WorldWideScience

Sample records for include early learning

  1. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  2. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  4. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  5. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  6. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  7. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  8. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  9. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  10. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  11. The High Scope Approach To Early Learning

    OpenAIRE

    French, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives: After studying this chapter the reader should be able to: • Describe the historical origins, the longitudinal research, and the theoretical underpinnings of the HighScope approach. • Identify the teaching strategies adopted by HighScope educators. • Appreciate the curriculum content. • Understand the HighScope approach to the assessment of children’s learning. • Consider some criticisms of the HighScope research and approach to early learning. This ...

  12. EC6 safety enhancement - including impact of Fukushima lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Zemdegs, R.; Boyle, S.; Soulard, M., E-mail: stephen.yu@candu.com [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) is the new Generation III CANDU reactor design that meets the most up to date regulatory requirements and customer expectations. EC6 builds on the proven high performance design inch as the Qinshan CANDU 6 units and has made improvements to safety and operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback including Fukushima. The Fukushima Dai-ichi March 11, 2011 event has demonstrated the importance of defence-in-depth considerations for beyond-design basis events, including severe accidents. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles and provides further design features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. (author)

  13. Early onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2016-05-01

    Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: early onset users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and late onset marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2014-01-01

    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

  16. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  17. Including the Disabled : The Chiminike Interactive Learning Center in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Valéria Pena; Barbara Brakarz

    2003-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the Honduras Interactive Environmental Learning and Science Promotion Project "Profuturo" was launched as a multi-sectoral effort designed to encourage and expand scientific, environmental, and cultural knowledge and management in the context of Honduras' sustainable development needs and ethnic diversity. Profuturo benefits Hondurans by providi...

  18. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  19. Children’s participation rights in early childhood education and care: the case of early literacy learning and pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This position article argues that educators’ knowledge of young children’s perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children’s participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on ideas such as guided participation and Bruner’s notion of a pedagogy of mutuality, it is argued that pedagogy, as it is now understood, implies that c...

  20. A neurocomputational theory of how explicit learning bootstraps early procedural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative) system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative) system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system's control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  1. A Neurocomputational Theory of how Explicit Learning Bootstraps Early Procedural Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Joseph Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system’s control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  2. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. 78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... and do mathematics at grade level by the end of the third grade. Priority 5: Addressing the Needs of... and family child care providers; infant and toddler specialists; early intervention specialists and... knowledge (including early mathematics and early scientific development), approaches toward learning...

  4. Traces of an Early Learned Second Language in Discontinued Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Pureza, Rita; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Can an early learned second language influence speech production after living many years in an exclusively monolingual environment? To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of discontinued early bilingualism in heritage speakers who moved abroad and switched language dominance from the second to the primary learned language. We used…

  5. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  6. Using Photovoice to Include People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…

  7. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  8. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  9. Early clinical experience : do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    CONTEXT Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  10. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carefully constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields.” This study examined Project CONNECT (PC, an after-school program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities for pre-service teachers (PSTs by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Pre-service teachers in this study worked with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites during their sophomore and junior years. Case study was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning and the factors contributing to the effect. Multiple data sources, including weekly reflection journals, field observation notes, and an exit survey were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  11. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  12. Parental Attitudes and Motivational Factors in Enrollment of Children in Early Foreign Language Learning in the Notranjska Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Premrl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the parents‘ opinions about the contemporary sources in the field of early foreign language teaching and learning and their influence on the decisions parents make about including/excluding their child into the program of early foreign language learning. We found out, on the one hand, that parents are poorly informed about the current state of early foreign language learning both in Slovenia and abroad. On the other hand, parents reported positive attitudes about early foreign language teaching, a remarkable sense of right approach in early foreign language learning and, above all, their desire to know more about the subject.

  13. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  14. Problembased learning (PBL) including drama games as a motivating learning approach in interprofessional education (IPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    The university have years of experience with interprofessional student groups, from seven different health professions, learning through participating in an interprofessional module. Evaluations have shown a continuos massive challenge concerning the student´s motivation for learning...... and their level of participation in this three-week course of “Conflict management”. To meet these challenges the university started a project within the frame of problembased learning and drama games. The idea was to develop strategies to motivate students and create a dynamic and stimulating learning...... as an important aspect of carrying out a successful PBL course. Among the students, there was a significantly higher level of satisfaction in the experimental classes than in the comparison classes, regarding 10 out of 12 questions asked about both academic achievement and satisfaction with the learning...

  15. Children's Early Approaches to Learning and Academic Trajectories through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Grining, Christine P.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Haas, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic…

  16. KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Borum, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from young children’s play with digital technology in formal and semi-formal learning practices. The study is part of a bigger project being conducted by IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program, Denmark, the Danish Agency of Culture, 13 kindergartens...

  17. Formula for Success: Engaging Families in Early Math Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Family Research Project, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Early math ability is one of the best predictors of children's later success in school. Because children's learning begins in the home, families are fundamental in shaping children's interest and skills in math. The experience of learning and doing math, however, looks different from the instruction that was offered when most adults were in…

  18. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  19. The effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that steroids administered postnatally may have transient retarding effect on learning and memory functions, and that animal age and sex may modify such effects. This study aims to illustrate the effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and spatial memory. Wistar rat pups were ...

  20. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  1. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  2. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  3. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  4. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  5. Learning in Early Childhood: Experiences, Relationships and "Learning to Be"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the earliest stage of life--the infancy, toddlerhood and preschool period--is relational and rapid. Child-initiated and adult-mediated conversations, playful interactions and learning through active involvement are integral to young children making sense of their environments and to their development over time. The child's experience…

  6. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  7. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned

  8. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Jungwon

    This study explored the content, processes, and dynamics of Professional Learning Community (PLC) sessions. This study also investigated changes in preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching after they participated in two different forms of PLCs including workshop and face-to-face PLC as well as workshop and online PLC. Multiple sources of data were collected for this study including participant artifacts and facilitator field notes during the PLC sessions. The participants in this study were eight teachers from NAEYC-accredited child care centers serving 3- to 5-year-old children in an urban Midwest city. All teachers participated in a workshop entitled, "Ramps and Pathways." Following the workshop, the first group engaged in face-to-face PLC sessions and the other group engaged in online PLC sessions. Qualitative data were collected through audio recordings, online archives, and open-ended surveys. The teachers' dialogue during the face-to-face PLC sessions was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for emerging themes. Online archives during the online PLC sessions were collected and analyzed for emerging themes. Four main themes and 13 subthemes emanated from the face-to-face sessions, and 3 main themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the online sessions. During the face-to-face sessions, the teachers worked collaboratively by sharing their practices, supporting each other, and planning a lesson together. They also engaged in inquiry and reflection about their science teaching and child learning in a positive climate. During the online sessions, the teachers shared their thoughts and documentation and revisited their science teaching and child learning. Five themes and 15 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of face-to-face group teachers, and 3 themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of online group teachers. Quantitative data collected in this study showed changes in teachers' attitudes and

  9. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  10. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-22

    CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

  11. [Associative Learning between Orientation and Color in Early Visual Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning is an essential neural phenomenon where the contingency of different items increases after training. Although associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas. Here, we developed an associative decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback (A-DecNef) to determine whether associative learning of color and orientation can be induced in early visual areas. During the three days' training, A-DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was simultaneously, physically presented to participants. Consequently, participants' perception of "red" was significantly more frequently than that of "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as color and orientation, was induced most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain function, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous with respect to brain function.

  12. Dorsolateral Striatum Engagement Interferes with Early Discrimination Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C. Bergstrom

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In current models, learning the relationship between environmental stimuli and the outcomes of actions involves both stimulus-driven and goal-directed systems, mediated in part by the DLS and DMS, respectively. However, though these models emphasize the importance of the DLS in governing actions after extensive experience has accumulated, there is growing evidence of DLS engagement from the onset of training. Here, we used in vivo photosilencing to reveal that DLS recruitment interferes with early touchscreen discrimination learning. We also show that the direct output pathway of the DLS is preferentially recruited and causally involved in early learning and find that silencing the normal contribution of the DLS produces plasticity-related alterations in a PL-DMS circuit. These data provide further evidence suggesting that the DLS is recruited in the construction of stimulus-elicited actions that ultimately automate behavior and liberate cognitive resources for other demands, but with a cost to performance at the outset of learning. : What is the contribution of the DLS in early discrimination learning? Bergstrom et al. show using in vivo optogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and brain-wide activity mapping that silencing the DLS facilitates early discrimination learning, drives activity in a parallel PL-DMS circuit, and preferentially recruits the DLS “direct” output pathway. Keywords: striatum, reward, goal-directed, habit, optogenetics, plasticity, cognition, Arc

  13. Multimedia support of early literacy learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2002-01-01

    In the present article, the development of a child-friendly computer software program to enhance the early literacy skills of kindergarteners in the Netherlands is described. The ergonomic aspects of designing software for young children are described along with the content of the program in

  14. Building multilingual learning environments in early years education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.

  15. Early boost and slow consolidation in motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; Maertens de Noordhout, Alain; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motorskill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as 5-30 min after training but no longer observed 4 h later. This early boost is predictive of the performance achieved 48 h later, suggesting its functional relevance for memory processes.

  16. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  17. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  18. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  19. A Study of Early Learning Services in Museums and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, P.; Fink, R.; DuBois, T.

    2017-01-01

    Museums and libraries can play a role in providing opportunities for early learning, and there is clear momentum and infrastructure already in place to help make this happen. Researchers conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to generate new evidence about the availability of services for young children in museums and libraries, and the…

  20. Waldorf Schools: Seventy-Six Years of Early Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascues, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…

  1. Report to the Legislature: Child Welfare and Early Learning Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Department of Early Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    House Bill 2519, sponsored by Representative Tana Senn, was passed during the 2014 legislative session and signed into law by Governor Jay Inslee. HB 2519 directs the Department of Early Learning (DEL) and the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) to jointly develop recommendations on methods to "better partner to ensure children…

  2. When Do Computer Graphics Contribute to Early Literacy Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepner, Shelley B.; Cotter, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Notes that new literacies use computer graphics to tell a story, demonstrate a theory, or support a definition. Offers a functionality framework for assessing the value of computer graphics for early literacy learning. Provides ideas for determining the value of CD-ROM software and websites. Concludes that graphics that give text meaning or…

  3. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  4. Learning with nature and learning from others: nature as setting and resource for early childhood education

    OpenAIRE

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences-in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners-are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A description and an emerging understanding of nature-based learning were obtained through the use of a group discussion and case studies. Practitioners' view...

  5. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  6. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  7. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  8. Beliefs about Early Language Learning: St. Lucian Beginning Students of French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated the attitudes toward language learning held by early secondary school students (ages 11-13) on the island of Saint Lucia who are studying French and Spanish simultaneously, as required in the first two years of secondary school. Subjects were students at two schools, and included 121 boys and 72 girls. The survey consisted of…

  9. Early Foundations for Mathematics Learning and Their Relations to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.

  10. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  11. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  12. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  13. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  14. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  15. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  16. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  17. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  18. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differencial training facilitates early consolidation in motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Henz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differencial learning (DL compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from nineteen electrodes according to the 10-20 system before and immediately after each 20-minute exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes.

  20. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  1. Learning Process and Learning Outcomes of Video Podcasts Including the Instructor and PPT Slides: A Chinese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Zhongling; Hong, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Video podcasts have become one of the fastest developing trends in learning and teaching. The study explored the effect of the presenting mode of educational video podcasts on the learning process and learning outcomes. Prior to viewing a video podcast, the 94 Chinese undergraduates participating in the study completed a demographic questionnaire…

  2. Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  5. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  7. Attitudes and Motivation in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on young foreign language learners’ attitudes andmotivations. An overview is given of the main issues in this researcharea, based on key European studies. Approaches to studying these affective learner characteristics are described. Some attention is devoted to data elicitation techniques and the importance of triangulation. Research findings are presented through overviews of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies carried out in different European settings. The latter are presented in more detail, because their findings seem to be more revealing of the early foreign language learning process. The overall conclusion of this review paper is that young foreign language learners’ attitudes and motivations are not stable learner characteristics but change over time, creating layers of complexity that warrant further research.Suggestions about possible future directions in researching young foreign language learner attitudes and motivations, and the application of its findings are also made.

  8. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. How learning analytics can early predict under-achieving students in a blended medical education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqr, Mohammed; Fors, Uno; Tedre, Matti

    2017-07-01

    Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course. This study included 133 students enrolled in a blended medical course where they were free to use the learning management system at their will. We extracted their online activity data using database queries and Moodle plugins. Data included logins, views, forums, time, formative assessment, and communications at different points of time. Five engagement indicators were also calculated which would reflect self-regulation and engagement. Students who scored below 5% over the passing mark were considered to be potentially at risk of under-achieving. At the end of the course, we were able to predict the final grade with 63.5% accuracy, and identify 53.9% of at-risk students. Using a binary logistic model improved prediction to 80.8%. Using data recorded until the mid-course, prediction accuracy was 42.3%. The most important predictors were factors reflecting engagement of the students and the consistency of using the online resources. The analysis of students' online activities in a blended medical education course by means of LA techniques can help early predict underachieving students, and can be used as an early warning sign for timely intervention.

  10. A neurocomputational account of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We present a neurocomputational model with self-organizing maps that accounts for the emergence of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning, as well as a rapid increase in the rate of acquisition of words observed in late infancy. The quality and efficiency of generalization of word-object associations is directly related to the quality of prelexical, categorical representations in the model. We show how synaptogenesis supports coherent generalization of word-object associations and show that later synaptic pruning minimizes metabolic costs without being detrimental to word learning. The role played by joint-attentional activities is identified in the model, both at the level of selecting efficient cross-modal synapses and at the behavioral level, by accelerating and refining overall vocabulary acquisition. The model can account for the qualitative shift in the way infants use words, from an associative to a referential-like use, for the pattern of overextension errors in production and comprehension observed during early childhood and typicality effects observed in lexical development. Interesting by-products of the model include a potential explanation of the shift from prototype to exemplar-based effects reported for adult category formation, an account of mispronunciation effects in early lexical development, and extendability to include accounts of individual differences in lexical development and specific disorders such as Williams syndrome. The model demonstrates how an established constraint on lexical learning, which has often been regarded as domain-specific, can emerge from domain-general learning principles that are simultaneously biologically, psychologically, and socially plausible.

  11. Teachers' perceptions about children's movement and learning in early childhood education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehris, J S; Gooze, R A; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the academic skills of preschool-aged children have resulted in approaches that tend to limit children's movement. However, movement experiences have long been considered important to children's learning and have received increased attention because of the obesity epidemic. Early childhood educators are important sources of information about if and how to promote learning and school readiness through movement, but little effort has been made to understand teachers' views on this topic. We conducted six focus groups with 37 teachers from a Head Start programme with centres in three cities in eastern Pennsylvania. We inquired about: (1) how movement influences children's learning; (2) what types of movement experiences are most beneficial for children; (3) what settings best support children's movement; and (4) challenges related to children's movement. To identify key themes from the focus groups, transcripts were analysed using an inductive method of coding. Teachers' views were expressed in four major themes. First, young children have an innate need to move, and teachers respond to this need by using movement experiences to prepare children to learn and to teach academic concepts and spatial awareness. However, teachers wanted more training in these areas. Second, movement prepares children for school and for life by building children's confidence and social skills. Third, teachers and children benefit from moving together because it motivates children and promotes teacher-child relationships. Finally, moving outdoors promotes learning by engaging children's senses and promoting community interaction. More training may be required to help early childhood educators use movement experiences to teach academic concepts and improve children's spatial awareness. Future interventions could examine the impacts on children's movement and learning of having teachers move with children during outdoor free play and including more natural features in the

  12. The "State of Play" in Australia: Early Childhood Educators and Play-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Sue; McArdle, Felicity; Shield, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Education Meets Play study that will investigate early childhood educators' use of play-based learning, now mandatory under the "National Quality Standard". By building on what can be gleaned about educators' approaches to play-based learning prior to the implementation of the "Early Years…

  13. Solid-State Lighting. Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L. J.; Cort, K. A.; Gordon, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of issues and lessons learned during the early stages of solid-state lighting market introduction in the U.S., which also summarizes early actions taken to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.

  14. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-Early Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... demonstrates that high-quality early learning and development programs and services can improve young children...; Comment Request; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Annual Performance Report AGENCY: Office of... the use of information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this...

  15. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  16. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to Learn: An Analysis of Early Learning Behaviours Demonstrated by Young Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Children with High/Low Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Kritzer, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multiple case-study design, this study compares the early learning behaviours of young deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) children with high/low mathematics ability (as defined by test score on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3). Children's simultaneous use of multiple learning behaviours was also examined as were contributing adult…

  18. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  20. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2018-03-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents.

  1. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun

    2018-01-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models—all Visible Korean products—can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents. PMID:29644104

  2. Innovations in occupational health nursing education, including a distance learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowis, A; Ellington, H

    1991-07-01

    The results of a survey in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s indicated that many occupational health nurses were not being sent for formal training because of the length of time nurses needed to be away from their employment and the difficulty employers had in finding nurse replacements during training. To meet the needs of occupational health nurses and their employers, the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology (RGIT) instituted a modular training course that offers full time attendance or distance learning options. RGIT's course consists of six modules over a 1 to 3 year period, which students can take in any order after completing a short Return to Study course. Using the innovative distance learning option, occupational health nurses can earn a Diploma in Occupational Health Nursing while completing most of their courses at the workplace, thus avoiding conflicts between training and work schedules.

  3. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  4. Students' Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Moeller, Martin Holdgaard; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students......' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. METHODS: The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed...

  5. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  6. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  7. Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. von der

    2011-01-01

    Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

  8. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  9. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  10. Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL.

  11. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment and Stability of Early Learning Abilities in Preterm and Full-Term Infants across the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…

  13. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  14. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  15. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  16. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  18. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  19. A dynamic learning concept in early years’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    -historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...... and interacts and communicates with other people; (2) meaningful activities pave the way for children’s learning; these are activities where the child’s motive aligns with the goal of the activity; and (3) learning is seen as a productive and creative activity characterised by imagination....

  20. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  1. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

  2. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J; Rudolph, Karen D; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-07-01

    Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent's behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral development. © 2017 Association for Child and

  3. Communication-and-resolution programs: the challenges and lessons learned from six early adopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Boothman, Richard C; McDonald, Timothy; Driver, Jeffrey; Lembitz, Alan; Bouwmeester, Darren; Dunlap, Benjamin; Gallagher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs), health systems and liability insurers encourage the disclosure of unanticipated care outcomes to affected patients and proactively seek resolutions, including offering an apology, an explanation, and, where appropriate, reimbursement or compensation. Anecdotal reports from the University of Michigan Health System and other early adopters of CRPs suggest that these programs can substantially reduce liability costs and improve patient safety. But little is known about how these early programs achieved success. We studied six CRPs to identify the major challenges in and lessons learned from implementing these initiatives. The CRP participants we interviewed identified several factors that contributed to their programs' success, including the presence of a strong institutional champion, investing in building and marketing the program to skeptical clinicians, and making it clear that the results of such transformative change will take time. Many of the early CRP adopters we interviewed expressed support for broader experimentation with these programs even in settings that differ from their own, such as systems that do not own and control their liability insurer, and in states without strong tort reforms.

  4. Learning by observation requires an early sleep window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Van der Helm, E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; Ridderikhoff, A.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that sleep enhances memory for motor skills learned through practice. Motor skills can, however, also be learned through observation, a process possibly involving the mirror neuron system. We investigated whether motor skill enhancement through prior observation requires

  5. The prevalence of synaesthesia depends on early language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Chromý, Jan; Crawford, Lyle; Eagleman, David M; Enns, James T; Akins, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque). However, exploratory analyses suggested that this was because more Czechs learned non-native second languages, which was strongly associated with synaesthesia, consistent with the learning hypothesis. Furthermore, the incidence of synaesthesia among speakers of opaque languages was double that among speakers of transparent languages other than Czech, also consistent with the learning hypothesis. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of synaesthetic development as a complex and lengthy process with multiple causal influences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (∼9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults. PMID:24480487

  7. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  8. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  9. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  10. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  11. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  12. Early Outcomes of Endoscopic Vein Harvesting during the Initial Learning Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yeon Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH method has been used in coronary artery bypass surgery in many countries. We started using the EVH method recently, and investigated the results during the early learning period. Methods: Between March 2012 and June 2014, 75 patients (31 patients in the EVH method group, and 44 patients in the open method group who underwent isolated first-time coronary artery bypass grafting using vein grafts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the early outcomes including graft patency and risk factors for leg wound complications. For assessing the patency of vein graft, we performed coronary computed tomography angiography during the immediate postoperative period and 6 months later. Results: Mean harvesting time of endoscopic method was about 15 minutes. Patency rate during the immediate operative period and the 6-month patency rate were similar between the two groups (postoperative period: EVH 100% vs. open method 94.4%, p=0.493; at 6 months: EVH 93.3% vs. open method 90.9%, p=0.791. Leg wound complications occurred more frequently in the open method group (EVH 3.2% vs. open method 13.6%, p=0.127. According to the analysis, age was an independent risk factor for leg wound complications. Conclusion: EVH is a feasible method even for beginners and can be performed satisfactorily during their learning period.

  13. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  14. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  15. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  16. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  17. Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegøres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at målrette Carr's mere generelle læringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode....

  18. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  19. Early learning effect of residents for laparoscopic sigmoid resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Robbert; Groen, Henk; Hoff, Christiaan; Totte, Eric; Ploeg, Rutger; Pierie, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of learning the laparoscopic sigmoid resection procedure on resident surgeons; establish a minimum number of cases before a resident surgeon could be expected to achieve proficiency with the procedure; and examine if an analysis could be used to measure and support the clinical evaluation of the surgeon's competence with the procedure. Retrospective analysis of data which was prospective entered in the database. From 2003 to 2007 all patients who underwent a laparoscopic sigmoid resection carried out by senior residents, who completed the procedure as the primary surgeon proctored by an experienced surgeon, were included in the study. A cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM) analysis was used evaluate performance. The procedure was defined as a failure if major intra-operative complications occurred such as intra abdominal organ injury, bleeding, or anastomotic leakage; if an inadequate number of lymph nodes (<12 nodes) were removed; or if conversion to an open surgical procedure was required. Thirteen residents performed 169 laparoscopic sigmoid resections in the period evaluated. A significant majority of the resident surgeons were able to consistently perform the procedure without failure after 11 cases and determined to be competent. One resident was not determined to be competent and the CUSUM score supported these findings. We concluded that at least 11 cases are required for most residents to obtain necessary competence with the laparoscopic sigmoid resection procedure. Evaluation with the CUSUM analysis can be used to measure and support the clinical evaluation of the resident surgeon's competence with the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An improved method of early diagnosis of smoking-induced respiratory changes using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Jorge L M; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Faria, Alvaro C D; Melo, Pedro L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised learning techniques were investigated, including logistic linear classifiers, k nearest neighbor (KNN), neural networks and support vector machines (SVM). To evaluate performance, the ROC curve of the most accurate parameter was established as baseline. To determine the best input features and classifier parameters, we used genetic algorithms and a 10-fold cross-validation using the average area under the ROC curve (AUC). In the first experiment, the original FOT parameters were used as input. We observed a significant improvement in accuracy (KNN=0.89 and SVM=0.87) compared with the baseline (0.77). The second experiment performed a feature selection on the original FOT parameters. This selection did not cause any significant improvement in accuracy, but it was useful in identifying more adequate FOT parameters. In the third experiment, we performed a feature selection on the cross products of the FOT parameters. This selection resulted in a further increase in AUC (KNN=SVM=0.91), which allows for high diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify early smoking-induced respiratory alterations. The use of FOT cross products and the search for the best features and classifier parameters can markedly improve the performance of machine learning classifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  2. Learning in Complex Environments: The Effects of Background Speech on Early Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2016-01-01

    Although most studies of language learning take place in quiet laboratory settings, everyday language learning occurs under noisy conditions. The current research investigated the effects of background speech on word learning. Both younger (22- to 24-month-olds; n = 40) and older (28- to 30-month-olds; n = 40) toddlers successfully learned novel…

  3. Applying Learning Analytics for the Early Prediction of Students' Academic Performance in Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Owen H. T.; Huang, Anna Y. Q.; Huang, Jeff C. H.; Lin, Albert J. Q.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blended learning combines online digital resources with traditional classroom activities and enables students to attain higher learning performance through well-defined interactive strategies involving online and traditional learning activities. Learning analytics is a conceptual framework and is a part of our Precision education used to analyze…

  4. A Machine Learning Ensemble Classifier for Early Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S K, Somasundaram; P, Alli

    2017-11-09

    The main complication of diabetes is Diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vascular disease and it leads to the blindness. Regular screening for early DR disease detection is considered as an intensive labor and resource oriented task. Therefore, automatic detection of DR diseases is performed only by using the computational technique is the great solution. An automatic method is more reliable to determine the presence of an abnormality in Fundus images (FI) but, the classification process is poorly performed. Recently, few research works have been designed for analyzing texture discrimination capacity in FI to distinguish the healthy images. However, the feature extraction (FE) process was not performed well, due to the high dimensionality. Therefore, to identify retinal features for DR disease diagnosis and early detection using Machine Learning and Ensemble Classification method, called, Machine Learning Bagging Ensemble Classifier (ML-BEC) is designed. The ML-BEC method comprises of two stages. The first stage in ML-BEC method comprises extraction of the candidate objects from Retinal Images (RI). The candidate objects or the features for DR disease diagnosis include blood vessels, optic nerve, neural tissue, neuroretinal rim, optic disc size, thickness and variance. These features are initially extracted by applying Machine Learning technique called, t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE). Besides, t-SNE generates a probability distribution across high-dimensional images where the images are separated into similar and dissimilar pairs. Then, t-SNE describes a similar probability distribution across the points in the low-dimensional map. This lessens the Kullback-Leibler divergence among two distributions regarding the locations of the points on the map. The second stage comprises of application of ensemble classifiers to the extracted features for providing accurate analysis of digital FI using machine learning. In this stage, an automatic detection

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement during Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Hu, Shanshan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement…

  6. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  7. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  8. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Juuhl-Langseth

    Full Text Available Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS.Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables.The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034. There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship.Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups.

  9. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  10. Examining the role of social cues in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Alicia M; Cohen, Leslie B

    2011-02-01

    Infants watched a video of an adult pointing towards two different objects while hearing novel labels. Analyses indicated that 14- and 18-month-olds looked longer at the target object, but only 18-month-olds showed word learning. The results suggest that different types of social cues are available at different ages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Engaging First Graders in Transformational Early Childhood Emergent Learning Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Amanda Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to encourage learners to care for others and make a difference in the world through Reggio Emilia-inspired teaching and learning practice that promoted transformational education. Students were anticipated to take an active role in helping to develop the transformational educational curriculum.…

  12. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  13. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  14. From Driver Safety to Lifelong Learning: Some Early Research Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Although Arthur Cropley is best known today for his work on creativity and education, in the early part of his career he made substantial contributions to the understanding of driving behavior and traffic safety that had important implications for public policy and legislation. He also helped develop an approach to attitude measurement, combining…

  15. The effectiveness of early foreign language learning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a number of projects on early English teaching in the Netherlands. The focus of these projects has been on the impact of English on the development of the mother tongue and the development of skills in the foreign language. Overall the results show that there is no negative

  16. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  17. The Effectiveness of Early Foreign Language Learning in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a number of projects on early English teaching in the Netherlands. The focus of these projects has been on the impact of English on the development of the mother tongue and the development of skills in the foreign language. Overall the results show that there is no negative effect on the mother tongue and that the gains in…

  18. Psychologically Inspired Sensory-Motor Development in Early Robot Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by results from developmental psychology. Behavioural acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behaviour changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints.

  19. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fett, A.J.; Shergill, S.; Korver-Nieberg, N.; Yakub, F.; Gromann, P.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties

  20. Two early studies on learning theory and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2003-11-01

    The debate between Iowa and California, Spencians and Tolmanians, over the nature of learning was one of the most protracted and all-involving controversies in the history of psychology. Spencians argued that learning consisted of stimulus-response connections and grew incrementally; Tolmanians that it was perceptual or cognitive and saltatory in nature. The debate was conducted largely on the basis of experiments with rats, with each side finding evidence in its own laboratories to support its views. As the debate was winding down, two studies were carried out that called attention to a possible genetic basis of the great debate. The two schools used different strains of rat and characteristically different experimental situations. The two studies, however, were difficult to access at the time and even more so since. The present paper recalls these two studies in condensed form and discusses their relevance to the great debate and to selected current concerns.

  1. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  2. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  3. Prediction and early detection of delirium in the intensive care unit by using heart rate variability and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Cho, Dongrae; Park, Jaesub; Na, Se Hee; Kim, Jongin; Heo, Jaeseok; Shin, Cheung Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Boreom

    2018-03-27

    Delirium is an important syndrome found in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), however, it is usually under-recognized during treatment. This study was performed to investigate whether delirious patients can be successfully distinguished from non-delirious patients by using heart rate variability (HRV) and machine learning. Electrocardiography data of 140 patients was acquired during daily ICU care, and HRV data were analyzed. Delirium, including its type, severity, and etiologies, was evaluated daily by trained psychiatrists. HRV data and various machine learning algorithms including linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernels, linear extreme learning machine (ELM), ELM with RBF kernels, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis were utilized to distinguish delirium patients from non-delirium patients. HRV data of 4797 ECGs were included, and 39 patients had delirium at least once during their ICU stay. The maximum classification accuracy was acquired using SVM with RBF kernels. Our prediction method based on HRV with machine learning was comparable to previous delirium prediction models using massive amounts of clinical information. Our results show that autonomic alterations could be a significant feature of patients with delirium in the ICU, suggesting the potential for the automatic prediction and early detection of delirium based on HRV with machine learning.

  4. A deep learning method for early screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.

  5. Transfer Learning for OCRopus Model Training on Early Printed Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented that significantly reduces the character error rates for OCR text obtained from OCRopus models trained on early printed books when only small amounts of diplomatic transcriptions are available. This is achieved by building from already existing models during training instead of starting from scratch. To overcome the discrepancies between the set of characters of the pretrained model and the additional ground truth the OCRopus code is adapted to allow for alphabet expansion or reduction. The character set is now capable of flexibly adding and deleting characters from the pretrained alphabet when an existing model is loaded. For our experiments we use a self-trained mixed model on early Latin prints and the two standard OCRopus models on modern English and German Fraktur texts. The evaluation on seven early printed books showed that training from the Latin mixed model reduces the average amount of errors by 43% and 26%, compared to training from scratch with 60 and 150 lines of ground truth, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that even building from mixed models trained on standard data unrelated to the newly added training and test data can lead to significantly improved recognition results.

  6. Gaze Awareness in Agent-Based Early-Childhood Learning Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akkil , Deepak; Dey , Prasenjit; Salian , Deepshika; Rajput , Nitendra

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Interaction with Children; International audience; Use of technological devices for early childhood learning is increasing. Now, kindergarten and primary school children use interactive applications on mobile phones and tablet computers to support and complement classroom learning. With increase in cognitive technologies, there is further potential to make such applications more engaging by understanding the user context. In this paper, we present the Little Bear, a gaze aware pedagog...

  7. A study looking at the effectiveness of developmental screening in identifying learning disabilities in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, O; Nualláin, S O

    2001-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of children under six years of age referred to the Brothers of Charity Early Intervention Services in County Galway, a service that caters for children under 6 years with learning disabilities. The aim in doing this study was to assess the value of routine developmental screening in identifying children with learning difficulties. This study also investigates the patterns and sources of referral to the remedial services provided by the Brothers of Charity and highlights possible avoidable delays in referral. The results showed that many children were referred for remedial services late. The reasons for late referral included late identification of some children with problems, insufficient co-ordination of community-based services and a lack of awareness of the importance of early intervention in some cases. As some communication disorders such as autism, autistic spectrum disorders and specific language delay may not express themselves until the later part of the second year of life, the 18-24 month developmental assessment is of vital importance. However identification of these disorders can present difficulties and may call for additional training for professionals involved in the developmental screening of children in that age group. The interval between initial identification and referral for remedial care in many cases was more than twelve months. We propose that, in order to minimize this time, children requiring a more in-depth assessment should be assessed by a community-based multidisciplinary team, enabling integrated assessment by the different disciplines and thus speedier referral to remedial services.

  8. Using early standardized language measures to predict later language and early reading outcomes in children at high risk for language-learning impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Judy F; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities, phonological awareness, and reading abilities at ages 5 and 7 years. Participants included 99 children (40 FH+ and 59 FH-) who received a standardized neuropsychological battery at 2, 3, 5, and 7 years of age. As a group, the FH+ children had significantly lower scores on all language measures at 2 and 3 years, on selected language and phonological awareness measures at 5 years, and on phonological awareness and nonword reading at 7 years. Language comprehension at 3 years was the best predictor of later language and early reading for both groups. These results support past work suggesting that children with a positive family history of LLI are at greater risk for future language and reading problems through their preschool and early school-age years. Furthermore, language comprehension in the early years is a strong predictor of future language-learning status.

  9. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Early Learning Standards to Provide High-Quality Education for All Children: The Early Learning Guidelines Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Roseanne L.; Curby, Timothy W.; Coleman, Hardin; Melo, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    Today with the rise in the number of 3- to 6-year-old children enrolled in center-based early childhood programs, and a focus on program quality, it becomes imperative for educators to have a better understanding of the role research plays in establishing high-quality programs as these programs provide much of the foundation that supports early…

  11. Learning and teaching natural science in the early years: A case study of three different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela James

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.

  12. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  13. Development of an E-learning System for the Endoscopic Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer: An International Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Uedo, N; Muto, M; Ishikawa, H; Cardona, H J; Filho, E C Castro; Pittayanon, R; Olano, C; Yao, F; Parra-Blanco, A; Ho, S H; Avendano, A G; Piscoya, A; Fedorov, E; Bialek, A P; Mitrakov, A; Caro, L; Gonen, C; Dolwani, S; Farca, A; Cuaresma, L F; Bonilla, J J; Kasetsermwiriya, W; Ragunath, K; Kim, S E; Marini, M; Li, H; Cimmino, D G; Piskorz, M M; Iacopini, F; So, J B; Yamazaki, K; Kim, G H; Ang, T L; Milhomem-Cardoso, D M; Waldbaum, C A; Carvajal, W A Piedra; Hayward, C M; Singh, R; Banerjee, R; Anagnostopoulos, G K; Takahashi, Y

    2016-07-01

    In many countries, gastric cancer is not diagnosed until an advanced stage. An Internet-based e-learning system to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage was developed and was evaluated for its effectiveness. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. After receiving a pre-test, participants were randomly allocated to either an e-learning or non-e-learning group. Only those in the e-learning group gained access to the e-learning system. Two months after the pre-test, both groups received a post-test. The primary endpoint was the difference between the two groups regarding the rate of improvement of their test results. 515 endoscopists from 35 countries were assessed for eligibility, and 332 were enrolled in the study, with 166 allocated to each group. Of these, 151 participants in the e-learning group and 144 in the non-e-learning group were included in the analysis. The mean improvement rate (standard deviation) in the e-learning and non-e-learning groups was 1·24 (0·26) and 1·00 (0·16), respectively (Pe-learning system to expand knowledge and provide invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer (R000012039). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early onset epileptic encephalopathy or genetically determined encephalopathy with early onset epilepsy? Lessons learned from TSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curatolo, P.; Aronica, E.; Jansen, A.; Jansen, F.; Kotulska, K.; Lagae, L.; Moavero, R.; Jozwiak, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) a relationship has been shown between early and refractory seizures and intellectual disability. However, it is uncertain whether epilepsy in TSC is simply a marker in infants who are destined to develop an encephalopathic process or if seizures play a

  15. Early onset epileptic encephalopathy or genetically determined encephalopathy with early onset epilepsy? Lessons learned from TSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curatolo, Paolo; Aronica, Eleonora; Jansen, Anna; Jansen, Floor; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Lagae, Lieven; Moavero, Romina; Jozwiak, Sergiusz

    2016-01-01

    In tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) a relationship has been shown between early and refractory seizures and intellectual disability. However, it is uncertain whether epilepsy in TSC is simply a marker in infants who are destined to develop an encephalopathic process or if seizures play a causal role

  16. The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attributional Styles and Learned Helplessness among Addicted and Non-Addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  17. Learning Methodology for Early Child Education Education (Paud) in the Recognition of Legal Capitals based on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Didik

    2017-12-01

    School as a place to study require a medium of learning. Instructional media containinginformation about the lessons that will be used by teachers to convey a lesson. School early childhood education Al-Kindy Pekanbaru interms of learning the letter hijaiyah still use conventional learning media. But with the conventionalmedia is not very attractive to use, so the need for an exciting learning medium that can make childrenbecome interested in learningThe purpose of this study was to create a Media Learning Introduction Letter Hijaiyahmultimedia form and benefit from the introduction of letters Hijaiyah Learning Media is a renewal of themedium of learning in School early childhood education Al-Kindy Pekanbaru.In this study the authors tried to make the learning application that contains the basicknowledge of letters hijaiyah dsertai with animation, audio and explanation how to read the letters inorder to complete the learning media letters hijaiyah more interactive.

  18. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood—in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70–90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  19. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  20. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  1. The Study of Supporting Learning Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of Students Majoring in Early Childhood Education by Backyard Gardening Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannisa Hakoon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to make students majoring in early childhood education learn about the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy by integrating learning process through practicing planting vegetables and herbs, harvesting, processing products and selling the products at the CEECE farm. This case study include 104 students in total, 2 males students and 102 females students majoring in early childhood education in the second semester of academic year 2016, Mahasarakham university. The researcher integrated the learning with subjects in early childhood education field such as Story and literature for young Children, Thai languages and literacy for young children, Independent study in early childhood education and Early childhood education quality assurance. The research instruments were 1 CEECE Farm area for practicing growing vegetables and herbs and 2 Self Reflection from the students. Data collection was conducted through three phases including 1 preparation 2 process and 3 data collection. The researcher analyzed the content by describing and drawing conclusions from students opinions about the learning. This research revealed: 1. Factors affecting success or barriers to learning include students, location, materials, budget, academic advisors and other factors such as climate and workloads of students. 2. Students majoring in early childhood education learn the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy through practicing at the CEECE farm. Students learn Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and knowledge as follows ; 2.1 Moderation: Students learn to use the resources sufficiently. Students realize the value and use resources in order to maximize savings ; location, materials and budget. 2.2 Reasonableness: Students learn to apply the principles of reason and critical thinking to planning decisions and resolving issues arising from the implementation based on information that they have gathered and relies on the concept, “if students are consumers, will they

  2. Lessons learned from early microelectronics production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, H.T.

    1998-02-01

    During the 1980s Sandia designed, developed, fabricated, tested, and delivered hundreds of thousands of radiation hardened Integrated Circuits (IC) for use in weapons and satellites. Initially, Sandia carried out all phases, design through delivery, so that development of next generation ICs and production of current generation circuits were carried out simultaneously. All this changed in the mid-eighties when an outside contractor was brought in to produce ICs that Sandia developed, in effect creating a crisp separation between development and production. This partnership had a severe impact on operations, but its more damaging effect was the degradation of Sandia`s microelectronics capabilities. This report outlines microelectronics development and production in the early eighties and summarizes the impact of changing to a separate contractor for production. This record suggests that low volume production be best accomplished within the development organization.

  3. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  4. California's Early Learning & Development System: A Review of Funding Streams and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate; Perez, Giannina S.

    2010-01-01

    California's public early learning and development programs and related services are funded through a range of federal, state and local sources. The purpose and scope of these funding streams vary broadly: some sources are dedicated primarily to serving children, birth to age five, and their families, while others can also be utilized for…

  5. Introducing Online Training in an Early Childhood Professional Development System: Lessons Learned in One State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi; Douglass, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Online educational opportunities provide improved access to high quality professional development for the early education and care workforce. Online and technology mediated learning can create sustainable education and development opportunities for states when face-to-face training is financially prohibitive. This study examined one state's…

  6. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the

  7. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  8. Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence and Learning in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Williams, Brittney V.; May, Tanginia

    2018-01-01

    The promotion of social-emotional competence and implementation of social-emotional learning programs have increased substantially in schools; however, little is known about teachers' perceptions of such programs. This qualitative study explored early childhood (3 to 8 years old) teachers' perceptions of classroom-based social-emotional learning…

  9. Foods and Families Learning Package: An Educational Supplement to Early Childhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    This resource guide for the early childhood professional contains creative art activities, active learning experiences, interactive bulletin boards, teacher-made materials, simple cooking projects, inviting fingerplays, songs, and music. The activities are planned to stimulate children's curiosity and senses. Through experiencing these activities,…

  10. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  11. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  12. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  13. Applying Technology to Inquiry-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kinzie, Mable B.; McGuire, Patrick; Pan, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Children naturally explore and learn about their environments through inquiry, and computer technologies offer an accessible vehicle for extending the domain and range of this inquiry. Over the past decade, a growing number of interactive games and educational software packages have been implemented in early childhood education and addressed a…

  14. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  15. Exploring the Learning of Mathematics Word Problems by African Immigrant Early Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…

  16. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  17. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  18. Differential Effects of Home and Preschool Learning Environments on Early Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerse, Daniel; Anders, Yvonne; Flöter, Manja; Wieduwilt, Nadine; Roßbach, Hans-Günther; Tietze, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The present study is based on longitudinal data from a German early childhood education and care (ECEC) governmental initiative assessing children's grammatical and vocabulary development between 2;6 and 4;0 years (N = 1,331), quality of the home learning environment and quality of the preschool setting. Results showed that the quality of the home…

  19. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  20. Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Reesa

    2013-01-01

    Belonging to "a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community" (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children's early development and learning. Acknowledging families as "children's first and most influential educators" (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes…

  1. "From Bricks to Clicks": Hybrid Commercial Spaces in the Landscape of Early Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…

  2. EFFECTS OF EARLY POSTNATAL ANOXIA ON ADULT LEARNING AND EMOTION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUWALDA, B; NYAKAS, C; VOSSELMAN, HJ; LUITEN, PGM; Vosselman, Henk Jan

    Cognitive functioning, behavioural attention and anxiety were studied in adult male Wistar rats after early postnatal anoxia. Spatial memory performance in the holeboard learning task was impaired in anoxic rats when compared with control animals. Attention assessed by the behavioural immobility

  3. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  4. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY-AGE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that only hereditary, i.e. genetic factors are not sufficient for development of a child’s brain; on the contrary, a child needs external stimuli expressed through touch, speech, images, which lead to the conclusion that immediate and extended surroundings shape the brain, meaning that the external stimuli, stronger or weaker, mutually connect the brain cells and neurons. Questions regarding the development of mathematical manner of thinking are mostly based on the natural process of learning, however, this paper deals with deeper set of problems, which are not only difficult to resolve but possibly there is no resolution. Namely, a question is posed what is the appropriate age when a child is ready and able to solve certain mathematical problems or notice mathematical principles, that is, whether they are actually exist clearly defined age boundaries based on which a conclusion could be made about the time and individual is ready to solve mathematical problems of a concrete difficulty level or to notice mathematical laws.

  6. [Effect of early scream sound stress on learning and memory in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Huang, Chen

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of early scream sound stress on the ability of spatial learning and memory, the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and corticosterone (CORT) in serum, and the morphology of adrenal gland.
 Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated daily with scream sound from postnatal day 1(P1) for 21 d. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability. The levels of serum NE and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal gland of SD rats was collected and fixed in formalin, and then embedded with paraffin. The morphology of adrenal gland was observed by HE staining.
 Exposure to early scream sound decreased latency of escape and increased times to cross the platform in Morris water maze test (Psound stress can enhance spatial learning and memory ability in adulthood, which is related to activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system.

  7. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the

  8. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  9. Students' Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Moeller, Martin Holdgaard; Paltved, Charlotte; Mors, Ole; Ringsted, Charlotte; Morcke, Anne Mette

    2017-10-06

    The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed interviews. Students taught with text-based patient cases emphasized excitement and drama towards the personal clinical narratives presented by the teachers during the course, but never referred to the patient cases. Authority and boundary setting were regarded as important in managing patients. Students taught with video-based patient cases, in contrast, often referred to the patient cases when highlighting new insights, including the importance of patient perspectives when communicating with patients. The format of patient cases included in teaching may have a substantial impact on students' patient-centeredness. Video-based patient cases are probably more effective than text-based patient cases in fostering patient-centered perspectives in medical students. Teachers sharing stories from their own clinical experiences stimulates both engagement and excitement, but may also provoke unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry.

  10. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Associative Learning during Early Adulthood Enhances Later Memory Retention in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. Methodology Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i) a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii) a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. Principal Findings Early rewarded experiences (either at 1–4 or 5–8 days of adult age) enhanced retention performance in 9–12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5–8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9–12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. Conclusions The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees. PMID:19956575

  13. Associative learning during early adulthood enhances later memory retention in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arenas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY: Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Early rewarded experiences (either at 1-4 or 5-8 days of adult age enhanced retention performance in 9-12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5-8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9-12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. CONCLUSIONS: The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees.

  14. Acquiring skill at medical image inspection: learning localized in early visual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Paul T.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Roling, Penny; Watt, Simon J.

    1997-04-01

    Acquisition of the skill of medical image inspection could be due to changes in visual search processes, 'low-level' sensory learning, and higher level 'conceptual learning.' Here, we report two studies that investigate the extent to which learning in medical image inspection involves low- level learning. Early in the visual processing pathway cells are selective for direction of luminance contrast. We exploit this in the present studies by using transfer across direction of contrast as a 'marker' to indicate the level of processing at which learning occurs. In both studies twelve observers trained for four days at detecting features in x- ray images (experiment one equals discs in the Nijmegen phantom, experiment two equals micro-calcification clusters in digitized mammograms). Half the observers examined negative luminance contrast versions of the images and the remainder examined positive contrast versions. On the fifth day, observers swapped to inspect their respective opposite contrast images. In both experiments leaning occurred across sessions. In experiment one, learning did not transfer across direction of luminance contrast, while in experiment two there was only partial transfer. These findings are consistent with the contention that some of the leaning was localized early in the visual processing pathway. The implications of these results for current medical image inspection training schedules are discussed.

  15. Early life manipulations of vasopressin-family peptides alter vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Peck, Samantha C; Kim, Tabitha H; Goldstein, Michael H; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2017-07-26

    Vocal learning from social partners is crucial for the successful development of communication in a wide range of species. Social interactions organize attention and enhance motivation to learn species-typical behaviour. However, the neurobiological mechanisms connecting social motivation and vocal learning are unknown. Using zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ), a ubiquitous model for vocal learning, we show that manipulations of nonapeptide hormones in the vasopressin family (arginine vasotocin, AVT) early in development can promote or disrupt both song and social motivation. Young male zebra finches, like human infants, are socially gregarious and require interactive feedback from adult tutors to learn mature vocal forms. To investigate the role of social motivational mechanisms in song learning, in two studies, we injected hatchling males with AVT or Manning compound (MC, a nonapeptide receptor antagonist) on days 2-8 post-hatching and recorded song at maturity. In both studies, MC males produced a worse match to tutor song than controls. In study 2, which experimentally controlled for tutor and genetic factors, AVT males also learned song significantly better compared with controls. Furthermore, song similarity correlated with several measures of social motivation throughout development. These findings provide the first evidence that nonapeptides are critical to the development of vocal learning. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence o...

  17. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-12-01

    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  18. Quality in South African early learning centres: Mothers’ and teachers’ views and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Van Heerden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how quality in early learning centres (preschools in South Africa was experienced and perceived by mothers and teachers. A theoretical framework, based on a model of quality development by Woodhead (1996, informed the study. This framework that consists of input (structural, process and outcome quality indicators is a well-established model for quality development, which has been used in developing countries. The findings generated from a thematical analysis of interview data showed that aspects perceived by mothers and teachers as quality indicators in early learning centres were predominantly process indicators and hard to ‘measure’ in a quantitative way. For mothers and teachers, children’s social-emotional well-being, holistic development, a normative foundation for values and respect, effective infrastructure and accountable learning indicated quality. A quality school climate enhances emotional and social well-being, and the findings suggest that for mothers and teachers quality concerns were not about that which the early learning centres have provided in terms of facilities (input indicators, but rather about the process indicators where centres promote children’s holistic well-being. The only outcome indicator that was regarded as extremely important by mothers and important, but not to the same extent, by teachers, is whether children are happy and content and enjoying school.

  19. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  20. Utilizing a Collaborative Learning Model to Promote Early Extubation Following Infant Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahle, William T; Nicolson, Susan C; Hollenbeck-Pringle, Danielle; Gaies, Michael G; Witte, Madolin K; Lee, Eva K; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Stark, Paul C; Burns, Kristin M; Scheurer, Mark A; Cooper, David S; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Sivarajan, V Ben; Colan, Steven D; Schamberger, Marcus S; Shekerdemian, Lara S

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether a collaborative learning strategy-derived clinical practice guideline can reduce the duration of endotracheal intubation following infant heart surgery. Prospective and retrospective data collected from the Pediatric Heart Network in the 12 months pre- and post-clinical practice guideline implementation at the four sites participating in the collaborative (active sites) compared with data from five Pediatric Heart Network centers not participating in collaborative learning (control sites). Ten children's hospitals. Data were collected for infants following two-index operations: 1) repair of isolated coarctation of the aorta (birth to 365 d) and 2) repair of tetralogy of Fallot (29-365 d). There were 240 subjects eligible for the clinical practice guideline at active sites and 259 subjects at control sites. Development and application of early extubation clinical practice guideline. After clinical practice guideline implementation, the rate of early extubation at active sites increased significantly from 11.7% to 66.9% (p collaborative learning strategy designed clinical practice guideline significantly increased the rate of early extubation with no change in the rate of reintubation. The early extubation clinical practice guideline did not significantly change postoperative ICU length of stay.

  1. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Childhood Professional Development: An Experimental Study of Adult Teaching Practices Derived from Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.

    Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.

  3. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rats' learned preferences for flavors encountered early or late in a meal paired with the postingestive effects of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin P; Whitney, Margaret C

    2011-03-28

    Rats learn to prefer flavors that are followed by postingestive effects of nutrients. This experiment investigated whether the timing of a flavor (specifically, in the first or second half of the meal) influences learning about that flavor. Stronger learning about earlier or later flavors would indicate when the rewarding postingestive effects of nutrients are sensed. Rats with intragastric (IG) catheters drank saccharin-sweetened, calorically-dilute solutions with distinct flavors added, accompanied by IG infusion of glucose (+sessions) or water (-sessions). In both types of sessions, an "Early" flavor was provided for the first 8 min and a "Late" flavor for the last 8 min. Thus, rats were trained with Early(+) and Late(+) in high-calorie meals, and Early(-) and Late(-) in low-calorie meals. Strength of the learned preference for Early(+) and Late(+) was then assessed in a series of two-bottle choice tests between Early(+) vs. Early(-), Late(+) vs. Late(-), Early(+) vs. Late(+), and Early(-) vs. Late(-). Rats preferred both Early(+) and Late(+) over the respective (-) flavors. But Early(+) was only preferred when rats were tested hungry. Late(+) was preferred when rats were tested hungry or recently satiated. This indicates qualitatively different associations learned about flavors at different points in the meal. While not supporting the idea that postingestive effects become most strongly associated with later-occurring ("dessert") flavors, it does suggest a reason dessert flavors may remain attractive in the absence of hunger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, Peter; Reithler, Joel; van de Ven, Vincent; Been, Marin; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-02-08

    Practice-induced improvements in skilled performance reflect "offline " consolidation processes extending beyond daily training sessions. According to visual learning theories, an early, fast learning phase driven by high-level areas is followed by a late, asymptotic learning phase driven by low-level, retinotopic areas when higher resolution is required. Thus, low-level areas would not contribute to learning and offline consolidation until late learning. Recent studies have challenged this notion, demonstrating modified responses to trained stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and offline activity after very limited training. However, the behavioral relevance of modified V1 activity for offline consolidation of visual skill memory in V1 after early training sessions remains unclear. Here, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to a trained retinotopic V1 location to test for behaviorally relevant consolidation in human low-level visual cortex. Applying TMS to the trained V1 location within 45 min of the first or second training session strongly interfered with learning, as measured by impaired performance the next day. The interference was conditional on task context and occurred only when training in the location targeted by TMS was followed by training in a second location before TMS. In this condition, high-level areas may become coupled to the second location and uncoupled from the previously trained low-level representation, thereby rendering consolidation vulnerable to interference. Our data show that, during the earliest phases of skill learning in the lowest-level visual areas, a behaviorally relevant form of consolidation exists of which the robustness is controlled by high-level, contextual factors.

  7. 76 FR 53563 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... mathematics at grade level by the end of the third grade; and (e) Leveraging existing Federal, State, and..., including but not limited to center- based and family child care providers; infant and toddler specialists; early intervention specialists and early childhood special educators; home visitors; related services...

  8. Using the Scientific Method to Guide Learning: An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…

  9. Learning Media Application Based On Microcontroller Chip Technology In Early Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Hidayati, Permata

    2018-04-01

    In Early childhood cognitive intelligence need right rncdia learning that can help a child’s cognitive intelligence quickly. The purpose of this study to design a learning media in the form of a puppet can used to introduce human anatomy during early childhood. This educational doll utilizing voice recognition technology from EasyVR module to receive commands from the user to introduce body parts on a doll, is used as an indicator TED. In addition to providing the introduction of human anatomy, this dolljut. a user can give a shout out to mainly play previously stored voice module sound recorder. Results obtained from this study is that this educational dolls can detect more than voice and spoken commands that can be random detected. Distance concrete of this doll in detecting the sound is up to a distance of 2.5 meters.

  10. Dentofacial morphology in adolescent or early adult patients with cleft lip and palate after a treatment regimen that included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, H; Lilja, J

    1994-06-01

    Dentofacial morphology was evaluated in 94 adolescent or early adult patients born with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. As well as lip closure, the primary treatment included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair. Roentgencephalometric measurements as well as classification of the patients into different classes of dentofacial deformity indicated development of bimaxillary retrognathia with severe midfacial deficiency in about a quarter of the cases. Our results were similar to those reported by other teams who used similar surgical regimen.

  11. Effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning process on emotional intelligence among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Yimklib, Somkid; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Apinanthavech, Suporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning program on emotional intelligence among early adolescents. The quasi-experimental study was conducted in grade 9 students from two schools in Bangbuathong district, Nonthaburi province. Each experimental and comparative group consisted of 34 students with the lowest score of emotional intelligence. The instruments were questionnaires, Program to Develop Emotional Intelligence and Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Development. The experimental group attended 8 participatory learning activities in 4 weeks to Develop Emotional Intelligence while the comparative group received the handbook for self study. Assessment the effectiveness of program was done by pre-test and post-test immediately and 4 weeks apart concerning the emotional intelligence. Implementation and evaluation was done during May 24-August 12, 2005. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Before program implementation, both groups had no statistical difference in mean score of emotional intelligence. After intervention, the experimental group had higher mean score of emotional intelligence both immediately and 4 weeks later with statistical significant (p = 0.001 and self-esteem by participatory learning process could enhance the emotional intelligence in early-adolescent. This program could be modified and implemented for early adolescent in the community.

  12. Emotional learning, stress, and development: An ever-changing landscape shaped by early-life experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattwell, Siobhan S; Bath, Kevin G

    2017-09-01

    The capacity to learn to associate cues with negative outcomes is a highly adaptive process that appears to be conserved across species. However, when the cue is no longer a valid predictor of danger, but the emotional response persists, this can result in maladaptive behaviors, and in humans contribute to debilitating emotional disorders. Over the past several decades, work in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and biology have uncovered key processes underlying, and structures governing, emotional responding and learning, as well as identified disruptions in the structural and functional integrity of these brain regions in models of pathology. In this review, we highlight some of this elegant body of work as well as incorporate emerging findings from the field of developmental neurobiology to emphasize how development contributes to changes in the ability to learn and express emotional responses, and how early experiences, such as stress, shape the development and functioning of these circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual working memory gives up attentional control early in learning: ruling out interhemispheric cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2014-08-01

    Current research suggests that we can watch visual working memory surrender the control of attention early in the process of learning to search for a specific object. This inference is based on the observation that the contralateral delay activity (CDA) rapidly decreases in amplitude across trials when subjects search for the same target object. Here, we tested the alternative explanation that the role of visual working memory does not actually decline across learning, but instead lateralized representations accumulate in both hemispheres across trials and wash out the lateralized CDA. We show that the decline in CDA amplitude occurred even when the target objects were consistently lateralized to a single visual hemifield. Our findings demonstrate that reductions in the amplitude of the CDA during learning are not simply due to the dilution of the CDA from interhemispheric cancellation. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Learning representations for the early detection of sepsis with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ha Young

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. Early detection of sepsis is vital because mortality increases as the sepsis stage worsens. This study aimed to develop detection models for the early stage of sepsis using deep learning methodologies, and to compare the feasibility and performance of the new deep learning methodology with those of the regression method with conventional temporal feature extraction. Study group selection adhered to the InSight model. The results of the deep learning-based models and the InSight model were compared. With deep feedforward networks, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the models were 0.887 and 0.915 for the InSight and the new feature sets, respectively. For the model with the combined feature set, the AUC was the same as that of the basic feature set (0.915). For the long short-term memory model, only the basic feature set was applied and the AUC improved to 0.929 compared with the existing 0.887 of the InSight model. The contributions of this paper can be summarized in three ways: (i) improved performance without feature extraction using domain knowledge, (ii) verification of feature extraction capability of deep neural networks through comparison with reference features, and (iii) improved performance with feedforward neural networks using long short-term memory, a neural network architecture that can learn sequential patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-07-25

    Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded fMRI neurofeedback termed "DecNef" [9], we tested whether associative learning of orientation and color can be created in early visual areas. During 3 days of training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive "red" significantly more frequently than "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3-5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as orientation and color was created, most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called "A-DecNef," and it may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions because associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to associate orientation with color in early visual areas by associative decoded fMRI neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback, termed “DecNef” [9], we tested whether associative learning of color and orientation can be created in early visual areas. During three days' training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive “red” significantly more frequently than “green” in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of the two different visual features such as color and orientation was created most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called “A(ssociative)-DecNef” and may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. PMID:27374335

  18. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Pmemory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (Pmemory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Literature Survey for Earliness/Tardiness Scheduling Problems with Learning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Cemil İŞLER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When a task or work is done continuously, there will be an experience so following times needs of required resources (manpower, materials, etc. will be reduced. This learning curve described first by Wright. Wright determined how workmanship costs decreased while proceed plain increasing. This investigations correctness found consistent by plain producers. Learning effect is an effect that, works can be done in shorter time in the rate of repeat of work with repeating same or similar works in production process. Nowadays classical production systems adapted more acceptable systems with new approaches. Just in time production system (JIT philosophy is one of the most important production system philosophies. JIT which is known production without stock stands on using all product resources optimum. Minimization problem of Earliness/Tardiness finishing penalty, which we can describe Just in time scheduling, appeared by inspired from JIT philosophy. In this study, there is literature survey which directed to earliness/tardiness performance criteria and learning effect processing in scheduling and as a result of this it is obtained some establishing for literature.

  1. Early Childhood Studies--Students' Participation in the Development of a Learning Space in a Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyal, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    The article argues for the participation and involvement of students in developing learning spaces within higher education. In early childhood education there is a strong emphasis upon rights, democracy and planning learning through listening to young children. Taking inspiration from this, the study explores the use of participatory approaches in…

  2. The Workplace as Learning Environment in Early Childhood Teacher Education: An Investigation of Work-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarby, Karen Marie Eid; Lindboe, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the workplace as a learning environment in work-based early childhood teacher education in Norway. The main question is: Which understandings of the workplace as a learning environment are to be found in regulations and policy documents, among students and among staff managers? Taking as the point of departure, a theoretical…

  3. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  4. Unleashing the Power of Science in Early Childhood: A Foundation for High-Quality Interactions and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Daryl B.; Alexander, Alexandra; Frechette, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    When science is integrated into early childhood learning experiences, it becomes a critical area supporting young children's development. Young children are natural scientists, curious about their world, and they engage in scientific practices to learn about and explore their world. This article describes how the K-12 Framework for Science…

  5. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx).

  6. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx). November, 14-15, 2013, Florence, Italy: Libreriauniversitaria.it Edizioni.

  7. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  8. Beliefs Associated with Support for Child-Centred Learning Environment among Hong Kong Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sum Kwing; Ling, Elsa Ka-wei; Leung, Suzannie Kit Ying

    2017-01-01

    The physical, social and temporal dimensions of the classroom environment have an important role in children's learning. This study examines the level of support for child-centred learning, and its associated beliefs, that is provided by Hong Kong's pre-service early childhood teachers. Two hundred and seventy-five students from a pre-service…

  9. Learning curve of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Chan Kim; Ghap-Joong Jung; Hyung-Ho Kim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the nature of the "learning curve" for laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer. METHODS: The data of 90 consecutive patients with early gastric cancer who underwent LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy between April 2003 and November 2004 were reviewed. The 90 patients were divided into 9 sequential groups of 10 cases in each group and the average operative time of these 9 groups were determined. Other learning indicators, such as transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complication, time to first flatus, and postoperative hospital stay, were evaluated. RESULTS: After the first 10 LADGs, the operative time reached its first plateau (230-240 min/operation) and then reached a second plateau (<200 min/operation) for the final 30 cases. Although a significant improvement in the operative time was noted after the first 50 cases, there were no significant differences in transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, or postoperative hospital stay between the groups. CONCLUSION: Based on operative time analysis, this study show that experience of 50 cases of LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer is required to achieve optimum proficiency.

  10. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A MOBILE-DEVICE-SUPPORTED PEER-ASSISTED LEARNING SYSTEM FOR COLLABORATIVE EARLY EFL READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning methods which emphasize peer interaction have been widely applied to increase the intensity and effectiveness of EFL reading programs. However, simply grouping students heterogeneously and assigning them group goals does not guarantee that effective collaborative learning will ensue. The present research includes two studies. In Study One, the weaknesses of collaborative learning in a traditional EFL setting were observed. Then, in Study Two, a mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning (MPAL system was developed for the purpose of addressing the identified weaknesses. Two classes of twenty-six third grade students participated in the present research to examine the unique contribution of MPAL to collaborative EFL reading activities. The collaborative behavior of elementary EFL learners was videotaped and analyzed. Detailed analysis of the videotaped behavior indicated that MPAL helped improve collaboration in elementary school level EFL learners and promotes their reading motivation.

  12. The Role Of The Integrated, Thematic Project To Learning Progress Of The Child In The Early Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cornelia Stoian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed to present you the results of an empirical research in order to identify the positive aspects of the integrated, thematic project in learning progress of children in preschool. Using the observation method, we analyzed children's results regarding the objectives in the respect to the objectives in the grid. Children's progress in learning represents the confirmation and affirmation of the role of this integrated, thematic project in supporting the early learning child.

  13. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  14. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  15. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment: Application of machine learning methods to a prospective study of Danish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R

    2015-09-15

    Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children’s literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevares, Lucia M.; Schiff, Jamie R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training. PMID:24904475

  17. Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Flevares

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992. We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill, Pearce & Pick, 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004. For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (Skoumpourdi & Mpakopoulou, 2011; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen & Van den Boogaard, 2008 and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999; van Hiele, 1986. We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000, Schiro (1997, Hunsader (2004 and Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012. Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Chard, Baker & Clarke, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2000 which lead to misconceptions (Inan & Dogan-Temur, 2010; Oberdorf & Taylor-Cox, 1999. Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  18. Big data analytics for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Desislava

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the concept and the modern advances in personalized medicine that rely on technology and review the existing tools for early detection of breast cancer. The breast cancer types and distribution worldwide is discussed. It is spent time to explain the importance of identifying the normality and to specify the main classes in breast cancer, benign or malignant. The main purpose of the paper is to propose a conceptual model for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning for processing and analysis of medical big dataand further knowledge discovery for personalized treatment. The proposed conceptual model is realized by using Naive Bayes classifier. The software is written in python programming language and for the experiments the Wisconsin breast cancer database is used. Finally, the experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. The simulated early learning of cervical spine manipulation technique utilising mannequins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter D; Stomski, Norman J; Losco, Barrett; Walker, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    Trivial pain or minor soreness commonly follows neck manipulation and has been estimated at one in three treatments. In addition, rare catastrophic events can occur. Some of these incidents have been ascribed to poor technique where the neck is rotated too far. The aims of this study were to design an instrument to measure competency of neck manipulation in beginning students when using a simulation mannequin, and then examine the suitability of using a simulation mannequin to teach the early psychomotor skills for neck chiropractic manipulative therapy. We developed an initial set of questionnaire items and then used an expert panel to assess an instrument for neck manipulation competency among chiropractic students. The study sample comprised all 41 fourth year 2014 chiropractic students at Murdoch University. Students were randomly allocated into either a usual learning or mannequin group. All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks. A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks. This study was conducted between January and March 2014. We successfully developed an instrument of measurement to assess neck manipulation competency in chiropractic students. We then randomised 41 participants to first undertake either "usual learning" (n = 19) or "mannequin learning" (n = 22) for early neck manipulation training. There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79). This study demonstrates that the use of a mannequin does not affect the manipulation competency grades of early learning students at short term follow up. Our findings have potentially important safety implications as the results indicate that students could initially

  20. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  1. Early stages of the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users: Lessons to be learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Injecting drug use driving the HIV epidemic is currently a major global public health concern. However, the early epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs, more than three decades ago, was only concentrated in few places. The HIV epidemic among the IDUs in New York, USA; Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; and northern Italy provides examples of where the recorded prevalence exceeded 50% within a very short period of time. This brief review highlights historical perspectives of HIV transmission risk among IDUs during the early stages of the epidemic. Salient features and related experiences during this period might provide valuable insights for current HIV prevention. Our overview of the selected locations reemphasizes the importance of early prevention. The discussion also introduces to new researchers the early situation associated with the HIV epidemic in IDUs and highlights some crucial components need to be included during current HIV prevention activities.

  2. Early Adolescents' Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina

    2014-01-01

    While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of…

  3. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Uedo, Noriya; Muto, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    We developed an internet e-learning system in order to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage. The efficacy of this system at expanding knowledge and providing invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer was demonstrated through an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. However, the contents of the system have not yet been fully described in the literature. Accordingly, we herein introduce the contents and their principles, which comprise three main subjects: technique, knowledge, and experience. Since all the e-learning contents and principles are based on conventional white-light endoscopy alone, which is commonly available throughout the world, they should provide a good reference point for any endoscopist who wishes to devise learning materials and guidelines for improving their own clinical practice.

  4. 'The Playing-Exploring Child' : Re-conceptualizing the Relationship between Play and Learning in  Early Childhood Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Monica; Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we problematize the dichotomization of play and learning that often shapes the agenda of early childhood education research and practice. This dichotomization is driven in part by the tendency to define lerning in terms of formal learning (i.e. learning as an outcome of direct instruction; and of school-based approaches that focus on teacher-led, goal directed activities and declarative knowledge; and learning in the content areas, such as math and literacy). We argue for a re-c...

  5. Re-Thinking ‘Normal’ Development in the Early Learning of Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Coles

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we suggest that, notwithstanding noted differences, one unmarked similarity across psychology and mathematics education is the continued dominance of the view that there is a ‘normal’ path of development. We focus particularly on the case of the early learning of number and point to evidence that puts into question the dominant narrative of how number sense develops through the concrete and the cardinal. Recent neuroscience findings have raised the potential significance of ordinal approaches to learning number, which in privileging the symbolic—and hence the abstract—reverse one aspect of the ‘normal’ development order. We draw on empirical evidence to suggest that what children can do, and in what order, is sensitive to, among other things, the curriculum approach—and also the tools they have at their disposition. We draw out implications from our work for curriculum organisation in the early years of schooling, to disrupt taken-for-granted paths.

  6. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  8. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    ' perceptions of psychiatric patients and students' reflections on meeting and communicating with psychiatric patients. METHODS: The authors conducted group interviews with 30 medical students who volunteered to participate in interviews and applied inductive thematic content analysis to the transcribed....... Students taught with video-based patient cases, in contrast, often referred to the patient cases when highlighting new insights, including the importance of patient perspectives when communicating with patients. CONCLUSION: The format of patient cases included in teaching may have a substantial impact...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  9. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanair A. Lett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050, isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3 had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12 had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone

  10. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  11. 'Learn the signs. Act early': a campaign to help every child reach his or her full potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, K L; Prue, C; Taylor, M K; Thomas, J; Scales, M

    2009-09-01

    To examine the application of a social marketing approach to increase the early identification and treatment of autism and other developmental disorders. The intervention used formative research, behaviour change theory and traditional social marketing techniques to develop a campaign targeting parents, healthcare professionals and early educators to increase awareness of autism and other developmental delays, and to prompt action if a developmental delay was suspected. Using social marketing principles, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention applied baseline research with the target audiences to understand the barriers and motivators to behaviour change, which included a lack of knowledge and resources (barriers), along with a willingness to learn and do more (motivators). Focus group testing of potential campaign concepts led to one particular approach and accompanying images, which together increased perceived severity of the problem and encouraged taking action. The audience research also helped to shape the marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion). Three-year follow-up research in this case study indicates a significant change in parent target behaviours, particularly among parents aware of the campaign, and substantially more healthcare professionals believe that they have the resources to educate parents about monitoring their child's cognitive, social and physical development. Qualitative results from early educators and childcare professional associations have been positive about products developed for daycare settings. The application of social marketing principles, behavior change theory and audience research was an effective approach to changing behaviours in this case. Understanding what the target audiences want and need, looking beyond parents to engage healthcare professionals and early educators, and engaging many strategic partners to extend the reach of the message helped campaign planners to develop a campaign that resonated

  12. The Impact of Individual Learning Accounts: A Study of the Early and Potential Impact of Individual Learning Accounts on Learning Providers and Learning. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael; Peters, Jane; Fletcher, Mick; Kirk, Gordon

    The impact of individual learning accounts (ILAs) on the success of learners in post-16 education sector in the United Kingdom was explored through an examination of available research on ILAs. The following were among the study's 12 messages for providers, the Department for Education and Skills, and the Individual Learning Account Centre: (1)…

  13. Social influence on associative learning: double dissociation in high-functioning autism, early-stage behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-01

    Most of our learning activity takes place in a social context. I examined how social interactions influence associative learning in neurodegenerative diseases and atypical neurodevelopmental conditions primarily characterised by social cognitive and memory dysfunctions. Participants were individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 18), early-stage behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 16) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20). The leading symptoms in HFA and bvFTD were social and behavioural dysfunctions, whereas AD was characterised by memory deficits. Participants received three versions of a paired associates learning task. In the game with boxes test, objects were hidden in six candy boxes placed in different locations on the computer screen. In the game with faces, each box was labelled by a photo of a person. In the real-life version of the game, participants played with real persons. Individuals with HFA and bvFTD performed well in the computer games, but failed on the task including real persons. In contrast, in patients with early-stage AD, social interactions boosted paired associates learning up to the level of healthy control volunteers. Worse performance in the real life game was associated with less successful recognition of complex emotions and mental states in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Spatial span did not affect the results. When social cognition is impaired, but memory systems are less compromised (HFA and bvFTD), real-life interactions disrupt associative learning; when disease process impairs memory systems but social cognition is relatively intact (early-stage AD), social interactions have a beneficial effect on learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  15. PREDICTORS OF INFANT AND TODDLER BLACK BOYS' EARLY LEARNING: SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES AND MINIMIZING RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U

    2017-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) data set (U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001), this study examined child, family, and community factors in the early years (infant and toddler years) to predict the cognitive and language outcomes for preschool-age Black boys in relation to Black girls and White boys. Findings indicate that Black children face many challenges, with Black boys experiencing less sensitive parenting as compared to their peers. We live in a highly complex, racialized environment. While there are universal indicators that predict children's preschool outcomes such as strong social positioning and positive parenting, there are, in addition, some indicators that are more beneficial for Black boys' early development, including a stable, less urban home environment with parents engaging in "tough love." © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. It's all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B

    2013-11-01

    A developmental pathway may be defined as the route, or chain of events, through which a new structure or function forms. For many human behaviors, including object name learning and visual object recognition, these pathways are often complex and multicausal and include unexpected dependencies. This article presents three principles of development that suggest the value of a developmental psychology that explicitly seeks to trace these pathways and uses empirical evidence on developmental dependencies among motor development, action on objects, visual object recognition, and object name learning in 12- to 24-month-old infants to make the case. The article concludes with a consideration of the theoretical implications of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  18. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse T. Daloglu; Musa Artar; Korhan Ozgan; Ali İ. Karakas

    2018-01-01

    Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS) and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped...

  19. Flooding During Drought: Learning from Stakeholder Engagement & Partner Coordination in the California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    After more than 5 years of drought, extreme precipitation brought drought relief in California and Nevada and presents an opportunity to reflect upon lessons learned while planning for the future. NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS) in June 2017 convened a regional coordination workshop to provide a forum to discuss and build upon past drought efforts in the region and increase coordination, collaboration and information sharing across the region as a whole. Participants included federal, tribal, state, academic, and local partners who provided a post-mortem on the recent drought and impacts as well as recent innovations in drought monitoring, forecasts, and decision support tools in response to the historic drought. This presentation will highlight lessons learned from stakeholder outreach and engagement around flooding during drought, and pathways for moving forward coordination and collaboration in the region. Additional focus will be on the potential opportunities from examining California decision making calendars from this drought. Identified gaps and challenges will also be shared, such as the need to connect observations with social impacts, capacity building around available tools and resources, and future drought monitoring needs. Drought will continue to impact California and Nevada, and the CA-NV DEWS works to make climate and drought science readily available, easily understandable and usable for decision makers; and to improve the capacity of stakeholders to better monitor, forecast, plan for and cope with the impacts of drought.

  20. Mild decentration measured by a Scheimpflug camera and its impact on visual quality following SMILE in the early learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiyan; Zhao, Jing; Miao, Huamao; Shen, Yang; Sun, Ling; Tian, Mi; Wadium, Elizabeth; Zhou, Xingtao

    2014-05-20

    To measure decentration following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism in the early learning curve, and to investigate its impact on visual quality. A total of 55 consecutive patients (100 eyes) who underwent the SMILE procedure were included. Decentration was measured using a Scheimpflug camera 6 months after surgery. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), manifest refraction, and wavefront errors were also measured. Associations between decentration and the preoperative spherical equivalent were analyzed, as well as the associations between decentration and wavefront aberrations. Regarding efficacy and safety, 40 eyes (40%) had an unchanged CDVA; 32 eyes (32%) gained one line; and 11 eyes (11%) gained two lines. Fifteen eyes (15%) lost one line of CDVA, and two eyes (2%) lost two lines. Ninety-nine of the treated eyes (99%) had a postoperative UDVA better than 1.0, and 100 eyes (100%) had a UDVA better than 0.8. The mean decentered displacement was 0.17 ± 0.09 mm. The decentered displacement of all treated eyes (100%) was within 0.50 mm; 70 eyes (70%) were within 0.20 mm; and 90 eyes (90%) were within 0.30 mm. The vertical coma showed the greatest increase in magnitude. The magnitude of horizontal decentration was found to be associated with an induced horizontal coma. This study suggests that, although mild decentration occurred in the early learning curve, good visual outcomes were achieved after the SMILE surgery. Special efforts to minimize induced vertical coma are necessary. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators recognize and practice some kinds of e-learning, most have yet to master the basic theory and practice of knowledge management. What does e-learning mean for young children? How do we apply knowledge management in early childhood setting? These questions are of great importance and a special collection such as this issue will be beneficial to take stock of the ongoing practices as well as to explore future directions in the field. This issue will combine knowledge management and e-learning with early childhood education to provide a valuable arena for the discussion and dissemination of this topic and related studies.

  2. Tooth loss early in life suppresses neurogenesis and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus and impairs learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kin-Ya; Murabayashi, Chika; Kotachi, Mika; Suzuki, Ayumi; Mori, Daisuke; Sato, Yuichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Azuma, Kagaku; Iinuma, Mitsuo

    2017-02-01

    Tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone. Age-related hippocampal morphological and functional changes were accelerated by early tooth loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). In order to explore the mechanism underlying the impaired hippocampal function resulting from early masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss, we investigated the effects of early tooth loss on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability, neurogenesis, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus later in life of SAMP8 mice. We examined the effects of tooth loss soon after tooth eruption (1 month of age) on plasma corticosterone levels, learning ability in the Morris water maze, newborn cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus of aged (8 months of age) SAMP8 mice. Aged mice with early tooth loss exhibited increased plasma corticosterone levels, hippocampus-dependent learning deficits in the Morris water maze, decreased cell proliferation, and cell survival in the dentate gyrus, and suppressed synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Newborn cell differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, however, was not affected by early tooth loss. These findings suggest that learning deficits in aged SAMP8 mice with tooth loss soon after tooth eruption are associated with suppressed neurogenesis and decreased synaptophysin expression resulting from increased plasma corticosterone levels, and that long-term tooth loss leads to impaired cognitive function in older age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A perceptual advantage for onomatopoeia in early word learning: Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine E

    2017-09-01

    A perceptual advantage for iconic forms in infant language learning has been widely reported in the literature, termed the "sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis" by Imai and Kita (2014). However, empirical research in this area is limited mainly to sound symbolic forms, which are very common in languages such as Japanese but less so in Indo-European languages such as English. In this study, we extended this body of research to onomatopoeia-words that are thought to be present across most of the world's languages and that are known to be dominant in infants' early lexicons. In a picture-mapping task, 10- and 11-month-old infants showed a processing advantage for onomatopoeia (e.g., woof woof) over their conventional counterparts (e.g., doggie). However, further analysis suggests that the input may play a key role in infants' experience and processing of these forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  5. Using machine learning to identify air pollution exposure profiles associated with early cognitive skills among U.S. children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stingone, Jeanette A.; Pandey, Om P.; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was −1.19 points (95% CI −1.94, −0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be

  6. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  7. Early exposure to volatile anesthetics impairs long-term associative learning and recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley H Lee

    Full Text Available Anesthetic exposure early in life affects neural development and long-term cognitive function, but our understanding of the types of memory that are altered is incomplete. Specific cognitive tests in rodents that isolate different memory processes provide a useful approach for gaining insight into this issue.Postnatal day 7 (P7 rats were exposed to either desflurane or isoflurane at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Acute neuronal death was assessed 12 h later in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. In separate behavioral experiments, beginning at P48, subjects were evaluated in a series of object recognition tests relying on associative learning, as well as social recognition.Exposure to either anesthetic led to a significant increase in neuroapoptosis in each brain region. The extent of neuronal death did not differ between groups. Subjects were unaffected in simple tasks of novel object and object-location recognition. However, anesthetized animals from both groups were impaired in allocentric object-location memory and a more complex task requiring subjects to associate an object with its location and contextual setting. Isoflurane exposure led to additional impairment in object-context association and social memory.Isoflurane and desflurane exposure during development result in deficits in tasks relying on associative learning and recognition memory. Isoflurane may potentially cause worse impairment than desflurane.

  8. Early Learning Left Out: Building an Early-Learning System to Secure America's Future. Federal, State and School District Investments by Child Age. 4th Edition. 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As a society, are we investing enough in our youngest children? The BUILD Initiative's latest report, Early Learning Left Out, by CFPC director Charles Bruner, provides a clear answer that current investments fall far short. The report draws upon the most recent federal, state, and public school budget information--and what we know about effective…

  9. Computational Science with the Titan Supercomputer: Early Outcomes and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Modeling and simulation with petascale computing has supercharged the process of innovation and understanding, dramatically accelerating time-to-insight and time-to-discovery. This presentation will focus on early outcomes from the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Titan has over 18,000 hybrid compute nodes consisting of both CPUs and GPUs. In this presentation, I will discuss the lessons we have learned in deploying Titan and preparing applications to move from conventional CPU architectures to a hybrid machine. I will present early results of materials applications running on Titan and the implications for the research community as we prepare for exascale supercomputer in the next decade. Lastly, I will provide an overview of user programs at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility with specific information how researchers may apply for allocations of computing resources. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Investigating and learning lessons from early experiences of implementing ePrescribing systems into NHS hospitals: a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    Full Text Available ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned.A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated.We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate. At least 6% (n = 10 of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n = 4 have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n = 55 are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity.Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy

  11. Archigregarines of the English Channel revisited: New molecular data on Selenidium species including early described and new species and the uncertainties of phylogenetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Rueckert

    Full Text Available Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l. and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.. While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules features.In this study we revisited five of the early-described species of the genus Selenidium including the type species Selenidium pendula, with special focus on surface ultrastructure and molecular data. We were also able to describe three new species within this genus. All species were characterized at morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy data and molecular (SSU rDNA sequence data levels. Gregarine specimens were isolated from polychaete hosts collected from the English Channel near the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France: Selenidium pendula from Scolelepis squamata, S. hollandei and S. sabellariae from Sabellaria alveolata, S. sabellae from Sabella pavonina, Selenidium fallax from Cirriformia tentaculata, S. spiralis sp. n. and S. antevariabilis sp. n. from Amphitritides gracilis, and S. opheliae sp. n. from Ophelia roscoffensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data showed archigregarines clustering into five separate clades and support previous doubts about their monophyly.Our phylogenies using the extended gregarine sampling show that the archigregarines are indeed not monophyletic with one strongly supported clade of Selenidium sequences around the type species S. pendula. We suggest the revision of the whole archigregarine taxonomy with only the species within this clade remaining in the genus

  12. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  13. Social Learning Family Therapy and the Treatment of Conduct Disorder in Early Childhood: Premise, Procedures and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Discusses social learning family therapy hypotheses on the development and sustenance of conduct disorder in early childhood, together with treatment approaches that use parents as the primary agents of change. Reviews research showing that parent training procedures hold much promise for the treatment of conduct disorder in childhood. (JPB)

  14. Using Electronic Portfolio to Promote Professional Learning Community for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers at Alquds University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, Buad

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to explore whether the electronic portfolio can influence pre-service teachers' education and to examine how professional learning communities develop through electronic portfolios. To achieve this, twenty-four student-teachers taking a course in early childhood education at Al-Quds University participated in a study to…

  15. 77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... foundation of an effective early learning and development reform agenda that is focused on school readiness... Childhood Education Workforce; and (E) Measuring Outcomes and Progress. The first two of these reform areas... strategic use of funds. (See the notice inviting applications for the FY 2011 RTT-ELC competition, published...

  16. Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

  17. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  18. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner.

  19. Learning One's Place and Position through Play: Social Class and Educational Opportunity in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical work of the British sociologist Basil Bernstein, this paper documents how learning is structured and organised through play in three Early Years Education (EYE) settings catering for children aged three to five in England, UK. Its data address current issues raised within EYE research relating to "quality and high…

  20. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  1. What More Has Been Learned? the Science of Early Childhood Development 15 Years after "Neurons to Neighborhoods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    The new Institute of Medicine/National Research Council report, "Transforming the Workforce for Children From Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation" (2015), begins with a summary of the science of early development and learning, with particular attention to discoveries during the past 15 years since the publication of "From…

  2. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  3. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Early Diagnosis Using Manifold-Based Semi-Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehnejad, Moein; Saatlou, Forough Habibollahi; Mohammadzade, Hoda

    2017-08-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. Clearly, predicting this disease in the early stages and preventing it from progressing is of great importance. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a variety of medical tests, which leads to huge amounts of multivariate heterogeneous data. It can be difficult and exhausting to manually compare, visualize, and analyze this data due to the heterogeneous nature of medical tests; therefore, an efficient approach for accurate prediction of the condition of the brain through the classification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images is greatly beneficial and yet very challenging. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for the diagnosis of very early stages of AD through an efficient classification of brain MRI images, which uses label propagation in a manifold-based semi-supervised learning framework. We first apply voxel morphometry analysis to extract some of the most critical AD-related features of brain images from the original MRI volumes and also gray matter (GM) segmentation volumes. The features must capture the most discriminative properties that vary between a healthy and Alzheimer-affected brain. Next, we perform a principal component analysis (PCA)-based dimension reduction on the extracted features for faster yet sufficiently accurate analysis. To make the best use of the captured features, we present a hybrid manifold learning framework which embeds the feature vectors in a subspace. Next, using a small set of labeled training data, we apply a label propagation method in the created manifold space to predict the labels of the remaining images and classify them in the two groups of mild Alzheimer's and normal condition (MCI/NC). The accuracy of the classification using the proposed method is 93

  5. Deep learning classifier with optical coherence tomography images for early dental caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Nima; Salehi, Hassan S.; Mahdian, Mina; Alnajjar, Hisham; Tadinada, Aditya

    2018-02-01

    Dental caries is a microbial disease that results in localized dissolution of the mineral content of dental tissue. Despite considerable decline in the incidence of dental caries, it remains a major health problem in many societies. Early detection of incipient lesions at initial stages of demineralization can result in the implementation of non-surgical preventive approaches to reverse the demineralization process. In this paper, we present a novel approach combining deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for classification of human oral tissues to detect early dental caries. OCT images of oral tissues with various densities were input to a CNN classifier to determine variations in tissue densities resembling the demineralization process. The CNN automatically learns a hierarchy of increasingly complex features and a related classifier directly from training data sets. The initial CNN layer parameters were randomly selected. The training set is split into minibatches, with 10 OCT images per batch. Given a batch of training patches, the CNN employs two convolutional and pooling layers to extract features and then classify each patch based on the probabilities from the SoftMax classification layer (output-layer). Afterward, the CNN calculates the error between the classification result and the reference label, and then utilizes the backpropagation process to fine-tune all the layer parameters to minimize this error using batch gradient descent algorithm. We validated our proposed technique on ex-vivo OCT images of human oral tissues (enamel, cortical-bone, trabecular-bone, muscular-tissue, and fatty-tissue), which attested to effectiveness of our proposed method.

  6. The Early Psychosis Screener (EPS): Quantitative validation against the SIPS using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, B B; Girgis, R R; Favorov, O V; Addington, J; Perkins, D O; Bearden, C E; Woods, S W; Walker, E F; Cornblatt, B A; Brucato, G; Walsh, B; Elkin, K A; Brodey, I S

    2018-01-18

    Machine learning techniques were used to identify highly informative early psychosis self-report items and to validate an early psychosis screener (EPS) against the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Version (PQ-B) and 148 additional items were administered to 229 individuals being screened with the SIPS at 7 North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study sites and at Columbia University. Fifty individuals were found to have SIPS scores of 0, 1, or 2, making them clinically low risk (CLR) controls; 144 were classified as clinically high risk (CHR) (SIPS 3-5) and 35 were found to have first episode psychosis (FEP) (SIPS 6). Spectral clustering analysis, performed on 124 of the items, yielded two cohesive item groups, the first mostly related to psychosis and mania, the second mostly related to depression, anxiety, and social and general work/school functioning. Items within each group were sorted according to their usefulness in distinguishing between CLR and CHR individuals using the Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance procedure. A receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analysis indicated that maximal differentiation of CLR and CHR participants was achieved with a 26-item solution (AUC=0.899±0.001). The EPS-26 outperformed the PQ-B (AUC=0.834±0.001). For screening purposes, the self-report EPS-26 appeared to differentiate individuals who are either CLR or CHR approximately as well as the clinician-administered SIPS. The EPS-26 may prove useful as a self-report screener and may lead to a decrease in the duration of untreated psychosis. A validation of the EPS-26 against actual conversion is underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experience during Early Adulthood Shapes the Learning Capacities and the Number of Synaptic Boutons in the Mushroom Bodies of Honey Bees ("Apis mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabirol, Amélie; Brooks, Rufus; Groh, Claudia; Barron, Andrew B.; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an…

  8. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Learning From Experience: Improving Early Tracheal Extubation Success After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter D; Staudt, Anna M; Sebastian, Roby; Corridore, Marco; Tumin, Dmitry; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared. Review our institutional outcomes associated with early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery. Inclusion criteria included all children less than 1 year old who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between October 1, 2010, and October 24, 2013. A total of 416 patients less than 1 year old were included. Of the 416 patients, 234 underwent tracheal extubation in the operating room (56%) with 25 requiring reintubation (10.7%), either immediately or following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU. Of the 25 patients extubated in the operating room who required reintubation, 22 failed within 24 hours of cardiothoracic ICU admission; 10 failures were directly related to narcotic doses that resulted in respiratory depression. As a result of this review, we have instituted changes in our cardiothoracic ICU postoperative care plans. We have developed a neonatal delirium score, and have adopted the "Kangaroo Care" approach that was first popularized in neonatal ICUs. This provision allows for the early parental holding of infants following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU and allows for appropriately selected parents to sleep in the same beds alongside their postoperative children.

  10. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, B.; Landewe, R.; Lukas, C.; Bolosiu, H. D.; Breedveld, F.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Ferraccioli, G.; Hazes, J. M. W.; Klareskog, L.; Machold, K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Nielsen, H.; Silman, A.; Smolen, J.; Yazici, H.

    2007-01-01

    To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. In accordance with EULAR's "standardised operating procedures", the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10

  11. Including a Client Sexual Health Pathway in a National Youth Mental Health Early Intervention Service--Project Rationale and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…

  12. Early Clinical Exposure as a Learning Tool to Teach Neuroanatomy for First Year MBBS Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Kar, Chinmaya; Roy, Hironmoy; Goyal, Parmod

    2017-12-01

    Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine. This study was conducted in collaboration with the Departments of Anatomy, General Medicine and Medical Education Unit in the year 2016. This was cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty students of 1 st Professional MBBS were subdivided into two groups. After preliminary classes on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord for both groups, conventional lecture classes were taken for Group A only on upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis, and only Group B visited General Medicine ward where HOD, General Medicine showed and examined patients of UMN paralysis and LMN paralysis, elicited different symptoms, and discussed different investigation. It was followed by assessment of all by problem-based multiple choice questions (MCQ) and short answer questions. Then, Group B attended lecture class on different cranial nerve palsy whereas Group A visited medicine ward. It was followed by assessment of both groups by problem-based MCQ and short answer questions. The performance was compared. Then, the feedback of the students on ECE was collected by means of reflection writing followed by administration of questionnaire. Then, the perception of teachers regarding ECE was recorded by focused group discussion. Student's t -test was used to compare the performance of both batches. Reflection writing and focus group discussion were analyzed

  13. Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: a Machine Learning application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2014-12-01

    There is broad interest in predicting the clinical course of mental disorders from early, multimodal clinical and biological information. Current computational models, however, constitute a significant barrier to realizing this goal. The early identification of trauma survivors at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is plausible given the disorder's salient onset and the abundance of putative biological and clinical risk indicators. This work evaluates the ability of Machine Learning (ML) forecasting approaches to identify and integrate a panel of unique predictive characteristics and determine their accuracy in forecasting non-remitting PTSD from information collected within 10 days of a traumatic event. Data on event characteristics, emergency department observations, and early symptoms were collected in 957 trauma survivors, followed for fifteen months. An ML feature selection algorithm identified a set of predictors that rendered all others redundant. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as well as other ML classification algorithms were used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy of i) ML selected features, ii) all available features without selection, and iii) Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms alone. SVM also compared the prediction of a) PTSD diagnostic status at 15 months to b) posterior probability of membership in an empirically derived non-remitting PTSD symptom trajectory. Results are expressed as mean Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC). The feature selection algorithm identified 16 predictors, present in ≥ 95% cross-validation trials. The accuracy of predicting non-remitting PTSD from that set (AUC = .77) did not differ from predicting from all available information (AUC = .78). Predicting from ASD symptoms was not better then chance (AUC = .60). The prediction of PTSD status was less accurate than that of membership in a non-remitting trajectory (AUC = .71). ML methods may fill a critical gap in forecasting PTSD. The

  14. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrone, C.D.; Correia, R.P.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

  16. Early EFL Education Is on the Rise in Oman: A Qualitative Inquiry of Parental Beliefs about Early EFL Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Today's parents are more interested in having their children acquire English language skills as early as possible because they see the demands of the globalizing world context and contemporary trends in society and wish to ensure that their children can live in a future (quite possibly) English-speaking society. These developments, particularly in…

  17. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  18. Experimental activities in the early years of elementary school: a methodological tool for construction of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de Souza Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early years of elementary school, this study evaluated the impact of experimental activities based in the scientific method and preconceptions on the learning and memorization of concepts and phenomena associated with the fermentation process. The different activities were carried out through an experimental course (20hs, with students of elementary school from school municipal Diacono Joao Luiz Pozzobon, Santa Maria-RS. The research involved 20 students, with 6 and 7 old years. The evaluation was performed by comparing the interview responses made before the course (pre-test and after the course (post-test. The post-tests were applied at the end of the experimental course, and after 6 and 12 months. The experimental activities facilitated the acquisition and retention of new concepts. The data show that "experimental activities" can be used by teachers in early grades as a methodological tool to complement the teaching-learning process.

  19. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Baig

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are pa...

  20. Threads: theory of Vygotsky to learning processes and child development in early childhood education mediated by toy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Reina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objectivity to point out some of the threads of the cultural historical theory of Vygotsky partner to the process of learning and development of children in early childhood education mediated by the construction of toys and games. In this direction, looking to approach the foundations of this theory in order to internalize the reader in his work in search of reflections and readings on the theme proposed here.

  1. The effect of pyrithioxine and pyridoxine on individual behavior, social interactions, and learning in rats malnourished in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Benesová, O; Franková, S

    1976-04-15

    Low protein (LP) or low calorie (LC) dietary regimens were applied in early postnatal life(1st-40th day of life) in male rats. After nutritional rehabilitation, open-field behavior in larger more illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), dyadic interactions, and learning ability were investigated in these animals as adults (between the 200th to 300th day of life). LP malnutrition induced an increase of open-field activity with features of sterotypy both in LI and HI situations, an increase number of intersignal reactions during learning procedures without changes in other registered criteria of learning ability (latency, number of correct responses), and an increase of aggressive behavior in pair interaction. LC rats revealed only significant inhibition in LI--open-field activity and a slightly increased number in intersignal reactions during avoidance learning. With the aim of preventing previously described long-term deviations in early malnourished rats, some groups of animals with the above-mentioned early calorie or protein deficits were treated with pyrithioxine (Encephabol Merck) or pyridoxine in 10 doses of 40 mg/kg i.p. administered in the period when nutritional rehabilitation was carried out (between the 40th--50th day of life). The treatment with pyrithioxine reduced significantly behavioral disturbances in adult LP rats except the increase of intersignal reactions which was even potentiated. Pyridoxine was less effective but normalized the increase number of intersignal reactions both in LP and LC rats. The effect of pyridoxine of adult LC rats was interesting. There was significant improvement in all registered parameters of avoidance learning and a significant increase of sexual acts was recorded.

  2. Learning Disabilities in Children: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Importance of Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with learning disabilities have significant impairment in reading, writing and mathematics, in spite of normal intelligence and sensory abilities. In reading disability, children will have difficulties in phonemic sensitivity, phonetic decoding, word recognition, word decoding skills and reading comprehension. The lifetime prevalence of learning disability is about 10%. Learning disabilities are more frequently seen in boys compared to girls. There are several risk factors for learning disabilities. Low birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal complications, language delay and epilepsy are important risk factors for learning disabilities in children. Students with learning disabilities have poor scholastic performance, anxiety and significant stress. They have more social, emotional and behavioural problems than those without learning problems. If not remedied at the earliest, learning disabilities will lead to failure in exams and these children may develop stress related disorders. Hence all children with learning problems should be evaluated scientifically at the earliest, for identification of learning disability. By providing scientific guidance and intensive one to one remedial training, learning problems of children can be managed successfully.

  3. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santosuosso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues.Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation.We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  4. The problem of early learning of foreign languages in Germanspeaking countries in modern pedagogical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kohut

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects of early foreign language teaching in Germanspeakingcountries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland in modern Pedagogics. The meaningof the term “early teaching” is defined and the teaching of foreign languages for pre-schooland primary school children is analyzed.Key words: early teaching, foreign language education, primary school, system ofeducation, multicultural surrounding.

  5. Early motor learning changes in upper-limb dynamics and shoulder complex loading during handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Hartog, Johanneke; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Bekker, Michel J; van der Scheer, Jan W; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2015-03-10

    To propel in an energy-efficient manner, handrim wheelchair users must learn to control the bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. Previous studies have found an increase in mechanical efficiency due to motor learning associated with changes in propulsion technique, but it is unclear in what way the propulsion technique impacts the load on the shoulder complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency, propulsion technique and load on the shoulder complex during the initial stage of motor learning. 15 naive able-bodied participants received 12-minutes uninstructed wheelchair practice on a motor driven treadmill, consisting of three 4-minute blocks separated by two minutes rest. Practice was performed at a fixed belt speed (v = 1.1 m/s) and constant low-intensity power output (0.2 W/kg). Energy consumption, kinematics and kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. The Delft Shoulder Model was used to calculate net joint moments, muscle activity and glenohumeral reaction force. With practice mechanical efficiency increased and propulsion technique changed, reflected by a reduced push frequency and increased work per push, performed over a larger contact angle, with more tangentially applied force and reduced power losses before and after each push. Contrary to our expectations, the above mentioned propulsion technique changes were found together with an increased load on the shoulder complex reflected by higher net moments, a higher total muscle power and higher peak and mean glenohumeral reaction forces. It appears that the early stages of motor learning in handrim wheelchair propulsion are indeed associated with improved technique and efficiency due to optimization of the kinematics and dynamics of the upper extremity. This process goes at the cost of an increased muscular effort and mechanical loading of the shoulder complex. This seems to be associated with an

  6. Development of an E-learning System for the Endoscopic Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer: An International Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yao

    2016-07-01

    Interpretation: This global study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of an e-learning system to expand knowledge and provide invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer (R000012039.

  7. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eEscudero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although infants perceptually attune to native vowels and consonants well before 12 months, at 13–15 months, they have difficulty learning to associate novel words that differ by their initial consonant (e.g., BIN and DIN to their visual referents. However, this difficulty may not apply to all minimal-pair novel words. While Canadian English (CE 15-month-olds failed to respond to a switch from the newly learned word DEET to the novel nonword DOOT, they did notice a switch from DEET to DIT (Curtin, Fennell, & Escudero, 2009. Those authors argued that early word learners capitalize on large phonetic differences, seen in CE DEET–DIT, but not on smaller phonetic differences, as in CE DEET–DOOT. To assess this hypothesis, we tested Australian English (AusE 15-month-olds, as AusE has a smaller magnitude of phonetic difference in both novel word pairs. Two groups of infants were trained on the novel word DEET and tested on the vowel switches in DIT and DOOT, produced by an AusE female speaker or the same CE female speaker as in Curtin et al. (2009. If the size of the phonetic distinction plays a more central role than native accent experience in early word learning, AusE children should more easily recognize both of the unfamiliar but larger CE vowel switches than the more familiar but smaller AusE ones. The results support our phonetic-magnitude hypothesis: AusE children taught and tested with the CE-accented novel words looked longer to both of the switch test trials (DIT, DOOT than same test trials (DEET, while those who heard the AusE-accented tokens did not notice either switch. Implications of our findings for models of early word learning are discussed.

  8. Using machine learning to identify air pollution exposure profiles associated with early cognitive skills among U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Pandey, Om P; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-11-01

    Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was -1.19 points (95% CI -1.94, -0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be applied to other

  9. The "Double-Bind of Dependency": Early Relationships in Men with Learning Disabilities in Secure Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…

  10. Early Fractions Learning of 3rd Grade Students in SD Laboratorium Unesa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elisabet Ayunika Permata; Juniati, Dwi; Patahudin, Sitti Maesuri

    2012-01-01

    Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students shading an area represents a fraction, it does not mean they really…

  11. Early grade learning: The role of teacher-child interaction and tutor-assisted intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The current dissertation focused on two pedagogical and instructional challenges in the beginning phases of primary school learning. First, the combination of increased classroom instruction, novice status in formal learning, and less developed self-regulatory skills makes young children highly

  12. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  13. Parents and Siblings As Early Resources for Young Children's Learning in Mexican-Descent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Granados, Deanne R.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with parents from 50 Mexican-descent families revealed that parents encouraged their preschool children to ask questions about science and causal relationships; older and younger siblings learned different skills from one another; and children learned through observation and imitation. Discusses issues of "match" between home…

  14. Blending toward Competency. Early Patterns of Blended Learning and Competency-Based Education in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Julia

    2014-01-01

    As the education field strives to differentiate and personalize learning to cater to each student, two related movements are gaining attention: competency-based education and blended learning. In competency-based models, students advance on the basis of mastery, rather than according to the traditional methods of counting progress in terms of time…

  15. It All Adds Up: Learning Early Math through Play and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Eason, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Playing and learning mathematics do not have to be mutually exclusive activities, especially in kindergarten. Play and games can give young children opportunities to learn and develop foundational math skills that are aligned with Common Core standards for mathematics through age-appropriate, fun, and engaging activities.

  16. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  17. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Ferry; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and

  18. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, F.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J.M.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  19. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  20. Perceptual Learning in Early Mathematics: Interacting with Problem Structure Improves Mapping, Solving and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Khanh-Phuong; Son, Ji Y.; Hoffman, Jessica; Devers, Christopher; Kellman, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics is the study of structure but students think of math as solving problems according to rules. Students can learn procedures, but they often have trouble knowing when to apply learned procedures, especially to problems unlike those they trained with. In this study, the authors rely on the psychological mechanism of perceptual learning…

  1. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  2. Learning neuroendoscopy with an exoscope system (video telescopic operating monitor): Early clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vijay; Yadav, Y R; Kher, Yatin; Ratre, Shailendra; Sethi, Ashish; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2016-01-01

    Steep learning curve is found initially in pure endoscopic procedures. Video telescopic operating monitor (VITOM) is an advance in rigid-lens telescope systems provides an alternative method for learning basics of neuroendoscopy with the help of the familiar principle of microneurosurgery. The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of VITOM as a learning tool for neuroendoscopy. Video telescopic operating monitor was used 39 cranial and spinal procedures and its utility as a tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery and neuroendoscopy for initial learning curve was studied. Video telescopic operating monitor was used in 25 cranial and 14 spinal procedures. Image quality is comparable to endoscope and microscope. Surgeons comfort improved with VITOM. Frequent repositioning of scope holder and lack of stereopsis is initial limiting factor was compensated for with repeated procedures. Video telescopic operating monitor is found useful to reduce initial learning curve of neuroendoscopy.

  3. Convergent and divergent validity of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swineford, Lauren B; Guthrie, Whitney; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a widely used test of development for young children. The sample consisted of 399 children with a mean age of 3.38 years (SD = 1.14) divided into a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a group of children not on the autism spectrum, with and without developmental delays. The study used the MSEL and several other measures assessing constructs relevant to the age range--including developmental skills, autism symptoms, and psychopathology symptoms--across multiple methods of assessment. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses revealed good overall fit and equal form of the MSEL 1-factor model across the ASD and nonspectrum groups, supporting the construct validity of the MSEL. However, neither full nor partial invariance of factor loadings was established because of the lower loadings in the ASD group compared with the nonspectrum group. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed that other measures of developmental skills loaded together with the MSEL domain scores on a Developmental Functioning factor, supporting convergent validity of the MSEL. Divergent validity was supported by the lack of loading of MSEL domain scores on Autism Symptoms or Emotion/Behavior Problems factors. Although factor structure and loadings varied across groups, convergent and divergent validity findings were similar in the ASD and nonspectrum samples. Together, these results demonstrate evidence for the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the MSEL using powerful data-analytic techniques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  5. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  6. Limites e possibilidades dos programas de aceleração de aprendizagem The limits and possibilities of including students from remedial learning programs in regular schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarilza Prado de Sousa

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Pretendi neste trabalho analisar os limites e possibilidades da escola integrar alunos com atraso de escolaridade em processos de educação regular, que receberam apoio de programas de aceleração da aprendizagem. Baseada nas avaliações realizadas desses programas por professores do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Psicologia da Educação da PUCSP e por pesquisadores do Núcleo de Avaliação Educacional da Fundação Carlos Chagas, discuto os resultados efetivamente alcançados considerando duas categorias de análise. Na primeira categoria, analiso os efeitos da estratégia pedagógica promovida pelos programas, nas aprendizagens e progressos dos alunos participantes. Na segunda categoria, procuro analisar as possibilidades de integração/inclusão desses alunos no processo de educação regular. Finalmente, à guisa de conclusão, procuro fazer algumas considerações teórico-metodológicas. Distinguindo integração de inclusão, discuto os limites e possibilidades que as ações dos programas têm de realmente promoverem o desenvolvimento de uma escola sem exclusão.This article analyzes the limits and possibilities for schools to include students with schooling deficits who receive support from the accelerated learning programs, in their regular education processes. Based on evaluations of these programs done by professors from the Post Graduate Program in Educational Psychology of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and by researchers from the Nucleus for Educational Evaluation of the Carlos Chagas Foundation, the results will be discussed in two analytical categories. In the first category, I analyze the effects of the teaching strategies promoted by the programs on the learning and progress of the participating students. In the second category, I seek to analyze the possibilities for integration/inclusion of these students in the regular educational process. Finally by way of conclusion, I try to make some

  7. The difficulties of Indonesian fourth graders in learning fractions: An early exploration of TIMSS 2015 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates Indonesian fourth-graders low performance in dealing with fractions in TIMSS 2015. Furthermore, the present study also explores possible reasons for this low performance. The data for this study was drawn from TIMSS 2015 data which included test results and responses to Teacher Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Indonesian textbooks were also analyzed to portrait a broader scope of possible reasons for students' low performance. The analysis of TIMSS test result reveals that Indonesian students, in comparison to students from other countries, had low understanding of the basic concepts of fractions. From the Teacher Questionnaire it was found that a possible reason for this low understanding was the Indonesian curriculum for third grade which gave low emphasis on the basic concepts of fractions and introduced operations of fractions rather early. Furthermore, the result of textbook analysis shows that Indonesian textbooks restricted only to one definition of fractions, i.e. fractions as parts of wholes. This finding might also explain Indonesian fourth graders' low understanding of fractions.

  8. Going on Safari: The Design and Development of an Early Years Literacy iPad Application to Support Letter-Sound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…

  9. Photo-Booklets for English Language Learning: Incorporating Visual Communication into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britsch, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can integrate discussion and writing about photographs into the early childhood curriculum to build speaking, reading, and writing skills in any language. Although little available research focuses on photography and early childhood education as related specifically to English Language Learners, several current teacher resources do focus…

  10. MLViS: A Web Tool for Machine Learning-Based Virtual Screening in Early-Phase of Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an important step in early-phase of drug discovery process. Since there are thousands of compounds, this step should be both fast and effective in order to distinguish drug-like and nondrug-like molecules. Statistical machine learning methods are widely used in drug discovery studies for classification purpose. Here, we aim to develop a new tool, which can classify molecules as drug-like and nondrug-like based on various machine learning methods, including discriminant, tree-based, kernel-based, ensemble and other algorithms. To construct this tool, first, performances of twenty-three different machine learning algorithms are compared by ten different measures, then, ten best performing algorithms have been selected based on principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis results. Besides classification, this application has also ability to create heat map and dendrogram for visual inspection of the molecules through hierarchical cluster analysis. Moreover, users can connect the PubChem database to download molecular information and to create two-dimensional structures of compounds. This application is freely available through www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/MLViS/.

  11. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Mathieu Le; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H.; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  12. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction of a breast cancer care programme including ultra short hospital stay in 4 early adopter centres: framework for an implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Mascha; Frotscher, Caroline N A; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kessels, Alfons G H; Dirksen, Carmen D; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Roukema, Jan A; Bell, Antoine V R J; van der Ent, Fred W; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F

    2007-07-02

    Whereas ultra-short stay (day care or 24 hour hospitalisation) following breast cancer surgery was introduced in the US and Canada in the 1990s, it is not yet common practice in Europe. This paper describes the design of the MaDO study, which involves the implementation of ultra short stay admission for patients after breast cancer surgery, and evaluates whether the targets of the implementation strategy are reached. The ultra short stay programme and the applied implementation strategy will be evaluated from the economic perspective. The MaDO study is a pre-post-controlled multi-centre study, that is performed in four hospitals in the Netherlands. It includes a pre and post measuring period of six months each with six months of implementation in between in at least 40 patients per hospital per measurement period. Primary outcome measure is the percentage of patients treated in ultra short stay. Secondary endpoints are the percentage of patients treated according to protocol, degree of involvement of home care nursing, quality of care from the patient's perspective, cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme and cost-effectiveness of the implementation strategy. Quality of care will be measured by the QUOTE-breast cancer instrument, cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme will be measured by means of the EuroQol (administered at four time-points) and a cost book for patients. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness of the implementation strategy will be measured by determination of the costs of implementation activities. This study will reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation of the ultra short stay programme. Moreover, the results of the study will provide information about the cost-effectiveness of the ultra short stay programme and the implementation strategy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77253391.

  15. Early Fractions Learning of 3rd Grade Students in SD Laboratorium Unesa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabet Ayunika Permata Sari; Dwi Juniati; Sitti Maesuri Patahudin

    2012-01-01

    Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students  should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students can shading area represents a fraction, does not mean they really understand the meaning of fractions as a whole. With a realistic approach to mathematics, students are given the contextual issues of equitable distributio...

  16. Early Fractions Learning of 3rd Grade Students in SD Laboratorium Unesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ayunika Permata Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students can shading area represents a fraction, does not mean they really understand the meaning of fractions as a whole. With a realistic approach to mathematics, students are given the contextual issues of equitable distribution and measurements that involve fractions

  17. Building Better Drought Resilience Through Improved Monitoring and Early Warning: Learning From Stakeholders in Europe, the USA, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K.; Hannaford, J.; Bachmair, S.; Tijdeman, E.; Collins, K.; Svoboda, M.; Knutson, C. L.; Wall, N.; Smith, K. H.; Bernadt, T.; Crossman, N. D.; Overton, I. C.; Barker, L. J.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    With climate projections suggesting that droughts will intensify in many regions in future, improved drought risk management may reduce potential threats to freshwater security across the globe. One aspect that has been called for in this respect is an improvement of the linkage of drought monitoring and early warning, which currently focuses largely on indicators from meteorology and hydrology, to drought impacts on environment and society. However, a survey of existing monitoring and early warning systems globally, that we report on in this contribution, demonstrates that although impacts are being monitored, there is limited work, and certainly little consensus, on how to best achieve this linkage. The Belmont Forum project DrIVER (Drought impacts: Vulnerability thresholds in monitoring and early-warning research) carried out a number of stakeholder workshops in North America, Europe and Australia to elaborate on options for such improvements. A first round of workshops explored current drought management practices among a very diverse range of stakeholders, and their expectations from monitoring and early warning systems (particularly regarding impact characterization). The workshops revealed some disconnects between the indices used in the public early warning systems and those used by local decision-makers, e.g. to trigger drought measures. Follow-up workshops then explored how the links between information at these different scales can be bridged and applied. Impact information plays a key role in this task. This contribution draws on the lessons learned from the transdisciplinary interactions in DrIVER, to enhance the usability of drought monitoring and early-warning systems and other risk management strategies.

  18. Early Learning with Digital Media: A Naturalistic, Ethnographic Investigation of Children's Engagement with and Learning from Television and Digital Technology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Therese E.

    2012-01-01

    Digital media is a broad concept that includes everything from movies to video games to websites. These media are cultural norms for young people, becoming part of their identity as they use and create content. In this dissertation I discuss the observed diversity of interactions that children from infancy through kindergarten have with digital…

  19. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  20. Transparency in Early Childhood Education: What the West Can Learn from Australia’s Focus on Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Erwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of early childhood education and care has become unrecognizable in many countries, particularly in the West. There is an increasing pressure to focus on outcomes over process, prescribed curricula, standardized assessments, and unrealistic academic expectations for young learners and the adults who work on their behalf. This shift in educational practice has become a harsh reality for many young children, families and educators. The purpose of this paper is to challenge these mounting pressures through an in-depth examination of how early education and care in Australia places well-being as one of the top priorities for young children. Australia was deliberately identified for this analysis because of international acclaim received for its highly praised national early childhood framework as well as the steadfast and visible commitment to education and care for its youngest citizens. Using multiple contexts and narratives, three key features are described that demonstrate how early education practices in Australia counter Western beliefs about who children are and how they learn. These three features are: (a a strong sense about holistic well-being, (b truth about place, and (c living in harmony with the natural world. Ideas for global education reform are proposed as one way of joining with other voices to protect young children across the world.

  1. Episodic and semantic memory impairments in (very early Alzheimer’s disease: The diagnostic accuracy of paired-associate learning formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paired-associate learning (PAL paradigms measure memory processes sensitive to the medial temporal lobe, which shows atrophy in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD. PAL tests have not yet been standard clinical procedure, neither are semantic memory tests. In early AD, impairments are more subtle. A literature review indicates that standard neuropsychological tests may not measure these impairments accurately. Therefore, I constructed new episodic and semantic memory tests. I investigated the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in 37 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; of whom 21 had converted to AD at 1.3-year-follow-up, 43 early AD patients, and 80 non-demented controls. Main questions: (1 which tests best differentiate aMCI and AD from normal aging: most sensitively, most specifically?; (2 do PAL paradigms and/or semantic memory tests (fluency; naming contribute to this differentiation? A free recall (non-PAL test of unrelated words was most sensitive to aMCI and AD (91%, whereas a PAL-recognition-test (of semantically related word pairs of moderate association strength, including strongly related foils was most specific (96%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that differentiation was improved by a subordinate semantic fluency test. I conclude that a combination of episodic and semantic memory components best predicts AD. Future research should focus on comparing semantic and visuospatial PAL tests.

  2. Applied Explanatory Style, Self-Esteem, and Early-Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: An Informational Website for Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 2.6 million students are diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) in the United States. There are many negative psychological and psychosocial consequences that can be attributed to having a LD, including a decrease in self- esteem. Low self-esteem has been shown to be liked to depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety. Early…

  3. A Federal Higher Education iPad Mobile Learning Initiative: Triangulation of Data to Determine Early Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy; Kamali, Tayeb; Soto, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article presents faculty perceptions of the first month of iPad deployment in a national college system and a case study describing the integration of mobile learning devices in one college, interpreted within the framework of a SWOT analysis. We include a brief history of the implementation; description of the three-tier structure of…

  4. Technical meeting on lessons learned with respect to SAT implementation, including development of trainers and use of cost effective training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The past years have brought some significant changes in the world energy market, where the nuclear power plants and utilities are operating. Part of NPPs is privatised now; the electricity markets are liberalized and become more and more international. Due to the increase of competition, the power production costs are now monitored more closely than before. The opening of electricity markets has led the nuclear power plants to be under the serious economic pressure with a demand for continuous cost reduction. All these require from NPPs to make their personnel training more cost-effective. In addition, based on modern technology, a great amount of new training tools, aids and technologies have been introduced during the last 2-3 years, these new opportunities can be quite useful for training cost optimization. On the basis of experience gained worldwide in the application of the systematic approach to training (SAT), SAT based training is now a broad integrated approach emphasizing not only technical knowledge and skills but also human factor related knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this way, all competency requirements for attaining and maintaining personnel competence and qualification can be met, thus promoting and strengthening quality culture and safety culture, which should be fostered throughout the initial and continuing training programmes. The subject of the present technical meeting was suggested by the members of the Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of the IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. The technical Meeting on 'Lessons Learned with Respect to SAT Implementation, Including Development of Trainers and Use of Cost Effective Training Methods' was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Tecnatom A.S. and was held from 21 to 24 October 2002 in San Sebastian de los Reyes/ Madrid, Spain. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for

  5. The Accessibility of Learning Content for All Students, Including Students with Disabilities, Must Be Addressed in the Shift to Digital Instructional Materials. SETDA Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Geoff; Levin, Doug; Lipper, Katherine; Leichty, Reg

    2014-01-01

    This is a time of rapid technological advancement, with innovations in education holding great promise for improving teaching and learning, particularly for students with unique needs. High-quality digital educational materials, tools, and resources offer students relevant, up-to-date, and innovative ways to acquire knowledge and skills. Created…

  6. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahagirdar, D.; Kroll, T.; Ritchie, K.; Wyke, S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated

  7. Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. PMID:23596103

  8. Effects of early chemotherapeutic treatment on learning in adolescent mice: implications for cognitive impairment and remediation in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Hineline, Philip N; Walker, Ellen A

    2013-06-01

    Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40% to 70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Preweanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days after treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1 hour) and long (24 hours) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, was found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Findings are consistent with those from clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. ©2013 AACR

  9. Delayed growth, motor function and learning in preterm pigs during early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D.; Sangild, Per T.; Munch, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth interrupts normal fetal growth with consequences for postnatal growth and organ development. In preterm infants, many physiological deficits adapt and disappear with advancing postnatal age, but some may persist into childhood. We hypothesized that preterm birth would induce impaired......, and learning, relative to term pigs (all P

  10. Narrative Voices of Early Adolescents: Influences of Learning Disability and Cultural Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celinska, Dorota K.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of culturally/ethnically diverse students with and without learning disabilities. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban schools located in a Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives were elicited in the context of naturalistic conversation and analyzed using…

  11. Implementation and Evaluation of an Early Foreign Language Learning Project in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Eleni; Sivropoulou, Rena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of present paper was twofold. Firstly, it aimed at outlining the rationale for and the process of introducing an English language learning intervention to kindergarten children in a playful and supportive environment. It focused on developing children's oral skills through participating in creative child-appropriate activities and…

  12. Playing with Mathematics: Play in Early Childhood as a Context for Mathematical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Play is an essential part of young children's lives. This symposium highlights the integral role of play in young children's mathematics learning and examines the teacher's role in facilitating and extending this. Papers examine key tenets of play, contributing to theoretical understandings and presenting data on teacher's perceptions of play and…

  13. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins

    2015-01-01

    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  14. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  15. Joint Attention in Infant-Toddler Early Childhood Programs: Its Dynamics and Potential for Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degotardi, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how joint attention episodes constitute a core feature of relational pedagogy for infants and toddlers. It draws on social interactionist approaches to language and cognitive development to propose that joint attention may afford significant current and future potential for young children's learning. However, most joint…

  16. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  17. Response to the Colloquium "The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation", by Peter Moss, Gunilla Dahlberg, Susan Grieshaber, Susanna Mantovani, Helen May, Alan Pence, Sylvie Rayna, Beth Blue Swadener and Michel Vandenbroeck, "Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood" 17(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Glynne; Hill, Diti; De Vocht, Lia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors opine that the introduction of an international assessment of children's early learning, such as proposed by the OECD with its planned International Early Learning Study, will shift the emphasis away from pedagogies which focus on that which is meaningful and relevant in children's lives and their learning, to an…

  18. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  19. Learning How to Do Up Buttons: Professionalism, Teacher Identity and Bureaucratic Subjectivities in Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Early years education in Europe and elsewhere around the world is currently in the spotlight due to political and economical changes and subsequent promises of effective investment into its provision. In this article we analyse everyday preschool practices in Slovakia in terms of tensions between policies, the teachers workforce and the concept of…

  20. Becoming Global Elites through Transnational Language Learning?: The Case of Korean Early Study Abroad in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sohee; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, early study abroad (ESA) in English-speaking countries has been a popular educational strategy for pre-university Korean students to acquire important language skills such as global English, which is imagined to help them prepare for the competition in global educational and occupational market. However, as ESA, commonly…

  1. Early Start Denver Model for Young Children with Autism: Promoting Language, Learning, and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sally J.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    From leading authorities, this state-of-the-art manual presents the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), the first comprehensive, empirically tested intervention specifically designed for toddlers and preschoolers with autism. Supported by the principles of developmental psychology and applied behavior analysis, ESDM's intensive teaching interventions…

  2. Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2011-01-01

    Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

  3. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  4. Cherokee Practice, Missionary Intentions: Literacy Learning among Early Nineteenth-Century Cherokee Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, M. Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…

  5. Living Jazz, Learning Jazz: Thoughts on a Responsive Pedagogy of Early Childhood Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, jazz music is used as a lens through which early childhood music pedagogy is viewed, specifically thinking about swing and improvisation--the listening and responding to what is heard and seen, and the openness to possibility. These two concepts are defined by prominent jazz musicians and are traced in the child development…

  6. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  7. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  8. Exploring teacher roles and pupil outcomes in technology-rich early literacy learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Orey, Michael; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the involvement of Dutch kindergarten teachers in curriculum (design and) implementation of PictoPal activities in three different roles: executor-only, re-designer, and co-designer. PictoPal refers to ICT-rich on- and off-computer activities for early literacy. In the

  9. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  10. What We Are Learning about Early Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Amber

    2017-01-01

    This commentary discusses the three articles in this (2017) issue. The articles expand the published research base on the effectiveness of early education in the sub-Saharan Africa countries of Zambia, Kenya, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Each of the three articles employs rigorous methods to better understand the impact of…

  11. Implementing an Early Childhood Professional Development Course across 10 Sites and 15 Sections: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Kraft-Sayre, Marcia; Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Downer, Jason T.; Leach, Allison; Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; La Paro, Karen; Scott-Little, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe the design and implementation of the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE's) college-level course and its delivery to teachers across 10 settings and 15 instructional sections. This professional development intervention, found effective in changing teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and actual…

  12. Early Fractions Learning of 3rd Grade Students in SD Laboratorium Unesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ayunika Permata Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students  should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students can shading area represents a fraction, does not mean they really understand the meaning of fractions as a whole. With a realistic approach to mathematics, students are given the contextual issues of equitable distribution and measurements that involve fractions. Keyword:  fraction meaning, relation of fraction, design research,realistic mathematics education, equitable distribution, measurement DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.3.1.617.17-28

  13. A Literature Survey of Early Time Series Classification and Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Tiago; Kern, Roman

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current literature on time series classification approaches, in particular of early time series classification. A very common and effective time series classification approach is the 1-Nearest Neighbor classier, with different distance measures such as the Euclidean or dynamic time warping distances. This paper starts by reviewing these baseline methods. More recently, with the gain in popularity in the application of deep neural networks to the eld of...

  14. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

  15. Early learning affects social dominance: interspecifically cross-fostered tits become subdominant

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Terning Hansen; Tore Slagsvold

    2004-01-01

    Social dominance influences the outcome of competitive interactions over limited resources, and may hence be important for individual fitness. Theory thus predicts that its heritability will be low and that non-genetic determinants of dominance should prevail. In this field experiment we reciprocally cross-fostered great tits (Parus major) to blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to investigate the impact of early social experience on dominance status in competition over food during winter. Controlling...

  16. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  17. An Online Q-learning Based Multi-Agent LFC for a Multi-Area Multi-Source Power System Including Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shayeghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an online two-stage Q-learning based multi-agent (MA controller for load frequency control (LFC in an interconnected multi-area multi-source power system integrated with distributed energy resources (DERs. The proposed control strategy consists of two stages. The first stage is employed a PID controller which its parameters are designed using sine cosine optimization (SCO algorithm and are fixed. The second one is a reinforcement learning (RL based supplementary controller that has a flexible structure and improves the output of the first stage adaptively based on the system dynamical behavior. Due to the use of RL paradigm integrated with PID controller in this strategy, it is called RL-PID controller. The primary motivation for the integration of RL technique with PID controller is to make the existing local controllers in the industry compatible to reduce the control efforts and system costs. This novel control strategy combines the advantages of the PID controller with adaptive behavior of MA to achieve the desired level of robust performance under different kind of uncertainties caused by stochastically power generation of DERs, plant operational condition changes, and physical nonlinearities of the system. The suggested decentralized controller is composed of the autonomous intelligent agents, who learn the optimal control policy from interaction with the system. These agents update their knowledge about the system dynamics continuously to achieve a good frequency oscillation damping under various severe disturbances without any knowledge of them. It leads to an adaptive control structure to solve LFC problem in the multi-source power system with stochastic DERs. The results of RL-PID controller in comparison to the traditional PID and fuzzy-PID controllers is verified in a multi-area power system integrated with DERs through some performance indices.

  18. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Baig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are passed on to the students, who play an important role in the gender identity construction of these children. The study also indicated that the teachers’ personal experiences greatly affect their perceptions regarding gender identities. There was also evidence of teachers having different expectations for girls and boys. Schools were hence found promoting stereotypes regarding gender roles and responsibilities in a social context.

  19. Lessons learned from implementing the HIV infant tracking system (HITSystem): A web-based intervention to improve early infant diagnosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchario-Kessler, S; Odera, I; Okoth, V; Bawcom, C; Gautney, B; Khamadi, S; Clark, K; Goggin, K

    2015-12-01

    Guided by the RE-AIM model, we describe preliminary data and lessons learned from multiple serial implementations of an eHealth intervention to improve early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV in Kenya. We describe the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the HITSystem, an eHealth intervention that links key stakeholders to improve retention and outcomes in EID. Our target community includes mother-infant pairs utilizing EID services and government health care providers and lab personnel. We also explore our own role as program and research personnel supporting the dissemination and scale up of the HITSystem in Kenya. Key findings illustrate the importance of continual adaptation of the HITSystem interface to accommodate varied stakeholders' workflows in different settings. Surprisingly, technology capacity and internet connectivity posed minimal short-term challenges. Early and sustained ownership of the HITSystem among stakeholders proved critical to reach, effectiveness and successful adoption, implementation and maintenance. Preliminary data support the ability of the HITSystem to improve EID outcomes in Kenya. Strong and sustained collaborations with stakeholders improve the quality and reach of eHealth public health interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  1. Innovations in science education: infusing social emotional principles into early STEM learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Gabitova, Nuria; Gupta, Anuradha; Wood, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    We report on the development of an after-school and summer-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum infused with the arts and social emotional learning content (STEAM SEL). Its design was motivated by theory and research that suggest that STEM education is well-suited for teaching empathy and other emotion-related skills. In this paper, we describe the activities associated with the development and design of the program and the curriculum. We provide expert-ratings of the STEAM and social emotional elements of the program and present instructor and participant feedback about the program's content and its delivery. Our results revealed that infusing the arts and social emotional learning content into science education created a holistic STEM-related curriculum that holds potential for enhancing young children's interest in and appreciation for science and its applications. The data also suggested that the program was well-developed and, generally well-executed. However, experts rated the STEAM elements of the program more positively than the SEL elements, especially with regard to sequencing of lessons and integration among the lessons and hands-on activities, indicating that program revisions are warranted.

  2. Gestational methylazoxymethanol exposure leads to NMDAR dysfunction in hippocampus during early development and lasting deficits in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Melissa A; Adelman, Alicia E; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has long been associated with learning and memory processes as well as diseased states, particularly in schizophrenia (SZ). Additionally, SZ is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairments often preceding the onset of psychosis. However, the cause of these cognitive deficits and what initiates the pathological process is unknown. Growing evidence has implicated the glutamate system and, in particular, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of SZ. Yet, the vast majority of SZ-related research has focused on NMDAR function in adults leaving the role of NMDARs during development uncharacterized. We used the prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM, E17) exposure model to determine the alterations of NMDAR protein levels and function, as well as associated cognitive deficits during development. We found that MAM-exposed animals have significantly altered NMDAR protein levels and function in the juvenile and adolescent hippocampus. Furthermore, these changes are associated with learning and memory deficits in the Morris Water Maze. Thus, in the prenatal MAM-exposure SZ model, NMDAR expression and function is altered during the critical period of hippocampal development. These changes may be involved in disease initiation and cognitive impairment in the early stage of SZ.

  3. Does linguistic input play the same role in language learning for children with and without early brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Levine, Susan C; Fisher, Joan A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Children with unilateral pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI) show remarkable plasticity for language learning. Previous work highlights the important role that lesion characteristics play in explaining individual variation in plasticity in the language development of children with BI. The current study examines whether the linguistic input that children with BI receive from their caregivers also contributes to this early plasticity, and whether linguistic input plays a similar role in children with BI as it does in typically developing (TD) children. Growth in vocabulary and syntactic production is modeled for 80 children (53 TD, 27 BI) between 14 and 46 months. Findings indicate that caregiver input is an equally potent predictor of vocabulary growth in children with BI and in TD children. In contrast, input is a more potent predictor of syntactic growth for children with BI than for TD children. Controlling for input, lesion characteristics (lesion size, type, seizure history) also affect the language trajectories of children with BI. Thus, findings illustrate how both variability in the environment (linguistic input) and variability in the organism (lesion characteristics) work together to contribute to plasticity in language learning.

  4. The Meaning and the Role of Learning Support for Siblings in Early Childhood Educator Training: from the Prospect of Child with Special Needs

    OpenAIRE

    吉野, 真弓; Yoshino, Mayumi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning and the role of learning support for siblings in early childhood educator training. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire. From the results of the survey, the students didnʼt know the siblingsʼ problems. The students thought of very necessary for learning support for siblings. The learning about siblingsʼ support through group work was share each otherʼs thoughts and get new insights. It became clear of the meaning and the role of ...

  5. What drives slow wave activity during early non-REM sleep: Learning during prior wake or effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Li

    Full Text Available What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA, i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand. Participants executed out-and-back movements to a target using a pen-like cursor with their dominant hand while the target and cursor position were displayed on a screen. They trained on three different conditions on separate nights, differing in the amount and degree of rotation between the actual hand movement direction and displayed cursor movement direction. In the no-rotation (NR condition, there was no rotation. In the single rotation (SR condition, the amount of rotation remained the same throughout, and performance improved both across pre-sleep training and after sleep, i.e. overnight consolidation occurred; in the random rotation (RR condition, the amount of rotation varied randomly from trial to trial, and no overnight consolidation occurred; SR and RR were cognitively demanding. The average EEG power density of SWA for the first 30 min. of non-rapid eye movement sleep after training was computed. Both SR and RR elicited increase in SWA in the parietal region; furthermore, the topographic distribution of SWA in each was remarkably similar. No correlation was found between the overnight performance improvement on SR and the SWA change in the parietal region on measures of learning. Our results argue that regulation of SWA in early sleep is associated with high levels of cognitive effort during prior wakefulness, and not just overnight consolidation.

  6. Early detection of lung cancer from CT images: nodule segmentation and classification using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Bhatt, Jignesh S.; Joshi, Manjunath V.

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most abundant causes of the cancerous deaths worldwide. It has low survival rate mainly due to the late diagnosis. With the hardware advancements in computed tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to capture the high resolution images of lung region. However, it needs to be augmented by efficient algorithms to detect the lung cancer in the earlier stages using the acquired CT images. To this end, we propose a two-step algorithm for early detection of lung cancer. Given the CT image, we first extract the patch from the center location of the nodule and segment the lung nodule region. We propose to use Otsu method followed by morphological operations for the segmentation. This step enables accurate segmentation due to the use of data-driven threshold. Unlike other methods, we perform the segmentation without using the complete contour information of the nodule. In the second step, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used for the better classification (malignant or benign) of the nodule present in the segmented patch. Accurate segmentation of even a tiny nodule followed by better classification using deep CNN enables the early detection of lung cancer. Experiments have been conducted using 6306 CT images of LIDC-IDRI database. We achieved the test accuracy of 84.13%, with the sensitivity and specificity of 91.69% and 73.16%, respectively, clearly outperforming the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  7. The decline of uroscopy in early modern learned medicine (1500-1650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    From the early sixteenth century, uroscopy lost much of the great appeal it had possessed among medieval physicians. Once valued as an outstanding diagnostic tool which ensured authority and fame, it became an object of massive criticism if not derision. As this paper shows, growing awareness of theoretical inconsistencies, the new medical empiricism and humanistic opposition against Arabic and medieval predecessors can explain this drastic revaluation only in part. Uroscopy, it is argued here, came to be perceived above all as a threat to the physicians' professional authority. Faced with persistent demands that they diagnose diseases primarily if not exclusively from urine, they were left with an awkward choice. They risked making fools of themselves by blatant misdiagnosis, but if they rejected the patients' demands people would deem them incapable of a task which many of their less educated competitors were perfectly happy to perform. In the end, in spite of the physicians' massive campaign against it, uroscopy remained very much alive. On the highly competitive early modern medical market patient power had once more prevailed.

  8. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  9. Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: A Machine Learning application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatzer-Levy, I. R.; Karstoft, K. I.; Statnikov, A.

    2014-01-01

    -traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is plausible given the disorder's salient onset and the abundance of putative biological and clinical risk indicators. This work evaluates the ability of Machine Learning (ML) forecasting approaches to identify and integrate a panel of unique predictive characteristics...... algorithm identified a set of predictors that rendered all others redundant. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as well as other ML classification algorithms were used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy of i) ML selected features, ii) all available features without selection, and iii) Acute Stress Disorder......). The feature selection algorithm identified 16 predictors, present in >= 95% cross-validation trials. The accuracy of predicting non-remitting PTSD from that set (AUC = .77) did not differ from predicting from all available information (AUC = .78). Predicting from ASD symptoms was not better then chance (AUC...

  10. Assessing self-regulated learning in early childhood education: Difficulties, needs, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Lozano Díaz, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    Self-regulated learning is one of the main processes being investigated today within developmental and educational psychology; however, the research has come up against a number of challenges for which no satisfactory response has been found, and which are impeding progress in the field. These challenges are two-fold: one part is methodological, as the process of self-regulation must be evaluated at the very moment in which it occurs, and the other part is developmental, as these processes have not been fully assessed in children under the age of 6 years. This article gives a broad overview of these challenges, as well as prospects for future solutions which are beginning to take shape.

  11. Early detection of incipient faults in power plants using accelerated neural network learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Jayakumar, M.; Atiya, A.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of power plant automation is the development of computer systems able to detect and isolate incipient (slowly developing) faults at the earliest possible stages of their occurrence. In this paper, the development and testing of such a fault detection scheme is presented based on recognition of sensor signatures during various failure modes. An accelerated learning algorithm, namely adaptive backpropagation (ABP), has been developed that allows the training of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network to a high degree of accuracy, with an order of magnitude improvement in convergence speed. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been successfully trained using the ABP algorithm, and it has been extensively tested with simulated data to detect and classify incipient faults of various types and severity and in the presence of varying sensor noise levels

  12. Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu; Ono, Yuriko

    2006-01-01

    The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

  13. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2017-05-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  14. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  15. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 thirty-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts.

  16. Como los padres ocupados pueden ayudar a sus hijos a aprender y desarrollarse (How Busy Parents Can Help Their Children Learn and Develop). Early Childhood Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy

    Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…

  17. Effects of Emotional Needs on Participation of Children Aged 4-6 with Learning Disabilities in Early Childhood Centers in Starehe Division, Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Odundo, Paul Amolo; Ngaruiya, Boniface

    2015-01-01

    During early childhood, the foundations for emotional, social and spiritual well being of children with learning disabilities (CWLD) are laid. The CWLD emotional well being is influenced by all the experiences they go through. It is essential to provide warm, trusting relationships, predictable and safe environment, affirmation and respect for all…

  18. The Mathematical Development Beliefs Survey: Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about the Learning and Teaching of Early Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mathematical Development Beliefs Survey was developed to measure early childhood teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning in the preschool classroom. This instrument was designed to measure beliefs concerning (a) age-appropriateness of mathematics instruction, (b) classroom locus of generation of mathematical knowledge…

  19. The Impacts of Workplace Advantage, Learning Intentions, and Technology Skills on the Use of Information Technology-Assisted Instruction by Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Si

    2015-01-01

    The practical value and usefulness of IT-assisted instruction for Taiwanese preschool children are popular topics in academic and practical settings. The purpose of this study was to survey early childhood pre-service teachers' attitudes regarding the workplace advantage of IT-related pedagogy and their learning intentions regarding IT-based…

  20. New Concepts of Play and the Problem of Technology, Digital Media and Popular-Culture Integration with Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Technology, digital media and popular culture form an important aspect of young children's life-worlds in contemporary post-industrial societies. A problem for early childhood educators is how to most effectively integrate these aspects of children's life-worlds into the provision of play-based learning. Traditionally, research has considered…

  1. Family Support or School Readiness? Contrasting Models of Public Spending on Children's Early Care and Learning. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, public policy and expenditure intended to improve the prospects of children from low-income families have focused on better preparing children for school through Head Start and universal pre-K. This school readiness approach differs from the dominant model of public support for early care and learning in Northern Europe,…

  2. Global technology learning and national policy-An incentive scheme for governments to assume the high cost of early deployment exemplified by Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that technology learning may be both a barrier and an incentive for technology change in the national energy system. The possibility to realize an ambitious global emission reduction scenario is enhanced by coordinated action between countries in national policy implementation. An indicator for coordinated action is suggested. Targeted measures to increase deployment of nascent energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in a small open economy like Norway are examined. The measures are evaluated against a set of baselines with different levels of spillover of technology learning from the global market. It is found that implementation of technology subsidies increase the national contribution to early deployment independent of the level of spillover. In a special case with no spillover for offshore floating wind power and endogenous technology learning substantial subsidy or a learning rate of 20% is required. Combining the high learning rate and a national subsidy increases the contribution to early deployment. Enhanced building code on the other hand may reduce Norway's contribution to early deployment, and thus the realization of a global emission reduction scenario, unless sufficient electricity export capacity is assured.

  3. Numerical Capacities as Domain-Specific Predictors beyond Early Mathematics Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3rd and 4th grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively “start-up” tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school. PMID:24255710

  4. Numerical capacities as domain-specific predictors beyond early mathematics learning: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; González-Alemañy, Eduardo; León, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3(rd) and 4(th) grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively "start-up" tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school.

  5. Teacher Perceptions about the Importance of Parental Involvement for Included Students with Learning Disabilities in New York Metropolitan Area Orthodox Yeshivas and Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Goldie Eichorn

    2010-01-01

    The population of students attending Jewish day schools includes an increasing number of students with exceptional needs. How Jewish schools meet the needs of these students is an important question. Inclusive education is a service model predicated on legal and philosophical mores as well as pedagogical and psychological findings. The quality of…

  6. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Caton

    Full Text Available Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332 aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy. Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40% who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23% since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

  7. Inquiry in early years science teaching and learning: Curriculum design and the scientific story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Barbara Alexander

    2001-07-01

    Inquiry in school science, as conceived by the authors of the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes K--12, is dependent upon four areas of skills. These are the skills of initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communication and teamwork that map onto what Hodson calls the five phases of scientific inquiry in school science: initiation, design and planning, performance, interpretation, and reporting and communicating. This study looked at initiation in a multiage (Grades 1--3) classroom, and the curriculum, design tools, and inquiry acts believed to be necessary precursors of design and planning phases whether the inquiry in which young children engage is archival or laboratory investigation. The curriculum was designed to build upon children's everyday biological knowledge and through a series of carefully organized lessons to help them to begin to build scientifically valid conceptual models in the area of animal life cycles. The lessons began with what is called benchmark-invention after the historical work of Robert Karplus and the contemporary work of Earl Hunt and Jim Minstrell. The introduction of a biological concept was followed by a series of exploration activities in which children were encouraged to apply the concept invented in the benchmark lesson. Enlargement followed. This was the instructional phase in which children were helped to establish scientifically valid relationships between the invented concept and other biological concepts. The pre-instruction and post-instruction interview data suggest that the enacted curriculum and sequence in which the biological knowledge was presented helped the nineteen children in the study to recognize the connections and regularities within the life cycles of the major groupings of animals, and to begin to build scientific biological conceptual models. It is, however, argued that everyday biology, in the form of the person analogy, acts as an obstacle to

  8. Experience during early adulthood shapes the learning capacities and the number of synaptic boutons in the mushroom bodies of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabirol, Amélie; Brooks, Rufus; Groh, Claudia; Barron, Andrew B; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an impoverished environment lacking some of the sensory and social interactions present in the hive. In parallel, the overall number of synaptic boutons increased within the MB olfactory neuropil, whose volume remained unaffected. This suggests that experience of the rich in-hive environment promotes MB maturation and the development of MB-dependent learning capacities. © 2017 Cabirol et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Learning for supplying as a motive to be the early adopter of a new energy technology: A study on the adoption of stationary fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, A.Y.-J.; Liu, R.-H.

    2008-01-01

    By early adopting a new technology, firms may attempt to improve their production efficiency and become further involved in the supply chain of the technology. These two different advantages derived from learning a new technology are identified as motives for adopting the technology. When learning for supplying (LFS) (becoming involved in the supply chain of the new technology) highlighted in this paper is significant enough, potential adopters may still be willing to adopt the new technology, even though learning for using (LFU) (increasing current production efficiency) is not significant. This paper identifies LFS as a motive for early adopters of the new technology. Firms may adopt a new technology for the purpose of learning how to become the suppliers of the relevant parts, materials, or equipment for the new technology. By investigating the adoption decision of a new energy technology (namely, phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)), our arguments are supported by both observation of early adopters' attributes and a survey of Taiwanese firms' willingness to adopt new technology

  10. A longitudinal study on predictors of early calculation development among young children at risk for learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first grade to third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at four time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modeling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: epidemiological characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mnzava, Abraham; Mohareb, Emad; Zayed, Alia; Al Kohlani, Abdulhakeem; Thabet, Ahmed A K; El Bushra, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of "dengue-like" acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. National scale-up of integrated community case management in rural Ethiopia: implementation and early lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Although under-five mortality in Ethiopia has decreased 67% in the past two decades, many, children still die from preventable or treatable conditions, mainly pneumonia, newborn problems, diarrhea, malaria and malnutrition. Most of these deaths can be avoided with timely and appropriate care, but access to and use of treatment remains inadequate. Community health workers, appropriately trained, supervised, and supplied with essen- tial equipment and medicines, can deliver case management or referral to most sick children. In 2010, Ethiopia added pneumonia to diarrhea, malaria and severe acute malnutrition, targeted for treatment in the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy. This article describes the national scale-up of iCCM implementation and early lessons learned. We reviewed data related to iCCM program inputs and processes from reports, minutes, and related documents from January 2010 through July 2013. We describe introduction and scale-up through eight health system components. The government and partners trained and supplied 27,116 of the total 32,000 Health Extension Workers and mentored 80% of them to deliver iCCM services to over one million children. The government led a strong-iCCM partnership that attracted development partners in implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and research. Service utilization and weak supply chain remain-major challenges. Strong MOH leadership, policy support, and national partnerships helped successful national iCCM scale-up and should help settle remaining challenges.

  13. Mullen scales of early learning: the utility in assessing children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas G; King, Tricia Z; Spencer, Katherine S

    2013-01-01

    A group of 47 patients diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders were compared to 47 age-, gender-, and racially matched typically developing children to examine the frequency of impairment across domains of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). The MSEL is a comprehensive measure of cognitive functioning designed to assess infants and preschool children between the ages of birth to 68 months. In the neurodevelopmental group, the sample was composed of children 2 to 4 years of age who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 19), cerebral palsy (CP; n = 14), and epilepsy (EPI; n = 14). A sample of 47 matched controls, taken from the normative sample of the MSEL, was used as a comparison group. Each one of the clinical groups comprising the neurodevelopmental sample demonstrated statistically significant delays across domains relative to the respective matched control group (p Children failed to demonstrate a "signature" profile for a diagnosis of ASD, CP, or EPI. The clinical sensitivity of the MSEL and the need for obtaining specific intervention services for children diagnosed with these conditions are presented. Finally, these results are discussed within the context of the clinical sensitivity of the MSEL in working with these clinical populations.

  14. Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) through a professional development programme for early childhood educators to improve professional practice and child outcomes in the year before formal schooling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Howard, Steven J; Siraj, Iram; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Kingston, Denise; de Rosnay, Marc; Duursma, Elisabeth; Luu, Betty

    2016-12-19

    A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning. Hence, we sought to investigate the extent to which evidence-based professional development (PD) - focussed on promoting sustained shared thinking through quality interactions - could improve the quality of ECEC and, as a consequence, child outcomes. The Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial for evaluating the benefits of a professional development (PD) programme for early childhood educators, compared with no extra PD. Ninety long-day care and preschool centres in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure representation across National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, location, centre type and socioeconomic areas. Participating centres will be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by centre type and NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (45 centres) receiving a PD intervention or (2) a control group (45 centres) that continues engaging in typical classroom practice. Randomisation to these groups will occur after the collection of baseline environmental quality ratings. Primary outcomes, at the child level, will be two measures of language development: verbal comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be measures of early numeracy, social development and self-regulation. Secondary outcomes at the ECEC room level will be measures of environmental quality derived from full

  15. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  16. Effect of Work-Based Learning Approach Genius Scientific Judging of the Physics Learning Achievement of Knowledge Early SMPN 13 Balikpapan in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliyono Suliyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah terhadap Prestasi Belajar Fisika Ditinjau dari  Pengetahuan Awal Siswa SMPN 13 Balikpapan Tahun 2012 Abstract: student mastery of the concepts of physics would be better if teachers implement instructional strategies that can make students more active and motivated, but still maintain a constructivist. Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius (GLBKI is believed to be able to answer the demands of the development of education and facilitate students in learning physics concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement studying the Work-Based Learning Approach Genius Scientific and conventional learning. GLBKI approach to the treatment of experimental classes randomly selected and control classes conducted conventional learning. Learning achievement data collected by physics learning achievement tests. Results of the study are:  (1 there is a significant difference between student achievement through conventional learning and work-based learning approach scientific genius, (2 students who studied with GLBKI approach has physics learning achievement higher than the students who studied with conventional learning, ( 3 learning by using the Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius can deliver improved student achievement is higher than the students who studied with conventional learning. Key words: work-based learning strategies genius of scientific, academic achievement, prior knowledge Abstrak: Penguasaan siswa terhadap konsep-konsep fisika akan lebih baik apabila pendidik menerap-kan strategi pembelajaran yang dapat membuat siswa lebih aktif dan termotivasi, namun tetap memper-tahankan konstruktivis. Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah (GLBKI diyakini mampu menjawab tuntutan perkembangan pendidikan dan mempermudah siswa dalam mempelajari konsep-konsep fisika. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji  prestasi belajar siswa yang belajar

  17. Technical Assistance and Changes in Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives Project, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappone, Alethea; Smith, Teresa M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Blaser, Casey; Yaroch, Amy L

    2018-04-26

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives Project (ECELC) aims to improve best practices in early care and education (ECE) programs in topic areas of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (NAP SACC). Technical assistance is a component of the ECELC, yet its effect on outcomes is unclear. Beyond dose and duration of technical assistance, limited research exists on characteristics of technical assistance that contribute to outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify and describe technical assistance characteristics and explore associations with NAP SACC outcomes. We collected data from 10 collaboratives comprising 84 ECE programs in 2 states in 2015-2016. The objective of technical assistance was to support programs in improving best practices. Technical assistance was provided to programs via on-site, telephone, or email and was tailored to program needs. We used a mixed-methods design to examine associations between technical assistance and NAP SACC outcomes. We used multiple regression analysis to assess quantitative data and qualitative comparative analysis to determine necessary and sufficient technical assistance conditions supporting NAP SACC outcomes. We also conducted a document review to describe technical assistance that referred conditions identified by the qualitative comparative analysis. Regression analyses detected an inverse relationship between changes in NAP SACC scores and hours of technical assistance. No clear pattern emerged in the qualitative comparative analysis, leaving no necessary and sufficient conditions. However, the qualitative comparative analysis identified feedback as a potentially important component of technical assistance, whereas resource sharing and frequent email were characteristics that seemed to reduce the likelihood of improved outcomes. Email and resource sharing were considered primarily general information rather than tailored technical assistance. Technical

  18. Technical Assistance and Changes in Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives Project, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Blaser, Casey; Yaroch, Amy L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives Project (ECELC) aims to improve best practices in early care and education (ECE) programs in topic areas of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (NAP SACC). Technical assistance is a component of the ECELC, yet its effect on outcomes is unclear. Beyond dose and duration of technical assistance, limited research exists on characteristics of technical assistance that contribute to outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify and describe technical assistance characteristics and explore associations with NAP SACC outcomes. Intervention Approach We collected data from 10 collaboratives comprising 84 ECE programs in 2 states in 2015–2016. The objective of technical assistance was to support programs in improving best practices. Technical assistance was provided to programs via on-site, telephone, or email and was tailored to program needs. Evaluation Methods We used a mixed-methods design to examine associations between technical assistance and NAP SACC outcomes. We used multiple regression analysis to assess quantitative data and qualitative comparative analysis to determine necessary and sufficient technical assistance conditions supporting NAP SACC outcomes. We also conducted a document review to describe technical assistance that referred conditions identified by the qualitative comparative analysis. Results Regression analyses detected an inverse relationship between changes in NAP SACC scores and hours of technical assistance. No clear pattern emerged in the qualitative comparative analysis, leaving no necessary and sufficient conditions. However, the qualitative comparative analysis identified feedback as a potentially important component of technical assistance, whereas resource sharing and frequent email were characteristics that seemed to reduce the likelihood of improved outcomes. Email and resource sharing were considered primarily

  19. Nonverbal cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: relationship between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and later performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Oghalai, John S; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D

    2014-02-01

    Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R (2) = .52, β = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.

  20. Supporting Children with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    John k. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...

  1. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  2. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  3. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K; Barker, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers.

  4. Learning to Be Gendered: Gender Socialization in Early Adolescence Among Urban Poor in Delhi, India, and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sharmistha; Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti for coding and thematic analysis. Boys and girls growing up in the same community were directed onto different pathways during their transition from early to late adolescence. Adolescents and parents in both sites identified mothers as the primary actor, socializing adolescents into how to dress and behave and what gender roles to play, although fathers were also mentioned as influential. Opposite-sex interactions were restricted, and violations enforced by physical violence. In Delhi, gender roles and mobility were more strictly enforced for girls than boys. Restrictions on opposite-sex interactions were rigid for both boys and girls in Delhi and Shanghai. Sanctions, including beating, for violating norms about boy-girl relationships were more punitive than those related to dress and demeanor, especially in Delhi. Education and career expectations were notably more equitable in Shanghai. Parents teach their children to adhere to inequitable gender norms in both Delhi and Shanghai. However, education and career expectations for boys and girls in the two sites differed. Although gender norms varied by site according to the particular cultural and historical context, similar patterns of gender inequity reflect the underlying patriarchal system in both settings. The tendency of parents to pass on the norms they grew up with is evident, yet these results illustrate the social construction of gender through children

  5. [Long-term effect of a cognitive intervention on learning and participation in a significant leisure activity in early dementia of Alzheimer type: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Bier, Nathalie; Audet, Thérèse; Gagnon, Lise

    2009-06-01

    Decreased ability to accomplish significant leisure activities often occurs in early stages of dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). As a long term effect, it may eventually affect the quality of life of the patient as well as that of the caregiver's. In a previous study, a woman with early DAT (77 years old, MMSE: 24/30) improved her participation in 2 leisure activities (listening to music and praying in a group) following the learning of a few tasks (e.g. using a radio cassette, remembering the significance of an pre-programmed ring) as a result of a cognitive intervention. The present study presents the long term effect of this intervention on the retention of the learned tasks and on spontaneous participation in both leisure activities of her daily living. Measures of tasks' learning and spontaneous participation in activities have been obtained through direct observation (ex: ability to use the tasks learned without assistance) and telephone conversations with the caregiver. The measures were taken 9 to 15 months post-intervention. Nine months after the end of the intervention, the participant could no longer use the radio cassette, but was able to remember the significance of the pre-programmed ring. Similarly, she stopped listening to music, but still attended her prayer group. The intervention appears to maintain participation in a leisure activity for several months in a patient with early DAT, in spite of expected functional decline. This functional impact can be achieved through retention of specific learned tasks as well as by strong external cues (daily pre-programmed ring), and can increase the quality of life for patients with DAT.

  6. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  8. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  9. Design of educational and ICT conditions to integrate differences in learning: Contextual learning theory and a first transformation step in early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Educational differentiation and ICT can be designed to better recognize and integrate learning differences across students particularly by assisting instructional management and the self-regulation of students. A conceptual framework for such practice is elaborated here. First, learning as an

  10. Learning strategy refinement reverses early sensory cortical map expansion but not behavior: Support for a theory of directed cortical substrates of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-12-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS- tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was "bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal" ("TOTE"). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error ("iTOTE"). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of involved brain

  11. LEARNING STRATEGY REFINEMENT REVERSES EARLY SENSORY CORTICAL MAP EXPANSION BUT NOT BEHAVIOR: SUPPORT FOR A THEORY OF DIRECTED CORTICAL SUBSTRATES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS− tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was “bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal” (“TOTE”). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error (“iTOTE”). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of

  12. The ampakine, Org 26576, bolsters early spatial reference learning and retrieval in the Morris water maze: a subchronic, dose-ranging study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Eugene; Brand, Linda; Shahid, Mohammed; Harvey, Brian H

    2009-10-01

    Ampakines have shown beneficial effects on cognition in selected animal models of learning. However, their ability to modify long-term spatial memory tasks has not been studied yet. This would lend credence to their possible value in treating disorders of cognition. We evaluated the actions of subchronic Org 26576 administration on spatial reference memory performance in the 5-day Morris water maze task in male Sprague-Dawley rats, at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg twice daily through intraperitoneal injection over 12 days. Org 26576 exerted a dose and time-dependent effect on spatial learning, with dosages of 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly enhancing acquisition on day 1. Globally, escape latency decreased significantly as the training days progressed in the saline and Org 26576-treated groups, indicating that significant and equal learning had taken place over the learning period. However, at the end of the learning period, all doses of Org 26576 significantly improved spatial memory storage/retrieval without confounding effects in the cued version of the task. Org 26576 offers early phase spatial memory benefits in rats, but particularly enhances search accuracy during reference memory retrieval. These results support its possible utility in treating disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive performance.

  13. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  14. Localized thin-section CT with radiomics feature extraction and machine learning to classify early-detected pulmonary nodules from lung cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Wang, Chih-Wei; Pan, Kuang-Tse; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Chen-Te

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer screening aims to detect small pulmonary nodules and decrease the mortality rate of those affected. However, studies from large-scale clinical trials of lung cancer screening have shown that the false-positive rate is high and positive predictive value is low. To address these problems, a technical approach is greatly needed for accurate malignancy differentiation among these early-detected nodules. We studied the clinical feasibility of an additional protocol of localized thin-section CT for further assessment on recalled patients from lung cancer screening tests. Our approach of localized thin-section CT was integrated with radiomics features extraction and machine learning classification which was supervised by pathological diagnosis. Localized thin-section CT images of 122 nodules were retrospectively reviewed and 374 radiomics features were extracted. In this study, 48 nodules were benign and 74 malignant. There were nine patients with multiple nodules and four with synchronous multiple malignant nodules. Different machine learning classifiers with a stratified ten-fold cross-validation were used and repeated 100 times to evaluate classification accuracy. Of the image features extracted from the thin-section CT images, 238 (64%) were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant nodules. These useful features include CT density (p  =  0.002 518), sigma (p  =  0.002 781), uniformity (p  =  0.032 41), and entropy (p  =  0.006 685). The highest classification accuracy was 79% by the logistic classifier. The performance metrics of this logistic classification model was 0.80 for the positive predictive value, 0.36 for the false-positive rate, and 0.80 for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our approach of direct risk classification supervised by the pathological diagnosis with localized thin-section CT and radiomics feature extraction may support clinical physicians in determining

  15. Arts Education Academics' Perceptions of eLearning & Teaching in Australian Early Childhood and Primary ITE Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William J.; Hunter, Mary Ann; Thomas, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an investigation of eLearning & teaching in Arts education in Australian Initial Teacher Education (ITE) degrees. This project used survey and interviews to collect data from academics in 16 universities in 5 Australian states regarding their experiences of eLearning and Arts education. A rigorous and…

  16. [Learning during the early clinical years takes more than good study habits: Perceptions of students and teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Denisse; Leiva, Isabel; Calderón, Maribel; Tomicic, Alemka; Padilla, Oslando; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Bitran, Marcela

    2015-11-01

    Teaching methods of the undergraduate medical curriculum change considerably from the first years to clinical training. Clinical learning occurs in complex and varied scenarios while caring for patients. Students have to adapt their learning approaches and strategies to be able to integrate theory and clinical practice and become experiential learners. To identify the strategies used by medical students to learn during the initial clinical years, as reported by students themselves and by their clinical tutors. We performed eight focus group discussions with 54 students enrolled in years three to six and we interviewed eight clinical tutors. Both focus group discussions and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. Four main themes were identified in the discourse of both students and tutors: Strategies oriented to theoretical learning, strategies oriented to experiential learning, strategies for integrating theory and practice and strategies oriented to evaluation. The mentioning of individual differences was present across the reports of both students and tutors. Students use a rich variety of strategies to face the challenges of clinical learning. Both students and tutors recognize that the learning approaches and strategies vary according the nature of the task and individual differences. The responses of students bring particular knowledge of the approaches used for the theoretical and practical integration and delve into the social dimension of learning.

  17. A 4-year non-randomized comparative phase-IV study of early rheumatoid arthritis: integrative anthroposophic medicine for patients with preference against DMARDs versus conventional therapy including DMARDs for patients without preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamre HJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harald J Hamre,1 Van N Pham,2 Christian Kern,3 Rolf Rau,4 Jörn Klasen,3 Ute Schendel,5 Lars Gerlach,6 Attyla Drabik,2 Ludger Simon6,† 1Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology at the Witten/Herdecke University, Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Statistics in Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Department of Integrative Medicine, Asklepios Westklinikum, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of Rheumatology, Evangelisches Fachkrankenhaus Ratingen, Ratingen, Germany; 5Department of Rheumatology, m&i-Fachklinik Bad Pyrmont, Bad Pyrmont, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Filderklinik, Filderstadt, Germany †Dr Ludger Simon passed away on June 10, 2016 Background: While disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs are a mainstay of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA, some patients with early RA refuse DMARDs. In anthroposophic medicine (AM, a treatment strategy for early RA without DMARDs has been developed. Preliminary data suggest that RA symptoms and inflammatory markers can be reduced under AM, without DMARDs. Patients and methods: Two hundred and fifty-one self-selected patients aged 16–70 years, starting treatment for RA of <3 years duration, without prior DMARD therapy, participated in a prospective, non-randomized, comparative Phase IV study. C-patients were treated in clinics offering conventional therapy including DMARDs, while A-patients had chosen treatment in anthroposophic clinics, without DMARDs. Both groups received corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Primary outcomes were intensity of RA symptoms measured by self-rating on visual analog scales, C-reactive protein, radiological progression, study withdrawals, serious adverse events (SAE, and adverse drug reactions in months 0–48. Results: The groups were similar in most baseline characteristics, while A-patients had longer disease duration (mean 15.1 vs 10.8 months, p<0

  18. Learning curve of sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer at the Teaching Hospital 'Hospital das Clinicas' in Belo Horizonte, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, L.A.H.; Campos, T.P.R.; Silva, S.Z.C.; Siqueira, C.F.; Lima, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    The research of the sentinel lymph node in early breast cancer, an already worldwide established method, was standardized at the teaching hospital 'Hospital das Clinicas' in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil). This standardization was carried out from December 2000 through December 2002, in which 39 patients were included in a learning curve and method validation. The applied methodology is based on the combination of a lymphoscintillography and the blue stain. A periareolar colloid 99m Tc injection was given 24 hours before the surgery. The blue dye was injected in the peritumoral region during the surgery. The sentinel lymph node was identified by the blue color pattern of the lymph node and by the use of a portable gamma probe detector. Radioactive contamination was evaluated before, during and after the surgery. The measurement of the radioactivity of the breast area was taken by using a GM detector and an ionization chamber on a humid piece of gauze (passed on the breast area), from which the radioactivity was recorded as well as the gloves used during the surgery, and the gauzes with contaminated blood. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was found to be 95%, there was a false negative rate of 4,8% and a predictive negative value (PNV) of 94%. The identification figures, the predictive negative value and the false negative rate were similar to the figures found in technical literature. The technique of the biopsy of the sentinel lymph node (BSL) is the method chosen for staging patients with invasive breast cancer and with clinically negative results for the armpit. The combined method using radio-colloid and the stain is the most indicated. There is a minimum radio isotopic contamination and there is scarcely any danger for the patient or the medical staff involved in the procedure. (author)

  19. Developing Cultural Humility through Experiential Learning: How Home Visits Transform Early Childhood Preservice Educators' Attitudes for Engaging Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Mehta, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Research calls for teacher education to prepare early childhood educators for the needs of diverse and marginalized young children and their families in the U.S. With an increasing cultural divide between teachers and students, some early childhood educators may demonstrate limited understanding for how diverse cultural, linguistic, racial, and…

  20. Sustainable Professional Learning for Early Childhood Educators: Lessons from an Australia-Wide Mental Health Promotion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Murray-Harvey, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    New policy initiatives, such as those concerned with promoting young children's positive mental health, highlight the need for good quality professional education in the early childhood education and care sector. However, although a wealth of literature exists from the school sector, little is known about professional education in early childhood…

  1. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early age-dependent impairments of context-dependent extinction learning, object recognition, and object-place learning occur in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescholleck, Valentina; Emma André, Marion Agnès; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging. Young (7-8 week old) and older (7-8 month old) Wistar rats were used. For the extinction study, animals learned that a particular floor context indicated that they should turn into one specific arm (e.g., left) to receive a food reward. On the day after reaching the learning criterion of 80% correct choices, the floor context was changed, no reward was given and animals were expected to extinguish the learned response. Both, young and older rats managed this first extinction trial in the new context with older rats showing a faster extinction performance. One day later, animals were returned to the T-maze with the original floor context and renewal effects were assessed. In this case, only young but not older rats showed the expected renewal effect (lower extinction ratio as compared to the day before). To assess general memory abilities, animals were tested in the standard object recognition and object-place memory tasks. Evaluations were made at 5 min, 1 h and 7 day intervals. Object recognition memory was poor at short-term and intermediate time-points in older but not young rats. Object-place memory performance was unaffected at 5 min, but impaired at 1 h in older but not young rats. Both groups were impaired at 7 days. These findings support that not only aspects of general memory, but also context-dependent extinction learning, are affected by moderate aging. This may reflect less flexibility in

  3. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  4. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  5. The KhoeSan Early Learning Center Pilot Project: Negotiating Power and Possibility in a South African Institute of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wet, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    As we search for a new paradigm in post-apartheid South Africa, the knowledge base and worldview of the KhoeSan first Indigenous peoples is largely missing. The South African government has established various mechanisms as agents for social change. Institutions of higher learning have implemented transformation programs. KhoeSan peoples, however,…

  6. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  7. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a hospital compared to a nursing home. We carried out a qualitative and a quantitative survey by administering questionnaires about expectations, impressive experiences and learning activities within two cohorts of first-year medical students before and after a 4-week nursing attachment. Despite different expectations, students reported similar experiences and learning activities for the nursing home and the hospital. Most impressive events were related to patient care, being a trainee, or professional identities being challenged. Students in nursing homes most often referred to their own relationships with patients. Students expressed different emotions, and frequently experienced positive and negative emotions at the same time. Rewarding experiences (not only difficult or stressful events) do matter for medical professional development. Students need to learn how to deal with and feel strengthened by the emotions evoked during clinical experiences, which should be supported by educators. The nursing home and the hospital seem to be equally suited as learning environments.

  8. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  9. A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five-Year-Olds? An Evaluation of the English Early Learning "Numbers" Goal in the Light of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to evaluate the English Early Years Foundation Stage Goal for Numbers, in relation to research evidence. The Goal, which sets out to provide "a good foundation in mathematics", has greater breadth of content and higher levels of difficulty than previous versions. Research suggests that the additional expectations…

  10. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  11. Brief periods of NREM sleep do not promote early offline gains but subsequent on-task performance in motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jonathan G; Piosczyk, Hannah; Holz, Johannes; Landmann, Nina; Deschler, Christoph; Frase, Lukas; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Sterr, Annette; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Nissen, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Sleep modulates motor learning, but its detailed impact on performance curves remains to be fully characterized. This study aimed to further determine the impact of brief daytime periods of NREM sleep on 'offline' (task discontinuation after initial training) and 'on-task' (performance within the test session) changes in motor skill performance (finger tapping task). In a mixed design (combined parallel group and repeated measures) sleep laboratory study (n=17 'active' wake vs. sleep, n=19 'passive' wake vs. sleep), performance curves were assessed prior to and after a 90min period containing either sleep, active or passive wakefulness. We observed a highly significant, but state- (that is, sleep/wake)-independent early offline gain and improved on-task performance after sleep in comparison to wakefulness. Exploratory curve fitting suggested that the observed sleep effect most likely emerged from an interaction of training-induced improvement and detrimental 'time-on-task' processes, such as fatigue. Our results indicate that brief periods of NREM sleep do not promote early offline gains but subsequent on-task performance in motor skill learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  13. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  14. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bousiges

    Full Text Available The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  15. The Relation between Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptualization of "Play" and Their Practice: Implication for the Process of Learning to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Doris Pui-Wah

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, educators and psychologists have advocated "play" as the ideal activity for the development of young children. Actually, play has been found currently to be the central pedagogy in the learning of young children in 21 countries in the world. However, the quality of play-based pedagogy is becoming a key concern across…

  16. Beyond Linguistic Proficiency: Early Language Learning as a Lever for Building Students' Global Competence, Self-Esteem, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaccari, Chris

    2013-01-01

    It is no exaggeration to say that language learning is the very foundation of global competence and the most deeply effective way for students to be able to "investigate the world, recognize perspectives, communicate ideas, and take action," which is the definition of global competence developed by Asia Society Vice President for…

  17. Countering Deficit Thinking: Agency, Capabilities and the Early Learning Experiences of Children of Latina/o Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2014-01-01

    This article documents what happened in a first grade classroom when young Latina/o children of immigrants had consistent classroom-based opportunities to use their agency in their learning. Applying theoretical constructs from development economics to data from the Agency and Young Children ethnographic project, we explore three forms of agency…

  18. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Background: Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. Aims: We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a

  19. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Prins, J.B.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. AIMS: We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a

  20. Perceptual learning and human expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  1. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  2. Toward a Theoretical Model of Text Complexity for the Early Grades: Learning from the Past, Anticipating the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne; Cunningham, James W.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we offer rationales and evidence for critical components of a working model of text complexity for the early grades. In the first three sections of the article, we examine word-level, syntax-level, and discourse-level features of text, posing questions for future research. In the fourth section, we address elements of…

  3. Move, Act, Play, Sing (MAPS): Exploring Early Childhood Arts Teaching and Learning Strategies and Concepts through Community Arts Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, David; Naughton, Chris; Roder, John; Matapo, Jacoba; Whyte, Marjolein; Liao, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This project/report worked with three early childhood education centres who have adopted the Reggio Emilia philosophy of educational practice. Each centre works with children and parents in close collaboration and all the staff and centre management are committed to the project. The aim of this project was to work with each centre in developing…

  4. Ethnic Differences in Early Math Learning: A Comparison of Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; And Others

    This study compared Chinese-American and Caucasian-American children and families in order to better understand which cultural and family characteristics, parent beliefs, and parent practices operate at the early childhood level to produce the more uniform high level of math achievement among Asian-American children. Forty second-generation…

  5. High-Quality School-Based Pre-K Can Boost Early Learning for Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Meloy, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's school-based prekindergarten program on the school readiness of children with special needs using a regression discontinuity design. Participation in the pre-K program was associated with significant gains for children with special needs in early literacy scores, but not in math scores. These…

  6. "A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the…

  7. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  8. The Importance of Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinowitz, Lili M.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)

  9. A German e-learning-training in the context of early preventive intervention and child protection: preliminary findings of a pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressem, Kristina; Ziegenhain, Ute; Doelitzsch, Claudia; Hofer, Alexandra; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Joerg M; Kuenster, Anne K

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of government-sponsored initiatives have been implemented in Germany that are focused on early preventive intervention in child protection. In response to the need for interdisciplinary training in this area, the internet-based e-learning program "Early Preventive Intervention and Child Protection" was developed for professionals in the child welfare and health care systems working with families with infants and toddlers. The program is currently undergoing evaluation for effectiveness and user satisfaction. In a pre-post design, users are requested to complete questionnaires that assess three measures of expertise: theoretical knowledge of relevant fields, the ability to correctly identify subtle signals of infant communication, and the ability to assess maternal sensitivity. This article presents the contents of the program and the pre-training results (N = 1.294 participants). Descriptive analyses as well as Pearson correlations and Bonferroni corrections of error were conducted using the statistical program SPSS v. 21.0. The findings show that a wide range of professionals are making use of the program, and that their existing theoretical knowledge about early preventive intervention, as well as their ability to identify subtle signals of infant communication, is relatively good. However, their ability to assess maternal sensitivity, which is considered a crucial indicator for the risk of child abuse, was low. The outcome of the pre-training results indicates that professionals working in the area of child protection need to develop more capability in recognizing maternal sensitivity, in order to ensure early detection of families who are at risk and thus in need of support. Finally, the number of years of professional experience did not correlate with the scores on any of the three measures, which emphasizes the importance of providing interdisciplinary training in this area for all those working in child and family services

  10. Early prediction of the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative MRI and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Subramani; Chen, Yukun; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Li, Xia; Chakravarthy, A Bapsi; Bhave, Sandeep R; Welch, E Brian; Levy, Mia A; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict early in the course of treatment the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can stratify patients based on response for patient-specific treatment strategies. Currently response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated based on physical exam or breast imaging (mammogram, ultrasound or conventional breast MRI). There is a poor correlation among these measurements and with the actual tumor size when measured by the pathologist during definitive surgery. We tested the feasibility of using quantitative MRI as a tool for early prediction of tumor response. Between 2007 and 2010 twenty consecutive patients diagnosed with Stage II/III breast cancer and receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled on a prospective imaging study. Our study showed that quantitative MRI parameters along with routine clinical measures can predict responders from non-responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The best predictive model had an accuracy of 0.9, a positive predictive value of 0.91 and an AUC of 0.96.

  11. Learning in Plants: Lessons from Mimosa pudica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ira Abramson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the early Mimosa pudica literature; much of which is in journals not easily accessible to the reader. In contrast to the contemporary plant learning literature which is conducted primarily by plant biologists, this early literature was conducted by comparative psychologists whose goal was to search for the generality of learning phenomena such as habituation, and classical conditioning using experimental designs based on animal conditioning studies. In addition to reviewing the early literature, we hope to encourage collaborations between plant biologists and comparative psychologists by familiarizing the reader with issues in the study of learning faced by those working with animals. These issues include no consistent definition of learning phenomena and an overreliance on the use of cognition. We suggested that greater collaborative efforts be made between plant biologists and comparative psychologists if the study of plant learning is to be fully intergraded into the mainstream behavior theory.

  12. Implementing the awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle into everyday care: opportunities, challenges, and lessons learned for implementing the ICU Pain, Agitation, and Delirium Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Michele C; Burke, William J; Gannon, David; Cohen, Marlene Z; Colburn, Lois; Bevil, Catherine; Franz, Doug; Olsen, Keith M; Ely, E Wesley; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2013-09-01

    The awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle is an evidence-based interprofessional multicomponent strategy for minimizing sedative exposure, reducing duration of mechanical ventilation, and managing ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers to awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle adoption and to evaluate the extent to which bundle implementation was effective, sustainable, and conducive to dissemination. Prospective, before-after, mixed-methods study. Five adult ICUs, one step-down unit, and a special care unit located in a 624-bed academic medical center : Interprofessional ICU team members at participating institution. In collaboration with the participating institution, we developed, implemented, and refined an awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle policy. Over the course of an 18-month period, all ICU team members were offered the opportunity to participate in numerous multimodal educational efforts. Three focus group sessions, three online surveys, and one educational evaluation were administered in an attempt to identify facilitators and barriers to bundle adoption. Factors believed to facilitate bundle implementation included: 1) the performance of daily, interdisciplinary, rounds; 2) engagement of key implementation leaders; 3) sustained and diverse educational efforts; and 4) the bundle's quality and strength. Barriers identified included: 1) intervention-related issues (e.g., timing of trials, fear of adverse events), 2) communication and care coordination challenges, 3) knowledge deficits, 4) workload concerns, and 5) documentation burden. Despite these challenges, participants believed implementation ultimately benefited patients, improved interdisciplinary communication, and empowered nurses and

  13. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J

    2014-12-01

    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  14. A Decade of Comparative Dose Planning Studies for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: What Can We Learn?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-12-01

    During the past 4 decades, the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has changed dramatically, and combined modality treatment is now considered the standard of care for patients with early-stage disease. However, the risk of late effects has led to concerns regarding the use of radiation therapy, especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal dose distribution. Although studies are difficult to compare because of differences in field technique, prescribed dose, target volumes, patient population, and reported dosimetric and plan evaluation parameters, modern radiation therapy significantly reduces exposure to normal tissues and thereby the estimated risk of late effects. However, there is no such thing as a single best modern delivery technique when multiple organs at risk are considered simultaneously because of the heterogeneity in patient anatomy and disease location, and the choice of radiation therapy technique should be made individually for each patient.

  15. Lessons Learned about Best Practices for Communicating Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning to Non-Scientific Publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnow, D. D.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake scientists are without doubt experts in understanding earthquake probabilities, magnitudes, and intensities, as well as the potential consequences of them to community infrastructures and inhabitants. One critical challenge these scientific experts face, however, rests with communicating what they know to the people they want to help. Helping scientists translate scientific information to non-scientists is something Drs. Tim and Deanna Sellnow have been committed to for decades. As such, they have compiled a host of data-driven best practices for communicating effectively to non-scientific publics about earthquake forecasting, probabilities, and warnings. In this session, they will summarize what they have learned as it may help earthquake scientists, emergency managers, and other key spokespersons share these important messages to disparate publics in ways that result in positive outcomes, the most important of which is saving lives.

  16. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  18. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  19. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  20. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.