how children learn to use technologies through play. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult…

  12. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  13. Early developmental trajectories of number knowledge and math achievement from 4 to 10 years: Low-persistent profile and early-life predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia; Parent, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Dionne, Ginette

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the development of number knowledge (NK) and the antecedents of low-persistent NK profiles in early childhood. We documented the developmental trajectories of NK across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles. Children's NK was assessed four times at regular intervals between the ages 4 and 7 years in a large, representative population-based sample. Developmental trajectories of NK were established for 1597 children. These children were also assessed with respect to several features of their family environment at 5, 17, and 29 months, as well as their cognitive skills at age 41 months. Analyses revealed a best-fitting 4-trajectory model, characterized by Low-Increasing (10% of the children), Moderate-Increasing (39%), Moderate-Fast Increasing (32%) and High-Increasing (19%) groups. Children of these trajectory groups differed significantly with respect to math achievement at ages 8 and 10 years, with the Low-Increasing group persistently scoring lower than the other groups throughout these years. Children of Low-Increasing NK group were from household of lower income and father with low educational background, poorer early cognitive development, and more importantly, reduced visual-spatial skills and memory-span. Children displaying reduced cognitive abilities and impoverished living conditions early in life are at greater risk of low NK throughout late preschool and school entry, with ensuing difficulties in math achievement. They deserve early preventive attention to help alleviate later mathematic difficulties. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  15. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  16. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A five-year model to assess the early cost-effectiveness of new diagnostic tests in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisman, Leander R; Luime, Jolanda J; Oppe, Mark; Hazes, Johanna M W; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2016-06-10

    There is a lack of information about the sensitivity, specificity and costs new diagnostic tests should have to improve early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the early cost-effectiveness of various new diagnostic test strategies in the workup of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) at risk of having RA. A decision tree followed by a patient-level state transition model, using data from published literature, cohorts and trials, was used to evaluate diagnostic test strategies. Alternative tests were assessed as add-on to or replacement of the ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria for all patients and for intermediate-risk patients. Tests included B-cell gene expression (sensitivity 0.60, specificity 0.90, costs €150), MRI (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.60, costs €756), IL-6 serum level (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.53, costs €50) and genetic assay (sensitivity 0.40, specificity 0.85, costs €750). Patients with IA at risk of RA were followed for 5 years using a societal perspective. Guideline treatment was assumed using tight controlled treatment based on DAS28; if patients had a DAS28 >3.2 at 12 months or later patients could be eligible for starting biological drugs. The outcome was expressed in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (€2014 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) and headroom. The B-cell test was the least expensive strategy when used as an add-on and as replacement in intermediate-risk patients, making it the dominant strategy, as it has better health outcomes and lower costs. As add-on for all patients, the B-cell test was also the most cost-effective test strategy. When using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per QALY gained, the IL-6 and MRI strategies were not cost-effective, except as replacement. A genetic assay was not cost-effective in any strategy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the B-cell test was consistently superior in all strategies. When

  18. Is severe early childhood caries predictive of caries and fluorosis in permanent teeth? Ten-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Lorena NUNES-DOS-SANTOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe early childhood caries is defined as the presence of any sign of decay in children younger than three years. Objective This retrospective longitudinal observational study investigated caries and fluorosis in children with S-ECC from a city with fluoridated water. Material and method We included children under the age of three years who followed a maternal and child dental care program between the years of 1997 and 2003. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (S-ECC and group 2 (no caries. Guardians were contacted by telephone or mail. Caregivers completed questionnaire on socio-demographic and behavioral variables. The clinical dental examinations were performed in a dental clinic to assess caries experience and dental fluorosis. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors associated with DMFT, and multivariate analysis by multiple logistic regression was used to determine the possible independent factors associated with the occurrence of fluorosis. Result The sample consisted of 126 patients aged 8-12 years, of whom 52.4% were male. The presence of S-ECC increased the DMFT by an average of 0.84 (p = 0.02. Both the frequency of tooth brushing and the use of standard toothpaste were protective factors from the development of caries in the permanent dentition (p <0.05. Parents who reported that their children refused to brush their teeth had 70% less chance of developing fluorosis (p = 0.02. Conclusion The presence of S-ECC was a risk factor for the development of caries in the permanent dentition, but not for the development of fluorosis.

  19. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence.

  20. Early-life risk factors for occurrence of atopic dermatitis during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mikio; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Mizuno, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Kenichi; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2007-03-01

    In a prospective birth cohort study, we sought to identify perinatal predictors of the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. Associations of family history, infection during pregnancy, cord blood cytokine concentrations, and skin function parameters with atopic dermatitis were analyzed. Stratum corneum hydration was measured with an impedance meter until 5 days after delivery and again at 1 month. Complete data were obtained for 213 infants, including 27 diagnosed by a physician as having atopic dermatitis during their first year and 26 diagnosed as having infantile eczema during their first month. The risk of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life was related to maternal atopic dermatitis, lower concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta in cord blood, and greater skin moisture in the surface and stratum corneum of the forehead and cheek at 1 month of age but not to viral or bacterial infection during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Paternal hay fever was associated negatively with the development of atopic dermatitis. High concentrations of interleukin-5, interleukin-17, and macrophage chemotactic protein-1 and only surface moisture in the cheek were associated with greater risk of infantile eczema in the first month. The association of atopic dermatitis in infancy with reduced neonatal macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta levels suggests a link with immature immune responses at birth. Stratum corneum barrier disruption in atopic dermatitis may involve impairment of cutaneous adaptation to extrauterine life. The majority of risk factors had different effects on infant eczema and atopic dermatitis, indicating different causes.

  1. Early Clinical Exposure as a Learning Tool to Teach Neuroanatomy for First Year MBBS Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Kar, Chinmaya; Roy, Hironmoy; Goyal, Parmod

    2017-12-01

    Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine. This study was conducted in collaboration with the Departments of Anatomy, General Medicine and Medical Education Unit in the year 2016. This was cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty students of 1 st Professional MBBS were subdivided into two groups. After preliminary classes on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord for both groups, conventional lecture classes were taken for Group A only on upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis, and only Group B visited General Medicine ward where HOD, General Medicine showed and examined patients of UMN paralysis and LMN paralysis, elicited different symptoms, and discussed different investigation. It was followed by assessment of all by problem-based multiple choice questions (MCQ) and short answer questions. Then, Group B attended lecture class on different cranial nerve palsy whereas Group A visited medicine ward. It was followed by assessment of both groups by problem-based MCQ and short answer questions. The performance was compared. Then, the feedback of the students on ECE was collected by means of reflection writing followed by administration of questionnaire. Then, the perception of teachers regarding ECE was recorded by focused group discussion. Student's t -test was used to compare the performance of both batches. Reflection writing and focus group discussion were analyzed

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status. The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, 2 years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The 2 groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6 years. Both groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time that the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated at less than 30 months of age in altering the longer-term developmental course of autism. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  4. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  5. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and school performance in 5-year-old offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noten, Anna M. E.; Loomans, Eva M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Rotteveel, Joost; van Eijsden, Manon; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnant women is associated with a lower intelligence quotient in their children. More recently, subtle decreases in maternal thyroid function have also been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in offspring. We tested the effect of hypothyroxinaemia during early

  6. Parents seek early intervention services for a two-year-old without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arathi; Graves, Crista; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2011-10-01

    increasingly challenging because he does not like the sensation of soap and the water temperature must be "just right." You refer the child to a Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrician for evaluation and at 28 months he is seen. During his testing visit, he had decreased eye contact and followed his own agenda but improved significantly as testing progressed. As he got more comfortable, he began making good eye contact, social referenced, and exhibited joint attention with his parents and the examiner. He did not meet criteria for an autism spectrum disorder or specifically pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). He was given a diagnosis of mixed receptive and expressive language delay and disruptive behavior disorder with sensory processing problems.The parents come to you a month after their evaluation visit asking you to give him a "listed diagnosis of PDD-NOS" that could be removed when he turns 3 years so that he may qualify for increased hours of services-up to 15 hours per week-as well as applied behavioral analysis therapy. A behavioral therapist through early intervention has told the family that he would benefit from this increased intervention, specifically applied behavioral analysis but the only way he can receive it is with a "medical diagnosis" on the autism spectrum. What do you do next?

  7. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, B.; Landewe, R.; Lukas, C.; Bolosiu, H. D.; Breedveld, F.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Ferraccioli, G.; Hazes, J. M. W.; Klareskog, L.; Machold, K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Nielsen, H.; Silman, A.; Smolen, J.; Yazici, H.

    2007-01-01

    To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. In accordance with EULAR's "standardised operating procedures", the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10

  8. Including a Client Sexual Health Pathway in a National Youth Mental Health Early Intervention Service--Project Rationale and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…

  9. Skin Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction (SSMIR for early breast cancer: Eight years single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Jean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin Sparing Mastectomy (SSM and immediate breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an effective treatment for patients with breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of skin sparing mastectomy in early breast cancer at a single population-based institution. Methods Records of ninety-five consecutive patients with operable breast cancer who had skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstructions between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristic, type of reconstruction, postoperative complications, aesthetic results and incidence of recurrence were analyzed. Results Mean age of the patients was 51.6(range 33–72 years. The AJCC pathologic stages were 0 (n = 51, 53.7%, I (n = 20, 21.1%, and II (n = 2, 2.1%. Twenty of the patients had recurrent disease (21.1%. The immediate breast reconstructions were performed with autologus tissue including latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in 63 (66.3% patients and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap in 4 (4.2% patients. Implants were used in 28 (29.4% patients. The average hospital stay was 7.7 days. Flap complication occurred in seven (10.4% patients resulting in four (6% re-operations and there were no delay in accomplishing postoperative adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 69 months (range 48 to 144, local recurrence was seen in one patient (1.1% and systemic recurrence was seen in two patients (2.1%. Conclusion Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for early breast cancer is associated with low morbidity and low rate of local recurrence.

  10. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-09-01

    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  11. Early onset of colorectal cancer in a 13-year-old girl with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Rho, Jung Hee; Tchah, Hann; Jeon, In-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells.

  12. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  13. Ten-year outcome including patterns of failure and toxicity for adjuvant whole abdominopelvic irradiation in high-risk and poor histologic feature patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kimberly D.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Weiner, Sheldon; Podratz, Karl; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Schray, Mark; Mitchell, Christina; Sherman, Alfred; Chen, Peter; Brabbins, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term results of treatment using adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation (WAPI) with a pelvic/vaginal boost in patients with Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma at high risk of intra-abdominopelvic recurrence, including clear cell (CC) and serous-papillary (SP) histologic features. Methods and Materials: In a prospective nonrandomized trial, 119 patients were treated with adjuvant WAPI between November 1981 and April 2000. All patients were analyzed, including those who did not complete therapy. The mean age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 39-88). Thirty-eight patients (32%) had 1989 FIGO Stage I-II disease and 81 (68%) had Stage III. The pathologic features included the following: 64 (54%) with deep myometrial invasion, 48 (40%) with positive peritoneal cytologic findings, 69 (58%) with high-grade lesions, 21 (18%) with positive pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes, and 44 (37%) with SP or CC histologic findings. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range 0.2-14.7). For the entire group, the 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rate was 75% and 69% and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 58% and 48%, respectively. When stratified by histologic features, the 5- and 10-year CSS rate for adenocarcinoma was 76% and 71%, and for serous papillary/CC subtypes, it was 74% and 63%, respectively (p=0.917). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate for adenocarcinoma was 60% and 50% and was 54% and 37% serous papillary/CC subtypes, respectively (p=0.498). For surgical Stage I-II, the 5-year CSS rate was 82% for adenocarcinoma and 87% for SP/CC features (p=0.480). For Stage III, it was 75% and 57%, respectively (p=0.129). Thirty-seven patients had a relapse, with the first site of failure the abdomen/pelvis in 14 (38%), lung in 8 (22%), extraabdominal lymph nodes in 7 (19%), vagina in 6 (16%), and other in 2 (5%). When stratified by histologic variant, 32% of patients with adenocarcinoma and 30% with the SP/CC subtype developed recurrent disease. Most

  14. Early life risk exposure and stunting in urban South African 2-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M

    2017-06-01

    Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.

  15. Externalizing behavior in early childhood and body mass index from age 2 to 12 years: longitudinal analyses of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.

  16. 40,000-Year-Old Individual from Asia Provides Insight into Early Population Structure in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Melinda A; Gao, Xing; Theunert, Christoph; Tong, Haowen; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Nickel, Birgit; Slatkin, Montgomery; Meyer, Matthias; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Fu, Qiaomei

    2017-10-23

    By at least 45,000 years before present, anatomically modern humans had spread across Eurasia [1-3], but it is not well known how diverse these early populations were and whether they contributed substantially to later people or represent early modern human expansions into Eurasia that left no surviving descendants today. Analyses of genome-wide data from several ancient individuals from Western Eurasia and Siberia have shown that some of these individuals have relationships to present-day Europeans [4, 5] while others did not contribute to present-day Eurasian populations [3, 6]. As contributions from Upper Paleolithic populations in Eastern Eurasia to present-day humans and their relationship to other early Eurasians is not clear, we generated genome-wide data from a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan Cave, China, [1, 7] to study his relationship to ancient and present-day humans. We find that he is more related to present-day and ancient Asians than he is to Europeans, but he shares more alleles with a 35,000-year-old European individual than he shares with other ancient Europeans, indicating that the separation between early Europeans and early Asians was not a single population split. We also find that the Tianyuan individual shares more alleles with some Native American groups in South America than with Native Americans elsewhere, providing further support for population substructure in Asia [8] and suggesting that this persisted from 40,000 years ago until the colonization of the Americas. Our study of the Tianyuan individual highlights the complex migration and subdivision of early human populations in Eurasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  18. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  19. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  20. Learning One's Place and Position through Play: Social Class and Educational Opportunity in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical work of the British sociologist Basil Bernstein, this paper documents how learning is structured and organised through play in three Early Years Education (EYE) settings catering for children aged three to five in England, UK. Its data address current issues raised within EYE research relating to "quality and high…

  1. Promoting Career Development and Life Design in the Early Years of a Person's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the changing world of work and the attendant uncertainty and loss of work-life identity. Little research has been done on career development and life design in the early years of a person's life, especially in developing countries characterized by disadvantage. The underlying theoretical models of career development are…

  2. Beyond a Logic of Quality: Opening Space for Material-Discursive Practices of "Readiness" in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the possibilities encountered through shifting from a "logic of quality" to a "space of meaning-making" within early years education. Focusing on ideas of "readiness", this discussion aims to challenge normative understandings that relate this concept to the predictable achievement of…

  3. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  4. What More Has Been Learned? the Science of Early Childhood Development 15 Years after "Neurons to Neighborhoods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    The new Institute of Medicine/National Research Council report, "Transforming the Workforce for Children From Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation" (2015), begins with a summary of the science of early development and learning, with particular attention to discoveries during the past 15 years since the publication of "From…

  5. 50 Years of Integer Programming 1958-2008 From the Early Years to the State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Jünger, Michael; Naddef, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In 1958, Ralph E. Gomory transformed the field of integer programming when he published a paper that described a cutting-plane algorithm for pure integer programs and announced that the method could be refined to give a finite algorithm for integer programming. In 2008, to commemorate the anniversary of this seminal paper, a special workshop celebrating fifty years of integer programming was held in Aussois, France, as part of the 12th Combinatorial Optimization Workshop. It contains reprints of key historical articles and written versions of survey lectures on six of the hottest topics in the

  6. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  7. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  8. Five year neurodevelopment outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected children on early limited or deferred continuous antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughton, Barbara; Cornell, Morna; Kidd, Martin; Springer, Priscilla Estelle; Dobbels, Els Françoise Marie-Thérèse; Rensburg, Anita Janse Van; Otwombe, Kennedy; Babiker, Abdel; Gibb, Diana M; Violari, Avy; Kruger, Mariana; Cotton, Mark Fredric

    2018-05-01

    Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ≤12 weeks of age with CD4 ≥25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W). ART was restarted in the time-limited arms for immunologic/clinical progression. Our objective was to compare the neurodevelopmental profiles in all three arms of Cape Town CHER participants. A prospective, longitudinal observational study was used. The Griffiths mental development scales (GMDS), which includes six subscales and a global score, were performed at 11, 20, 30, 42 and 60 months, and the Beery-Buktenica developmental tests for visual motor integration at 60 months. HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed (HU) children were enrolled for comparison. Mixed model repeated measures were used to compare groups over time, using quotients derived from standardized British norms. In this study, 28 ART-Def, 35 ART-40W, 33 ART-96W CHER children, and 34 HEU and 39 HU controls were enrolled. GMDS scores over five years were similar between the five groups in all subscales except locomotor and general Griffiths (interaction p perception scores were significantly lower in HIV-infected children (mean standard scores: 75.8 ART-Def, 79.8 ART-40W, 75.9 ART-96W) versus 84.4 in HEU and 90.5 in HU (p perception where HIV-infected children scored lower. Poorer visual perception performance warrants further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  9. PAM50 Risk of Recurrence Score Predicts 10-Year Distant Recurrence in a Comprehensive Danish Cohort of Postmenopausal Women Allocated to 5 Years of Endocrine Therapy for Hormone Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke; Jensen, M.B.; Eriksen, J O

    2018-01-01

    with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of endocrine therapy alone. Patients and Methods Using the population-based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database, follow-up data were collected on all patients diagnosed from 2000 through 2003 who, by nationwide guidelines, were...... treated with endocrine therapy for 5 years. Primary tumor blocks from 2,740 patients were tested with Prosigna and, after determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, data from 2,558 hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative samples were analyzed, including 1,395 node...

  10. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  11. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  12. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  13. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  14. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0-4 years): exploring the perceptions of stakeholders and end users regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Negin; Ramanathan, Subha; O'Neill, Meghan; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2017-11-20

    It is important to engage stakeholders and end users in the development of guidelines for knowledge translation purposes. The aim of this study was to examine stakeholders' (experts in pediatric and family medicine, physical activity knowledge translation, and research) and end users' (parents and early childhood educators) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years). Stakeholders (n = 10) engaged in telephone interviews and end users (n = 92) participated in focus groups (n = 14) to discuss perceived clarity and need for the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, identification of credible messengers, and methods for dissemination of the guidelines. A thematic analysis was conducted. The proposed guidelines were very well received by both stakeholders and end users. A clear need for such guidelines was identified, and most believed the guidelines were achievable. Stakeholders and end users identified several potential barriers to uptake, including low awareness of current guidelines; 'daily challenges' such as allure of screen time, lack of time, and competing priorities; and challenges in the context of shifting social norms. A range of methods and messengers of dissemination were identified. Medical and child care settings were the most frequently cited places for dissemination, and physicians and early childhood educators were the most common suggestions for messengers. There was consistent support for the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) from both stakeholders and end users. Moving forward, it is important to dedicate appropriate support and funding toward dissemination efforts in order to reach end users, particularly parents and early childhood educators.

  15. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  16. Ultrasonography and radiography to identify early post traumatic myosistis ossificans in an 18-year-old male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Alicia M; Reckelhoff, Kenneth; Kaeser, Martha; Kettner, Norman W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with post traumatic myositis ossificans (PTMO) of the anterior thigh following blunt trauma and discuss the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and imaging findings. An 18-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with a chief complaint of left knee pain and reduced range of motion after an impact injury to his left anterior thigh during hurdling 6 weeks earlier. Immediately after the injury, he presented to the emergency department where radiography of the left knee was negative and he was diagnosed with a muscle sprain. Follow-up radiography and ultrasonography of the left knee in a chiropractic radiology department revealed ossification consistent with PTMO within his vastus intermedius. The patient underwent a course of rehabilitation for 2 months including ice, class IV cold laser and vibration applied to his anterior thigh, and myofascial release of his quadriceps musculature with targeted and progressive rehabilitative exercises. His left knee pain resolved within 2 weeks of care. He resumed sports participation (American football) pain-free, while wearing protective padding over the affected thigh, 1 month after presentation, which was approximately 2 1/2 months following his injury. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography may have the capability to detect early phases of PTMO approximately 2 weeks prior to radiographic evidence and to monitor progression throughout its course.

  17. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berberich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012, two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group, located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany, have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological, which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis.

  18. Challenges in knowledge translation: the early years of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, G P

    2012-02-01

    Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) was formalized in 1997 to produce clinical practice guidelines for cancer management for the Province of Ontario. At the time, the gap between guideline development and implementation was beginning to be acknowledged. The Program implemented strategies to promote use of guidelines. The program had to overcome numerous social challenges to survive. Prospective strategies useful to practitioners-including participation, transparent communication, a methodological vision, and methodology skills development offerings-were used to create a culture of research-informed oncology practice within a broad community of practitioners.Reactive strategies ensured the survival of the program in the early years, when some within the influential academic community and among decision-makers were skeptical about the feasibility of a rigorous methodologic approach meeting the fast turnaround times necessary for policy. The paper details the pebc strategies within the context of what was known about knowledge translation (kt) at the time, and it tries to identify key success factors. Many of the barriers faced in the implementation of kt-and the strategies for overcoming them-are unavailable in the public domain because the relevant reporting does not fit the traditional paradigm for publication. Telling the "stories behind the story" should be encouraged to enhance the practice of kt beyond the science.

  19. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  20. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  1. Practitioner Research in Early Childhood Education and Care: A 21-Year Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Darbianne; Smith, Sara; Dana, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Practitioner research has the potential to facilitate the ongoing knowledge and skill development of preservice and in-service early childhood education and care teachers. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to describe the landscape of practitioner research conducted in the United States. This study synthesizes more than 20 years…

  2. Don't We Care?: The Ethics and Emotional Labour of Early Years Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that early childhood education and care (ECEC) has a legitimate aspiration to be a "caring profession" like others such as nursing or social work, defined by a moral purpose. For example, practitioners often draw on an ethic of care as evidence of their professionalism. However, the discourse of professionalism in…

  3. Hearing 25 years after surgical treatment of otitis media with effusion in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaverdi, M; Jørgensen, G; Lange, T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term hearing following surgical treatment of chronic OME in early childhood (myringotomy or ventilation tube) and to determine the impact of the occurrence and the extension of specific eardrum pathology on the hearing level. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 1977-1978, 22...

  4. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 2-6 years old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence increased with age. Privileged children were more affected by caries than the underprivileged. The mandibular posterior teeth were the most affected and mandibular anterior teeth the least affected. Keywords: Early childhood caries, privileged, underprivileged, children. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 (2) ...

  5. The Performing Arts: Music, Dance, and Theater in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralek, Derry

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld, a longtime early childhood teacher, author, teacher educator, and advocate for integrating the arts with every aspect of the curriculum. In this interview, Chenfeld shares her thoughts about the performing arts: music, dance, and theater. She explains why it is important for young…

  6. Intestinal Obstruction in Early Neonatal Period: A 3-Year Review Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Failure to pass meconium by a full-term neonate within the first 24 hours should raise a suspicion of bowel obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine pattern of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of management of intestinal obstruction in the early neonatal period in the Neonatal Care Unit ...

  7. "It's All About Ben10[TM]": Children's Play, Health and Sustainability Decisions in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Skouteris, H.; Rutherford, L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, A.

    2013-01-01

    In today's fast food, fast-paced consumer society, too few questions are asked about the influence of digital media on young children's health and sustainability choices, and indeed how such choices are expressed in children's play (and early childhood classrooms). By interviewing children and parents, and using such data to prompt teacher…

  8. Pathways from problems in adolescent family relationships to midlife mental health via early adulthood disadvantages - a 26-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina

    2017-01-01

    Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent's individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health.

  9. Brief Report: Predicting Functional Disability: One-Year Results From the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Inception Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Caroline; McLernon, David J; Dale, James; Paterson, Caron; Ralston, Stuart H; Reid, David M; Tierney, Ann; Harvie, John; McKay, Neil; Wilson, Hilary E; Munro, Robin; Saunders, Sarah; Richmond, Ruth; Baxter, Derek; McMahon, Mike; Kumar, Vinod; McLaren, John; Siebert, Stefan; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2016-07-01

    To identify baseline prognostic indicators of disability at 1 year within a contemporary early inflammatory arthritis inception cohort and then develop a clinically useful tool to support early patient education and decision-making. The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) inception cohort is a multicenter, prospective study of patients with newly presenting RA or undifferentiated arthritis. SERA data were analyzed to determine baseline predictors of disability (defined as a Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score of ≥1) at 1 year. Clinical and psychosocial baseline exposures were entered into a forward stepwise logistic regression model. The model was externally validated using newly accrued SERA data and subsequently converted into a prediction tool. Of the 578 participants (64.5% female), 36.7% (n = 212) reported functional disability at 1 year. Functional disability was independently predicted by baseline disability (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.98, 3.59]), depression (OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.18, 5.37]), anxiety (OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.33, 4.21]), being in paid employment with absenteeism during the last week (OR 1.19 [95% CI 0.63, 2.23]), not being in paid employment (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.38, 4.03]), and being overweight (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.04, 2.50]). External validation (using 113 newly acquired patients) evidenced good discriminative performance with a C statistic of 0.74, and the calibration slope showed no evidence of model overfit (P = 0.31). In the context of modern early inflammatory arthritis treatment paradigms, predictors of disability at 1 year appear to be dominated by psychosocial rather than more traditional clinical measures. This indicates the potential benefit of early access to nonpharmacologic interventions targeting key psychosocial factors, such as mental health and work disability. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  11. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT: The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink, M M; Braber, T L; Prakken, N H J; Doevendans, P A F M; Backx, F J G; Grobbee, D E; Rienks, R; Nathoe, H M; Bots, M L; Velthuis, B K; Mosterd, A

    2017-04-01

    Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatson units and/or ≥50% luminal stenosis on contrast-enhanced cardiac CT. Psychological impact was measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) (seven items) on a six-point scale (grade 0-5). A sum score ≥19 indicates clinically relevant psychological distress. A Likert scale was used to assess overall experiences and impact on sports and lifestyle. A total of 275 participants (86.5% response rate, 95% CI 83-90%) with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years completed the questionnaires, 48 (17.5%, 95% CI 13-22%) of whom had CAD. The median IES score was 1 (IQR 0-2, [0-23]). IES was slightly higher in those with CAD (mean rank 175 vs. 130, p psychological distress (IES = 23). Participants reported numerous benefits, including feeling safer exercising (58.6%, 95% CI 53-65%) and positive lifestyle changes, especially in those with CAD (17.2 vs. 52.1%, p psychological distress in older sportsmen. Psychological distress should not be a reason to forego screening in sportsmen.

  12. Early implant placement for a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: Thirteen years of clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie

    2017-11-29

    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DAILY LIFE, SUBJECTS AND TERRITORIES IN THE EARLY YEARS OF SCHOOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia Bueno Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on the teaching of geography and history in the early years of schooling, considering the possibilities of establishing pedagogical dialogue between them. Related to this the paper reports the experience developed in the Faculty of Education at the University of Brasilia. The Federal District became the object of teaching in the classroom. Considering this it proposes that the pedagogical approach - field work - is incorporated into the apprenticeship of the future teachers in their professional performance. Thus addresses the challenge of working with everyday reality of professional training from the perspective of its approach to concepts of Geography and History. The theoretical background bases on the works of: Santos, Cavalcanti and Callai with regard to the discussion of the geographic knowledge, Revel and Pesavento about reflections about micro-history and Alarcão and Brzezinski on teacher education. As a summary, one can recognize the transformative potential of the subjects that establish dialogue with the prior knowledge of the students and their everyday life. It can be seen to the survey, the potential of the field work as an ally in the classroom. O presente artigo apresenta reflexões a respeito do Ensino da Geografia e da História nos anos iniciais da escolarização, considerando as possibilidades de estabelecer diálogo de natureza pedagógica entre ambas. Nesse sentido, relata a experiência desenvolvida na Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de Brasília, em que o Distrito Federal tornou-se objeto de ensino em sala de aula. Para tanto propõe que a abordagem pedagógica denominada estudo do meio seja incorporada à formação do futuro pedagogo em sua atuação profissional. Dessa forma, considera o desafio de trabalhar com a realidade cotidiana do profissional em formação na perspectiva de sua aproximação com conceitos da Geografia e da História. Em termos teóricos a pesquisa

  15. Physical activity during the early years of life and osteoporosis in adulthood: study among users of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camilo Turi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between osteoporosis and current/early physical activity and also to identify whether early sport participation, osteoporosis, age and sex are somehow connected. The study sample included 963 participants. Osteoporosis was diagnosed through medical records. Physical activity in current and the early years of life, age, sex and economic condition were assessed through questionnaires. Abdominal obesity was identified by waist circumference. Results showed that osteoporosis was associated with female sex and higher age. Participants that were active in adulthood had 47% lower chance of osteoporosis (odds ration [OR] = 0.53[0.30-0.93]. Adults that were active in childhood and adolescence had a lower chance of osteoporosis only in the crude model (OR = 0.38[0.22-0.64]. Women that were inactive in their youth were almost five times more likely to have osteoporosis when compared to men under the same conditions (OR = 4.80[2.46-9.37]. A lack of sports participation in the early years of life seems to be associated with osteoporosis, age and sex.

  16. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients: a 3-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Mauro; Moscatelli, Marco; Mariotti, Giorgia; Piemontese, Matteo; Nieri, Michele

    2012-02-01

    To compare immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in a 3-year, parallel group, randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted in a private dental clinic between July 2005 and July 2010. Patients 18 years or older were randomized to receive implants for fixed partial dentures in cases of partial edentulism. The test group was represented by immediate non-occlusal implant loading, whereas the control group was represented by early non-occlusal implant loading. The outcome variables were implant failure, complications and radiographic bone level at implant sites 3 years after loading, measured from the implant-abutment junction to the most coronal point of bone-to-implant contact. Randomization was computer-generated with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes, and the measurer was blinded to group assignment. Sixty patients were randomized: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. Four patients dropped out; however, the data of all patients were included in the analysis. No implant failure occurred. Two complications occurred in the control group and one in the test group. The mean bone level at 3 years was 1.91 mm for test group and 1.59 mm for control group. The adjusted difference in bone level was 0.26 mm (CI 95% -0.08 to 0.59, p = 0.1232). The null hypothesis of no difference in failure rates, complications and bone level between implants that were loaded immediately or early at 3 years cannot be rejected in this randomized clinical trial. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  19. Effects of early support intervention on workplace ergonomics--a two-year followup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.

  20. Morbidity of ischemic heart disease in early breast cancer 15-20 years after adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenes, G.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Fornander, T.; Carlens, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiac side effects, primarily the occurrence of ischemic heart disease, in symptom-free patients with early breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. Thirty-seven survivors of a former randomized study of early breast cancer were examined. Twenty patients irradiated pre- or postoperatively for left sided disease (study group patients) were compared with 17 controls who were either treated for right sided disease, or were nonirradiated patients. Radiotherapy was randomized in the original study; either tangential field 60 Co, or electron-therapy was delivered. Echocardiography and bicycle ergometry stress test with 99m Tc SestaMIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were carried out and the patients' major risk factors for ischemic heart disease were also listed. Our results showed a significant difference between the scintigraphic findings of the two groups. Five of the 20 study group patients (25%), while none of the 17 controls exhibited some kind of significant defects on scintigraphy, indicating ischemic heart disease (p < 0.05). No deterioration in left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function could be detected by echocardiography. Radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer with the mentioned treatment technique may present as an independent risk factor in the long-term development of ischemic heart disease, while left ventricular dysfunction could not be related to the previous irradiation. The authors emphasize the need to optimize adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer by considering the dose both to the heart as well as the cancer. 39 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Early warning signals of abrupt temperature change in different regions of China over the past 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Ji-Long; Wu Hao; Hou Wei; He Wen-Ping; Zhou Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the early warning signals of abrupt temperature change in different regions of China are investigated. Seven regions are divided on the basis of different climate temperature patterns, obtained through the rotated empirical orthogonal function, and the signal-to-noise temperature ratios for each region are then calculated. Based on the concept of critical slowing down, the temperature data that contain noise in the different regions of China are preprocessed to study the early warning signals of abrupt climate change. First, the Mann–Kendall method is used to identify the instant of abrupt climate change in the temperature data. Second, autocorrelation coefficients that can identify critical slowing down are calculated. The results show that the critical slowing down phenomenon appeared in temperature data about 5–10 years before abrupt climate change occurred, which indicates that the critical slowing down phenomenon is a possible early warning signal for abrupt climate change, and that noise has less influence on the detection results of the early warning signals. Accordingly, this demonstrates that the model is reliable in identifying the early warning signals of abrupt climate change based on detecting the critical slowing down phenomenon, which provides an experimental basis for the actual application of the method. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  2. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  3. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  4. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A

    2017-12-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining the change in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) over time by the change in absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment over time. Effect modification and confounding were tested for age, gender, arm of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria, HLA-B27, duration of chronic back pain, profession and medication. At baseline, in 105 axSpA patients (48% female, mean age 30.8 years, mean symptom duration 13.6 months, 92% HLA-B27 positive, 24% radiographic sacroiliitis), the mean ASDAS was 2.4 (s.d. 1.0), absenteeism 9% (s.d. 23), presenteeism 33% (s.d. 28), WPL 36% (s.d. 30) and activity impairment 37% (s.d. 25). After 1 year, the mean ASDAS decreased to 2.0 (s.d. 0.8) and absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved to 6% (s.d. 22), 26% (s.d. 26), 27% (s.d. 29) and 27% (s.d. 26), respectively. Models showed that if ASDAS decreased 1 unit, absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved by 5, 17, 16 and 18%, respectively. The impact of disease activity on work productivity was higher in patients with shorter symptom duration and the impact on absenteeism was higher in patients starting pharmacological treatment. In early axSpA patients, work productivity and daily activities are seriously impacted at baseline and 1 year. However, decreasing disease activity is associated with marked improvements in work productivity and daily activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santosuosso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues.Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation.We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  6. Bioclim Deliverable D4/5: global climatic characteristics, including vegetation and seasonal cycles over Europe, for snapshots over the next 200,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the BIOCLIM project is to develop and present techniques that can be used to develop self-consistent patterns of possible future climate changes over the next million years (climate scenarios), and to demonstrate how these climate scenarios can be used in assessments of the long-term safety of nuclear waste repository sites. Within the project, two strategies are implemented to predict climate change. The first is the hierarchical strategy, in which a hierarchy of climate models is used to investigate the evolution of climate over the period of interest. These models vary from very simple 2-D and threshold models, which simulate interactions between only a few aspects of the earth system, through general circulation models (GCMs) and vegetation models, which simulate in great detail the dynamics and physics of the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere, to regional models, which focus in particular on the European region and the specific areas of interest. The second strategy is the integrated strategy, in which intermediate complexity climate models are developed, and used to consecutively simulate the development of the earth system over many millennia. Although these models are relatively simple compared to a GCM, they are more advanced than 2D models, and do include physical descriptions of the biosphere, cryo-sphere, atmosphere and ocean. This deliverable, D4/5, focuses on the hierarchical strategy, and in particular the GCM and vegetation model simulation of possible future climates. Deliverable D3 documented the first step in this strategy. The Louvain-la-Neuve 2-D climate model (LLN-2D) was used to estimate (among other variables) annual mean temperatures and ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere over the next 1 million years. It was driven by the calculated evolution of orbital parameters, and plausible scenarios of CO 2 concentration. From the results, 3 future time periods within the next 200,000 years were identified as being extreme, that is

  7. Experimental activities in the early years of elementary school: a methodological tool for construction of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de Souza Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early years of elementary school, this study evaluated the impact of experimental activities based in the scientific method and preconceptions on the learning and memorization of concepts and phenomena associated with the fermentation process. The different activities were carried out through an experimental course (20hs, with students of elementary school from school municipal Diacono Joao Luiz Pozzobon, Santa Maria-RS. The research involved 20 students, with 6 and 7 old years. The evaluation was performed by comparing the interview responses made before the course (pre-test and after the course (post-test. The post-tests were applied at the end of the experimental course, and after 6 and 12 months. The experimental activities facilitated the acquisition and retention of new concepts. The data show that "experimental activities" can be used by teachers in early grades as a methodological tool to complement the teaching-learning process.

  8. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  9. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  10. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Baig

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are pa...

  11. A century of x-rays and radioactivity in medicine. With emphasis on photographic records of the early years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This book is a predominately photographic presentation, along with full captions and short accompanying essays, about the history of radiology. It concentrates on the early years of discovery and invention, diagnosis and therapy, with archival accounts, antedotes, historical snippets. In most chapters the history is briefly brought up to date so old methods may be compared with newer technologies. Source material, diaries, historic photographs are all used

  12. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  13. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...

  14. Early Identification and Characterization of Students Who Drop out in the First Year at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, G. J. A.; Arnold, I. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    At Erasmus School of Economics about 40% of the students in the bachelor program Economics and Business drop out in the first academic year. We examined whether it is feasible (a) to identify on the basis of their participation and achievement in the first 2 (out of 10) examinations students who drop out in the first year, and (b) to characterize…

  15. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  16. The identification of teaching interactions used in one-to-one teaching of number in the early years of schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwyn Ewing

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on phase one of an investigation of video recorded intensive one-to-one teaching interactions with 6–7-year-old students who were in their second year of schooling in Australia and identified by the their teacher as low attaining in early number. The two-phased study from which this paper emerges was originally conducted in 1998 as part of my Bachelor of Teaching Honours (Research) program at Southern Cross University Lismore, New South Wales. That study identified...

  17. The Development of Polyphonic Music That Started During the Early Years of Republic of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Ak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining the development of conservatories which started to become institutionalized under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal in the early period of the Republic and which have brought polyphony to musical culture in our country. In line with this purpose, the following research questions were directed:   •          When did Interaction between Classical Western Music and Turkish Music start in our country? •          What were the attitudes towards artistic activities in the early period of the Republic? •          What are the contributions of Turkish composers to Modern Turkish Music who have an important place in the history of Turkish Music in our country?   In the study, the interaction between Turkish Music and Western Music in our country in the 17th century was examined. In addition, the present study also focused on related Turkish composers who became expert in their fields as well as on other related composers who came to Turkey from various European countries. The present study is limited to these data, and the purpose is to present the collected data to today’s musicians and to contribute to their professional developments.

  18. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  19. The approximate number system and its relation to early math achievement: evidence from the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lourenco, Stella F

    2013-03-01

    Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early-developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  1. Early and mid-term results of lung transplantation with donors 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iker; Zapata, Ricardo; Solé, Juan; Jaúregui, Alberto; Deu, María; Romero, Laura; Pérez, Javier; Bello, Irene; Wong, Manuel; Ribas, Montse; Masnou, Nuria; Rello, Jordi; Roman, Antonio; Canela, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    There are doubts about the age limit for lung donors and the ideal donor has traditionally been considered to be one younger than 55 years. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes in lung transplantation between organs from donors older and younger than 60 years. We performed a retrospective observational study comparing the group of patients receiving organs from donors 60 years or older (Group A) or younger than 60 years (Group B) between January 2007 and December 2011. Postoperative evolution and mortality rates, short-term and mid-term postoperative complications, and global survival rate were evaluated. We analysed a total of 230 lung transplants, of which 53 (23%) involved lungs from donors 60 years of age or older (Group A), and 177 (77%) were from donors younger than 60 years (Group B). Three (5.7%) patients from Group A and 14 patients (7.9%) from Group B died within 30 days (P = 0.58). The percentage of patients free from chronic lung allograft dysfunction at 1-3 years was 95.5, 74.3 and 69.3% for Group A, and 94.5, 84.8 and 73.3% for Group B, respectively (P = 0.47). There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B in terms of survival at 3 years, (69.4 vs 68.8%; P = 0.28). Our results support the idea that lungs from donors aged 60-70 years can be used safely for lung transplantation with comparable results to lungs from younger donors in terms of postoperative mortality and mid-term survival. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Archigregarines of the English Channel revisited: New molecular data on Selenidium species including early described and new species and the uncertainties of phylogenetic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rueckert, S.; Horák, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187430. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17643S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : gregarine parasites apicomplexa * sabellaria alveolata l * revised classification * sequence alignment * genome-sequence * ultrastructure * checklist * lecudina * sporozoa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  3. Early metformin therapy (age 8-12 years) in girls with precocious pubarche to reduce hirsutism, androgen excess, and oligomenorrhea in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Díaz, Marta; Marcos, Maria Victoria; de Zegher, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Girls with a combined history of low(-normal) birth weight (LBW) and precocious pubarche (PP) are at high risk to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to compare the capacity of early vs. late metformin treatment to prevent adolescent PCOS. This was a randomized, open-label study over 7 yr. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Thirty-eight LBW-PP girls were followed up from the mean age 8 until age 15 yr. Early metformin (study yr 1-4; age 8-12 yr) vs. late metformin (yr 6; age 13-14 yr). Measures included height; weight; hirsutism score; menstrual cycle; endocrine-metabolic screening (fasting; follicular phase); C-reactive protein; body composition (absorptiometry); abdominal fat partitioning (magnetic resonance imaging); ovarian morphology (ultrasound); PCOS (National Institutes of Health and Androgen Excess Society definitions) after yr 7 (all girls thus untreated for at least 1 yr). None of the girls dropped out of the study. At age 15 yr, early-metformin girls were taller (4 cm), were in a less proinflammatory state, and had less central fat due to reductions in visceral and hepatic fat. Hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS were between 2- and 8-fold more prevalent in late- than early-treated girls. Abdominal adiposity was the first variable to diverge (at age 8-10 yr) between girls without vs. with PCOS at age 15 yr. In LBW-PP girls, early metformin therapy was found to prevent or delay the development of hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS more effectively than late metformin. The time window of late childhood and early puberty may be more critical for the development, and thus for the prevention, of adolescent PCOS than the first years beyond menarche.

  4. A 2-Year-Old Child's Memory of Hospitalization during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solter, Aletha

    2008-01-01

    A child who had had surgery at 5 months of age, and who had been treated at the time for post-traumatic symptoms (reported in a previous paper by the author), was interviewed 2 years later and almost 3 years later to test for possible verbal recall of his hospitalization. He appeared to have some memories of the experience at 29 months of age, and…

  5. Among-year variation in selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2018-04-19

    Incomplete information regarding both selection regimes and the genetic basis of fitness limits our understanding of adaptive evolution. Among-year variation in the genetic basis of fitness is rarely quantified, and estimates of selection are typically based on single components of fitness, thus potentially missing conflicting selection acting during other life-history stages. Here, we examined among-year variation in selection on a key life-history trait and the genetic basis of fitness covering the whole life cycle in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We planted freshly-matured seeds of >200 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two locally-adapted populations (Italy and Sweden), and both parental genotypes at the native site of the Swedish population in three consecutive years. We quantified selection against the nonlocal Italian genotype, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on timing of germination during different life stages. In all three years, the local Swedish genotype outperformed the non-local Italian genotype. However, both the contribution of early life stages to relative fitness, and the effects of fitness QTL varied among years. Timing of germination was under conflicting selection through seedling establishment vs. adult survival and fecundity, and both the direction and magnitude of net selection varied among years. Our results demonstrate that selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness can vary markedly among years, emphasizing the need for multi-year studies considering the whole life cycle for a full understanding of natural selection and mechanisms maintaining local adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham's involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others

  7. Techno­-Choreographies: Aerial and grounded bodies in the early years of powered flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    The paper examines the embodiment of aviation in its earliest decades. Drawing on theories of enactment and affect in recent studies of technology and mobility, I investigate the entanglements between airplanes and human bodies as well as the relations between aerial and earthbound bodies....... At a time when airplanes were little more than cloth wings attached to motors, their assembly with the body of the aviator was highly visible and essential in the practice and perception of powered flight. Perhaps less visible, but no less essential in this perception, was the embodied experience...... of aviation from the ground. By exploring how the early airplane ‘choreographed’ and reconfigured aerial as well as earthbound bodies, this paper tries to grasp the transformative and non-representational interactions between technology and the human embodiment of aerial mobility. As an introduction...

  8. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

  9. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  10. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  11. Early Years of Neutron Scattering and Its Manpower Development in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsongkohadi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I shall give a short history of the development of neutron scattering at the Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques (PPTN), in Bandung, and the early development of a more advanced facilities at the Neutron Scattering Laboratory (NSL BATAN), Centre of Technology for Nuclear Industrial Materials, in Serpong. The first research reactor in Indonesia was the TRIGA MARK II in Bandung, which became operational in 1965, with a power of 250 KW, upgraded to 1 MW in 1971, and to 2 MW in 2000. The neutron scattering activities was started in 1967, with the design and construction of the first powder diffractometer, and put in operation in 1970. It was followed by the second instrument, the filter detector spectrometer built in 1975 in collaboration with the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. A powder diffractometer for magnetic studies was built in 1980, and finally, a modification of the filter detector spectrometer to measure textures was made in 1986. A brief description of the design and construction of the instruments, and a highlight of some research topics will be presented. Early developments of neutron scattering activities at the 30 MW, RSG-GAS reactor in Serpong in choosing suitable research program, which will be mainly centred around materials testing/characterization, and materials/condensed matter researches has been agreed. Instrument planning and layout which were appropriate to carry out the program had been decided. Manpower development for the neutron scattering laboratory is a severe problem. The efforts to overcome this problem has been solved. International Cooperation through workshops and on the job trainings also support the supply of qualified manpower

  12. Brain structure and cognition 3 years after the end of an early menopausal hormone therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Lowe, Val J; Fields, Julie A; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Settell, Megan L; Gleason, Carey E; Shuster, Lynne T; Bailey, Kent R; Dowling, N Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Jack, Clifford R; Rocca, Walter A; Miller, Virginia M

    2018-04-17

    The effects of 2 frequently used formulations of menopausal hormone therapy (mHT) on brain structure and cognition were investigated 3 years after the end of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in recently menopausal women with good cardiovascular health. Participants (aged 42-56 years; 5-36 months past menopause) were randomized to one of the following: 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE); 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2); or placebo pills and patch for 4 years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to mHT groups for 12 days each month. MRIs were performed at baseline, at the end of 4 years of mHT, and 3 years after the end of mHT (n = 75). A subset of participants also underwent Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 68). Ventricular volumes increased more in the oCEE group compared to placebo during the 4 years of mHT, but the increase in ventricular volumes was not different from placebo 3 years after the discontinuation of mHT. Increase in white matter hyperintensity volume was similar in the oCEE and tE2 groups, but it was statistically significantly greater than placebo only in the oCEE group. The longitudinal decline in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes was less in the tE2 group compared to placebo, which correlated with lower cortical Pittsburgh compound B uptake. Rates of global cognitive change in mHT groups were not different from placebo. The effects of oCEE on global brain structure during mHT subside after oCEE discontinuation but white matter hyperintensities continue to increase. The relative preservation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical volume in the tE2 group over 7 years indicates that mHT may have long-term effects on the brain. This study provides Class III evidence that the rates of change in global brain volumes and cognitive function in recently menopausal women receiving mHT (tE2 or oCEE) were not significantly different from women receiving placebo, as measured 3 years after exposure to mHT. Copyright © 2018 The

  13. Early understandings of simple food chains: A learning progression for the preschool years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Aspects of preschoolers' ecological understandings were explored in a cross-age, quantitative study that utilised a sample of seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, their concepts of feeding relationships were determined by presenting physical models of three-step food chains during structured interviews. A majority of children, particularly 5-year olds, were capable of grasping concepts inherent in food chain topics that are scheduled to appear later in their schooling. In part, age differences in children's reasoning can be accounted for by attentional theory based on evolutionary predator avoidance adaptations, which tended to become significant at 5 years. Data suggest that these aspects of preschool ecological education could be increased in sophistication, thus accelerating children's understandings about the environment beyond what is currently the case.

  14. Early primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: maternal hyperimmunoglobulin therapy improves outcomes among infants at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Silvia; Manara, Renzo; Milanese, Laura; Da Roit, Anna; Forner, Gabriella; Salviato, Eleonora; Citton, Valentina; Magno, Fioretta Marciani; Orzan, Eva; Morando, Carla; Cusinato, Riccardo; Mengoli, Carlo; Palu, Giorgio; Ermani, Mario; Rinaldi, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Gussetti, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Early CMV infection carries a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome (sensorineural hearing loss or neurological deficits). Intravenous hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) therapy seems to be promising, but its efficacy needs further investigation. Since 2002, we have enrolled consecutively all pregnant women with early (ie, before gestational week 17) CMV infection. Beginning in 2007, all women were offered treatment with HIG (200 UI per kilogram of maternal weight, in a single intravenous administration). Outcome of infants was evaluated at the age of 1 year. Of the 592 women with early primary CMV infection, amniocentesis for CMV DNA detection was performed for 446. Of the 92 CMV-positive fetuses, pregnancy was terminated for 24, HIG was administered to mothers of 31, and no treatment was received by mothers of 37. Fetuses of treated mothers did not differ from fetuses of nontreated mothers according to mother's age, gestational week of infection, CMV load, or detection of abnormal ultrasonography findings. At the 1-year evaluation, 4 of 31 infants with treated mothers (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-25%) and 16 of 37 infants with nontreated mothers (43%; 95% CI, 27%-59%) presented with poor outcomes (P primary CMV infection before gestational week 17.

  15. A Prospective Study of Early Loaded Single Implant-Retained Mandibular Overdentures: Preliminary One-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the predictability of simplifying mandibular overdenture treatment using one-stage surgery and early prosthetic loading of a single implant. Materials and Methods. Twenty edentulous patients with problematic existing mandibular dentures were treated. A single implant with a chemically modified surface (SLActive, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland was placed into the mandibular midline. The patients were recalled at 3, 6 and 12 months. Clinical assessments and marginal bone loss using standardized radiographs were recorded. All complications, failures and maintenance were noted. Visual analog-scale questionnaires were used to record patient satisfaction in five categories. ANOVA was used to determine differences between means of marginal bone loss and different categories of patient staisfaction (=0.05. Results. The 20 early loaded implants were all surviving at the 12-month recall. All implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone loss by the end of the 1-year with a significant increase during the follow-up period. Few prosthetic problems were reported. Patient satisfaction was high with a significant increase in all comfort and functional parameters. Conclusions. These preliminary 1-year results indicate that early loading of a single chemically modified surface implant used to retain a mucosa-borne mandibular overdenture is a safe, reliable, and cost-effective treatment.

  16. Six-Year Outcome of Subjects Without Overt Heart Disease With an Early Repolarization/J Wave Electrocardiographic Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Argirò, Alessia; Mollo, Roberto; De Vita, Antonio; Spera, Francesco; Golino, Michele; Rota, Elisabetta; Filice, Monica; Crea, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    "Early repolarization" (ER) is a frequent finding at standard electrocardiogram (ECG). In this study we assessed whether ER is associated with an increased risk of events, as recently suggested by some studies. We prospectively enrolled 4,176 consecutive subjects without any heart disease who underwent routine ECG recording. ER was diagnosed in case of typical concave ST-segment elevation ≥0.1 mV; a J wave was diagnosed when the QRS showed a notch or a slur in its terminal part. In this study we compared the 6-year outcome of all 687 subjects with ER/J wave and 687 matched subjects without ER/J wave (controls). Both groups included 335 males and 352 females, and age was 48.8 ± 18 years. Overall, 145 deaths occurred (11%), only 11 of which attributed to cardiac causes. No sudden death was reported. Cardiac deaths occurred in 5 (0.8%) and 6 (0.9%) ER/J wave subjects and controls, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26 to 2.80, p = 0.79). Both ER (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.21 to 13.3, p = 0.62) and J wave (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.00, p = 0.88) showed no association with cardiac death. Total mortality was 11.5% in the ER/J wave group and 10.6% in the control group (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.56, p = 0.58). Both ER (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.24, p = 0.12) and J wave (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.70, p = 0.30) showed also no association with all-cause death. In subjects without any evidence of heart disease, we found no significant association of ER/J wave with the risk of cardiac, as well as all-cause, death at medium-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of John W. Healy, November 28, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This document provides a transcript of an interview with John W. Healy concerning his recollections of measuring radioactive effluents at Hanford. Included are comments concerning the 'Green Run', other radioiodine releases, and a release of radioruthenium

  19. Early cranial ultrasound changes as predictors of outcome during first year of life in term infants with perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, N Y; Chandran, V; Zulfiqar, M A; Zamratol, S M; Nyein, M K; Haliza, M S; Lye, M S

    2000-08-01

    To identify the types of early cranial ultrasound changes that were significant predictors of adverse outcome during the first year of life in asphyxiated term infants. This was a prospective cohort study. Shortly after birth, cranial ultrasonography was carried out via the anterior fontanelles of 70 normal control infants and 104 asphyxiated infants with a history of fetal distress and Apgar scores of less than 6 at 1 and 5 min of life, or requiring endotracheal intubation and manual intermittent positive pressure ventilation for at least 5 min after birth. Neurodevelopmental assessment was carried out on the survivors at 1 year of age. Abnormal cranial ultrasound changes were detected in a significantly higher proportion (79.8%, or n = 83) of asphyxiated infants than controls (39.5%, or n = 30) (P < 0.0001). However, logistic regression analysis showed that only three factors were significantly associated with adverse outcome at 1 year of life among the asphyxiated infants. These were: (i) decreasing birthweight (for every additional gram of increase in birthweight, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.999, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.998, 1.000; P = 0.047); (ii) a history of receiving ventilatory support during the neonatal period (adjusted OR = 8.3; 95%CI 2.4, 28.9; P = 0.0009); and (iii) hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy stage 2 or 3 (adjusted OR = 5.8; 95%CI 1.8, 18.6; P = 0.003). None of the early cranial ultrasound changes was a significant predictor. Early cranial ultrasound findings, although common in asphyxiated infants, were not significant predictors of adverse outcome during the first year of life in asphyxiated term infants.

  20. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  1. Early Detection of Emotional Disorders in South Australia: The First Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G.; Roeger, L.; Dadds, V.; Allison, S.

    Each year about 30 young South Australians die from suicide. Schools have a responsibility to help address the mental health concerns of students to ensure the development of mature and productive citizens for the future. The program outlined in this booklet is designed to help reduce the suicidal behaviors in young people. The report summarizes…

  2. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever at 60 Years: Early Evolution of Concepts of Causation and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Cohen, Sanford N

    2015-09-01

    During the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), was described by collaborative research performed by Thai scientists from many institutions and by workers at the U.S. Army's SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand. Careful clinical and physiological studies provided the initial description of DSS. DSS cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) and not chikungunya (CHIK) virus or DENV 5 and 6, were associated with a secondary-type dengue antibody response in children over the age of 1 year, were associated with a primary antibody response in infants less than 1 year old whose mothers had neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV, were associated more frequently with secondary DENV 2 infections than those due to DENV 1 and 3, and were more common in females than males over the age of 3 years. Robust laboratory methods for growth and recovery of DENV in tissue cultures were introduced. In addition, life-saving principles of fluid and plasma protein resuscitation of hypovolemia were described. Most epidemiological observations made during the decade of the 1960s have been confirmed in the succeeding 45 years. Much contemporary research on pathogenesis fails to address the two distinct immunological antecedents of DHF/DSS. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  4. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  5. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  6. One Student at Rhodes in the Early Apartheid Years: A Memoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    canberry

    During our Honours year, Mary Fysh and I did field-work for Mayer in. Duncan .... have been arguing for the past five hours with someone who wasn't even there', he said with ... stunning. It was a very quiet ride back to Grahamstown that night.

  7. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuker, K.T.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental

  8. Time Keeping and Working Memory Development in Early Adolescence: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Helen; Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined time keeping in relation to working memory (WM) development. School-aged children completed two tasks of WM updating and a time monitoring task in which they indicated the passing of time every 5 min while watching a film. Children completed these tasks first when they were 8 to 12 years old and then 4 years…

  9. Early Understandings of Simple Food Chains: A Learning Progression for the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of preschoolers' ecological understandings were explored in a cross-age, quantitative study that utilised a sample of seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, their concepts of feeding relationships were determined by presenting physical models of three-step food chains during structured interviews. A majority of children,…

  10. Using computers in early years education: What are the effects on children’s development? Some suggestions concerning beneficial computer practice

    OpenAIRE

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children’s development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the advantages and the potential problems of computer practice to children’s learning and behaviour in the early years settings and also suggests teaching ...

  11. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  12. An analysis of contingencies for making casks available for use during the early years of Federal Waste Management System operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.; Danese, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation

  13. Trust, Responsiveness and Communities of Care: An Ethnographic Study of the Significance and Development of Parent-Caregiver Relationships in Irish Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Sheila; Canavan, John

    2017-01-01

    Conceptualising early years settings as "communities of care" reflects the narrative arising from recent ethnographic research conducted in the West and Midlands areas of Ireland. Drawing on the ethic of care as an underpinning theoretical framework, this article outlines the potential of early years settings to represent reliable,…

  14. Motor-Life-Skills of Toddlers--A Comparative Study of Norwegian and British Boys and Girls Applying the Early Years Movement Skills Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses motor-life-skills in a sample (n?=?1083) of 33 months (2.9-year-old) children in Norwegian early childhood education and care institutions (ECEC-institutions) and to compare the findings with the results from a similar British sample. The Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC) (Chambers and Sugden 2006) was applied.…

  15. Permeating the Social Justice Ideals of Equality and Equity within the Context of Early Years: Challenges for Leadership in Multi-Cultural and Mono-Cultural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice,…

  16. Early endoscopic realignment of traumatic anterior and posterior urethral disruptions under caudal anaesthesia - a 5-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade-Olaopa, E O; Atalabi, O M; Adekanye, A O; Adebayo, S A; Onawola, K A

    2010-01-01

    We recently described early rigid retrograde endoscopic realignment of the disrupted urethra under caudal anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate our medium-term results. A retrospective review of patients who had early rigid retrograde endoscopic realignment of traumatic urethral disruptions in our institution over a 5-year period was done and the relevant data extracted and analyzed. Fourteen acutely ruptured urethras (10 posterior and four anterior) were endoscopically realigned early in the study period. Nine (90%) of the posterior disruptions occurred at bulbo-membranous urethra (distal to the external sphincter mechanism). Thirteen of the ruptured urethras (93%) were successfully realigned (nine posterior and four anterior) and postoperative clean intermittent self-calibration (CIC) was instituted in 10 patients. The mean follow-up period was 36.6 months (range 18-54 months). The mean operating time and the median hospital stay were 22 min (range 8-68 min) and 3 days (range 1-10 days), respectively, and were shorter in patients with injuries of the anterior urethra than those with posterior urethral tears (p < or = 0.0001). Post-realignment, all 13 patients were potent and continent. Two patients required additional procedures (direct vision internal urethrotomy or urethral dilation) and one patient has remained on CIC i.e. a stricture rate of 21%. Early retrograde endoscopic realignment under caudal analgesia is suitable and cost-effective for patients with acute traumatic urethral disruptions and has good medium-term results. In addition, an early postoperative regimen of CIC significantly reduced stricture-formation in our series.

  17. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Adamo, Kristi B; Aubert, Salomé; Barnes, Joel D; Choquette, Louise; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Goldfield, Gary S; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Janssen, Xanne; Jaramillo Garcia, Alejandra; Kuzik, Nicholas; LeBlanc, Claire; MacLean, Joanna; Okely, Anthony D; Poitras, Veronica J; Rayner, Mary-Ellen; Reilly, John J; Sampson, Margaret; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, combined behaviours) examining the relationships within and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by a Guideline Development Panel. The systematic reviews that were conducted to inform the development of the guidelines, and the framework that was applied to develop the recommendations, followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and indicators of adiposity. A review of the evidence on the cost effectiveness and resource use associated with the implementation of the proposed guidelines was also undertaken. A stakeholder survey (n = 546), 10 key informant interviews, and 14 focus groups (n = 92 participants) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines and their dissemination. The guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations as to the combinations of light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep that infants (guidelines. These guidelines represent a sensible evolution of public health guidelines whereby optimal health is

  18. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period. Methods The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, combined behaviours examining the relationships within and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by a Guideline Development Panel. The systematic reviews that were conducted to inform the development of the guidelines, and the framework that was applied to develop the recommendations, followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE methodology. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and indicators of adiposity. A review of the evidence on the cost effectiveness and resource use associated with the implementation of the proposed guidelines was also undertaken. A stakeholder survey (n = 546, 10 key informant interviews, and 14 focus groups (n = 92 participants were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines and their dissemination. Results The guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations as to the combinations of light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep that infants (<1 year, toddlers (1–2 years and preschoolers (3–4 years

  19. Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Shaw, Leigh A; Langley, Marcie; Cottam, Kim; Lewis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    Children's thinking about diversity of belief in 4 realms--morality, taste, facts, and ambiguous facts--was examined. Ninety-six participants (ages 5, 7, and 9) were interviewed about beliefs different from their own that were endorsed by characters with different status; their judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons were assessed. Five-year-olds made fewer relative and tolerant judgments than 7- and 9-year-olds. Nevertheless, participants of all ages organized their judgments according to the realm of diversity, thought that some beliefs are relative and some are nonrelative, and made tolerant judgments of some divergent beliefs (and their proponents) but not of others. The findings suggest that, in the early school years, children have multiple and well-differentiated perspectives on belief diversity.

  20. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asi...... genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics....... and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of...

  1. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    Summary The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. PMID:26496604

  2. Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-10-22

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early and 1-year outcomes of aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome: a prospective, multicenter, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coselli, Joseph S; Volguina, Irina V; LeMaire, Scott A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Connolly, Heidi M; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Schaff, Hartzell V; Milewicz, Dianna M; Vricella, Luca A; Dietz, Harry C; Minard, Charles G; Miller, D Craig

    2014-06-01

    To compare the 1-year results after aortic valve-sparing (AVS) or valve-replacing (AVR) aortic root replacement from a prospective, international registry of 316 patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Patients underwent AVS (n = 239, 76%) or AVR (n = 77, 24%) aortic root replacement at 19 participating centers from 2005 to 2010. One-year follow-up data were complete for 312 patients (99%), with imaging findings available for 293 (94%). The time-to-events were compared between groups using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Two patients (0.6%)--1 in each group--died within 30 days. No significant differences were found in early major adverse valve-related events (MAVRE; P = .6). Two AVS patients required early reoperation for coronary artery complications. The 1-year survival rates were similar in the AVR (97%) and AVS (98%) groups; the procedure type was not significantly associated with any valve-related events. At 1 year and beyond, aortic regurgitation of at least moderate severity (≥2+) was present in 16 patients in the AVS group (7%) but in no patients in the AVR group (P = .02). One AVS patient required late AVR. AVS aortic root replacement was not associated with greater 30-day mortality or morbidity rates than AVR root replacement. At 1 year, no differences were found in survival, valve-related morbidity, or MAVRE between the AVS and AVR groups. Of concern, 7% of AVS patients developed grade ≥2+ aortic regurgitation, emphasizing the importance of 5 to 10 years of follow-up to learn the long-term durability of AVS versus AVR root replacement in patients with MFS. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tore Supra: technical aspects and early results after one year of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, R.

    1989-01-01

    After one year operation (1988 to 1989), technical aspects of component systems and equipment of Tore Supra are summarized. Particular attention is given to the operation with: supraconducting toroidal field coil system, cryogenic system, poloidal field system, in vessel equipment, first wall conditioning, pump limiter. The ergodic divertor experiments and the current drive experiment are reported. The plasma heating methods adopted in Tore Supra are presented

  5. Brush competition retards early stand development of planted ponderosa pine: update on a 24-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1990-01-01

    Growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was monitored for 24 years after planting at five different square spacings (6, 9. 12, 15, and 18 ft) in the presence or absence of competing brush on the westside Sierra Nevada. Spacing strongly influenced both mean dbh and basal area/ac. In plots maintained free of brush, diameters ranged from 5.1 in. at the 6-ft spacing to...

  6. T171. REDUCED FRONTAL CORTICAL THICKNESS AND SURFACE IN A 10 YEARS FOLLOW-UP OF EARLY ONSET PSYCHOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilzarbe, Daniel; de la Serna, Elena; Baeza, Inmaculada; Pariente, Jose; Fortea, Adriana; Redondo, Marina; Bargallo, Nuria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Structural volume loss of cortical gray matter over time in schizophrenia has been widely reported (Vita et al. 2012), and may be more pronounced when the disorder has an onset prior to age 18 (Early Onset Psychosis, EOP; Arango et al. 2008). More recently, studies have focused on measures of cortical morphology. The single study in EOP so far has identified greater loss of cortical thickness (CTH) in patients with schizophrenia over time (van Haren et al. 2011), whereas to our knowledge, no so far study has examined measures of surface area (SA) in EOP following a longitudinal design. We set out to examine measures of both CTH and SA in a sample of EOP at 10-year-follow-up. Methods Patients with EOP were recruited at first episode, matched by sex and age with healthy controls (HC) and re-assessed at 10 years. Subjects were evaluated clinically and structural T1 volumes were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 10-year-follow-up. Images were preprocessed, segmented and analysed with FreeSurfer. Quality control procedure was carried out by two raters. Images were segmented and CTH and SA values were extracted for each parcellation employing Desikan-Killiany Atlas; these were grouped in frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal and cingulate lobes so as to reduce multiple comparisons. When group or group by time effects were detected, parcellations were individually examined. A linear mixed model was built using Stata IC 13.1 to evaluate the effect of group and time on CTH and SA, including hemisphere as fixed effects and correcting by total intracranial volume and setting a critical p-value of .05. Results Thirty-nine subjects completed the follow-up. After removing 9 due to poor quality T1 images (technical problems, excess of movement), 28 subjects were finally included (13 EOP, 15 HC). There were no significant differences in age (EOP=26.9 ± 0.6 vs HC=27.2 ± 0.3 at follow-up) or sex distribution (%female: EOP=43% vs HC=38

  7. Early lessons from commercial thinning in a 30-year-old Sitka Spruce-Western Hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; William H. Emmingham

    1986-01-01

    A commercial thinning study was undertaken in a 30-year-old stand, pre-commercially thinned at 15 years of age, at Cascade Head Experimental Forest on the Oregon coast. Measurements obtained after three different thinning treatments are presented and include stand volume, basal area, current growth rate, scar damage, crown ratio, and sapwood radius. Method of...

  8. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Ophthalmologic Baseline Characteristics and 2-Year Ophthalmologic Safety Profile of Pramipexole IR Compared with Ropinirole IR in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seiple

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study, NCT00144300, evaluated ophthalmologic safety profiles of immediate-release (IR pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with early idiopathic PD with ≤6 months’ prior dopamine agonist exposure and without preexisting major eye disorders. Methods. Patients received labeled IR regimens of pramipexole (n=121 or ropinirole (n=125 for 2 years. Comprehensive ophthalmologic assessments (COA included corrected acuity, Roth 28-color test, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, computerized visual field test, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Results. At baseline, we observed retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE hypopigmentation not previously reported in PD patients. The estimated relative risk of 2-year COA worsening with pramipexole versus ropinirole was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.71–1.60. Mean changes from baseline in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating System parts II+III total scores (pramipexole: 1 year, −4.1±8.9, and 2 years, −0.7±10.1, and ropinirole: 1 year, −3.7±8.2, and 2 years, −1.7±10.5 and Hoehn–Yahr stage distribution showed therapeutic effects on PD symptoms. Safety profiles were consistent with labeling. Conclusions. The risk of retinal deterioration did not differ in early idiopathic PD patients receiving pramipexole versus ropinirole. RPE hypopigmentation at baseline was not previously reported in this population. This trial is registered with NCT00144300.

  10. Early-Life Phthalate Exposure and Adiposity at 8 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaff, Jessica; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Yolton, Kimberly; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-09-11

    Early-life phthalate exposure may influence child adiposity, but prior studies have not determined if there are periods of enhanced vulnerability to phthalates. To examine the relationship between child adiposity at 8 y of age and repeated urinary biomarkers of phthalate exposure from gestation through childhood to determine if there are distinct periods of vulnerability. In 219 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio, we quantified nine urinary phthalate metabolites up to two times prenatally and six times from 1-8 y of age. We measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat at 8 y of age. To identify periods of vulnerability, we used two statistical methods to estimate phthalate-adiposity associations at each visit, test differences in phthalate-adiposity associations across visits, and model trajectories of phthalate concentrations for children at different levels of adiposity. Prenatal phthalate concentrations were not associated with excess child adiposity. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations during pregnancy and childhood were inversely associated with adiposity. The associations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHP) metabolites and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with child adiposity depended on the timing of exposure. A 10-fold increase in ∑DEHP at 1 and 5 y was associated with a 2.7% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8, -0.5] and 2.9% increase (95% CI: 0.3, 5.5) in body fat, respectively. MEP concentrations at 5 and 8 y of age were associated with higher child adiposity, but earlier childhood concentrations were not. In this cohort, we did not find evidence of an obesogenic effect of prenatal phthalate exposure. Positive associations between postnatal MEP and ∑DEHP concentrations depended on the timing of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1022.

  11. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge C; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Mpoudi, Eitel N; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  12. 90Sr and 137Cs contamination of wheat produced in Japan. Survey and analysis during the years 1959 through 1995 including the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Kihou, Nobuharu; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the influences of global-scale radioactive fallout on wheat produced in Japan. For this purpose, a set of wheat samples was collected annually from sixteen National and Prefectural Experimental Farms during the years from 1959 to 1995. According to the graph presenting year-to-year variations in the nationwide averages of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents (mBq/kg) in wheat kernels, the sharp peak was first marked in 1963 with 12300 for 90 Sr and 43600 for 137 Cs. In 1966, however, the nuclide contents dropped drastically to 2360 for 90 Sr and 2870 for 137 Cs respectively. In the years following, both nuclides continued to decrease slowly although there were minor fluctuations. It is noticeable that low-level 137 Cs contamination was caused in Japan's wheat in 1981, the year after the nuclear testing in China. It is also noticeable that 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels increased to 5960 in 1986 when the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened, although it dropped back to its normal level of 40 in the year after. The following are also discussed in this paper: Year to year variations in the ratio of 90 Sr to 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and wheat flour. Regional differences in 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels. Comparison of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in wheat kernels and unpolished rice. Direct and indirect pathways of 90 Sr and 137 Cs that contaminate wheat. Influence of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Suggestions about the ways of estimating the level of 137 Cs contamination in case of nuclear accidents, if any. (author)

  13. Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusion: Early Years in Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Cansiz, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine preservice teachers' sentiments toward students with special needs, attitudes, and concerns about inclusive education in terms of a number of demographic variables. These demographics included major area, grade level, gender, interaction with disabled people, training for inclusive education, self-confidence for teaching…

  14. Introduction of a breast cancer care programme including ultra short hospital stay in 4 early adopter centres: framework for an implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Mascha; Frotscher, Caroline N A; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kessels, Alfons G H; Dirksen, Carmen D; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Roukema, Jan A; Bell, Antoine V R J; van der Ent, Fred W; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F

    2007-07-02

    Whereas ultra-short stay (day care or 24 hour hospitalisation) following breast cancer surgery was introduced in the US and Canada in the 1990s, it is not yet common practice in Europe. This paper describes the design of the MaDO study, which involves the implementation of ultra short stay admission for patients after breast cancer surgery, and evaluates whether the targets of the implementation strategy are reached. The ultra short stay programme and the applied implementation strategy will be evaluated from the economic perspective. The MaDO study is a pre-post-controlled multi-centre study, that is performed in four hospitals in the Netherlands. It includes a pre and post measuring period of six months each with six months of implementation in between in at least 40 patients per hospital per measurement period. Primary outcome measure is the percentage of patients treated in ultra short stay. Secondary endpoints are the percentage of patients treated according to protocol, degree of involvement of home care nursing, quality of care from the patient's perspective, cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme and cost-effectiveness of the implementation strategy. Quality of care will be measured by the QUOTE-breast cancer instrument, cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme will be measured by means of the EuroQol (administered at four time-points) and a cost book for patients. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness of the implementation strategy will be measured by determination of the costs of implementation activities. This study will reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation of the ultra short stay programme. Moreover, the results of the study will provide information about the cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme and the implementation strategy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77253391.

  15. Solar DHW systems in the Netherlands. State of play at mid-2000. Including supplement Ten years of market development and Dutch-Danish cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual publication 'Solar domestic hot water systems - state of play' presents an overview of the Dutch solar domestic hot water systems market on the basis of reports from organisations involved in the Solar Domestic Hot Water System Agreement, along with other sources. Chapter 2, covering sales, is based on information supplied by Senter and Novem. The producers have supplied information on products, new developments and prices. The chapter on consumers calls upon information supplied by Ecofys and Novem. Chapter 5 on the power distribution companies is mainly based on research carried out by Ten Kroode and Van Zee in early 2000. The section on solar thermal energy installers is based on reports from the BZE and Intechnium. Chapter 7 (project-based construction) draws upon information supplied by Senter and Novem. Chapter 8 is mainly based on information supplied by Novem. refs

  16. Renal function three years after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjörnstedt, Lars; Schwartz Sørensen, Søren; von Zur Mühlen, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In a 36-month, open-label, multicenter trial, 202 kidney transplant recipients were randomized at week 7 post-transplant to convert to everolimus or remain on cyclosporine: 182 were analyzed to month 36 (92 everolimus, 90 controls). Mean (SD) change in measured GFR (mGFR) from randomization to mo......, but discontinuation was more frequent with everolimus (33.7% vs. 10.0%). Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 7 weeks post-transplant was associated with a significant benefit in renal function at 3 years when everolimus was continued....

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in North America - the early years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Fadley, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a brief overview of the beginning years of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the USA, with particular emphasis on activities in Berkeley with which we are more familiar, but comments also on some other significant developments during this period. With some arbitrariness, we have limited ourselves to topics that were at least underway by the time of the first conference in this series in 1971, and thus finally published by 1973 or so. Some key first results or analyses are illuminated with figures from the literature

  18. Fun and games in Berkeley: the early years (1956-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Life at Berkeley for the past 57 years involved research on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and spectroscopic properties of RNA to better understand its structures, interactions, and functions. We (myself and all the graduate students and postdocs who shared in the fun) began with dinucleoside phosphates and slowly worked our way up to megadalton-sized RNA molecular motors. We used UV absorption, circular dichroism, circular intensity differential scattering, fluorescence, NMR, and single-molecule methods. We learned a lot and had fun doing it.

  19. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  20. Maturity-associated variation in change of direction and dribbling speed in early pubertal years and 5-year developmental changes in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente-Dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Vaz, V; Figueiredo, A J; Capranica, L; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the developmental changes in change of direction and dribbling speed in youth soccer players taking into account skeletal age (SA), maturity status, body size, estimated fat mass, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume of training. Eighty-three male soccer players aged 10-15 years (SA) at baseline were annually followed over 5 years, resulting in an average 4.4 observations per player. After testing for multicollinearity, multi-level regression modeling was used to examine the longitudinal developmental changes on change of direction and dribbling speed. Maturity-associated variability was significant in change of direction and also dribbling speed among young soccer players aged 12-14 years with better scores being performed by late maturers. Moreover, the predicted longitudinal scores for change of direction and dribbling speed improved with SA (Psoccer-specific skill, dibbling speed, was also explained by annual volume of training (Pperformances with and without the ball possession at early ages of participation in competitive soccer. The effects tend to persist across ages combined with longitudinal changes in body composition and functional fitness. In the particular case of the ball test, annual volume of training was also a longitudinal performance predictor.

  1. Hermann Haken from the laser to synergetics : a scientific biography of the early years

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Hermann Haken (born 1927) is one of the “fathers” of the quantum-mechanical laser theory, formulated between 1962 and 1966, in strong competition with American researchers. Later on, he created Synergetics, the science of cooperation in multicomponent systems. The book concentrates on the development of his scientific work during the first thirty-five years of his career.   In 1970 he and his doctoral student Robert Graham were able to show that the laser is an example of a nonlinear system far from thermal equilibrium that shows a phase-transition like behavior. Subsequently, this insight opened the way for the formulation of Synergetics. Synergetics is able to explain, how very large systems show the phenomenon of self-organization that can be mathematically described by only very few order parameters. The results of Haken’s research were published in two seminal books Synergetics (1977) and Advanced Synergetics (1983).    After the year 1985 Haken concentrated his research on the macroscopic found...

  2. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  3. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs

  4. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  5. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: a 5.6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A; Melhem, Nadine M; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75-13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37-12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94-16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29-56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder. Parental history of a suicide attempt conveys a nearly 5-fold increased odds of suicide attempt

  6. Astronomy in the early years of elementary education: a partnership between university and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.

  7. The social representations of dance in physical education classes in the early years of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Schiebelbein Capri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of social representations of dance in the context of School Physical Education. The survey was conducted in two city schools and two private schools in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The observation and the questionnaire were the instruments used to collect data. Five teachers of Physical Education and 331 students of Primary Education (5th year of Primary Education took part in the research. The results indicate that the social representations of dance teachers are related to holidays and anniversaries of the school and students, to pleasure and to musical preference. The practice of dance in the school has room for choreographic creations, June Festival rehearsals, and school presentations.

  8. [Nutrition and nutritional status in infants and children of early years of life in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'ian, V A; Baturin, A K; Kon', I Ia; Safronova, A M; Keshabiants, E E; Starovoĭtov, M L; Gmoshinskaia, M V

    2010-01-01

    The study of the nutrition and the nutritional status children of the first year age and children earliest age were conducted on nationally representative surveys (2500 children, 2-24 months) the Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences with the Institute of Sociology Russian of Academy of Sciences, Gerber Product Company and Nestle Company in 2006. The level the frequency of breast feeding had among children 1 m.--80%, 2-4 m.--70%, 4-6 m.--60%. The lowest body mass Z-scores were registered 0.5-5.0% among of children, the tendency of obesity increase in the age were registered from 1.6 to 13% of children. Calculations of chemical composition and energy value of actual nutrition have show according to the values requirements.

  9. Radiotherapy alone for early stage Hodgkin's disease: a 16 year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brein, P.

    1994-01-01

    The records of all patients with stage I and II Hodgkin's disease treated with radiotherapy alone at the Royal Adelaide Hospital between 1970 and 1986 were reviewed. The aim was to ensure the results were equivalent to the best reported series, particularly as treating such patients with chemotherapy alone has been shown to produce equivalent overall survival figures with improved relapse-free survival. There were 104 patients of whom 67 and undergone staging laparotomy. Fifty-seven patients were stage I and 47 stage II. Nine patients had B symptoms. Overall survival at 10 years was 83% with disease-specific survival being 86% and relapse-free survival 68%. These results compare favourably with those in the world literature. Multivariate analysis only revealed stage as an independent predictor of improved relapse-free survival. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Accelerated Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Early Knee Osteoarthritis Features at 1 Year: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Patterson, Brooke E; Guermazi, Ali; Morris, Hayden G; Whitehead, Timothy S; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-04-01

    A timely return to competitive sport is a primary goal of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). It is not known whether an accelerated return to sport increases the risk of early-onset knee osteoarthritis (KOA). To determine whether an accelerated return to sport post-ACLR (ie, relationship between an accelerated return to sport and early KOA features stratified by type of ACL injury (isolated or concurrent chondral/meniscal injury) and lower limb function (good or poor). Cross-sectional study. Private radiology clinic and university laboratory. A total of 111 participants (71 male; mean age 30 ± 8 years) 1-year post-ACLR. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire regarding postoperative return-to-sport data (specific sport, postoperative month first returned), and isotropic 3-T MRI scans were obtained. Early KOA features (bone marrow, cartilage and meniscal lesions, and osteophytes) assessed with the MRI OA Knee Score. Logistic regression analyses evaluated the odds of early KOA features with an accelerated return to sport (return to sport) in the total cohort and stratified by type of ACL injury and lower limb function. Forty-six (41%) participants returned to competitive sport return to sport was associated with significantly increased odds of bone marrow lesions (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0) but not cartilage (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-2.6) or meniscal lesions (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.8) or osteophytes (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4). In those with poor lower limb function, early return to sport exacerbated the odds of bone marrow lesions (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.5), whereas stratified analyses for type of ACL injury did not reach statistical significance. An accelerated return to sport, particularly in the presence of poor lower limb function, may be implicated in posttraumatic KOA development. IV. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE CHALLENGES OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HISTORY-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY IN EARLY YEARS OF BASIC EDUCATION ITAIPULÂNDIA-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Sidinei Balzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is situated within the history of education and its purpose is to investigate the challenges of institutionalization of historical-critical pedagogy (PHC at the early elementary school years in municipal network Itaipulândia-PR. In it, we try to analyze briefly articulated with the proposals and actions carried out over several years, especially in 2010 itaipulandiense educational trajectory. These achievements currently make up the municipal public education policy that includes training programs that articulate with better working conditions, teaching and learning. Based on documents and literature review, discuss and seek to understand how the teachers of this county propositions developed from the study of the major challenges that the historical-critical pedagogy faces in Brazilian education, using experiences, educational programs and projects of State Governments and federal. In addressing the specific conditions that focus on education, the school and the organization of the teaching work through the analysis of its historical and educational history, we intend to analyze the process of institutionalization and implementation of this pedagogical trend in the early years of basic education in the municipality of Itaipulândia.

  12. Experience from three years of local capacity development for tsunami early warning in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, H.; Hoppe, M.; Vidiarina, H. D.; Usdianto, B.

    2010-07-01

    Five years after the 2004 tsunami, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for tsunamis. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for tsunami early warning (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early warning based on natural warning signs rather than technology-based early warning. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective warning system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as

  13. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabaglio, M; Sun, Z; Price, K N

    2009-01-01

    of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated......BACKGROUND: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. METHODS: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years...... with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone...

  14. Educational outcomes associated with early immersion of second-year student pharmacists into direct patient care roles in health-system practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kimberly A; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Waldron, Kayla M; Willoughby, Ian; Pinelli, Nicole R

    2018-02-01

    To assess the educational impact of engaging second professional year student pharmacists in active, direct patient care experiences in health system practice. Student pharmacists in their second professional year completed a redesigned, skill-based four-week introductory pharmacy practice experience in health system practice. The immersion consisted of experiences in both operational and clinical pharmacy environments. Students were assessed with skill development checklist assessments. Pre-post surveys were also collected. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Twenty-eight student pharmacists were included; of those, 26 completed both surveys (92.9% response rate). Survey results revealed significant increases in 81.8% of operational and 100% of clinical self-efficacy statements (psystem practice while identifying additional areas for emphasized learning. Student pharmacists engaged in early, hands-on, direct patient care experiences enhanced their skill development in operational and clinical pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of emotional capital during the early years of marriage: Why everyday moments matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Courtney M; Neff, Lisa A; Gleason, Marci E J

    2017-06-01

    Throughout a marriage couples will share countless ordinary moments together that may seem trivial, but which actually have potential to affirm and strengthen relational bonds. According to theories of emotional capital, the accumulation of shared positive moments in a relationship should serve as an essential resource for protecting the relationship against threats. To date, however, few empirical studies have explored the role emotional capital may play in shaping responses to negative relationship experiences. In the current study, newly married couples completed 3 14-day daily diary tasks assessing emotional capital, negative partner behaviors, and marital satisfaction over a 3-year period, for a total of 42 potential days of diary data. Contrary to predictions, emotional capital on a given day was not associated with reactivity to relationship threats on the following day. However, conceptually replicating prior work, individuals who accumulated more emotional capital on average across the diary tasks did exhibit lower reactivity to daily relationship threats; that is, on days of greater relationship threat (i.e., negative partner behaviors), those spouses who generally accrued more shared positive moments with their partner maintained greater feelings of marital satisfaction compared with spouses who accrued fewer positive moments. These findings contribute to a growing literature illustrating how positive shared activities between partners help sustain relationship quality over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Early risk factors for criminal offending in schizophrenia: a 35-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Asa; Romelsjö, Anders; Stenbacka, Marlene; Tengström, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that factors predicting offending among individuals with no mental disorder may also predict offending among individuals with schizophrenia. The aims of the study were (1) to explore the prevalence of risk factors for criminal offending reported at age 18 among males later diagnosed with schizophrenia, (2) to explore the associations between risk factors reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending, (3) to predict lifetime serious violent offending based on risk factors reported at age 18, and (4) to compare the findings with those in males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort followed up through registers after 35 years. The cohort consisted of 49,398 males conscripted into the Swedish Army in 1969-1970, of whom 377 were later diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among the subjects later diagnosed with schizophrenia, strong associations were found between four of the items reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending: (1) low marks for conduct in school, (2) contact with the police or child care authorities, (3) crowded living conditions, and (4) arrest for public drinking. Three of these four risk factors were found to double the risk of offending among males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. Criminality in individuals with schizophrenia may at least partly be understood as a phenomenon similar to criminality in individuals in the general population.

  17. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Early colonization with a group of Lactobacilli decreases the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial deprivation early in life can potentially influence immune mediated disease development such as allergy. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of parental allergy on the infant gut colonization and associations between infant gut microbiota and allergic disease at five years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected from 58 infants, with allergic or non-allergic parents respectively, at one and two weeks as well as at one, two and twelve months of life. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and Real time PCR, using species-specific primers, was used for detection of Bifidobacterium (B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum, Clostridium (C. difficile, a group of Lactobacilli (Lactobacillus (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus as well as Staphylococcus (S. aureus. Infants with non-allergic parents were more frequently colonized by Lactobacilli compared to infants with allergic parents (p = 0.014. However, non-allergic five-year olds acquired Lactobacilli more frequently during their first weeks of life, than their allergic counterparts, irrespectively of parental allergy (p = 0.009, p = 0.028. Further the non-allergic children were colonized with Lactobacilli on more occasions during the first two months of life (p = 0.038. Also, significantly more non-allergic children were colonized with B. bifidum at one week of age than the children allergic at five years (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: In this study we show that heredity for allergy has an impact on the gut microbiota in infants but also that early Lactobacilli (L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus colonization seems to decrease the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

  19. Problematic cell phone use for text messaging and substance abuse in early adolescence (11- to 13-year-olds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Rabensteiner, Andrea; Vinelli, Angela; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association between problematic cell phone use (PCPU) for text messaging and substance abuse in young adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of an ad hoc questionnaire, during the 2014-2015 school year in a province of the Veneto Region (Italy); it involved a sample of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8 (11 to 13 years old). A self-report scale based on the Short Message Service (SMS) Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ) was administered to assess the sample's PCPU. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PCPU (as the dependent variable) and independent variables. The proportion of students who reported a PCPU increased with age in girls (13.5% in 6th grade, 16.4% in 7th grade, and 19.5% in 8th grade), but not in boys (14.3% in 6th grade, 18.0% in 7th grade, and 14.8% in 8th grade). Logistic regression showed that drunkenness at least once and energy drink consumption raised the odds of PCPU, whereas reading books, higher average school marks, and longer hours of sleep were associated with lower odds of PCPU in early adolescence. our findings confirm a widespread PCPU for text messaging among early adolescents. The odds of PCPU is greater in young people at risk of other substance abuse behavior.

  20. The identification of teaching interactions used in one-to-one teaching of number in the early years of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Ewing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper reports on phase one of an investigation of video recorded intensive one-to-one teaching interactions with 6–7-year-old students who were in their second year of schooling in Australia and identified by the their teacher as low attaining in early number. The two-phased study from which this paper emerges was originally conducted in 1998 as part of my Bachelor of Teaching Honours (Research program at Southern Cross University Lismore, New South Wales. That study identified teaching interactions particularly suited to one-to-one teaching in the Maths Recovery Program, a program designed for these students who were at risk of failure in early number. Since that time a great deal has not changed with limited literature available that comprehensively reports on teaching interactions in intensive one-to-one settings. Revisiting the original study is considered timely given the increasing number of withdrawal and intensive programs now funded and adopted by schools and yet, rarely reported on in terms of the effectiveness of the teaching interactions that occur in such settings. This paper then presents a discussion of a preliminary series of teaching interactions that either positively and or negatively influence an intensive one-to-one teaching and learning setting.

  1. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI r...

  2. Evolutionary trends of European bat lyssavirus type 2 including genetic characterization of Finnish strains of human and bat origin 24 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Miia, Jakava-Viljanen; Nokireki, Tiina; Tiina, Nokireki; Sironen, Tarja; Tarja, Sironen; Vapalahti, Olli; Olli, Vapalahti; Sihvonen, Liisa; Liisa, Sihvonen; Huovilainen, Anita; Anita, Huovilainen

    2015-06-01

    Among other Lyssaviruses, Daubenton's and pond-bat-related European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can cause human rabies. To investigate the diversity and evolutionary trends of EBLV-2, complete genome sequences of two Finnish isolates were analysed. One originated from a human case in 1985, and the other originated from a bat in 2009. The overall nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity of the two Finnish isolates were high, as well as the similarity to fully sequenced EBLV-2 strains originating from the UK and the Netherlands. In phylogenetic analysis, the EBLV-2 strains formed a monophyletic group that was separate from other bat-type lyssaviruses, with significant support. EBLV-2 shared the most recent common ancestry with Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) and Khujan virus (KHUV). EBLV-2 showed limited diversity compared to RABV and appears to be well adapted to its host bat species. The slow tempo of viral evolution was evident in the estimations of divergence times for EBLV-2: the current diversity was estimated to have built up during the last 2000 years, and EBLV-2 diverged from KHUV about 8000 years ago. In a phylogenetic tree of partial N gene sequences, the Finnish EBLV-2 strains clustered with strains from Central Europe, supporting the hypothesis that EBLV-2 circulating in Finland might have a Central European origin. The Finnish EBLV-2 strains and a Swiss strain were estimated to have diverged from other EBLV-2 strains during the last 1000 years, and the two Finnish strains appear to have evolved from a common ancestor during the last 200 years.

  3. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  4. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politimou, Nina; Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages.

  5. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages. PMID:29641607

  6. Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmeli, Styliani N

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention ( N = 29 children) and a control group ( N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families ( N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.

  7. Dual language profiles of Latino children of immigrants: Stability and change over the early school years

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.

    2013-01-01

    Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925

  8. Christian psychopathology: psychiatry and knowledge for the sake of salvation in the early years of Francoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Pablo, Ángel

    After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged. One example of this Catholic science was the psychiatric approach developed by Juan José López Ibor during the first Francoist period, including the concepts of anagogy, the perfection instinct, psychagogy and, above all, anxious thymopathy and life anguish. This paper analyses the Christian background of these notions, their scientific repercussions and their social utility for the dictatorship. This paper emphasizes the consideration of these key notions of Spanish psychiatry during the First Francoism as knowledge of salvation, i.e., as conveyors of assumed eternal values in accordance with the prevailing view of Catholicism. On the other hand, it points to the functioning of these concepts as a part of the regulatory network designed and deployed by Francoism to promote submission and resignation in the Spanish population.

  9. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks' gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; McGinley, Jennifer L; Thompson, Deanne; Clark, Ross; FitzGerald, Tara L; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Lee, Katherine J; Olsen, Joy E; Burnett, Alice; Treyvaud, Karli; Josev, Elisha; Alexander, Bonnie; Kelly, Claire E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie Ly

    2016-10-01

    Motor impairments are one of the most frequently reported adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in children born motor impairment at school age. The first 5 years of life are critical for the development of fundamental motor skills. These skills form the basis for more complex skills that are required to competently and confidently participate in schooling, sporting and recreational activities. In children born at motor development from birth to 5 years is not fully understood. The neural alterations that underpin motor impairments in these children are also unclear. It is essential to determine if early clinical evaluations and neuroimaging biomarkers can predict later motor impairment and associated functional problems at 5 years of age. This will help to identify children who will benefit the most from early intervention and improve functional outcomes at school age. The primary aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of motor impairment from birth to 5 years of age between children born at motor assessments in the newborn period in those born at motor functioning at 5 years of age. Secondary aims for children born at motor impairments at 5 years are detectable in the neonatal period; 2) to investigate the association between motor impairments and concurrent deficits in body structure and function at 5 years of age; and 3) to explore how motor impairments at 5 years (including abnormalities of gait, postural control and strength) are associated with concurrent functional outcomes, including physical activity, cognitive ability, learning ability, and behavioural and emotional problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. 150 preterm children (born at 36 completed weeks' gestation and weighing > 2499g) admitted to the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited at birth and will be invited to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. This study will examine previously collected data (from birth to 2 years) that comprise detailed motor assessments

  10. Therapeutic Management of a Substantial Pelvic Aneurysmatic Bone Cyst Including the Off-Label Use of Denosumab in a 35-Year-Old Female Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ntalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC are benign bone tumors, which are highly vascularized. The main course of treatment is curettage followed by bone grafting or cement insertion. Still recurrence remains a main problem for patients. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody, which acts as an inhibitor of the RANK/RANKL pathway, diminishing bone turnover. Recent case reports have shown that Denosumab can be a promising therapeutic agent for people suffering from therapy-resistant ABC. We report the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting with a pronounced ABC of the pelvis. Since the tumor was inoperable, Denosumab was administered, leading to a significant shrinkage of the lesion, which allowed surgical intervention. Upon recurrence, Denosumab was restarted putting the patient once more into remission. Follow-up was four years overall with a clinical and radiological stable disease for fifteen months after final discontinuation of the monoclonal antibody. Therefore, our case further underlines the potential of Denosumab in the treatment of ABC.

  11. The Impact of a Community-Based Intervention Including a Monthly Food Ration on Food Insecurity Among HIV-Positive Adults During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica; Kayigamba, Felix; Hills, Victoria; Gupta, Neil; Machara, Faustin; Niyigena, Peter; Franke, Molly F

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how food insecurity changed among HIV-positive adults during the first 12 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether any change differed according to the receipt of food support, which was provided in the context of a comprehensive community-based intervention. We conducted secondary data analyses of data from a prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of a community-based cART delivery model when added to clinic-based cART delivery in Rwanda. We included patients from four health centers that implemented a clinic-based cART delivery model alone and five health centers that additionally implemented the intervention, which included 10 months of food support. We compared food insecurity at 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to baseline, and stratified by receipt of the intervention. Relative to baseline, median food insecurity score decreased after 3, 6, and 12 months (p value insecurity scores remained unchanged at 3 and 12 months and were significantly higher after 6 months. In adjusted analyses, participants enrolled in the community-based intervention with a food ration had a lower risk of severe food insecurity and a lower risk of moderate or severe food insecurity after 12 months. A comprehensive community-based HIV program including a food ration likely contributes to an alleviation of food insecurity among adults newly initiating cART.

  12. Long-term effect of early treatment with interferon beta-1b after a first clinical event suggestive of multiple sclerosis: 5-year active treatment extension of the phase 3 BENEFIT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappos, Ludwig; Freedman, Mark S; Polman, Chris H

    2009-01-01

    with interferon beta-1b on time to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and other disease outcomes, including disability progression. METHODS: Patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis and a minimum of two clinically silent lesions in MRI were randomly assigned to receive interferon...... index (FAMS-TOI) at 5 years. Analysis of the primary endpoints was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00185211. FINDINGS: 235 (80%) patients from the early treatment and 123 (70%) from the delayed treatment group completed the 5-year study. Early treatment...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and scintigraphy of the finger joints: one year follow up of patients with early arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarlund, M; Ostergaard, M; Jensen, K; Madsen, J; Skjodt, H; Lorenzen, I; the, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and erosion development of the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints by magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or suspected RA followed up for one year. Additionally, to compare the results with radiography, bone scintigraphy, and clinical findings.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—Fifty five patients were examined at baseline, of whom 34 were followed up for one year. Twenty one patients already fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA at baseline, five fulfilled the criteria only after one year's follow up, whereas eight maintained the original diagnosis of early unclassified polyarthritis. The following MRI variables were assessed at baseline and one year: synovial membrane hypertrophy score, number of erosions, and tenosynovitis score.
RESULTS—MRI detected progression of erosions earlier and more often than did radiography of the same joints; at baseline the MRI to radiography ratio was 28:4. Erosions were exclusively found in patients with RA at baseline or fulfilling the ACR criteria at one year. At one year follow up, scores of MR synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and scintigraphic tracer accumulation had not changed significantly from baseline; in contrast, swollen and tender joint counts had declined significantly (pthe changes seen over time in clinically assessed swollen and tender joint counts. Although joint disease activity may be assessed as quiescent by conventional clinical methods, a more detailed evaluation by MRI may show that a pathological condition is still present within the synovium.

 PMID:10873961

  14. Polish Early Warning Systems In Predicting Risk Of Bankruptcy Ff Wawel S.A In The Years 2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tokarski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The always relevant issues of the assessment of bankruptcy risk for enterprises require that bankruptcy processes occurring in Poland are analysed on a continuous basis. This leads to verification of the existing theory on economics of bankruptcies and business failures on the one hand, and its further evolution on the other hand. For business practice, of significant importance in this area are methods for effective (pre-emptive diagnosis of the signs of the deteriorating economic and financial situation of an enterprise, which can precede an enterprise’s loss of the ability to pay and consequently permanent insolvency (bankruptcy. The traditional ex post indicator analysis has become by far insufficient. Thus, as it evolved, various science and research centres around the around, including in Poland, were undertaking efforts to create new early warning systems to ensure pre-emptive assessment of the bankruptcy risk level for economic entities. An early warning system is one of the elements designed to assess the economic and financial situation of a company. It allows us to identify the risk at an early stage and implement appropriate corrective processes. Early identification of the signs of a pending crisis should thus be one of the basic tasks in the management of a company. The aim of the paper is to assess the identification of bankruptcy risk for the company Wawel S.A, with the analysis covering the period from 2013 to 2015 in the company's operation. Moreover, the authors of the paper show the possibility of the application of Polish models for bankruptcy risk assessment by both internal and external stakeholders, who can use the information contained in financial statements and calculated financial indicators to assess whether a given economic entity is a healthy or sick entity. The research methods used in the paper are: literature analysis, calculations by Polish early warning systems and analysis of the case study of the company

  15. The Inside Story. Counseling for Tolerance in the Early Years Means Paying Attention to the Way Children Think and Feel about the World--and Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, David

    1995-01-01

    School counselors have developed effective approaches to reducing prejudice in the crucial early school years. Successful early intervention is based on the premise that hatred and prejudice are tools of the subconscious to ease feelings of inferiority through the illusion of superiority. (SLD)

  16. Going on Safari: The Design and Development of an Early Years Literacy iPad Application to Support Letter-Sound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…

  17. Progress report on first year of WP5.2. Including detailed description of planned research for WP 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemers, N.; Van Dijk, E.; Terwel, B.; De Vries, G. [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    This document contains the progress report on the first half year of the CATO-2 WP5.2 PhD project 'Framing effects in communication about CCS'. In the first few months a literature study has been conducted, both on (factors that influence) public perceptions and acceptance of CCS, and on framing. In the last two month, a first study was designed. This study consists of an experiment designed to examine how framing a company's involvement in CCS in terms of economic benefits and/or CSR of the organization affects the corporate image, trust, and perceived 'greenwashing' (deceit). Furthermore, this experiment serves to test the quality of newly developed questionnaires to measure these variables. In addition, this document contains a detailed description of the research planned for WP5.2 written by senior (CATO-2) researchers from January 2010 on. The objective of the research planned for WP5.2 is to examine whether framing of communications by an organization can improve the perceived credibility and trustworthiness of the organization and the information provided. This issue will be examined by a combination of experimental studies and a survey-type study.

  18. Attitudes and practices regarding disposal of liquid nuclear waste at Clinton Laboratories in the very early years: A historical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Many previously unreferenced documents show that the management and disposal of the liquid nuclear waste generated at Clinton Labs (which became ORNL after 1948) during the 1940s was performed with the highest degree of integrity and professionalism, contradicting today's perceptions. Even before construction of the laboratories in early 1943, professionals were making plans for the ''safe'' disposal of waste through treatment and dilution at medically prescribed levels into White Oak Creek and the Clinch River; concern for human health permeated all the disposal decisions. Chemical and physical treatment processes were used to remove as much of the activity as possible before release. Environmental and biological monitoring of the surface waters was instituted very early in the disposal history. Information learned at Clinton Labs with regard to waste disposal was transferred to Hanford. By the latter part of the 1940s, the scientists were formulating fairly sophisticated research programs for managing liquid waste and began research on the disposal of low-level solid waste. This historical analysis attempts to place the actions of the 1940s in proper perspective, drawing on the attentiveness and integrity of those who participated 50 years ago. Applying standards of the 1990s to actions in the 1940s must be done skilfully, carefully, and with the realization that those individuals were operating under extremely trying conditions, with minimal knowledge of radionuclide behavior

  19. An analysis of contingencies for making casks available for use during the early years of federal waste management system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Danese, F.L.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation

  20. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well

  1. Early predictors of first-year academic success at university : Pre-university effort, pre-university self-efficacy, and pre-university reasons for attending university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, Sanne G.A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H.Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the

  2. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  3. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  4. Molecular Analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 Clinical Strains, Including New Nontoxigenic Variants Isolated in Mexico during the Cholera Epidemic Years between 1991 and 2000▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1. PMID:19213700

  5. Molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains, including new nontoxigenic variants isolated in Mexico during the Cholera epidemic years between 1991 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  6. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Baig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are passed on to the students, who play an important role in the gender identity construction of these children. The study also indicated that the teachers’ personal experiences greatly affect their perceptions regarding gender identities. There was also evidence of teachers having different expectations for girls and boys. Schools were hence found promoting stereotypes regarding gender roles and responsibilities in a social context.

  7. Prognostic relevance at 5 years of the early monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 18F-FDG PET in luminal HER2-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, Olivier; Brunotte, Francois; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Toubeau, Michel; Dygai-Cochet, Inna; Cochet, Alexandre; Gauthier, Melanie; Charon-Barra, Celine; Guiu, Severine; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Fumoleau, Pierre; Coutant, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, in the luminal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer subtype, the prognostic value of tumour glucose metabolism at baseline and of its early changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This prospective study included 61 women with hormone-sensitive HER2-negative breast cancer treated with NAC. 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed at baseline. Hepatic activity was used as a reference to distinguish between low metabolic and hypermetabolic tumours. In hypermetabolic tumours, a PET exam was repeated after the first course of NAC. The relative change in the maximum standardized uptake value of the tumour (∇SUV) was calculated. Nineteen women had low metabolic luminal breast cancers at baseline, correlated with low proliferation indexes. Forty-two women had hypermetabolic tumours, corresponding to more proliferative breast cancers with higher Ki-67 expression (p = 0.017) and higher grade (p = 0.04). The median follow-up period was 64.2 months (range 11.5-93.2). Thirteen women developed recurrent disease, nine of whom died. Worse overall survival was associated with larger tumour size [>5 cm, hazard ratio (HR) = 6.52, p = 0.009] and with hypermetabolic tumours achieving a low metabolic response after one cycle of NAC (ΔSUV < 16 %, HR = 10.63, p = 0.004). Five-year overall survival in these poor responder patients was 49.2 %. Overall survival in women with low metabolic tumours or hypermetabolic/good response tumours was 100 and 96.15 %, respectively. In luminal HER2-negative breast tumours, tumour metabolism at baseline and changes after the first course of NAC are early surrogate markers of patients' survival. A subgroup of women with hypermetabolic/poorly responding tumours, correlated with poor prognosis at 5 years, can be identified early. These results may guide future studies by tailoring the NAC regimen to the metabolic response. (orig.)

  8. Effects of early auditory experience on the spoken language of deaf children at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E

    2006-06-01

    By age 3, typically developing children have achieved extensive vocabulary and syntax skills that facilitate both cognitive and social development. Substantial delays in spoken language acquisition have been documented for children with severe to profound deafness, even those with auditory oral training and early hearing aid use. This study documents the spoken language skills achieved by orally educated 3-yr-olds whose profound hearing loss was identified and hearing aids fitted between 1 and 30 mo of age and who received a cochlear implant between 12 and 38 mo of age. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the effects of age, duration, and type of early auditory experience on spoken language competence at age 3.5 yr. The spoken language skills of 76 children who had used a cochlear implant for at least 7 mo were evaluated via standardized 30-minute language sample analysis, a parent-completed vocabulary checklist, and a teacher language-rating scale. The children were recruited from and enrolled in oral education programs or therapy practices across the United States. Inclusion criteria included presumed deaf since birth, English the primary language of the home, no other known conditions that interfere with speech/language development, enrolled in programs using oral education methods, and no known problems with the cochlear implant lasting more than 30 days. Strong correlations were obtained among all language measures. Therefore, principal components analysis was used to derive a single Language Factor score for each child. A number of possible predictors of language outcome were examined, including age at identification and intervention with a hearing aid, duration of use of a hearing aid, pre-implant pure-tone average (PTA) threshold with a hearing aid, PTA threshold with a cochlear implant, and duration of use of a cochlear implant/age at implantation (the last two variables were practically identical because all children were tested between 40 and 44

  9. Surgical intervention after transvaginal Prolift mesh repair: retrospective single-center study including 524 patients with 3 years' median follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Landsheere, Laurent; Ismail, Sharif; Lucot, Jean-Philippe; Deken, Valérie; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Cosson, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and rate of surgical intervention after transvaginal Prolift mesh repair for pelvic organ prolapse. This was a retrospective study of all patients who underwent Prolift mesh repair between January 2005 and January 2009. Patient data were obtained from medical records, and patients were telephoned to check if they had surgery in other hospitals. A total of 600 consecutive patients were identified. Of these, 524 patients (87.3%) were included in the study, with a median follow-up duration of 38 months (range, 15-63). Global reoperation rate was 11.6%. Indications of intervention were surgery for urinary incontinence (6.9%), mesh-related complications (3.6%), or prolapse recurrence (3%). The global reoperation rate after transvaginal Prolift mesh repair was 11.6%, with urinary incontinence surgery being the most common indication. Rates of mesh complications and prolapse recurrence are relatively low in an experienced team. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What shapes 7-year-olds? subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Research on predictors of young children?s psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds? subjective well-being. Methods Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012?2013 (N?=?2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34?months, p...

  11. [The 100th anniversary of Gustav Wilhelm Störring's "Lectures on Psychopathology". A review of his early years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H; Künstler, U

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this essay is to retell the life and work of philosopher and psychiatrist Gustav Wilhelm Störring (1860-1946) during his early years in Leipzig and Erdmannshain. His "Lectures on Psychopathology and its Impact on Normal Psychology", written 100 years ago, are acknowledged as his most important work. With this book Störring stands in opposition to many of his contemporaries, which is illustrated with his concept of mania. In some aspects, however, his ideas coincide with those of other well-known psychiatrists such as Emil Kraepelin. Both were inclined to the idea that psychiatry and psychology could mutually stimulate each other. Störring's work in Wundt's laboratory of experimental psychology had a major impact on his work. Wundt's ideas gave impetus to a lot of his work and also influenced papers Störring was to write later on. Störring's biography is followed until 1902 when he was appointed professor of philosophy of Zurich University, in which his friend Ernst Meumann was substantially involved. In Leipzig Störring had started his work as Flechsig's assistant at the hospital of psychiatry and neurology of Leipzig University. In 1897 he founded his own sanitarium for mentally and neurologically ill in Erdmannshain, a village near Leipzig, which he managed together with his wife Marie, née Bonacker. With the help of Wundt Störring qualifies as a university lecturer. During the years regarded here, however, he got more and more attracted to philosophical matters, thus turning away from neurosciences. In time he started to regard his work as physician as nothing more than necessary for making his living. His relationship with Wundt, who together with his laboratory of experimental psychology had previously made him wish to come to Leipzig, cooled down, at least on the part of the first. That puts an end to Störring's early years not only from the point of view of his biography but also from his work.

  12. Motivational impairment predicts functional remission in first-episode psychosis: 3-Year follow-up of the randomized controlled trial on extended early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Kwong, Vivian Wing Yan; Or Chi Fai, Philip; Lau, Emily Sin Kei; Chan, Gloria Hoi Kei; Jim, Olivia Tsz Ting; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2018-02-01

    Functional remission represents an intermediate functional milestone toward recovery. Differential relationships of negative symptom sub-domains with functional remission in first-episode psychosis are understudied. We aimed to examine rate and predictors of functional remission in people with first-episode psychosis in the context of a 3-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extension of early intervention (i.e. 3-year early intervention) with step-down psychiatric care (i.e. 2-year early intervention). A total of 160 participants were recruited upon completion of a 2-year specialized early intervention program for first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong and underwent a 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extended early intervention with step-down care. Participants were followed up and reassessed 3 years after inclusion to the trial (i.e. 3-year follow-up). Functional remission was operationalized as simultaneous fulfillment of attaining adequate functioning (measured by Social and Occupational Functioning Scale and Role Functioning Scale) at 3-year follow-up and sustained employment in the last 6 months of 3-year study period. Negative symptom measure was delineated into amotivation (i.e. motivational impairment) and diminished expression (i.e. reduced affect and speech output). Data analysis was based on 143 participants who completed follow-up functional assessments. A total of 31 (21.7%) participants achieved functional remission status at 3-year follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lower levels of amotivation ( p = 0.010) and better functioning at study intake ( p = 0.004) independently predicted functional remission (Final model: Nagelkerke R 2  = 0.40, χ 2  = 42.9, p amotivation may represent a critical therapeutic target for functional remission attainment in early psychosis.

  13. Does digital mammography suppose an advance in early diagnosis? Trends in performance indicators 6 years after digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Maria; Domingo, Laia; Macià, Francesc; Comas, Mercè; Burón, Andrea; Castells, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    To provide a complete evaluation of the long-term impact of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on the improvement of early diagnosis in a population-based screening program. We included 82,961 screen-film mammograms (SFM) and 79,031 FFDM from women aged 50-69 screened biennially from 1995-2010 in Spain and followed-up to 2012. The first screening round of the program was excluded. Rates of cancer detection, interval cancer, tumoral characteristics and other quality indicators were compared between SFM and FFDM periods using the Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) significantly increased with FFDM (0.05 % vs 0.09 %; p = 0.010), along with the proportion of small invasive cancers (Digitalization has supposed an improvement in early diagnosis because DCIS and small invasive cancers increased without a change in detection rate. Moreover, false-positive reduction without an increase in the interval cancer rate was confirmed.

  14. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  15. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biochemist John Randolph Totter, Ph.D., January 23, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a transcript of an interview of Dr. John Randolph Tottler by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Tottler was selected for this interview because of his career with the Atomic Energy Commission Division of Biology and Medicine (DBM), particularly as its director from 1967 to 1972. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Tottler discusses his remembrances on a wide range topics including nucleic acid and leukemia research at Oak Ridge, AEC biochemistry training in South America, DBM's research focus on radiation effects, early leadership of DBM, relations with the US Public Health Service, controversies on low-level radiation, iodine from fallout, on John Gofman, and Project Plowshare, funding for AEC Research Programs and for international research, testicular irradiation of prisoners in Washington State and Oregon, Plutonium injections, ethics of government radiation research, and opinions of public misperceptions about radiation and cancer

  16. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Okely

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0–5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework. Referred to as the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, it allows guideline developers to follow a structured and transparent process in a more efficient manner, potentially avoiding the need to unnecessarily repeat costly tasks such as conducting systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. Methods The development process was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach. A Leadership Group and Consensus Panel were formed and existing credible guidelines identified. The draft Canadian 24-h integrated movement guidelines for the early years best met the criteria established by the Panel. These were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and draft recommendations from the Canadian Draft Guidelines. Updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews were conducted and the Consensus Panel reviewed the evidence for each behaviour separately and made a decision to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. An online survey was then conducted (n = 302 along with five focus groups (n = 30 and five key informant interviews (n

  17. Early language screening in city and Hackney: the concurrent validity of a measure designed for use with 2 1/2-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports data relating to the development of a screening test for language impairment in 2 1/2-year-old children. The screening test itself has previously been described. The results of a pilot study and a larger community study are reported. In all, 34 children were included in the pilot study and 1015 in the community study. The reference test selected was the Reynell Developmental Language Scales and the cut-off adopted 1.5 standard deviations below the mean for either the expressive or the receptive scale of the test concerned. The pass mark on the screening test was ascertained using receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The validity is reported given the cut-off identified. The specificity, sensitivity and both positive and negative predictive abilities are reported for both the pilot and the subsequent study. The application of the test is discussed in the context of the current debate about early identification.

  18. One year effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise compared with instruction in analgesic use on knee function in patients with early knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, A; Christensen, R; Clausen, B

    2018-01-01

    of California Activity Score (UCLA) and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (57% women, 58 ± 8 years, body mass index 27 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were randomized to NEMEX (n = 47) or PHARMA group (n = 46) with data from 85% being available at 12-months follow-up. Good compliance......OBJECTIVE: To test long-term effectiveness of neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) with instructions in optimized pharmacological treatment (PHARMA) on activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with early knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: 12-months follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Participants...... with mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to 8 weeks NEMEX or PHARMA. The primary outcome measure was the ADL-subscale of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcome measures included the other four KOOS-subscales, the University...

  19. Maternal state of mind regarding attachment, maternal depression and children's family drawings in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihrer, Irene; McMahon, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored how children's family drawings in the early school years might be related to their exposure to recurrent episodes of maternal depression. We also examined prospectively relations among maternal state of mind regarding attachment derived from the Adult Attachment Interview and earlier mother-child attachment from the Strange Situation Procedure (both measured when the child was 12-15 months old) and later family drawings. Seventy-five mothers were assessed for symptoms of depression periodically between birth and child age 6-8 years. At this age, children completed a family drawing rated using an attachment-based scoring system. Both mothers' state of mind regarding attachment and their overall depression were modestly, but significantly, correlated with a global rating of the child's drawings. When both predictors were considered together, however, neither was significant, reflecting collinearity between the two variables. In this study, women with a non-autonomous state of mind regarding attachment were significantly more likely to experience recurrent depression. The earlier classification of the child's attachment to the mother from the Strange Situation Procedure was not related to the family drawing.

  20. Early Sentence Productions of 3- and 4-Year-Old Children Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; King, Marika; Mansfield, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the early rule-based sentence productions of 3- and 4-year-old children with severe speech disorders who used single-meaning graphic symbols to communicate. Method Ten 3- and 4-year-olds requiring the use of augmentative and alternative communication, who had largely intact receptive language skills, received instruction in producing up to four different semantic–syntactic targets using an Apple iPad with a communication app. A single-case, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used to assess the progress of each participant and target. Generalization to new vocabulary was assessed, and a subgroup also was taught to produce sentences using grammatical markers. Results Some targets (primarily possessor-entity) were mastered in the baseline phase, and the majority of the remaining targets were mastered during intervention. All four children who completed intervention for grammatical markers quickly learned to use the markers accurately. Conclusions Expressive language potential for preschoolers using graphic symbol–based augmentative and alternative communication systems should not be underestimated. With appropriate presentation and intervention techniques, some preschoolers with profound speech disorders can readily learn to produce rule-based messages via graphic symbols. PMID:28614575

  1. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Prevalence of early childhood caries in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Rohtak City, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Ghanghas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is a significant dental public health problem that affects infants and preschool children all over the world, and there is scarcity of epidemiological data regarding ECC in Rohtak city. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of ECC among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Rohtak city, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 489 preschool children aged 3–5 years in Rohtak city, Haryana. Children were randomly selected from preschools of Rohtak. Caries experience was recorded using “deft” index, and questionnaire comprising sociodemographic details and oral hygiene practices was also used. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Chi-square tests were used for the comparison of proportions. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of ECC was found to be 32% with mean deft 1.08 ± 2.27. No significant association of dental caries was found with sociodemographic factors such as gender, parental education, parental occupation, socioeconomic status, number of children, birth order, type of family, and oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: As burden of dental caries is high, treatment of dental caries would impose a great financial burden; hence, effective preventive strategies should be developed and implemented.

  3. Academic language in early childhood interactions : a longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old Dutch monolingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines academic language in early childhood. It covers children’s exposure to academic language in early childhood, children’s early production of academic language, the development of academic language proficiency and the co-construction of academic language by children and adults.The

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  5. Ten-year results of the treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma in elderly women using breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Schultz, Delray J.; Fowble, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal management of breast cancer in elderly women is not well established. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of breast cancer in elderly women treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 558 women age ≥ 50 years treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation for Stages I-II invasive carcinoma of the breast. Of the 558 total women, there were 173 elderly women age ≥ 65 years and a comparison group of 385 women age 50-64 years. Treatment for all women included complete gross excision of the primary tumor, pathologic axillary lymph node staging, and definitive breast irradiation. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was used in 18% (102 out of 558) of the overall group. Adjuvant tamoxifen was used in 17% (94 out of 558) of the overall group. The median follow-up after treatment was 6.2 years (mean = 6.4 years; range 0.1-15.4 years). Results: Elderly patients age ≥ 65 years and patients age 50-64 years were both found to have tumors with adverse prognostic features, including clinical T2 lesions (43 vs. 34%, respectively; p = 0.055), estrogen receptor negativity (9 vs. 16%, respectively; p = 0.13), and progesterone receptor negativity (17 vs. 21%, respectively; p = 0.50). Pathologic axillary lymph node staging showed that 24% of the elderly women were node positive, including 8% with four or more positive nodes, which was not different from women age 50-64 years (p = 0.23). There was no difference between the two age groups for the rate of deaths from breast cancer at 10 years (13 vs. 13%, respectively; p = 0.71). However, there was a significant difference between the two age groups for the rate of deaths from intercurrent disease at 10 years (11 vs. 2%, respectively; p = 0.0006). There were no differences between the two age groups for the 10-year rates of overall survival (77 vs. 85%, respectively; p = 0

  6. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  7. Six-Year-Olds' Perception of Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Children's Literacy Enjoyment, Frequency, and Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholek, Sabrina; Hilkenmeier, Johanna; Greiner, Christian; Buhl, Heike M.

    2018-01-01

    Home literacy environment (HLE) makes an important contribution to children's reading acquisition in early years. Even though some research on children's perception exists, children's reports about HLE have been neglected. The present study focuses on N = 281 six-year-old's reports about HLE and its influences on literacy enjoyment, frequency, and…

  8. Social Support as a Moderator of Functional Disability's Effect on Depressive Feelings in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Four-Year Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Objective: To examine associations of depressive feelings with disease-related variables and explore the moderating effect of social support on depressive feelings in individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prospectively over 4 years. Method: Data were collected annually over 4 years. The

  9. Low maternal education is associated with increased growth velocity in the first year of life and in early childhood: the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Gemke, Reinoud

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is first to examine the relation of maternal education and growth velocity during the first year of life and early childhood (1-5 years). The second objective is to determine the potential explanatory role of standardized birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy,

  10. Towards Collaborative Professional Learning in the First Year Early Childhood Teacher Education Practicum: Issues in Negotiating the Multiple Interests of Stakeholder Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alice; Danaher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses data from two sources of stakeholder feedback--first year pre-service teachers and supervising teachers/centre directors--about the issues involved in creating more collaborative approaches to the first year early childhood teacher education practicum at an Australian regional university. The collection of this feedback was…

  11. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  12. An Early Years Toolbox for Assessing Early Executive Function, Language, Self-Regulation, and Social Development: Validity, Reliability, and Preliminary Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Melhuish, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years…

  13. Meeting new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with adiposity among toddlers living in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Hesketh, Kylie D; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Rhodes, Ryan E; Rinaldi, Christina M; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project. Toddlers' physical activity was measured using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Toddlers' screen time and sleep were measured using the PREPS questionnaire. Toddlers' height and weight were objectively measured by public health nurses and BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. Meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was defined as: ≥180 min/day of total physical activity, including ≥1 min/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; no screen time per day (for those aged 12-23 months) or ≤1 h/day of screen time per day (ages 24-35 months); and 11-14 h of sleep per 24-h period. Frequency analyses and linear regression models were conducted. Only 11.9% of toddlers met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, but this finding was largely driven by screen time. The majority of toddlers met the individual physical activity (99.3%) and sleep (82.1%) recommendations, while only 15.2% of toddlers met the screen time recommendation. No associations were observed between meeting specific and general combinations of recommendations within the guidelines and BMI z-scores. Most toddlers in this sample were meeting physical activity and sleep recommendations but were engaging in more screen time than recommended. Consequently, only a small proportion of toddlers met the overall guidelines. Based on

  14. Case study as a means of evaluating the impact of early years leaders: Steps, paths and routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The paper argues that case study will need to play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of leadership development programmes as both formal and substantive theories of leadership place greater emphasis upon the role played by organizational context on leaders ability to bring about change. Prolonged engagement within a case study provides researchers with opportunities to capture the dynamics between leaders and their organisational contexts. However, adopting a case study approach is no substitute for inadequate theorization of the link between leadership approaches and leadership effects. The paper argues for the use of inclusive and expansive theoretical notions of leadership and its relationship to organisational context. The evaluation used to illustrate these arguments was based on a longitudinal multi-site case study methodology. The case studies ran over a three-year period and tracked the effect of 42 leaders on the quality of provision in some 30 early years settings. Both individual and collective theoires of leadership were used to trace leaders' steps, paths and routes to improvement. Three overlapping theoretical lenses were used to study the dynamics of these leaders interactions with a key aspect of their organisational contexts - the existing formal and informal leadership structures - and how these affected their attempts to improve the quality of provision of their settings. The analysis, and related findings, were tiered in order to provide progressively more detailed descriptions of the relationships between leaders' approaches and changes in their settings' quality of provision. Each layer of analysis operated with a causal logic that became gradually less general and linear and increasingly more 'local' and complex. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA level.Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels.There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001. Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05.PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  16. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  17. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  18. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  19. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu; Swaby, Ramona F.; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Morrow, Monica; Goldstein, Lori J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged ≥18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  20. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  1. Early years interventions to improve child health and wellbeing: what works, for whom and in what circumstances? Protocol for a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Daniel, Brigid

    2015-06-06

    Child health and wellbeing is influenced by multiple factors, all of which can impact on early childhood development. Adverse early life experiences can have lasting effects across the life course, sustaining inequalities and resulting in negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of individuals and society. The potential to influence future outcomes via early intervention is widely accepted; there are numerous policy initiatives, programmes and interventions clustered around the early years theme, resulting in a broad and disparate evidence base. Existing reviews have addressed the effectiveness of early years interventions, yet there is a knowledge gap regarding the mechanisms underlying why interventions work in given contexts. This realist review seeks to address the question 'what works, for whom and in what circumstances?' in terms of early years interventions to improve child health and wellbeing. The review will be conducted following Pawson's five-stage iterative realist methodology: (1) clarify scope, (2) search for evidence, (3) appraise primary studies and extract data, (4) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions and (5) disseminate findings. The reviewers will work with stakeholders in the early stages to refine the focus of the review, create a review framework and build programme theory. Searches for primary evidence will be conducted iteratively. Data will be extracted and tested against the programme theory. A review collaboration group will oversee the review process. The review will demonstrate how early years interventions do or do not work in different contexts and with what outcomes and effects. Review findings will be written up following the RAMESES guidelines and will be disseminated via a report, presentations and peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO CRD42015017832.

  2. Early aggressive eradication therapy for intermittent Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway colonization in cystic fibrosis patients: 15 years experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.R.; Pressler, T.; Høiby, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF-patients inte......BACKGROUND: Since 1989, CF-patients intermittently colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been treated with inhaled colistin and oral ciprofloxacin in the Copenhagen CF-centre. The study evaluates 15 years results of this treatment. METHODS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa from CF......-patients intermittently colonized with P. aeruginosa from 1989 to 2003 were identified All anti-P. aeruginosa treatments were evaluated for antibiotics used, treatment duration, pseudomonas-free interval and development of chronic infection. All P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed for resistance and for non......-mucoid or mucoid phenotype. RESULTS: 146 CF-patients were included in the study (1106 patient-years). 99 patients had first ever isolate during the study period. Median observation time 7 years (0.1-14.9). 12 patients developed chronic infection. A Kaplan Meyer plot showed protection from chronic infection in up...

  3. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Ghersi, Davina; Hesketh, Kylie D; Santos, Rute; Loughran, Sarah P; Cliff, Dylan P; Shilton, Trevor; Grant, David; Jones, Rachel A; Stanley, Rebecca M; Sherring, Julie; Hinkley, Trina; Trost, Stewart G; McHugh, Clare; Eckermann, Simon; Thorpe, Karen; Waters, Karen; Olds, Timothy S; Mackey, Tracy; Livingstone, Rhonda; Christian, Hayley; Carr, Harriette; Verrender, Adam; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Downing, Katherine L; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-11-20

    In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework. Referred to as the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, it allows guideline developers to follow a structured and transparent process in a more efficient manner, potentially avoiding the need to unnecessarily repeat costly tasks such as conducting systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. The development process was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach. A Leadership Group and Consensus Panel were formed and existing credible guidelines identified. The draft Canadian 24-h integrated movement guidelines for the early years best met the criteria established by the Panel. These were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and draft recommendations from the Canadian Draft Guidelines. Updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews were conducted and the Consensus Panel reviewed the evidence for each behaviour separately and made a decision to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. An online survey was then conducted (n = 302) along with five focus groups (n = 30) and five key informant interviews (n = 5) to obtain feedback from stakeholders on

  4. Types ofpsychomotor developmental disorders inchildren before theage of3 years and the meaning of the early intervention for thechild’s future development – preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The analysis of the types of developmental disorders in early childhood. Material and methods: Seventy-one children at the age from 7 days to 3 years who came to The Early Intervention Centre for Handicapped Children “Give the Chance” at University Children’s Clinical Hospital in Bialystok in 2010 were examined. There were 46 (65% boys and 25 (35% girls in that group. The most common reason for coming to the Centre was the psychomotor retardation – 38 (54% subjects. In the Centre the diagnosis included: developmental interview, psychological, pedagogical and speech-therapy research. The evaluation of the psychomotor development in the psychological investigation was made using the Brunet-Lézine Scale of Psychomotor Development. The opinion on the symptoms of pervasive developmental disorder was based on diagnostic criteria contained in ICD-10. Results: The delayed development of the active speech was diagnosed in 71 (100% subjects. Forty-one (58% patients had psychomotor retardation without the features of the pervasive developmental disorder. Pervasive developmental disorder was diagnosed in 19 (27% subjects. The quotient of the psychomotor development was 77. Therapeutic influences included: psychoeducation – 65 (92% subjects, pedagogical therapy and speech-therapy – 13 (18% subjects, emotional support – 65 (92% subjects, systematic group classes for parents – 10 (14% subjects. Conclusions: 1 The developmental disorder was diagnosed in the majority of the examined children – 41 (58% subjects. 2 Pervasive developmental disorder was diagnosed in 19 (27% subjects, which is in accordance with the worldwide tendency for the growth of the number of diagnosis connected with this disorder (“autism epidemics”.

  5. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers...

  6. Prognostic relevance at 5 years of the early monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using {sup 18}F-FDG PET in luminal HER2-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Olivier; Brunotte, Francois [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); CHU Le Bocage, Imaging Department, Dijon (France); Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5158, Dijon (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Toubeau, Michel; Dygai-Cochet, Inna [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Cochet, Alexandre [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5158, Dijon (France); Gauthier, Melanie [Centre GF Leclerc, Biostatistics and Quality of Life Unit, EA 4184, Dijon (France); Charon-Barra, Celine [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Pathology, Dijon (France); Guiu, Severine; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Fumoleau, Pierre [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Medical Oncology, Dijon (France); Coutant, Charles [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Surgery, Dijon (France)

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, in the luminal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer subtype, the prognostic value of tumour glucose metabolism at baseline and of its early changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This prospective study included 61 women with hormone-sensitive HER2-negative breast cancer treated with NAC. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed at baseline. Hepatic activity was used as a reference to distinguish between low metabolic and hypermetabolic tumours. In hypermetabolic tumours, a PET exam was repeated after the first course of NAC. The relative change in the maximum standardized uptake value of the tumour (∇SUV) was calculated. Nineteen women had low metabolic luminal breast cancers at baseline, correlated with low proliferation indexes. Forty-two women had hypermetabolic tumours, corresponding to more proliferative breast cancers with higher Ki-67 expression (p = 0.017) and higher grade (p = 0.04). The median follow-up period was 64.2 months (range 11.5-93.2). Thirteen women developed recurrent disease, nine of whom died. Worse overall survival was associated with larger tumour size [>5 cm, hazard ratio (HR) = 6.52, p = 0.009] and with hypermetabolic tumours achieving a low metabolic response after one cycle of NAC (ΔSUV < 16 %, HR = 10.63, p = 0.004). Five-year overall survival in these poor responder patients was 49.2 %. Overall survival in women with low metabolic tumours or hypermetabolic/good response tumours was 100 and 96.15 %, respectively. In luminal HER2-negative breast tumours, tumour metabolism at baseline and changes after the first course of NAC are early surrogate markers of patients' survival. A subgroup of women with hypermetabolic/poorly responding tumours, correlated with poor prognosis at 5 years, can be identified early. These results may guide future studies by tailoring the NAC regimen to the metabolic response

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture-proven early-onset neonatal sepsis in Arab states in the Gulf region: two-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Majeda S; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Al-Abdi, Sameer Y; Bozaid, Hussain; Khan, Anwar; AlMuhairi, Laila M; Rehman, Moghis Ur

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and the pattern of causative organisms of culture-proven early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Arab states in the Gulf region. Five neonatal care units participated in this 2-year prospective study in Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. Data were collected prospectively using a standardized data collection form. EOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants within 72h of birth, with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection. Out of 67 474 live births, 102 cases of EOS occurred. The overall incidence of EOS was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) per 1000 live-births, ranging from 2.64 per 1000 live-births in Kuwait to 0.40 per 1000 live-births in King Abdulaziz Hospital in Saudi Arabia. The most common causative organism of EOS was group B Streptococcus (GBS; 60.0%), followed by Escherichia coli (13%). The incidence of invasive GBS disease was 0.90 per 1000 live-births overall and ranged from 1.4 per 1000 live-births in Kuwait to 0.6 per 1000 live-births in Dubai Hospital. The incidence of EOS and the patterns of the causative organisms in the Arab states in the Gulf region are similar to those in developed countries before the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Efforts should be made to improve intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in the Arab state setting, which could avert large numbers of GBS infections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluvial deposits as an archive of early human activity: Progress during the 20 years of the Fluvial Archives Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parth R.; Bridgland, David R.; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Antoine, Pierre; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Briant, Rebecca; Cunha, Pedro P.; Despriée, Jackie; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Locht, Jean-Luc; Martins, Antonio A.; Schreve, Danielle C.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Voinchet, Pierre; Westaway, Rob; White, Mark J.; White, Tom S.

    2017-06-01

    Fluvial sedimentary archives are important repositories for Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts throughout the 'Old World', especially in Europe, where the beginning of their study coincided with the realisation that early humans were of great antiquity. Now that many river terrace sequences can be reliably dated and correlated with the globally valid marine isotope record, potentially useful patterns can be recognized in the distribution of the find-spots of the artefacts that constitute the large collections that were assembled during the years of manual gravel extraction. This paper reviews the advances during the past two decades in knowledge of hominin occupation based on artefact occurrences in fluvial contexts, in Europe, Asia and Africa. As such it is an update of a comparable review in 2007, at the end of IGCP Project no. 449, which had instigated the compilation of fluvial records from around the world during 2000-2004, under the auspices of the Fluvial Archives Group. An overarching finding is the confirmation of the well-established view that in Europe there is a demarcation between handaxe making in the west and flake-core industries in the east, although on a wider scale that pattern is undermined by the increased numbers of Lower Palaeolithic bifaces now recognized in East Asia. It is also apparent that, although it seems to have appeared at different places and at different times in the later Lower Palaeolithic, the arrival of Levallois technology as a global phenomenon was similarly timed across the area occupied by Middle Pleistocene hominins, at around 0.3 Ma.

  10. Cognitive reserve as a predictor of two year neuropsychological performance in early onset first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Puig, Olga; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bombin, Igor; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arango, Celso; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Mayoral, María; Graell, Montserrat; Otero, Soraya; Guardia, Joan; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been defined as individual differences in the efficient utilization of brain networks which allow some people to cope better than others with brain pathology. CR has been developed mainly in the field of aging and dementia after it was observed that there appears to be no direct relationship between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations of this damage. The present study applies the concept of CR to a sample of children and adolescents with a first episode of schizophrenia, aiming to assess the possible influence of CR on neuropsychological performance after two year follow-up, controlling for the influence of clinical psychopathology. 35 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSD) and 98 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender were included. CR was assessed at baseline, taking into account premorbid IQ, educational-occupational level and leisure activities. Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were completed by all patients at two year follow-up. The CR proxy was able to predict working memory and attention at two year follow-up. Verbal memory and cognitive flexibility were not predicted by any of the variables included in the regression model. The SSD group obtained lower scores than HC on CR. CR measures correctly classified 79.8% of the sample as being SSD or HC. Lower scores on CR were observed in SSD than in HC and the CR measure correctly classified a high percentage of the sample into the two groups. CR may predict SSD performance on working memory and attention tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients. One-year results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Mauro; Merli, Aldo; Bernardelli, Francesco; Lombardini, Francesco; Esposito, Marco

    2008-01-01

    To compare immediate versus early (6 weeks) non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients 1 year after loading. Sixty patients were randomised: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. In order to be immediately loaded, implants were inserted with a minimum torque of > or = 40Ncm. Implants were fully occlusally loaded after 6 months. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, and biological and biomechanical complications. Five implants in five patients randomised to the immediately loaded group did not reach the required primary implant stability. Three of these implants (two prostheses) were not immediately loaded. Two patients who were randomised to the early loaded group were immediately loaded erroneously. Implants in five patients of the early loaded group were conventionally loaded. No patient dropped out and there were no failures. Two complications occurred in the early and one in the immediately loaded group (no statistically significant difference), but were solved. The use of a flapless technique for placing dental implants in conjunction with non-occlusal immediate or early loading in selected patients can provide excellent clinical results. No differences were observed when comparing implants that were loaded immediately or early. Therefore, when a high primary implant stability is obtained, it might be preferable to load the implants immediately rather than waiting for a few weeks.

  12. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Background: Early life infections and presence of older siblings or pets in the household are factors known to affect the risk of developing allergic diseases, and this effect is suggested to be mediated by interactions between microbes and the immune system. However, very limited research has been...... done on the effect of these factors on the developing gut microbiota in infants. Thus, we aimed to elucidate associations between older siblings, pets and early life infections, the microbial gut communities at 9 and 18 months of age and the prevalence of allergies in three year old children. Methods...... of respiratory allergy, eczema and presence of older siblings, pets and early life infections, previously collected through interviews with parents, were compared to the obtained data on bacterial taxonomy. Results: Early life infections were positively associated with the risk of developing respiratory allergy...

  13. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths devel...

  14. Outcomes associated with early post-traumatic osteoarthritis and other negative health consequences 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J L; Woodhouse, L J; Nettel-Aguirre, A; Emery, C A

    2015-07-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) commonly affects the knee joint. Although the risk of PTOA substantially increases post-joint injury, there is little research examining PTOA outcomes early in the period between joint injury and disease onset. Improved understanding of this interval would inform secondary prevention strategies aimed at preventing and/or delaying PTOA progression. This study examines the association between sport-related knee injury and outcomes related to development of PTOA, 3-10 years post-injury. This preliminary analysis of the first year of a historical cohort study includes 100 (15-26 years) individuals. Fifty with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10 years previously and 50 uninjured age, sex and sport matched controls. The primary outcome was the 'Symptoms' sub-scale of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes included; the remaining KOOS subscales, body mass index (BMI), hip abductor/adductor and knee extensor/flexor strength, estimated aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance scores on three dynamic balance tests. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and conditional odds ratio (OR, 95% CI; BMI) were used to compare study groups. Injured participants demonstrated poorer KOOS outcomes [symptoms -9.4 (-13.6, -5.2), pain -4.0 (-6.8, -1.2), quality-of-life -8.0 (-11.0, -5.1), daily living -3.0 (-5.0, -1.1) and sport/recreation -6.9 (-9.9, -3.8)], were 3.75 times (95% CI 1.24, 11.3) more likely to be overweight/obese and had lower triple single leg hop scores compared to controls. No significant group differences existed for remaining balance scores, estimated VO2max, hip or knee strength ratios or side-to-side difference in hip abductor/adductor or quadricep/hamstring strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth/young adults following sport-related knee injury report more symptoms and poorer function, and are at

  15. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  16. Can touch screen tablets be used to assess cognitive and motor skills in early years primary school children? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pitchford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardised paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardised assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardised assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children (N=283 spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children (N=70 from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity

  17. Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R E; Stein, Phyllis K; Fung, Gordon L; Drew, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the prognostic value of heart rate variability (HRV) measurement initiated immediately after emergency department presentation for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but the value of HRV measured during the earliest phases of ACS related to risk of 1-year rehospitalization and death has not been established. Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 279 patients with ACS were initiated within 45 minutes of emergency department arrival; recordings with ≥18 hours of sinus rhythm were selected for HRV analysis (number [N] =193). Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined. Survival analysis was performed. During the 1-year follow-up, 94 patients were event-free, 82 were readmitted, and 17 died. HRV was altered in relation to outcomes. Predictors of rehospitalization included increased normalized high frequency power, decreased normalized low frequency power, and decreased low/high frequency ratio. Normalized high frequency >42 ms(2) predicted rehospitalization while controlling for clinical variables (hazard ratio [HR] =2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4-3.8, P=0.001). Variables significantly associated with death included natural logs of total power and ultra low frequency power. A model with ultra low frequency power 0.3 ng/mL (HR =4.0; 95% CI =1.3-12.1; P=0.016) revealed that each contributed independently in predicting mortality. Nonlinear HRV variables were significant predictors of both outcomes. HRV measured close to the ACS onset may assist in risk stratification. HRV cut-points may provide additional, incremental prognostic information to established assessment guidelines, and may be worthy of additional study.

  18. Effectiveness of integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment in severe schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar I disorders: Four-year follow-up of the ACCESS II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Ruppelt, Friederike; Bussopulos, Alexandra; Frieling, Marietta; Nika, Evangelia; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Golks, Dietmar; Kerstan, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Schödlbauer, Michael; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sarikaya, Gizem; Sengutta, Mary; Luedecke, Daniel; Wittmann, Linus; Ohm, Gunda; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Klaus; Bock, Thomas; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The ACCESS-model offers integrated care including assertive community treatment to patients with psychotic disorders. ACCESS proved more effective compared to standard care (ACCESS-I study) and was successfully implemented into clinical routine (ACCESS-II study). In this article, we report the 4-year outcomes of the ACCESS-II study. Between May 2007 and December 2013, 115 patients received continuous ACCESS-care. We hypothesized that the low 2-year disengagement and hospitalization rates and significant improvements in psychopathology, functioning, and quality of life could be sustained over 4 years. Over 4 years, only 10 patients disengaged from ACCESS. Another 23 left for practical reasons and were successfully transferred to other services. Hospitalization rates remained low (13.0% in year 3; 9.1% in year 4). Involuntary admissions decreased from 35% in the 2 years prior to ACCESS to 8% over 4 years in ACCESS. Outpatient contacts remained stably high at 2.0-2.4 per week. We detected significant improvements in psychopathology (effect size d = 0.79), illness severity (d = 1.29), level of functioning (d = 0.77), quality of life (d = 0.47) and stably high client satisfaction (d = 0.02) over 4 years. Most positive effects were observed within the first 2 years with the exception of illness severity, which further improved from year 2 to 4. Within continuous intensive 4-year ACCESS-care, sustained improvements in psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, low service disengagement and re-hospitalization rates, as well as low rates of involuntary treatment, were observed in contrast to other studies, which reported a decline in these parameters once a specific treatment model was stopped. Yet, stronger evidence to prove these results is required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01888627.

  19. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  20. Pathways from problems in adolescent family relationships to midlife mental health via early adulthood disadvantages – a 26-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina

    2017-01-01

    Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relations...

  1. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  2. Prolonged conservative care versus early surgery in patients with sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation : two year results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peul, W.C.; Hout, van den W.B.; Brand, R.; Thomeer, R.T.W.M.; Koes, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of early lumbar disc surgery compared with prolonged conservative care for patients with sciatica over two years of follow-up. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Nine Dutch hospitals. Participants: 283 patients with 6-12 weeks of sciatica.

  3. "Nostalgia for What Cannot Be": An Interpretive and Social Biography of Stuart Hall's Early Years in Jamaica and England, 1932-1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about Stuart Hall's intellectual and theoretical contributions especially after the mid-1960s. This interpretive and social biography places Stuart Hall's life from 1932 to 1959 in a socio-historical context, beginning with his childhood in Jamaica and his early years in England. I draw on Hall's own biographical reflections…

  4. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  5. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students' Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group…

  6. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  7. Cognitive bias modification and CBT as early interventions for adolescent social and test anxiety : Two-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, Eva; Sportel, B. Esther; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Jong, Peter J.

    Background and Objectives: This two-year follow-up study evaluated the long-term outcomes of two early interventions that aimed at reducing social and test anxiety in young adolescents at risk for developing social anxiety disorder. Methods: In this RCP, moderately socially anxious adolescents

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Mentoring Role in Three Different Clinical Settings: Student Teaching, Early Field Experiences, and Entry Year Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Dianne M.; Beam, Pamela C.; Henning, John E.; Cochran, Deborah C.; Knight, Rhonda Talford

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in mentoring across three different clinical settings: student teaching, early field experiences, and entry year teachers. Eighteen teachers with mentoring experience in all three clinical settings were selected and interviewed. The teachers' expectations for teacher development,…

  9. A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five-Year-Olds? An Evaluation of the English Early Learning "Numbers" Goal in the Light of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to evaluate the English Early Years Foundation Stage Goal for Numbers, in relation to research evidence. The Goal, which sets out to provide "a good foundation in mathematics", has greater breadth of content and higher levels of difficulty than previous versions. Research suggests that the additional expectations…

  10. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  11. De standaard vroegtijdige opsporing van gehoorstoornissen 0-19 jaar van de jeugdgezondheidszorg [The youth health care guideline early screening for hearing impairment ages 0-19 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, F.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    The Youth Health Care guideline 'Early screening for hearing impairment, ages 0-19 years' draws the attention of all parties involved to the case finding of, notably, perceptive hearing loss; it helps workers in the Youth Health Care argue their referrals and improve the next steps in the process.

  12. "Someone Had to Have Faith in Them as Professionals": An Evaluation of an Action Research Project to Develop Educational Leadership across the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an evaluation of three action research projects developed by a group of teachers working across the early years in three independent schools. The article examines the role of action research in developing educational leadership capabilities. Drawing on the educational leadership literature, concepts and ideas of action and…

  13. Why Are There Still so Few Men within Early Years in Primary Schools: Views from Male Trainee Teachers and Male Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges facing the Early Years (EY) sector is how to encourage more male practitioners to counterbalance a largely feminised workforce. Using case studies of male trainees at different stages of their primary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training course at one university, we attempt to consider data why there is under-representation…

  14. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  15. Dangerous Activities within an Invisible Playground: A Study of Emergent Male Football Play and Teachers' Perspectives of Outdoor Free Play in the Early Years of Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Pam

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out during a study which focused upon the rough and tumble play of children in the early years department of a suburban primary school in northern England. The child sample's playtime activities were ethnographically observed over a period of 18 calendar months, during which time interviews were also carried out with the…

  16. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...... expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group...... included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...

  17. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  18. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  19. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or from...

  20. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411