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Sample records for include dialdehyde starch

  1. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...

  2. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while

  3. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch by one-step acid hydrolysis and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Liu, Wenjie; Xiao, Junhua; Zhao, Xing; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yiqiang

    2017-10-01

    Dialdehyde starch was prepared by one-step synthesis of acid hydrolysis and oxidation, using corn starch as the raw material, sodium periodate (NaIO 4 ) as the oxidant, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the acid solution. The prepared dialdehyde starch was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results confirmed that oxidation occurred between the starch and NaIO 4 . The acid hydrolysis reaction reduced the molecular weight of starch and effectively improved the aldehyde group contents (92.7%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated that the average particle size decreased after acid hydrolysis and oxidation reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) analysis demonstrated that the crystallinity of the obtained dialdehyde starch showed a downward trend and a decelerated thermal decomposition rate. The starch after acid hydrolysis and oxidation exhibited lower hot paste viscosity and higher reactivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes.

  5. Antibacterial and antiviral study of dialdehyde polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le

    Concerns for microbial contamination and infection to the general population, especially the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms, have greatly increased. Polymeric biocides have been found to be a feasible strategy to inactivate drug-resistant bacteria. However, current polymeric biocide systems involve multi-step chemical reactions and they are not cost-effective. Desirable antimicrobial systems need to be designed to be environmentally friendly, broad-spectrum effective against microorganisms, flexible for various delivery methods and economically affordable. We demonstrated that dialdehyde polysaccharides (including dialdehyde starch and dialdehdye cellulose) were broad-spectrum polymeric biocides against gram-positive/negative bacteria, bacteriophages and human virus. These polymers can be easily converted from starch and cellulose through one-step periodate oxidation. Destructions of microorganism by dialdehyde polysaccharides have been achieved in aqueous suspension or by solid surface contact. The dialdehdye functions of dialdehdye polysaccharides were found to be the dominant action against microorganism. The reactivity of the dialdehyde functionality was found to be pH-dependent as well as related to the dispersion of dialdehyde polysaccharides. Degradation of dialdehyde starch during cooking was confirmed. Degradation of dialdehyde starch was more liable in alkaline condition. Carboxylic acid and conjugated aldehyde functionalities were the two main degradation products, confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. The pH effect on the polysaccharide structure and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was very complicated. No decisive conclusions could be obtained from this study. Liner inactivation kinetics was found for dialdehyde starch aqueous suspension against bacteria. This linear inactivation kinetics was derived from the pseudo-first chemical reaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacteria. The established inactivation kinetics was

  6. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIALDEHYDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and. Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier ...

  7. preparation and characterization of dialdehyde 2, 3-diaminopyridine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Journal of chemical engineering, 168, 115-124. Yin, Q., Ju, B., Zhang, S., Wang, X., and Yang, J. (2008). Preparation and characteristics of novel dialdehyde aminothiazole starch and its adsorption properties for Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution, Journal of carbohydrate polymers, 72(2), 326-333. Zhang, L., Liu, P., Wang, Y.

  8. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  9. Mechanical and moisture sensitivity of fully bio-based dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose cross-linked soy protein isolate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Yu, Xiaoyan; Pilla, Srikanth

    2017-02-10

    Dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) crosslinked soy protein isolate (SPI) films were prepared by solvent casting method. Effect of DCMC treatment on mechanical properties, water sensitivity, light barrier properties and thermal stability were investigated. Significant increase in tensile strength (TS) was observed (up to 218%), suggesting occurrence of highly effective crosslinking between SPI and DCMC. Significant improvement in TS compared to other dialdehyde polysaccharide crosslinking agents such as dialdehyde starch is likely due to higher compatibility of DCMC with SPI, as was further confirmed by SEM images. Crosslinking also led to reduction in water vapor permeability and moisture content along with an increase of insoluble mass percentage, indicating improvement in water resistance of these bio-based protein films. Thermal stability of protein films also showed improvement post crosslinking of DCMC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Application of starch in industry frequently requires extensive modification. This is usually achieved by chemical and/or physical modification that is time-consuming and often expensive and polluting. To impart functionality as early as possible in the starch production chain, modification can...... be achieved directly as part of the developing starch storage roots, tubers, and seeds and grains of the crop. Starch has been a strong driver for human development and is now the most important energy provider in the diet forcing the development of novel and valuable starch qualities for specific...... applications. Among the most important structures that can be targeted include starch phosphorylation chain transfer/branching generating chemically substituted and chain length-modified starches such as resistant and health-promoting high-amylose starch. Starch bioengineering has been employed for more than...

  11. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.

  12. Chemotaxonomy of Pseudowintera: sesquiterpene dialdehyde variants are species markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Kjirsten A; de Lange, Peter J; Larsen, Lesley; Sansom, Catherine E; Perry, Nigel B

    2010-05-01

    Two sesquiterpene dialdehydes, the 1beta-E-coumaroyl-5alpha-hydroxypolygodial plus the known 1beta-E-cinnamoyl-5alpha-hydroxypolygodial, were isolated from the recently described species Pseudowintera insperata. This discovery is a further example of the rare sesquiterpene dialdehyde coumarate/cinnamate combination being found exclusively in the family Winteraceae. Another sesquiterpene dialdehyde, isopaxidal, with the rare rearranged drimane skeleton, was isolated from Pseudowintera axillaris. The sesquiterpene dialdehyde contents of leaves of 25 individual plants of the four Pseudowintera species, all endemic to New Zealand, were measured by HPLC. P. insperata individuals all had high levels (3.0-6.9% of leaf dry wt.) of the coumarate, P. axillaris had high levels (2.2-6.9%) of paxidal, and Pseudowintera colorata from different areas of New Zealand contained varying levels of polygodial (1.4-2.9%) and 9-deoxymuzigadial (0-2.9%). Therefore the sesquiterpene dialdehydes are good species markers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  14. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  15. Preparation of porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads crosslinked with chitosan and their application in adsorption of Congo red dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chang-Qing; Strømme, Maria; Lindh, Jonas

    2018-02-01

    Micrometer sized 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads were produced via a recently developed method relying on periodate oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose. The produced dialdehyde groups and pristine hydroxyl groups provided the DAC beads with a vast potential for further functionalization. The sensitivity of the DAC beads to alkaline conditions, however, limits their possible functionalization and applications. Hence, alkaline-stable and porous cellulose beads were prepared via a reductive amination crosslinking reaction between 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads and chitosan. The produced materials were thoroughly characterized with different methods. The reaction conditions, including the amount of chitosan used, conditions for reductive amination, reaction temperature and time, were investigated and the maintained morphology of the beads after exposure to 1M NaOH (aq.) was verified with SEM. Different washing and drying procedures were used and the results were studied by SEM and BET analysis. Furthermore, FTIR, TGA, EDX, XPS, DLS and elemental analysis were performed to characterize the properties of the prepared beads. Finally, the alkaline-stable porous chitosan cross-linked 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads were applied as adsorbent for the dye Congo red. The crosslinked beads displayed fast and high adsorption capacity at pH 2 and good desorption properties at pH 12, providing a promising sorption material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on properties of corn starch undergone periodate oxidation mechanism blended with polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Sin, Lee Tin; Ratnam, C. T.; Yap, Bee-Fen; Rahmat, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This work was performed to examine the properties of pristine PVOH and PVOH-starch blends under exposure of different irradiation dosages. The periodate oxidation method was used to produce dialdehyde starch. The application of low dosages of electron beam irradiation (≤10 kGy) has improved the tensile strength by forming crosslinking networks. However, the tensile strength drastically declined when radiated at 30 kGy due to the reduction of available hydroxyl groups inside polymer matrix for intermolecular interaction. Also, the incorporation of corn starch and dialdehyde starch has significantly reduced the melting temperature and enthalpy of melting of PVOH blends due to cessation of the hydrogen bonding between PVOH and starch molecules. The crystallite size for deflection planes (1 0 1), (1 0 1) and (2 0 0) for all PVOH blends was significant reduced when irradiated. The electron beam irradiation has also weakened the hydrophilic characteristic of all PVOH blends as evidenced in infrared and microscopy analysis.

  17. Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reactions with meso-Dialdehydes: Scope, Mechanism, and Synthetic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Tobias; Vares, Lauri; Kawasaki, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric Homer-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions between chiral phosphonate reagents and various meso-dialdehydes have been investigated. A mechanistic model useful for rationalizing the experimentally observed stereoselectivities is presented. Furthermore; strategies for applying these reactions...

  18. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  19. Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Båga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2011-05-11

    The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased β-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 μm) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield.

  20. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is controversial. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of HES solutions including data from recent high-quality randomized clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses of HES vs. control fluids show clear...

  1. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...... phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  2. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  3. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  5. Collagen cryogel cross-linked by naturally derived dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huan; Wu, Bo; Li, Changpeng; Mu, Changdao; Li, Hongli; Lin, Wei

    2015-09-20

    We present the use of a natural derivative, dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) as the cross-linker for the preparation of spongy collagen cryogels by freezing-thawing method. The DCMC has been characterized by laser light scattering (LLS), showing the molecular weight of 2.38 × 10(5)g/mol. FT-IR studies demonstrate that the cross-linking reaction and the cryogenic treatment do not destroy the triple helix of collagen. SEM images indicate that the cryogel has a heterophase structure with interconnecting macropores. DSC measurements reveal that the incorporation of a very small amount of DCMC can significantly improve the thermal stability of collagen. Moreover, the cryogels exhibit fast swelling rate, and their equilibrium swelling ratio is related to DCMC content and pH-dependent. The in vitro blood-compatibility tests prove that the introduction of DCMC does not cause the reducing performance in hemolysis and blood clotting compared with pure collagen. Hence, the low-cost and non-toxic nature of DCMC confers the cryogel great potential in tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification mechanism of sesbania gum, and preparation, property, adsorption of dialdehyde cross-linked sesbania gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongbo; Gao, Shiqi; Li, Yanping; Dong, Siqing

    2016-09-20

    This paper studied the modification mechanism of Sesbania gum (SG) by means of the variations in the numbers of surface hydroxyl groups on the granules, Schiff's agent coloration of aldehyde groups, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), etc., and also examined the preparation, property and adsorption of dialdehyde cross-linked sesbania gum (DCLSG). The results showed that the surface hydroxyl numbers of cross-linked sesbania gum (CLSG) decreased with increasing the cross-linking degree. The distribution of the aldehyde groups on the DCLSG particles was nonuniform because most of aldehyde groups mainly located on the edge of particles. The cross-linking occurred only on the surface of SG particles. The oxidization occurred not only on the surface of SG particles, but also in the interior of particles. The cross-linking or oxidization changed the thermal properties, and reduced the swelling power, viscosity, alkali and acid resistance of SG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  8. Impact of pressure on physicochemical properties of starch dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-09-02

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be employed as a non-thermal sterilization technique in the food industry while inducing structure and physicochemical changes of the food macromolecules like starch. The effect of HHP on starch depends on various factors including starch type and concentration, pressurization temperature, time, and suspending media. In this review, we summarize the influence of HHP on the structure, gelatinization, retrogradation, and modification of starches from different botanical origins. Suggestions for future research are provided to better understand the mechanism of HHP on starch, and on how HHP can be used in the starch industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Reagent Control of Geometric Selectivity and Enantiotopic Group Preference in Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reactions with meso-Dialdehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tullis, Joshua S.; Vares, Lauri; Kann, Nina

    1998-01-01

    Results from asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions between chiral phosphonate reagents 3a-d, which contain (1R,2S,5R)-8-phenylmenthol as a chiral auxiliary, and meso-dialdehydes 6 and 14 are presented. It was found that both the geometric selectivities and the levels of asymmetric induction...... choice of reagent and conditions, either (E)- or (Z)-monoaddition products could be obtained geometrically pure and with good to excellent diastereoselectivities, in synthetically useful yields. Analyses of the absolute configurations of the products showed that the (E)-selective reagents (3a...

  10. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Insights into the rheological behaviors evolution of alginate dialdehyde crosslinked collagen solutions evaluated by numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shichen; Yu, Xiaoyue; Xiong, Shanbai; Liu, Ru; Gu, Zhipeng; You, Juan; Yin, Tao; Hu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    The elaboration of the rheological behaviors of alginate dialdehyde (ADA) crosslinked collagen solutions, along with the quantitative analysis via numerical models contribute to the controllable design of ADA crosslinked solution system's fluid mechanics performance during manufacturing process for collagen biomaterials. In the present work, steady shear flow, dynamical viscoelasticity, creep-recovery, thixotropy tests were performed to characterize the rheological behaviors of the collagen solutions incorporating of ADA from the different aspects and fitted with corresponding numerical models. It was found that pseudoplastic properties of all samples enhanced with increasing amounts of ADA, which was confirmed by the parameters calculated from the Ostwald-de Waele model, Carreau and Cross model, for instance, the non-Newtonian index (n) decreased from 0.786 to 0.201 and a great increase by 280 times in value of viscosity index (K) was obtained from Ostwald-de Waele model. The forth-mode Leonov model was selected to fit all dynamic modulus-frequency curves due to its higher fitting precision (R 2 >0.99). It could be found that the values of correlation shear viscosity (η k ) increased and the values of relaxation time (θ k ) decreased with increasing ADA at the fixed k value, suggesting that the incorporation of ADA accelerated the transformation of the collagen solutions from liquid-like to gel-like state due to more formation of CN linkages between aldehyde groups and lysine residues. Also, the curves of creep and recovery phase of the native and crosslinked collagen solutions were simulated well using Burger model and a semi-empirical model, respectively. The ability to resist to deformation and elasticity strengthened for the samples with higher amounts of ADA, accompanied with the important fact that compliance value (J 50 ) decreased from 56.317Pa -1 to 2.135Pa -1 and the recovery percentage (R creep ) increased from 2.651% to 28.217%. Finally, it was found

  12. Thermomechanical treatment of starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der A.J.; Einde, van den R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starch is used as a major component in many food and nonfood applications and determines the overall product properties to a large extent. It is therefore important to understand the effect of processing on starch. Many starch-based products are produced using a thermal as well as a mechanical

  13. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 1,n-glycols as dialdehyde equivalents in iridium-catalyzed enantioselective carbonyl allylation and iterative two-directional assembly of 1,3-polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Kim, In Su; Hassan, Abbas; Del Valle, David J; Krische, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Unstable? We're able! 1,n-Glycols serve as synthetic equivalents to unstable dialdehydes in two-directional carbonyl allylation from the alcohol oxidation level under iridium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation conditions. Iterative asymmetric allylation employing 1,3-propanediol enables the rapid assembly of protected 1,3-polyol substructures with exceptional levels of stereocontrol.

  15. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  16. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable...... by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects...

  17. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  18. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    of modified starches (in comparison to wild-type) during grain germination, development and on its pathogen resistance during Fusarium Head blight (FHB). The targets were the phosphate content, which has potential industrial applications and amylose content having valuable food and feed applications...... starch deposition in these lines in combination with suppressed hydrolase activities led to temporal and compensating redirection of starch, sugar and protein metabolism in order to maintain the metabolic dynamics during germination. Further investigations on grain development revealed the differences...... of these modified starches and the modifications on germination and it was observed that HP did not show higher starch mobilization or degradation (despite of lower hydrolase activities), while AO showed significantly lower starch mobilization compared to wild-type (WT). This study oncluded that the inadequate...

  19. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still

  20. Chlorophyll and starch assays

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll, starch, and sugar contents are good indicators of growth vigor in plants. To measure the chlorophyll content, we used a modified protocol (1,2). The starch content was determined using iodine staining (3) and enzymatic reactions (4-6).

  1. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase by the 2',3'-dialdehyde derivative of ATP. Identification of active site lysines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Ida; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Harlow, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    The enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase from Escherichia coli was irreversibly inactivated on exposure to the affinity analog 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP (oATP). The reaction displayed complex saturation kinetics with respect to oATP with an apparent KD of approximately 0.8 m...... of enzymatic activity. These results imply a functional role for at least two of the identified amino acid residues....

  3. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael O; Ai, Yongfeng; Leutcher, Josh L; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 13.5%, 18.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. The onset gelatinization temperature of indica starch (71.6 °C) was higher than that of the japonica and waxy starch (56.0 and 56.8 °C, respectively). The difference was attributed to longer amylopectin branch chains of the indica starch. Starch hydrolysis rates and resistant starch (RS) contents of the rice varieties differed after they were cooked using different methods. Stir-fried rice displayed the least starch hydrolysis rate followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice for each rice variety. RS contents of freshly steamed japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 0.7%, 6.6%, and 1.3%, respectively; those of rice pilaf were 12.1%, 13.2%, and 3.4%, respectively; and the stir-fried rice displayed the largest RS contents of 15.8%, 16.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. Mechanisms of the large RS contents of the stir-fried rice were studied. With the least starch hydrolysis rate and the largest RS content, stir-fried rice would be a desirable way of preparing rice for food to reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses and to improve colon health of humans. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  5. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  6. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-04-06

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  7. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    in combination to further functionalize or stabilize the starch polymers. Importantly, such products can be multifunctional in the sense of combined food/material or food/pharma purposes, for example, edible plastics, shape memory materials, and cycloamylose carriers and stabilizers for diverse bioactives......The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods, and biomedical...

  8. Extraction and properties of starches from the non-traditional vegetables Yam and Taro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Barbosa, Natalia Alves; Pereira, Joelma, E-mail: luandrade87@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the chemical, physical, morphological, crystalline and thermal properties of starch from two non-traditional vegetables, yam and taro. The analyses included proximate composition percent, amylose and mineral content, water absorption capacity, absolute density, morphological properties, X-ray diffractometry, thermal properties, pasting properties and infrared spectrum. The extracted starch exhibited a high purity level with low lipid, fiber and ash contents. The electron micrographs suggested that the taro starch granules were smaller than the yam starch granules. The results for the experimental conditions used in this study indicated that the studied starches differed, especially the amylose content, granule size and crystallinity degree and the pattern of the starches. Due to the high amylose content of yam starch, this type of starch can be used for film preparation, whereas the taro starch can be used as a fat substitute due to its small granule size. (author)

  9. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...... and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has...

  10. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched......, containing short chains with an average length of 22-25 glucosyl residues. The branching pattern is not well known, but branch point clustering guides chains to determine the overall starch granule architecture and starch functionality. The clusters consist of 5-10 grouped short chains, which...... are interconnected by long chains with more than 36 residues. The clusters consist of still smaller, very tightly branched building blocks. The clusters direct the semicrystalline structures found inside the starch granules. The crystals, which are ~5.2. nm thick, contain double helices formed from the external...

  11. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of six starch plastics focusing on wastewater-derived starch and additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, Martijn L.M.; Kuling, Lody; Worrell, Ernst; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starch plastics are developed for their biobased origin and potential biodegradability. To assist the development of sustainable starch plastics, this paper quantifies the environmental impacts of starch plastics produced from either virgin starch or starch reclaimed from wastewater. A

  13. Supply of avocado starch (Persea americana mill) as bioplastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Hasibuan, R.; Lubis, M.; Alanjani, F.; Winoto, F. A.; Siregar, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time precipitation of avocado slurry seed to yield of starch. Starch analysis included starch content, moisture content, amylose content, amylopectin content, ash content, protein content, fat content, Fourier transform infra red analysis and rapid visco analyzer. Supply of starch from avocado seeds was used by extraction method. Every one hundred grams of avocado slurry was precipitated by gravity with variations for 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours. The Starch yield was washed, and dried using oven at 70°C for 30 minutes. Starch yield was the highest as 24.20 gram at 24 hours. The result of starch characterization was 73.62%, water content 16.6%, amylose 0.07%, amylopectin 73.55%, ash content 0.23%, protein content 2.16%, fat content 1.09%. Rapid visco analyzer obtained at 91.33°C of gelatinization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyzes obtained 20 μm oval-shaped starch granules. Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis of starch obtained the peak spectrum of O-H group of alcohols, C-H alkanes and C-O ether.

  14. Preparation and properties of resistant starch from corn starch with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylase and pullulanase and followed by retrogradation, to prepare resistant starch. The properties of selected resistant starch (RS) samples were also investigated. The result showed that, appropriate amount (0.5 U/g) of thermostable á-amylase ...

  15. Effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2015-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis is an important chemical modification that can significantly change the structural and functional properties of starch without disrupting its granular morphology. A deep understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality is of great importance for starch scientific research and its industrial applications. During acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions are hydrolyzed preferentially, which enhances the crystallinity and double helical content of acid hydrolyzed starch. This review discusses current understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality. The effects of acid hydrolysis on amylose content, chain length distribution of amylopectin molecules, molecular and crystalline organization (including lamellar structure) and granular morphology are considered. Functional properties discussed include swelling power, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting, gel texture, and in vitro enzyme digestibility. The paper also highlights some promising applications of acid hydrolyzed starch (starch nanocrystals) in the preparation of biodegradable nanocomposites, bio-hydrogen, and slowly digestible starch-based healthy foods.

  16. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Whole sweet potato flour and starch were also included where 100% wheat flour was used as control or ...

  17. Starch phosphorylation plays an important role in starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Dechesne, Annemarie; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters are crucial in starch metabolism and render valuable functionality to starches for various industrial applications. A potato glucan, water dikinase (GWD1) was introduced in tubers of two different potato genetic backgrounds: an amylose-containing line Kardal and the

  18. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  19. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content......In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...... and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers...

  20. Formation of malonic dialdehyde and other 2-thiobarbituric-acid-active products in γ-radiolysis of DNA and DNA model substances in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfinger, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    During radiation-induced DNA strand break, a product was observed which reacts positively with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to malonic dialdehyde (MDA) but is not a free MDA. The paper therefore discusses the formation of products during γ irradiation of DNA and DNA model substances which react positively with TBA to MDA. This reaction is highly sensitive but has low specificity, so that further analytical techniques were used for characterisation. These were: kinematic studies on chromophore formation using TBA, UV spectroscopy, and chromatography. The investigations comprised 1. Irradiation of sugars and polyalcohols. 2. Irradiation of nucleosides and nucleotides. 3. Irradiation of DNA. (orig./PW) [de

  1. Radiation processing of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim

    2008-01-01

    Starch is a polysaccharide material and generally, it is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. It mainly use as foodstuff, food additives, production of sugar and flavouring. Sago palm with scientific name Genus Metroxylon belonging to family Palmae is an important resource in the production of sago starch in Malaysia. Nearly 90% of sago planting areas is found in Sarawak State of Malaysia. It can easily grow under the harsh swampy environment. The sago starch content 4% polyphenol, which is an active compound with antioxidant property that has potential benefit in health and skin care applications. Renewal resources and environmental friendly of natural polymer reason for the researcher to explore the potential of this material in order to improve our quality of live. (author)

  2. Hydroxyethyl starch in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai Rosenkrantz Segelcke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a colloid that has been widely used for fluid resuscitation for decades. The newest generation of HES, tetrastarch, was believed to provide an efficient volume expansion without causing the side effects observed with former HES solutions. However, this bel......BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a colloid that has been widely used for fluid resuscitation for decades. The newest generation of HES, tetrastarch, was believed to provide an efficient volume expansion without causing the side effects observed with former HES solutions. However...

  3. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available -susceptible starch. These least 14 water molecules to one anhydrous glucoseproducts may contribute directly to human nu- unit3,4 or enough water so that its addition does not lower the temperature of gelatinisation3,5). Evi- dence for the loss of molecular order... includes: irreversible granule swelling, loss of birefringence, : RVA=Rapid Visco Analyser. loss of crystallinity, viscosity development andCorresponding author: E. M. Nelles. Tel: 27 12 841 2221; Fax: 27 12 841 2386; E-mail: enelles...

  4. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch

  5. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. In vitro and in vivo Biocompatibility of Alginate Dialdehyde/Gelatin Hydrogels with and without Nanoscaled Bioactive Glass for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rottensteiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5 is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as a first step on the way to its use as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. In vitro evaluation showed good cell adherence and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on covalently crosslinked alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL hydrogel films with and without 0.1% nano-Bioglass® (nBG. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and mitochondrial activity significantly increased in both ADA-GEL and ADA-GEL-nBG groups compared to alginate. However, addition of 0.1% nBG seemed to have slight cytotoxic effect compared to ADA-GEL. In vivo implantation did not produce a significant inflammatory reaction, and ongoing degradation could be seen after four weeks. Ongoing vascularization was detected after four weeks. The good biocompatibility encourages future studies using ADA-GEL and nBG for bone tissue engineering application.

  7. Efficient removal of anionic dye (Congo red) by dialdehyde microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan composite film with significantly improved stability in dye solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuejing; Li, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jinyang; Wang, Liwei; Jin, Wenjing; Liu, Jie; Pei, Ying; Tang, Keyong

    2018-02-01

    A novel composite film with efficient removal of anionic dye (Congo red) was developed using chitosan and dialdehyde microfibrillated cellulose nano fibrils. Microfibrillated cellulose with three dimensional network structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by high-pressure homogenization. Then it was surface modified by periodate to prepare dialdehyde microfibrillated cellulose (DAMFC). DAMFC/chitosan composite films were prepared by solvent-casting. During the compounding of DAMFC with chitosan, a Schiff base was formed through the reaction between the aldehyde groups of DAMFC and amino groups of chitosan. A giant network structure was therefore formed. The addition of DAMFC resulted in remarkably increased adsorption capacity of the chitosan material as well as drastically improved stability in dye solution. The adsorption performance was investigated with respect to pH, temperature, contact time, and the initial dye concentration. The possible adsorption mechanism was proposed. Various isotherm models have been used to fit the data, and kinetic parameters were evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of the chemical modification techniques of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Nonhlanhla; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Govender, Mershen; Indermun, Sunaina; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    Starch is a naturally occurring storage copolymer with unique physicochemical properties. There are, however, some key structural properties of starch that can be modified in order to functionalize the copolymer to meet specific requirements. Specifically, the chemical modification of starch provides a variety of physicochemical benefits, some of which have been used previously to functionalize preformed drug delivery systems. Of the three main chemical modification methods reviewed (namely: oxidation, esterification and etherification), surface chemical oxidation introduces more pertinent physicochemical properties that increase overall drug delivery system efficacy and applicability. Surface oxidation evidently is the more preferable chemical modification method of pre-formed starch particles and has the greatest potential for further development when compared to the other reviewed chemical modification methods. The use of modified starch in clinical trials as well as the potential future implications of these systems is also included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Laure B; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2015-11-01

    Recent clinical trials and animal studies indicate that resistant starches may be beneficial therapeutic tools for the management of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings and discuss the established and proposed mechanisms by which resistant starches exert their benefits. We also examine open questions regarding how resistant starches improve metabolism and propose future research directions for the field. Data from both humans and animal models clearly support a role for resistant starches in improving a variety of metabolic features; however, discrepancies do exist regarding specific effects. Concomitant improvements in both insulin levels and body fat depots are often reported in rodents fed resistant starches, whereas resistant starch feeding in humans improves insulin sensitivity without having a major impact on fat mass. These differences could be explained by the coexistence of several mechanisms (both gut microbiota-dependent and gut microbiota-independent) underpinning the metabolic benefits of resistant starches. Together, the studies presented in this review offer new insights into the potential pathways by which resistant starches enhance metabolic health, including modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating inflammatory mediators, innate immune cells, and the bile acid cycle.

  10. Structural and functional properties of starches from field peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Sharp, Peter; Copeland, Les

    2011-06-15

    Starch was isolated from seven varieties of field peas (Pisumsativum L.) and characterised using a combination of physical, chemical and functional tests. The total starch content of the peas ranged between 34% and 42.7% of dry matter, and the amylose content of the starch was between 35% and 38%. Average particle diameter of the seven starches varied between 21.4 and 26.1μm. All of the pea starches gave a typical C-type X-ray diffraction pattern, with relative crystallinity ranging between 36% and 55% and the proportion of B-type crystallites between 3.8% and 30.4%. Although there were only small differences between the starches in amylose content, they displayed significant variability in functional properties, including swelling power, pasting characteristics, thermal transition temperatures in the differential scanning calorimeter, and in susceptibility to invitro attack by α-amylase. The results indicate the importance of structural characteristics of starch molecules, particularly amylopectin, as determinants of the properties of native starch granules. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corn starch: properties and processing. January 1972-December 1987 (citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning corn starch processing. The physical and chemical properties, and nutritive value of corn starch and corn starch products are considered. Studies of gamma-irradiated corn starch are included. (This updated bibliography contains 397 citations, 123 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    that is resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including......Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...

  13. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  14. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  15. Effect of Ultrasound on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Majzoobi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound process is growing in food industry for different purposes including homogenization, extraction, blanching and removal of microorganisms, etc. On the other hand, starch is a natural polymer which exists in many foods or added into the food as an additive. Therefore, determination of the effects of ultrasound on starch characteristics can be useful in interpretation of the properties of starch-containing products. The main aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical changes of wheat starch treated by ultrasound waves. Therefore, an ultrasound probe device was used which ran at 20 kHz, 100 W and 22°C. Starch suspension in distilled water (30% w/w was prepared and treated with ultrasound for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The results showed that increases in processing duration led to increases in water solubility of starch, water absorption and gel clarity (as determined by spectrophotometry. Starch intrinsic viscosity as measured using an Ostwald U-tube showed lower intrinsic viscosity with increases in ultrasound time. Gel strength of the samples as determined using a texture analyzer was reduced by longer processing time. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that increasing the duration time of the ultrasound treatment could produce some cracks and spots on the surface of the granules. In total, it was concluded that the ultrasound treatment resulted in some changes from the starch granular scale to molecular levels. Some of the starch molecules were degraded upon ultrasound processing. Such changes may be observed for the starch-containing foods treated with ultrasound and they are enhanced with increases in ultrasound time intervals.

  16. Expression of an amylosucrase gene in potato results in larger starch granules with novel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Ji, Qin; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-08-01

    Expression of amylosucrase in potato resulted in larger starch granules with rough surfaces and novel physico-chemical properties, including improved freeze-thaw stability, higher end viscosity, and better enzymatic digestibility. Starch is a very important carbohydrate in many food and non-food applications. In planta modification of starch by genetic engineering has significant economic and environmental benefits as it makes the chemical or physical post-harvest modification obsolete. An amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea fused to a starch-binding domain (SBD) was introduced in two potato genetic backgrounds to synthesize starch granules with altered composition, and thereby to broaden starch applications. Expression of SBD-amylosucrase fusion protein in the amylose-containing potato resulted in starch granules with a rough surface, a twofold increase in median granule size, and altered physico-chemical properties including improved freeze-thaw stability, higher end viscosity, and better enzymatic digestibility. These effects are possibly a result of the physical interaction between amylosucrase and starch granules. The modified larger starches not only have great benefit to the potato starch industry by reducing losses during starch isolation, but also have an advantage in many food applications such as frozen food due to its extremely high freeze-thaw stability.

  17. Radiolysis of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Saint-Lebe, L.; Berger, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the results of work on the identification and determination of the gamma ( 60 Co) radiolysis products of maize starch are brought together and, wherever possible, a balance drawn up by chemical class. The second part of the paper deals with the main parameters governing radiolysis: dose, irradiation temperature and atmosphere, water content and the conditions under which the irradiated starch is stored. The third part, devoted to the mechanisms believed to be involved, contains the following conclusions: (a) the formation of radiation-induced products with a carbon skeleton probably results from a breaking of the -C-O-C- chains with rearrangement of the radicals and/or a reaction involving the water and the oxygen - the oxygen has an activating effect which does not fundamentally modify the mechanism, whereas the effect of the water is more complex and varies according to the product; (b) the formation of hydrogen peroxide probably implies the addition of atmospheric oxygen to the radiation-induced hydrogen atoms in the water or to the organic radicals obtained by abstraction of a hydrogen from the starch. Lastly, the different methods envisaged for confirming or improving the mechanistic hypotheses are discussed. (author)

  18. Functional properties of irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laouini, Wissal

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method capable of modifying the functional properties of starches. Its effect depends on the specific structural and molecular organization of starch granules from different botanical sources. In this study, we have studied the effect of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50 kGy) on the rheological properties of some varieties of starch (potato, cassava and wheat). First, we were interested in determining dry matter content; the results showed that the variation in dry matter compared to the control (native starch) is almost zero. So it does not depend on the dose of irradiation. Contrariwise, it differs from a botanical species to another. The viscometer has shown that these starches develop different behaviors during shearing. The native potato starch gave the highest viscosity followed by wheat and cassava which have almost similar viscosities. For all varieties, the viscosity of starch decreases dramatically with an increasing dose of irradiation. At high doses (35 and 50 kGy) the behavior of different starch is similar to that of a viscous pure liquid. The textural analysis via the back-extrusion test showed that increasing the dose of radiation causes a decrease in extrusion force and the energy spent of the different starch throughout the test. Indeed, the extrusion resistance decreases with increasing dose.

  19. Testing properties of potato starch from different scales of isolations - A ringtest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Ahmt, T.; Bandsholm, O.

    2007-01-01

    and maceration of potato tubers followed by separation of starch and cell debris by sieving, filtration or sedimentation. The properties of the processed starch were analysed both in water-based systems of 10 mM NaCl as well as in a milk based food model, dutch vla. Analysis of chemical and physical properties......Five different procedures were used to isolate potato starch from the same batch at three different scales in order to analyse what influence scaling up of the starch process had on the starch physical/chemical properties. Common to the five isolation processes was the steps of washing...... by a rapid visco analyser (RVA) and freeze/thaw stability and retrogradation characteristics analysed by pulse-NMR. Various theological flow properties were included in the analysis of the starch samples in the food model. Only the sample of starch isolated in distilled water showed significant difference...

  20. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pflour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  2. Hot-melt extrusion of sugar-starch-pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2015-09-30

    Sugar-starch-pellets (syn. sugar spheres) are usually manufactured through fluidized bed granulation or wet extrusion techniques. This paper introduces hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an alternative method to manufacture sugar-starch-pellets. A twin-screw extruder coupled with a Leistritz Micro Pelletizer (LMP) cutting machine was utilized for the extrusion of different types (normal-, waxy-, and high-amlyose) of corn starch, blended with varying amounts of sucrose. Pellets were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, tensile strength, and swelling expansion. Furthermore, the influence of sugar content and humidity on the product was investigated. Both sucrose and water lowered the Tg of the starch system allowing a convenient extrusion process. Mechanical strength and swelling behavior could be associated with varying amylose and amylopectin. X-ray powder diffractometric (XRPD) peaks of increasing sucrose contents appeared above 30%. This signified the oversaturation of the extruded starch matrix system with sucrose. Otherwise, had the dissolved sucrose been embedded into the molten starch matrix, no crystalline peak could have been recognized. The replacement of starch with sucrose reduced the starch pellets' swelling effect, which resulted in less sectional expansion (SEI) and changed the surface appearance. Further, a nearly equal tensile strength could be detected for sugar spheres with more than 40% sucrose. This observation stands in good relation with the analyzed values of the commercial pellets. Both techniques (fluidized bed and HME) allowed a high yield of spherical pellets (less friability) for further layering processes. Thermal influence on the sugar-starch system is still an obstacle to be controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable green composites of thermoplastic starch and cellulose fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Amnuay Wattanakornsiri; Sampan Tongnunui

    2014-01-01

    Green composites have gained renewed interest as environmental friendly materials and as biodegradable renewable resources for a sustainable development. This review provides an overview of recent advances in green composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS) and cellulose fibers. It includes information about compositions, preparations, and properties of starch, cellulose fibers, TPS, and green composites based on TPS and cellulose fibers. Introduction and production of these r...

  5. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  6. Starches, sugars and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E J G; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A

    2011-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  7. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  8. VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED POTATO-STARCH PASTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1994-01-01

    A new viscosity equation for the description of the viscosity of concentrated aqueous starch pastes is proposed: eta(app) = Ke([Bmstarch+(C/T)-DW+(n-1)ln gamma]) with: m(starch) = mass fraction starch in paste, T = temperature, W = amount of work performed on the starch, n = power-law index, K =

  9. Sago starch and its utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2002-01-01

    The importance and development of industrial biotechnology processing has led to the utilisation of microbial enzymes in various applications. One of the important enzymes is amylase, which hydrolyses starch to glucose. In Malaysia, the use of sago starch has been increasing, and it is presently being used for the production of glucose. Sago starch represents an alternative cheap carbon source for fermentation processes that is attractive out of both economic and geographical considerations. Production of fermentable sugars from the hydrolysis of starches is normally carried out by an enzymatic processes that involves two reaction steps, liquefaction and saccharification, each of which has different temperature and pH optima with respect to the maximum reaction rate. This method of starch hydrolysis requires the use of an expensive temperature control system and a complex mixing device. Our laboratory has investigated the possibility of using amylolytic enzyme-producing microorganisms in the continuous single-step biological hydrolysis of sago flour for the production of a generic fermentation medium. The ability of a novel DNA-recombinated yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YKU 107 (expressing alpha-amylase production) to hydrolyse gelatinised sago starch production has been studied with the aim of further utilizing sago starch to obtain value-added products.

  10. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  11. Properties of Cakes of Different Starch Content

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa, Yoshiko; Shiratuti, Hiroko

    1995-01-01

    Effects of five levels of substitution (0, 30, 50, 70, 100%) of wheat starch or corn starch for wheat flour on the properties of the sponge cakes and batters were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) Increase in starch ratio caused the decrease of batter viscosity and the increase of cake layer expansion during baking. While, replacement to corn starch induced greater shrinkage after maximum expansion according to increase of starch ratio, and consequently, there were no differen...

  12. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm −1 and 3272 cm −1 , respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm −1 . The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity

  13. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm-1 and 3272 cm-1, respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm-1. The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity.

  14. Enhancing saccharification of cassava stems by starch hydrolysis prior to pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Carlos; Wei, Maogui; Xiong, Shaojun; Jönsson, Leif J.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical characterization of cassava stems from different origin revealed that glucans accounted for 54-63% of the dry weight, whereas 35-67% of these glucans consisted of starch. The cassava stems were subjected to a saccharification study including starch hydrolysis, pretreatment with either sulfuric acid or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim]OAc), and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Starch hydrolysis prior to pretreatment decreased sugar degradation, improved enzymatic convertib...

  15. Application of ultra high pressure (UHP) in starch chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) processing is an attractive non-thermal technique for food treatment and preservation at room temperature, with the potential to achieve interesting functional effects. The majority of UHP process applications in food systems have focused on shelf-life extension associated with non-thermal sterilization and a reduction or increase in enzymatic activity. Only a few studies have investigated modifications of structural characteristics and/or protein functionalities. Despite the rapid expansion of UHP applications in food systems, limited information is available on the effects of UHP on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch and/or its chemical derivatives included in most processed foods as major ingredients or minor additives. Starch and its chemical derivatives are responsible for textural and physical properties of food systems, impacting their end-use quality and/or shelf-life. This article reviews UHP processes for native (unmodified) starch granules and their effects on the physicochemical properties of UHP-treated starch. Furthermore, functional roles of UHP in acid-hydrolysis, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and cross-linking reactions of starch granules, as well as the physicochemical properties of UHP-assisted starch chemical derivatives, are discussed.

  16. Design starch: stochastic modeling of starch granule biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Adélaïde; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-08-15

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages. The net difference in the distribution of chain lengths and the branching pattern of amylose (mainly linear), compared with amylopectin (racemose structure), leads to different physico-chemical properties. Amylose is an amorphous and soluble polysaccharide, whereas amylopectin is insoluble and exhibits a highly organized structure of densely packed double helices formed between neighboring linear chains. Contrarily to starch degradation that has been investigated since the early 20th century, starch production is still poorly understood. Most enzymes involved in starch growth (elongation, branching, debranching, and partial hydrolysis) are now identified. However, their specific action, their interplay (cooperative or competitive), and their kinetic properties are still largely unknown. After reviewing recent results on starch structure and starch growth and degradation enzymatic activity, we discuss recent results and current challenges for growing polysaccharides on granular surface. Finally, we highlight the importance of novel stochastic models to support the analysis of recent and complex experimental results, and to address how macroscopic properties emerge from enzymatic activity and structural rearrangements. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Design starch: stochastic modeling of starch granule biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages. The net difference in the distribution of chain lengths and the branching pattern of amylose (mainly linear), compared with amylopectin (racemose structure), leads to different physico-chemical properties. Amylose is an amorphous and soluble polysaccharide, whereas amylopectin is insoluble and exhibits a highly organized structure of densely packed double helices formed between neighboring linear chains. Contrarily to starch degradation that has been investigated since the early 20th century, starch production is still poorly understood. Most enzymes involved in starch growth (elongation, branching, debranching, and partial hydrolysis) are now identified. However, their specific action, their interplay (cooperative or competitive), and their kinetic properties are still largely unknown. After reviewing recent results on starch structure and starch growth and degradation enzymatic activity, we discuss recent results and current challenges for growing polysaccharides on granular surface. Finally, we highlight the importance of novel stochastic models to support the analysis of recent and complex experimental results, and to address how macroscopic properties emerge from enzymatic activity and structural rearrangements. PMID:28673938

  18. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  19. Hydrogen bonding energy determined by molecular dynamics simulation and correlation to properties of thermoplastic starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhui; Tang, Kangkang; Qin, Guoqiang; Chen, Yanxue; Peng, Ling; Wan, Xia; Xiao, Huining; Xia, Qiuyang

    2017-06-15

    The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method was used to investigate the hydrogen bonding energy of starch/glycerol system under different temperatures (range from 90°C to 120°C) and different glycerol contents (range from 20% to 40%, based on dry starch weight). These effects on the hydrogen bonding energy (including the total hydrogen bonding energy, hydrogen bonding energy of starch/starch, glycerol/glycerol, and starch/glycerol) were analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, glycerol plasticized starch films were prepared using casting method. The relationship between the hydrogen bonding energy and the performances of thermoplastic starch film (TPSF), such as crystallinity, mechanical properties and water uptake determined experimentally, were revealed and discussed. The results indicated that glycerol/starch film contained strong hydrogen bonding interaction which could be increased by decreasing the temperature or increasing the glycerol content. The hydrogen bonding interaction is the key factor for the preparation of the plasticized starch material, and the plasticized mechanism can be interpreted according to the analytical results of the simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and functional properties of alkali-treated high-amylose rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinwen; Yang, Yang; Man, Jianmin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Changquan; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-02-15

    Native starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice TRS and its wild-type rice TQ and treated with 0.1% and 0.4% NaOH for 7 and 14 days at 35 °C. Alkali-treated starches were characterised for structural and functional properties using various physical methods. The 0.1% NaOH treatment had no significant effect on structural and functional properties of starches except that it markedly increased the hydrolysis of starch by amylolytic enzymes. The 0.4% NaOH treatment resulted in some changes in structural and functional properties of starches. The alkali treatment affected granule morphology and decreased the electron density between crystalline and amorphous lamellae of starch. The effect of alkali on the crystalline structure including long- and short-range ordered structure was not pronounced. Compared with control starch, alkali-treated TRS starches had lower amylose content, higher onset and peak gelatinisation temperatures, and faster hydrolysis of starch by HCl and amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of an amylosucrase gene in potato results in larger starch granules with novel properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Nazarian, F.; Vincken, J.P.; Ji, Q.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion - Expression of amylosucrase in potato resulted in larger starch granules with rough surfaces and novel physico-chemical properties, including improved freeze–thaw stability, higher end viscosity, and better enzymatic digestibility. Starch is a very important carbohydrate in many

  2. Long-term effect of resistant starch on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathers, John C; Movahedi, Mohammad; Macrae, Finlay

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies report that higher intake of dietary fibre (a heterogeneous mix including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starches) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but no randomised trials with prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint ...

  3. Starch and alpha-glucan acting enzymes, modulating their properties by directed evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Ronan M.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major food reserve in plants and forms a large part of the daily calorie intake in the human diet. Industrially, starch has become a major raw material in the production of various products including bio-ethanol, coating and anti-stating agents. The complexity and diversity of these

  4. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS, invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%, the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, followed by Kluai Hom starch. A significant linear relationship betweenapparent amylose and RS was observed. Interestingly, most of the flour showed a slower rate of invitro starch digestibility than that of the starch, with Kluai Hin flour exhibiting the slowest rate,followed by Kluai Namwa. Rapid viscosity analysis showed significantly higher peak viscosity of thestarch than the flour, the highest final and setback viscosity being obtained from Kluai Hin starch.Differential scanning calorimetry showed an endothermic transition enthalpy over a range of 17.4 J/gfor Kluai Lebmuenang starch to 18.6 J/g for Kluai Hin starch. X-ray diffractograms of the starchesexhibited a typical B-pattern with Kluai Hin showing the highest degree of relative crystallinity(31.3% with a sharp peak at 5.5. The overall results seemed to indicate an effect of the BBgenotype on the resistance of banana starch granules to enzymatic digestion due to amylosemolecules and the crystallinity of amylopectin.

  5. Rheological and microstructural properties of Irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrous Turki, Hager

    2011-01-01

    Gamma irradiation ia s fast and efficient method to improve the functional properties of straches. Wheat and potato starches were submitted, in the present study, at 3,5,10 and 20 kGy radiation dose. The changes induced by irradiation on the rheological properties of these starches showed a decrease in the viscosity with increasing radiation dose. Chemicals bond's hydrolysis has been induced by free radicals that have been identified by EPR. Wheat starch presents five EPR signals after irradiation, whiles potato starch has a weak EPR signal. On the other hand, irradiation caused decrease in amylose content. This decrease is more pronounced in potato starch. Dry irradiated starch's MEB revealed no change in the shape, size and distribution of the granules. While, the observation of wheat starch allowed the complete disappearance of the granular structure and the dissolution of its macromolecules after irradiation which justifies the significant decrease in wheat starch's viscosity irradiated at 20 kGy.

  6. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch phosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  8. Effect of starch isolation method on properties of sweet potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SURENDRA BABU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation method of starch with different agents influences starch properties, which provide attention for studying the most appropriate method for isolation of starch. In the present study sweet potato starch was isolated by Sodium metabisulphate (M1, Sodium chloride (M2, and Distilled water (M3 methods and these were assessed for functional, chemical, pasting and structural properties. M3 yielded the greatest recovery of starch (10.20%. Isolation methods significantly changed swelling power and pasting properties but starches exhibited similar chemical properties. Sweet potato starches possessed C-type diffraction pattern. Small size granules of 2.90 μm were noticed in SEM of M3 starch. A high degree positive correlation was found between ash, amylose, and total starch content. The study concluded that isolation methods brought changes in yield, pasting and structural properties of sweet potato starch.

  9. ( Phaseolus lunatus ) starch as a tablet disintegrant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch ...

  10. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  11. Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarska, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis – a summary

    K.A. Bednarska

    The dissertation entitled ‘Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis’ describes the enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetic modelling of liquefaction and saccharification of wheat starch.

  12. Relationship of starch changes to puffing expansion of parboiled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Charu Lata; Bhattacharya, K R

    2010-03-01

    'Intan' variety of paddy (Oryza sativa) was tested for puffing. It was parboiled under a wide range of paddy moisture content, steaming pressure and time, as also temperature and time of sand heating. The resulting milled rices were studied for their diverse properties including puffing. Indices of starch changes in the samples were calculated as: (1) gelatinisation index from the solubility of amylose in 0.2 N KOH; (2) amylopectin retrogradation from the post-production drop in room-temperature hydration power of the parboiled paddy during air-drying, (3) thermal breakdown of starch from the drop in gel permeation chromatographic fraction I of starch; lipid-amylose complexation indirectly from (4) drop in rate of water uptake during cooking and (5) cooked-rice firmness. It was found that the puffing expansion was very highly correlated with the combined above 5 indices of starch changes, as much as 90% of the variation in puffing being explainable on that basis. Puffing was promoted by gelatinisation as well as lipid-amylose complexation, but was retarded by amylopectin retrogradation and probably starch breakdown.

  13. Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from pumpkin compared with potato and corn starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the selected physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches and compared with the properties of potato and corn starches used as control samples. Pumpkin starches could be used in the food industry as a free gluten starch. Better thermal and rheological properties could contribute to reduce the costs of food production. The syneresis of pumpkin starches was similar to that of potato starch but much lower than that for corn starch. Pasting temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower by 17-21.7°C and their final viscosities were over 1000cP higher than corn paste, but were close to the values obtained for potato starch. The thermodynamic characteristic showed that the transformation temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower than those measured for control starches. A level of retrogradation was much lower in pumpkin starch pastes (32-48%) than was in the case of corn (59%) or potato (77%) starches. The pumpkin starches gels were characterized by a much greater hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, than potato or corn starches gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainable green composites of thermoplastic starch and cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuay Wattanakornsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Green composites have gained renewed interest as environmental friendly materials and as biodegradable renewable resources for a sustainable development. This review provides an overview of recent advances in green composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS and cellulose fibers. It includes information about compositions, preparations, and properties of starch, cellulose fibers, TPS, and green composites based on TPS and cellulose fibers. Introduction and production of these recyclable composites into the material market would be important for environmental sustainability as their use can decrease the volume of petroleum derived plastic waste dumps. Green composites are comparable cheap and abundant, but further research and development is needed for a broader utilization.

  15. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  16. Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of starch nanocrystals-reinforced pea starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Qiu, Chao; Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-05

    To characterize the pea starch films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystals, the mechanical, water vapor barrier and morphological properties of the composite films were investigated. The addition of starch nanocrystals increased the tensile strength of the composite films, and the value of tensile strength of the composite films was highest when starch nanocrystals content was 5% (w/w). The moisture content (%), water vapor permeability, and water-vapor transmission rate of the composite films significantly decreased as starch nanocrystals content increased. When their starch nanocrystals content was 1-5%, the starch nanocrystals dispersed homogeneously in the composite films, resulting in a relatively smooth and compact film surface and better thermal stability. However, when starch nanocrystals content was more than 7%, the starch nanocrystals began to aggregate, which resulted in the surface of the composite films developing a longitudinal fibrous structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical properties of starches and proteins in alkali-treated mungbean and cassava starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israkarn, Kamolwan; Na Nakornpanom, Nantarat; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2014-05-25

    This study explored the influences of envelope integrity of cooked starch granules on physicochemical and thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches. Alkali treatment was used to selectively leach amylose from the amorphous region of both starches and partially fragmented starch molecules into lower-molecular-weight polymers. It was found that despite the loss of 40% of the original content of amylose, both mungbean and cassava starches retained similar crystallinities, gelatinization temperature ranges, and pasting profiles compared to the native starches. However, the loss of granule-bound starch synthases during alkali treatment and subsequent alkali cooking in excess water played significant roles in determining granular disintegration. The alterations in envelope integrity due to the negative charge repulsion among polymers within the envelope of swollen granules, and the fragmentation of starch molecules, were responsible for the alterations in thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches cooked under alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of cassava starch using combination process lactic acid hydrolysis and micro wave heating to increase coated peanut expansion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Jos, Bakti; Taufani, Muhammad; Yahya, Faad

    2017-05-01

    Modified cassava starch is very prospective products in the food industry. The main consideration of this study is the increasing volume of imported wheat and the demand for modified cassava starch industry. The purpose of this study is the assessing of lactic acid hydrolysis and microwave heating impact to the physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch, and test applications of modified cassava starch to coated peanut expansion quality. Experimental variables include the concentration of lactic acid (0.5% w/w, 1% w/w; 2% w/w), a time of hydrolysis (15, 30, 45 minutes), a time of microwave heating (1, 2, 3 hours). The research step is by dissolving lactic acid using aquadest in the stirred tank reactor, then added cassava starch. Hydrolysed cassava starch was then heated by microwave. Physicochemical properties and rheology of the modified cassava starch is determined by the solubility, swelling power, and test congestion. The optimum obtained results indicate that solubility, swelling power, congestion test, respectively for 19.75%; 24.25% and 826.10% in the hydrolysis treatment for 15 minutes, 1% w lactic acid and microwave heating 3 hours. The physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch have changed significantly when compared to the native cassava starch. Furthermore, these modified cassava starch are expected to be used for the substitution of food products.

  19. Effects of inulin with different degree of polymerization on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Denglin; Li, Yun; Xu, Baocheng; Ren, Guangyue; Li, Peiyan; Li, Xuan; Han, Sihai; Liu, Jianxue

    2017-08-15

    The effects of three types of inulin, including FS (DP≤10), FI (DP of 2-60) and FXL (DP≥23), on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of wheat starch were investigated. As the concentration of inulin added into starch increased, the gelatinization temperature increased whereas the breakdown value decreased, and the value of setback first decreased and then increased slightly. The three types of inulin with lower concentrations (inulin showed a significant suppression of starch retrogradation in the addition range of 5-7.5%. They can all inhibit amylose retrogradation, but accelerate amylopectin retrogradation. Inulin with lower DP has stronger effects on the starch retrogradation. Generally, the three types of inulin can all retard the retrogradation performance of wheat starch to some extent in the long-term storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly phosphorylated functionalized rice starch produced by transgenic rice expressing the potato GWD1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaling; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation occurs naturally during starch metabolism in the plant and is catalysed by glucan water dikinases (GWD1) and phosphoglucan water dikinase/glucan water dikinase 3 (PWD/GWD3). We generated six stable individual transgenic lines by over-expressing the potato GWD1 in rice....... Transgenic rice grain starch had 9-fold higher 6-phospho (6-P) monoesters and double amounts of 3-phospho (3-P) monoesters, respectively, compared to control grain. The shape and topography of the transgenic starch granules were moderately altered including surface pores and less well defined edges...... content was positively correlated with short chains of DP6-12. The starch pasting temperature, peak viscosity and the breakdown were lower but the setback was higher for transgenic rice flour. The 6-P content was negatively correlated with texture adhesiveness but positively correlated...

  1. Branch chain elongation by amylosucrase: production of waxy corn starch with a slow digestion property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Hye In; Moon, Tae Wha; Choi, Seung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Starches with high slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents were prepared by treating completely gelatinized waxy corn starch with amylosucrase. The structural properties of the prepared starches were then investigated. The content of SDS increased by up to 38.7% after amylosucrase modification, and the portion of chains with degree of polymerisation (DP) 25-36 increased, while the portion of chains with DP⩽12 decreased. Amylosucrase-modified starches showed a weak B-type crystalline structure. A slight increase in the degree of relative crystallinity was observed with increased reaction time. The thermal properties, including melting temperature and enthalpy, of the amylosucrase-modified starches were higher than for the control starch. Although the amylosucrase-modified starches showed varying structural properties according to reaction time (1-45 h), their digestibilities did not change much after 6 h. By controlling the reaction time of the amylosucrase treatment, a tailored starchy food containing the desired amount of SDS can be produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  4. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is a potentially useful and completely biodegradable material for biodegradable plastics because of its nontoxic, low cost and its natural abundance which can be obtained from many crops including corn, wheat, rice, potato and so on (Tester and Karkallas 2002). Therefore, modification of starch, physi- cally and chemically ...

  5. UTILIZATION OF CORN STARCH AS SUBSTRATE FOR Я

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IITA

    Corn starch was used as substrate for Я -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans ...

  6. Novel mechanochemical approach for wheat starch-LPC complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangelov, Antoan; Stoyanov, S.; Arnaudov, L.; Spassov, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Amylose-LPC inclusion complexes are acquired by a novel mechanochemical method and by hydrothermal method. The new synthetic method includes mechanical milling of suspension of LPC and starch under controlled conditions. Both methods applied resulted in similar microstructure of the complexes,

  7. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  8. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Compatibility, Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(styrene-ethylene-propylenestyrene/ Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saaid Rahimi Bandarabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified starch on the properties of poly(styrene-ethylenepropylene- styrene tri-block copolymer was studied. Chemical treatment of starch with maleic anhydride was accomplished in an internal mixer in the presence of glycerol. The reaction was confirmed using Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and titration. The blend samples containing 10, 20, 30 and 50 wt% were obtained by melt blending and their mechanical, morphological and dynamic-mechanical properties were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images displayed droplet-matrix morphology and with increases in modified starch up to 50 wt% some partial co-continuous morphology was also observed. With increase of modified starch in the compound, the size of dispersed phase increased. DMTA results revealed that the partial compatibility was obtained because of slight difference between glass transition temperatures of two phases in the presence of modified starch. The peak of modified starch shifted to higher values and the differences between the two peaks decreased, indicating partial compatibility. Mechanical properties including tensile, elongation-at-break and modulus were also determined and the results showed that the mechanical properties of the sample were higher than those of neat TPS because of the higher compatibility. Tensile strength was decreased with increase in modified starch content due to the absence of strong interfacial adhesion. Moduli of the samples were increased with increase in modified starch content due to higher stiffness of starch. Biodegradability of the samples was evaluated by weight loss percentage using compost test. A rapid degradation was observed in the first 45 days and with increase of the modified starch content the degree of degradation was increased.

  11. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanlayakrit, Werasit; Piadang, Nattayana; Maweang, Metinee

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  12. Granule integrity and starch solubility during slow, extended pasting of maize starch - the second viscosity peak

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize starch granule integrity and starch solubilisation at specific intervals during a relatively long pasting profile-which is known to exhibit biphasic peak viscosity character-was studied by microscopy and high-performance size...

  13. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Leroy, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was both...... samples displayed Vh- and B-type crystalline structures, the B-type polymorph being the dominant one. The AO prototypes demonstrated a 6-fold higher mechanical stress at break and 2.5-fold higher strain at break compared to control starch. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant increase...... of the B- and Vh-type, while the isogenic control starch was mainly A-type. The first of three endothermic transitions was attributed to gelatinization at about 60°C. The second and third peaks were identified as melting of the starch and amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. After extrusion, the AO...

  14. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  15. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  16. FUNCIONALES PROPERTIES SAGO STARCH (Maranta arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Granados C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maranta arundinacea sago whose rhizome is used in parts of Colombian for the production of products intended for human consumption. Starch was extracted and determined the functional properties of starches presented high water capacity % CRA (162,8% for sago, compared to 226% of cassava, a high rate of absorption of lipids % I.A.L (51% for sago, compared to 82,25% of cassava starch. Gelatinization temperature is relatively low (65-75ºC at 10 minutes compared to sago starch cassava with 70-75ºC in 20 minutes, has a high percentage of amylopectin (77% for sago starch, compared with 83,3% for cassava starch is a gel so that no retrograde and from a stable paste. As it is concluded that can be used as an alternative promising in the food industry.

  17. Starch stabilized Pickering emulsions : Colloidal starch particles and their effects on emulsion properties

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Hisfazilah

    2017-01-01

    Particles can be used to stabilize multi-phase systems known as Pickering emulsions. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how starch particles affect emulsion properties. Starch granules were used individually as well as in binary mixtures. To obtain a wide variety of starch properties granules were selected based on botanic variation (quinoa, oat, waxy barley, waxy maize and potato). The properties of the starch particles were furthermore changed by size fractionation by sedimentation, ...

  18. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this

  19. Starch meets biotechnology : in planta modification of starch composition and functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Storage starch is an energy reservoir for plants and the major source of calories in the human diet. Starch is used in a broad range of industrial applications, as a cheap, abundant, renewable and biodegradable biopolymer. However, starch needs to be modified before it can fulfill the required

  20. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  1. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-11-04

    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  3. Enzymatic modification of low conversion starch products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominska, L.

    1989-05-01

    Recently produced low conversion starch products (maltodextrins) contain relatively low level of mono- and disaccharides such as glucose and maltose. A study on obtaining starch hydrolyzates containing significant amounts of glucose and maltose without fundamental change of their dextrose equivalent was conducted. The influence of glucogenic and maltogenic amylases (NOVO) on low conversion starch products was investigated by measurement of their sugar composition, viscosity, filterability, iodine absorbance value and turbidity. The results show different properties of novel starch hydrolyzates depending on the enzymes used.

  4. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  5. Temporary ischaemia induced by degradable starch microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1981-01-01

    Possible thrombogenic effects of degradable starch microspheres were investigated. Controlled temporary small intestinal ischaemia was induced by injection into the superior mesenteric artery in cats. Arterial flow consistently recovered after ischaemia. No consumption of blood platelets, fibrinogen, or Factor VIII was observed. Aggregation of human platelets was not influenced by microsphere exposure, and platelet retention in starch microsphere columns was minimal. No thrombosis was detected in feline small intestinal vessels in vivo nor did starch surfaces induce adhesion or aggregation of human platelets in vitro. Thus, no evidence of thrombotic hazards was found by inducing temporary intestinal ischaemia by starch microspheres. (Auth.)

  6. Physicochemical interactions of maize starch with ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Rusiru; Zhu, Fan

    2016-05-15

    Ferulic acid is widely present in diverse foods and has great health benefits. Starch is a major food component and can be flexibly employed to formulate various products. In this study, the effect of ferulic acid addition on various physicochemical properties of normal maize starch was explored. The properties including swelling, pasting, steady shear and dynamic oscillation rheology, gelatinization, retrogradation, and gel texture were affected by ferulic acid to various extents, depending on the addition level. Enzyme susceptibility of granular starch to α-amylase was not affected. These influences may be explained by the functions of solubilized as well as insoluble ferulic acid which was in the form of crystals in starch matrix. On the molecular level, V-type amylose-ferulic acid inclusion complex formation was not observed by both co-precipitation and acidification methods. The results of this study may inspire further studies on the interactions of phenolics with other food ingredients and their role in food quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  9. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering the chloroplast targeted malarial vaccine antigens in Chlamydomonas starch granules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dauvillée

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, an Anopheles-borne parasitic disease, remains a major global health problem causing illness and death that disproportionately affects developing countries. Despite the incidence of malaria, which remains one of the most severe infections of human populations, there is no licensed vaccine against this life-threatening disease. In this context, we decided to explore the expression of Plasmodium vaccine antigens fused to the granule bound starch synthase (GBSS, the major protein associated to the starch matrix in all starch-accumulating plants and algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.We describe the development of genetically engineered starch granules containing plasmodial vaccine candidate antigens produced in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that the C-terminal domains of proteins from the rodent Plasmodium species, Plasmodium berghei Apical Major Antigen AMA1, or Major Surface Protein MSP1 fused to the algal granule bound starch synthase (GBSS are efficiently expressed and bound to the polysaccharide matrix. Mice were either immunized intraperitoneally with the engineered starch particles and Freund adjuvant, or fed with the engineered particles co-delivered with the mucosal adjuvant, and challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal inoculum of P. Berghei. Both experimental strategies led to a significantly reduced parasitemia with an extension of life span including complete cure for intraperitoneal delivery as assessed by negative blood thin smears. In the case of the starch bound P. falciparum GBSS-MSP1 fusion protein, the immune sera or purified immunoglobulin G of mice immunized with the corresponding starch strongly inhibited in vitro the intra-erythrocytic asexual development of the most human deadly plasmodial species.This novel system paves the way for the production of clinically relevant plasmodial antigens as algal starch-based particles designated herein as amylosomes, demonstrating that

  11. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  12. Starch and cellulose nanocrystals together into thermoplastic starch bionanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kizkitza; Retegi, Aloña; González, Alba; Eceiza, Arantxa; Gabilondo, Nagore

    2015-03-06

    In the present work, thermoplastic maize starch based bionanocomposites were prepared as transparent films, plasticized with 35% of glycerol and reinforced with both waxy starch (WSNC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), previously extracted by acidic hydrolysis. The influence of the nanofiller content was evaluated at 1 wt.%, 2.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% of WSNC. The effect of adding the two different nanoparticles at 1 wt.% was also investigated. As determined by tensile measurements, mechanical properties were improved at any composition of WSNC. Water vapour permeance values maintained constant, whereas barrier properties to oxygen reduced in a 70%, indicating the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding at the interphase. The use of CNC or CNC and WSNC upgraded mechanical results, but no significant differences in barrier properties were obtained. A homogeneous distribution of the nanofillers was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, and a shift of the two relaxation peaks to higher temperatures was detected by dynamic mechanical analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladebeyes

    ABSTRACT. Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol. (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption ...

  14. The Acetylation of Starch by Reactive Extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Robbert A. de; Broekroelofs, Annet; Janssen, Léon P.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato starch has been acetylated in a counter rotating twin screw extruder using vinylacetate and sodium hydroxide. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel base catalysed hydrolysis reaction of vinylacetate and a consecutive hydrolysis reaction of the

  15. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  16. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  17. Physicochemical properties of etherified maize starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Desse, M.; Budtova, T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Visser, G.M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in starch properties due to etherification with allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) have been investigated. After etherification of three different starches (containing 0.9%, 27% and 70% amylose), no appreciable differences in granular appearance were observed, but the granule crystallinity of

  18. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current
    applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and
    mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make
    the material more

  19. Properties of corn starch subjected hydrothermal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryszkin, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Kapelko-Żeberska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heating a water dispersion of corn starch to various temperatures, followed by its freezing and defrosting, on selected properties of re-formed starch pastes. A suspension of starch was heated to various temperatures ranging from 59 to 94°C, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. The differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler Toledo, 822E) thermal characteristics of starch pre-heated to temperatures not inducing complete pasting revealed transitions of: (I) retrograded amylopectin, (II) non-pasted starch, (III) amylose-lipid complexes, (IV) retrograded amylose, and (V) highly thermostable starch structures. The application of higher temperatures during heating caused disappearance of transitions II and V. The increase of pre-heating temperature induced firstly a decrease and then stabilization of the swelling power as well as a successive decrease in starch solubility. Pastes pre-heated to temperatures over 79°C contained large macroparticles that were increasing viscosity of the re-formed starch paste (their size was positively correlated with viscosity value).

  20. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    . However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  1. Comparisons of Three Indicators for Frey's Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minor's Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan; Park, Bumjung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. Methods This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects ...

  2. Influence of natural polymer derived from starch as a sensory modifier in sunscreen formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Rigon, Roberta B. [UNESP; Piffer, Adrielle R.; Lima, Aline A. S.; Bighetti, Aparecida E.; Chorilli, Marlus [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, there has been increased incidence of skin cancer, which is mainly related to increased sun exposure. Although sunscreen products may prevent the appearing of this disease, consumers may not use them due to some factors, including the sensory properties. The Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate (Dry-Flo® Pure, Akzo Nobel), an aluminum salt produced by the reaction of anhydride octenylsuccinic with starch, is able to improve the spreadability on the skin and reduce the oiline...

  3. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for direct conversion of raw, uncooked or granular starch to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Johann F; Bressler, David C; van Rensburg, Eugéne

    2015-01-01

    The production of raw starch-degrading amylases by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides opportunities for the direct hydrolysis and fermentation of raw starch to ethanol without cooking or exogenous enzyme addition. Such a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for raw starch fermentation will substantially reduce costs associated with energy usage and commercial granular starch hydrolyzing (GSH) enzymes. The core purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive insight into the physiological impact of recombinant amylase production on the ethanol-producing yeast. Key production parameters, based on outcomes from modifications to the yeast genome and levels of amylase production, were compared to key benchmark data. In turn, these outcomes are of significance from a process point of view to highlight shortcomings in the current state of the art of raw starch fermentation yeast compared to a set of industrial standards. Therefore, this study provides an integrated critical assessment of physiology, genetics and process aspects of recombinant raw starch fermenting yeast in relation to presently used technology. Various approaches to strain development were compared on a common basis of quantitative performance measures, including the extent of hydrolysis, fermentation-hydrolysis yield and productivity. Key findings showed that levels of α-amylase required for raw starch hydrolysis far exceeded enzyme levels for soluble starch hydrolysis, pointing to a pre-requisite for excess α-amylase compared to glucoamylase for efficient raw starch hydrolysis. However, the physiological limitations of amylase production by yeast, requiring high biomass concentrations and long cultivation periods for sufficient enzyme accumulation under anaerobic conditions, remained a substantial challenge. Accordingly, the fermentation performance of the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains reviewed in this study could not match the performance of conventional starch fermentation processes

  4. Introduction of poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid)] branches onto starch for cotton warp sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhifeng; Liu, Fengdan

    2016-03-15

    An attempt has been made to reveal the effect of amphoteric poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride-co-acrylic acid) [P(ATAC-co-AA)] branches grafted onto the backbones of starch upon the adhesion-to-cotton, film properties, and desizability of maize starch for cotton warp sizing. Starch-g-poly[(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)-co-(acrylic acid) [S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA)] was prepared by the graft copolymerization of 2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ATAC) and acrylic acid (AA) with acid-converted starch (ACS) in aqueous medium using Fe(2+)-H2O2 initiator. The adhesion was evaluated in term of bonding strength according to the FZ/T 15001-2008 whereas the film properties considered included tensile strength, work and percentage elongation at break. The evaluation was undertaken through the comparison of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) with ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride). It was found that the amphoteric branch was able to significantly improve the adhesion and mitigate the brittleness of starch film. Zeta potential of cooked S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) paste, depending on the mole ratio of ATAC to AA units on P(ATAC-co-AA) branches, had substantial effect on the adhesion and desizability. Increasing the mole ratio raised the potential, which favored the adhesion but disfavored the removal of S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) from sized cotton warps. Electroneutral S-g-P(ATAC-co-AA) was superior to negatively grafted starch in adhesion and to positively grafted starch in desizability. Generally, it showed better sizing property than ACS, starch-g-poly(acrylic acid), and starch-g-poly(2-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), and had potential in the application of cotton warp sizing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  6. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  7. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN AND STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN-GLUCOSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grzelak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Starch is a widely used food additive. The addition of other ingredients changes the physical properties of resulting systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological characteristics and susceptibility to retrogradation of starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems. Flow curves of 5% starch - maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose pastes were tested by using rotational rheometer. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% pastes starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems by means of turbidimetric method was evaluated. It was found that all samples (systems were a non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic fluids, with tend to the yield stress. Moreover addition of low and high DE maltodextrins and glucose to the starch caused a decrease in the values of shear stress throughout whole shear rate range. Starch pastes with greater concentration of the maltodextrins had less tendency to retrogradation. Also addition of glucose to starch-maltodextrin systems reduce the susceptibility to retrogradation.10.5219/196

  9. A forward genetic approach in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a strategy for exploring starch catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçay, Hande; Findinier, Justin; Duchêne, Thierry; Cogez, Virginie; Cousin, Charlotte; Peltier, Gilles; Ball, Steven G; Dauvillée, David

    2013-01-01

    A screen was recently developed to study the mobilization of starch in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This screen relies on starch synthesis accumulation during nitrogen starvation followed by the supply of nitrogen and the switch to darkness. Hence multiple regulatory networks including those of nutrient starvation, cell cycle control and light to dark transitions are likely to impact the recovery of mutant candidates. In this paper we monitor the specificity of this mutant screen by characterizing the nature of the genes disrupted in the selected mutants. We show that one third of the mutants consisted of strains mutated in genes previously reported to be of paramount importance in starch catabolism such as those encoding β-amylases, the maltose export protein, and branching enzyme I. The other mutants were defective for previously uncharacterized functions some of which are likely to define novel proteins affecting starch mobilization in green algae.

  10. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of starches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties of starches from cassava, potato and sweet potato were compared with cereal starches from maize, wheat, millet and sorghum. The aim was to determine the properties of tuber and root crop starches and compare them with cereal starches in addition to unravelling the potential of commonly grown ...

  11. Model approach to starch functionality in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesaert, Hans; Leman, Pedro; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-08-13

    We used modified wheat starches in gluten-starch flour models to study the role of starch in bread making. Incorporation of hydroxypropylated starch in the recipe reduced loaf volume and initial crumb firmness and increased crumb gas cell size. Firming rate and firmness after storage increased for loaves containing the least hydroxypropylated starch. Inclusion of cross-linked starch had little effect on loaf volume or crumb structure but increased crumb firmness. The firming rate was mostly similar to that of control samples. Presumably, the moment and extent of starch gelatinization and the concomitant water migration influence the structure formation during baking. Initial bread firmness seems determined by the rigidity of the gelatinized granules and leached amylose. Amylopectin retrogradation and strengthening of a long-range network by intensifying the inter- and intramolecular starch-starch and possibly also starch-gluten interactions (presumably because of water incorporation in retrograded amylopectin crystallites) play an important role in firming.

  12. Structural and Digestion Properties of Soluble-, Slowly Digestible and Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava Starch by Enzymatic Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorndech, Waraporn

    The combination of branching enzyme (BE) and amylomaltase (AM) were selected to modify cassava starch. AM were used to elongate the glucan chains in order to enhance BE activity to create branching linkages. Cassava starch were gelatinized and incubated with BE or AMBE or BEAMBE or simultaneous......AMBE treated starches showed a decrease in w and dispersity compared to the non-modified WX and AO. The α- and β-limit dextrin content from both BE and BEAMBE catalysis were decreasing when increasing AO proportion. Glucose released from all modified starches after hydrolysis by human pancreatic α...... AM and BE. The molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility were examined. Only BE catalysis showed 7.8% of branching linkages. The sequential AMBE-treated starch...

  13. Gelatinized wheat starch influences crystallization behaviour and structure of roll-in shortenings in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-03-15

    One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat. All other component mixtures behaved similar to the respective fats in bulk. The measured rate of crystallization was greater in samples containing gelatinized wheat starch, indicating that the gelatinized starch could act as a nucleation site to speed crystallization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence that the "waxy" protein of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is not the major starch-granule-bound starch synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the starch-granule-bound starch synthase of developing pea embryos. When starch-granule-bound proteins were solubilised by digestion of granules with α-amylase and fractionated on a Mono Q anion-exchange column, activity of starch synthase eluted as three peaks. The distribution of activity in fractions from the column coincided with that of a 77-kDa protein. An antibody to this protein inhibited starch-synthase activity both in solubilised, starch-granule-bound protein and on intact starch granules. Recoveries of activity through extraction, solubilisation and chromatography indicate that this protein is the major, if not the only, form of starch synthase on the starch granule. The major, 59-kDa protein of the pea starch granule is antigenically related to the product of thewaxy locus of potato, which has previously been identified as the starch-granule-bound starch synthase of the tuber. However, the distribution of the 59-kDa protein did not coincide with that of starch-synthase activity in fractions from the Mono Q column. An antibody to the 59-kDa protein did not inhibit starch-synthase activity. The results raise questions about the relationship between "waxy" proteins and starch-granule-bound starch synthases generally.

  15. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne L

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded...... to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed "resistant starch" (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS...... is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...

  16. Pretreated Starch Solutions for Low Environmental Impact Aircraft Deicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    20 iii List of Figures Figure 1. Response surface plot of oxidized corn starch solution freezing...Chloroform, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), iron(III) EDTA, and pyridine were purchased from JT Baker (Phillipsburg, NJ). Corn starch was...effect of starch to oxidant (H2O2) ratios on freezing point depression of the oxidized starch solution were the initial mass of potato or corn starch

  17. TECHNOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Lukin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the manufacturing of bio-recyclable polymer products, which production and consumption has become an efficient way to protect environment from solid wastes in different countries of the world. The issue of environmental protection becomes global and the rapid growth of synthetic plastics application in many industries is a serious concern. There is a important task to improve the quality, safety and durability of products as well as their utilization after the expiration period. One of the most acceptable ways to solve these issues is to produce biodegradable materials based on natural materials, which are not harmful for environment and human health. A very common and effective method to give biological degradability to synthetic polymers is to insert starch into polymer composition in combination with other ingredients.

  18. Investigation of digestion Kinetics in commercial starches using in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The digestion of starch has been the subject of many investigations, mostly involving in vitro measurement of the susceptibility of starches to attack by different enzymes, rather than measuring actual digestibility in vivo. The rate and extent of amylolytic hydrolysis of granular starches is known to vary according to botanical origin. Granule characteristics considered to influence susceptibility to attack by alpha-amylase include crystallinity, granule size and available specific surface, amylose content, porosity, structural inhomogeneities and degree of integrity. Most in-vitro studies of granular starch digestion have been limited to samples for which aliquots have been removed from the reaction mixture at various time intervals and freeze-dried to be subsequently characterized using a range of techniques. It remains unclear whether sample preparation creates artefacts in the samples. In this study, we have studied the kinetics of starch digestion of several commercial granular starches by time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering using an in-situ digestion chamber allowing, for the first time, to follow structural changes of starch in the course of digestion directly in the digestion mixture. Additionally, samples before and after digestion were studied by x-ray diffraction, small-angle x-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and microscopy. Microscopy revealed that studied starches, which varied in their amylose content and digestion kinetics, followed different modes of attack The multidisciplinary approach allowed the nanostructural changes detected by small-angle scattering in the course of enzymic breakdown to be correlated with changes in crystallinity and functional properties.

  19. Starch Biosynthesis in the Developing Endosperms of Grasses and Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Tetlow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The starch-rich endosperms of the Poaceae, which includes wild grasses and their domesticated descendents the cereals, have provided humankind and their livestock with the bulk of their daily calories since the dawn of civilization up to the present day. There are currently unprecedented pressures on global food supplies, largely resulting from population growth, loss of agricultural land that is linked to increased urbanization, and climate change. Since cereal yields essentially underpin world food and feed supply, it is critical that we understand the biological factors contributing to crop yields. In particular, it is important to understand the biochemical pathway that is involved in starch biosynthesis, since this pathway is the major yield determinant in the seeds of six out of the top seven crops grown worldwide. This review outlines the critical stages of growth and development of the endosperm tissue in the Poaceae, including discussion of carbon provision to the growing sink tissue. The main body of the review presents a current view of our understanding of storage starch biosynthesis, which occurs inside the amyloplasts of developing endosperms.

  20. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization Properties of Environmentally Friendly Paper Coating Based Starch-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galih Saputri, Diani; Khairuddin; Dwi Nurhayati, Nanik; Pham, Trinh

    2017-11-01

    The use of starch as biodegradable base material for packaging application was of great interest as an environmentally friendly alternative to the present use of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. However, starch tended to be brittle and had a lack of stability due to exposure to water. Several aproaches have been done to improve shellac properties including through chemical modification, mixing with polymers, clays, and plasticizers. The present study related to optimization of starch properties when mixing with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated on the paper. The aim was to obtain the temperature and mixing time between starch and PEG so produced composites with optimal barrier properties. The composites of PEG/starch 10 % w/w were prepared using solvent casting and coated on paper surface, and dried in the oven for 12 hours at 40°C. Water Vapour Transmitter Rate (WVTR) (Payne cup method) showed that 70°C was the optimum temperature when mixing time was 30 minutes. Moreover, it showed that the optimum mixing time was 30 minutes when mixing temperature was 80 and 70 °C. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) showed a strong interaction between PEG400 and starch.

  2. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a novel starch synthase in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmei eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is an important reserve of carbon and energy in plants, providing the majority of calories in the human diet and animal feed. Its synthesis is orchestrated by several key enzymes, and the amount and structure of starch, affecting crop yield and quality, are determined mainly by starch synthase (SS activity. To date, five SS isoforms, including SSI-IV and Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS have been identified and their physiological functions have been well characterized. Here, we report the identification of a new SS isoform in maize, designated SSV. By searching sequenced genomes, SSV has been found in all green plants with conserved sequences and gene structures. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 780 base pairs has suggested that SSIV and SSV resulted from a gene duplication event, which may have occurred before the algae formation. An expression profile analysis of SSV in maize has indicated that ZmSSV is mainly transcribed in the kernel and ear leaf during the grain filling stage, which is partly similar to other SS isoforms. Therefore, it is likely that SSV may play an important role in starch biosynthesis. Subsequent analysis of SSV function may facilitate understanding the mechanism of starch granules formation, number and structure.

  3. Continuous-flow electro-assisted acid hydrolysis of granular potato starch via inductive methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Guo, Lunan; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2017-08-15

    The induced electric field assisted hydrochloric acid (IEF-HCl) hydrolysis of potato starch was investigated in a fluidic system. The impact of various reaction parameters on the hydrolysis rate, including reactor number (1-4), salt type (KCl, MgCl 2 , FeCl 3 ), salt concentration (3-12%), temperature (40-55°C), and hydrolysis time (0-60h), were comprehensively assessed. Under optimal conditions, the maximum reducing sugar content in the hydrolysates was 10.59g/L. X-ray diffraction suggested that the crystallinity of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased with the intensification of hydrolysis but was lower than that of native starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface and interior regions of starch granules were disrupted by the hydrolysis. The solubility of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased compared to native starch while their swelling power decreased, contributing to a decline in paste viscosity. These results suggest that IEF is a notable potential electrotechnology to conventional hydrolysis under mild conditions without any electrode touching the subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  5. Up-Scaling Production of Carboxymethyl Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafiz Abdul Nasir; Zainon Othman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nurul Nadia Shaaban

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is a starch derivative formed by its reaction with sodium monochloroacetate which consist of OH-groups that are partially or completely replaced by ether substitution. Characteristic of CMSS defined by the degree of substitution (DS). DS is defined as the average number of substituents per anhydro glucose unit (AGU), the monomer unit of starch. The upgrading of CMSS production from 10L to 30L requires several experiments with different variable such as amount NaOH, amount of Sago Starch and reaction time. Each will give different DS. Quality control for the product cover moisture, viscosity and paste clarity. Therefore, SOP has been established to control the quality final product. (author)

  6. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch

  7. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il-Jun [Department of Food and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Food Irradiation, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun [Department of Food Irradiation, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chun-Ho [Samyang Genex R and D Center, Yusung-Gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Soo [Samyang Genex R and D Center, Yusung-Gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Cha-Kwon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  8. Dry Starch Powders Modified Teabag Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a test protocol for a “tea bag analysis” that was conducted on PMN starches by the Corn Refiners Association. This protocol is one approach to providing information on swellability of high molecular weight polymers.

  9. Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manek, Rahul V; Builders, Philip F; Kolling, William M; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States Pharmacopeia standards established for widely used starches like maize and potato. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and moisture sorption profile of Cyperus starch were comparable to that of maize starch. Cyperus starch had lower swelling power than maize and potato starch, indicative of stronger associative forces within the granules. Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate that Cyperus starch should have comparable flow properties with respect to maize and potato starch. Cyperus starch was employed as binder for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Formulations containing 5%, 7.5%, and 10% Cyperus starch were compared with those containing 10% potato starch. At 10% binder concentration, the tablets containing Cyperus starch exhibited better hardness and negligible friability as compared with those with potato starch. Although the binder concentration had a significant effect on the disintegration time of the tablets, it did not seem to affect the dissolution profile. These results indicate that Cyperus starch provides excellent binding properties without compromising drug release characteristics and should be explored in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  11. Thermoplastic Starch: Improving their Barrier Properties

    OpenAIRE

    ORTEGA-TORO, RODRIGO; Collazo-Bigliardi, Sofia; Talens Oliag, Pau; Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] There are several strategies for improving functional properties of starch based materials. Blending with more hydrophobic compounds and bilayer formation are the most common methods. Barrier properties of several formulations obtained by different processing methods were measured. The properties of some obtained materials were compared with those usually employed in food packaging. The most promising materials were those starch PCL blends, compatibilized with grafted poly(ε-caprolactone...

  12. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  13. Influence of phosphate esters on the annealing properties of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Muhrbeck, Per

    1998-01-01

    The effects of annealing on native potato, waxy maize, and phosphorylated waxy maize starches were compared. Phosphorylated waxy maize starch responded to annealing in a manner between that of the naturally phosphorylated potato starch and that of the native waxy maize starch. The gelatinisation...... end-point temperature was increased, whereas in the native waxy maize it was decreased. On the other hand, the onset temperature change was much larger in potato starch than in the two waxy maize starches. Steeping also yielded intermediate effects on the phosphorylated waxy maize starch....... It was concluded that the phosphate groups have similar effects as they do in the native, naturally phosphorylated potato starch, although the substitution pattern is not entirely the same in the artificially phosphorylated starch....

  14. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  15. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  16. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  17. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  18. Green starch conversions : Studies on starch acetylation in densified CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The acetylation of potato starch with acetic anhydride (AAH) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) as catalyst in densified CO2 was explored in a batch reactor setup. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-9.8 MPa), temperature (40-90 degrees C), AAH to starch ratio (2-5 mol/mol AGU), NaOAc to

  19. Surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, Donald D; Dupont, Frances M; Vensel, William H; Altenbach, Susan B; Lopez, Rocio; Tanaka, Charlene K; Hurkman, William J

    2008-11-12

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries but is avoided in the United States because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye, and barley proteins and products that contain them. These proteins are capable of initiating damage to the absorptive lining of the small intestine in CD patients, apparently as a consequence of undesirable interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this study, starch surface-associated proteins were extracted from four commercial wheat starches, fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. More than 150 proteins were identified, many of which (for example, histones, purothionins, and glutenins) had not been recognized previously as starch-associated. The commercial starches were analyzed by the R-5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to estimate the amount of harmful gluten protein present. One of these starches had a low gluten content of 7 ppm and actually fell within the range proposed as a new Codex Alimentarius Standard for naturally gluten-free foods (maximum 20 ppm). This low level of gluten indicates that the starch should be especially suitable for use by celiac patients, although wheat starches with levels up to 100 ppm are deemed safe in the proposed Codex standards.

  20. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles: part 1: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    We report, for the first time, the preparation method and characteristics of starch films incorporating spray dried and vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles. Physical properties of these films such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties (strain versus temperature, strain versus stress, Young's modulus and toughness) were measured. Addition of both starch nanoparticles in starch films increased roughness of surface, lowered degree of crystallinity by 23.5%, WVP by 44% and Tg by 4.3°C, respectively compared to those of starch-only films. Drying method used in preparation of starch nanoparticles only affected opacity of films. The incorporation of nanoparticles in starch films resulted into denser films due to which the extent of variation of strain with temperature was much lower. The toughness and Young's modulus of films containing both types of starch nanoparticles were lower than those of control films especially at <100°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  2. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  3. High surface area starch products as filler-binder in direct compression tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierik, G.HP; Ramaker, J.S; Eissens, A.C; Bergsma, J; Arends-Scholte, A.W.; Lerk, C.F

    Amylodextrin and modified starch products were prepared from amylose-free starches and from (amylose containing) potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by precipitation and filtration. The intermediate retrograded starch products were dehydrated by drying at room temperature or washing

  4. Degradation of corn starch under the influence of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Saadany, R.M.A.; El Saadany, F.M.; Foda, Y.H.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of corn (maize) starch with different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 1 x 10 5 rad to 1 x 10 6 rad resulted in the increase of starch acidity and reducing power. Molecular degradation was observed as a result of marked decrease in starch viscosity and intinsic viscosity as well as swelling capacity. The gelatinization time and temperature of the irradiated starch became shorter than in the control sample. Internal changes in the irradiated starch occured as a result of lowering the number of glucose unit per segment in the irradiated starch molecules. All changes were proportional to the doses of gamma irradiation used. (orig.) [de

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Gamma-Irradiated Corn Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Lim, S.T.; Kim, S.Y.; Han, S.M.; Kim, H.M.; Kang, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    Structural modification of corn starch by gamma irradiation was evaluated for under dry conditions at varied intensities from 0 to 40 kGy. Under scanning electron microscopy, the granule shape of corn starch was not significantly affected by the irradiation up to 40 kGy. In addition, X-ray diffraction and melting patterns of the irradiated starches were similar to those of the native starch, indicating that crystalline regions in the starch granules were not changed by irradiation. However, the pattern of gel permeation column chromatography showed a significant increase in partial hydrolysis of gamma irradiated starch samples

  6. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  7. Effects of water on starch-g-polystyrene and starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate) extrudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.M.; Rudin, A.

    1982-01-01

    Polystyrene and poly(methyl acrylate) were grafted onto wheat starch by gamma radiation and chemical initiation, respectively. The respective percent add-on values were 46 and 45; 68% of the polystyrene formed was grafted to starch, and corresponding proportion of poly(methyl acrylate) was 41%. The molecular weight distributions of the homopolymer and graft portions were characterized, and extrusion conditions were established for production of ribbon samples of starch-g-PS and starch-g-PMA. Both copolymer types were considerably weakened by soaking in water, and this effect was more immediate and drastic for starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate). Both graft copolymers regained their original tensile strengths on drying, but the poly(methyl acrylate) specimens did not recover their original unswollen dimensions and retained high breaking elongations characteristic of soaked specimens. Tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of extruded and molded samples of both graft polymers are reported, and plasticizing effects of water are summarized

  8. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  9. Dimensional Stability of Poplar Wood by Paraffin Emulsion, Quaternary Ammonium and Hydrated Starch using Full-cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mansouryar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the dimensional stabilization of poplar wood (Populus Alba by applying emulsion of paraffin, quaternary ammonium and starch was investigated. Paraffin at three levels of 0%, 3%, 5%, quaternary ammonium at three levels of 0%, 1.5%, 2.5% and starch at three levels of 0%, 1% and 2% were selected as variables. Some physical characteristics including longitudinal, tangential and radial swelling were determined. Based on the results, for optimizing physical properties, the treatment of 5% paraffin, 0-1.5% quaternary ammonium and 0-1% starch was recommended.

  10. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  13. Starch behaviors and mechanical properties of starch blend films with different plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Vu, Hoang Phuong; Lumdubwong, Namfone

    2016-12-10

    The main objective of the study was to gain insight into structural and mechanical starch behaviors of the plasticized starch blend films. Mechanical properties and starch behaviors of cassava (CS)/and mungbean (MB) (50/50, w/w) starch blend films containing glycerol (Gly) or sorbitol (Sor) at 33% weight content were investigated. It was found that tensile strength TS and %E of the Gly-CSMB films were similar to those of MB films; but%E of all Sor-films was identical. TS of plasticized films increased when AM content and crystallinity increased. When Sor was substituted for Gly, crystallinity of starch films and their TS increased. The CSMB and MB films had somewhat a similar molecular profile and comparable mechanical properties. Therefore, it was proposed the starch molecular profile containing amylopectin with high M¯w, low M¯w of amylose, and the small size of intermediates may impart the high TS and%E of starch films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by starch polymer and their use as catalyst in homocoupling of phenylboronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiyaporn Wongmanee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs stabilized by a starch polymer have been successfully prepared and characterized via a number of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements. The catalytic activity of starch-stabilized Au NPs was also examined toward the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid in water using oxygen in air as oxidant at an ambient temperature (25 ± 1 °C. Several parameters including the catalyst loading, base equivalent (eq., base type, and reaction time were studied. This study offers a simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly procedure for the stabilization of colloidal gold catalysts using a hydroxyl-rich structure of starch polymer with a great promise through potential applications in related fields.

  15. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  16. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  17. Fragrant starch-based films with limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian K. Antosik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel fragrant starch-based films with limonene were successfully prepared. Biodegradable materials of natural origin were used and the process was relatively simple and inexpensive. The effect of limonene on physicochemical properties of starch-based films (moisture absorption, solubility in water, wettability, mechanical properties were compared to glycerol plasticized system. Taking into consideration that the obtained materials could also exhibit bactericidal and fungicidal properties, the studies with Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were performed. Such a material could potentially find application in food packaging (e.g. masking unpleasant odors, hydrophilic starch film would prevent food drying, or in agriculture (e.g. for seed encapsulated tapes.

  18. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2016-01-01

    high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences...

  19. Chemical, Functional and Pasting Properties of Defatted Starches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of defatting on the chemical, functional and pasting properties of starches from cowpea and soybean and their application in stiff porridge preparation were studied. Conventional cassava starch served as standard. Defatting of cowpea and soybean resulted in higher yield. Defatted starches also had higher ...

  20. Starch deposits in Themeda triandra Forsk | WRE | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Themeda triandra tillers were examined microscopically at one to two-weekly intervals to determine where starch was deposited. Large numbers of starch grains were always present but the position of these deposits varied according to growth activity and flowering time of the plant. Starch deposits in the roots were usually ...

  1. Mechanical Properties of Potato- Starch Linear Low Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of potato-starch filled LLDPE such as Young's Modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break were studied. Apart from the Young's Modulus, the tensile strength and elongation at break reduced with increased starch content. This is attributed to poor adhesion between starch and the polymer ...

  2. Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch was extracted from seeds of Christ Thorn by hot water extraction method. The composition and physicochemical properties of the extracted starch were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the analyses revealed that the % yield of starch was 43.2%, while moisture content, ash content, ...

  3. Comparative studies of starch susceptibilities to α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayoade

    The objective of this work was to determine the susceptibilities of starches from Nigeria's high yielding local varieties of cassava and maize crops to α-amylase. Amylose/amylpectin content of each starch samples was determined. Susceptibilities to α-amylase were studied. The amylose/amylopectin content of the four starch ...

  4. Coordination of cassava starch to metal ions and thermolysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to decompose at ...

  5. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy

  6. Evaluation and Optimization of Godare Starch as a Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding and disintegrating properties of Godare (Colcosia esculenta) starch in paracetamol tablet formulations were evaluated in comparison with potato starch. Tablet crushing strengths (Hs), friabilities Frs), disintegration times (DTs) and porosities were determined. The results showed that Godare starch has a better ...

  7. composition and physicochemical properties of starch from christ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thompson O. Izuagie

    Starch was extracted from seeds of Christ Thorn by hot water extraction method. The composition and physicochemical properties of the extracted starch were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the analyses revealed that the % yield of starch was 43.2%, while moisture content, ash content, ...

  8. COORDINATION OF CASSAVA STARCH TO METAL IONS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to ...

  9. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  10. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  11. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction ...

  12. 7972 TACCA STARCH: A REVIEW OF ITS PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... If the industrial potentials of Tacca plant are fully exploited for its starch production, it could make Africa significantly contribute to the global starch production. The available data on the industrial potentials of the plant and starch is adequate to encourage the domestication and cultivation of this tropical plant ...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw cassava starch has been used as thickener and binder in the formulation of water based paint, but with a problem of loss of viscosity in a very short period. This study evaluates the modification of cassava starch using active component of ginger extract and its use as a water- based paint thickener. 150 g of starch in ...

  14. [Pharmacological properties of chitosan-coated dialdehyde cellulose (chitosan DAC), a newly developed oral adsorbent (II). Effect of chitosan DAC on rats with chronic renal failure induced by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, N; Yoshimoto, H; Nishitoba, T; Sato, H; Miyata, S; Kusaka, M; Jing, S B; Yamaguchi, T

    1995-08-01

    The effects of chitosan-coated dialdehyde cellulose (Chitosan DAC), a newly developed oral adsorbent of urea and ammonia, were examined in rats with progressive chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by adriamycin. CRF rats induced by repeated injections of adriamycin were fed a diet containing chitosan DAC (5% content) or Kremezin (5% content), an oral charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) under strict paired-feeding for four months. CRF rats that received both a normal diet and Kremezin showed progressive azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperlipidemia, proteinuria, and anemia, and began to die from 9 weeks after feeding started. In contrast, chitosan DAC-treatment showed marked prolongation of the survival period and decreases in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum phosphate. In addition, chitosan DAC-treatment ameliorated anemia in CRF rats, although hyperlipidemia and proteinuria were not improved. Furthermore, fecal weight, fecal water content, fecal nitrogen and fecal sodium were markedly increased, and the apparent protein ratio was decreased in CRF rats fed a diet containing chitosan DAC for 9 weeks. In contrast, none of these effects were observed in CRF rats receiving Kremezin. These observations suggest the further possibility of using oral adsorbent therapy for CRF patients.

  15. Control of starch content in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, A.V.; Filippova, G.I.; Gaitova, N.A.; Kutovenko, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes and connections defining the starch accumulation in potato tubers are showed. Using the radioisotope C14O2 are analysed data on carbohydrates accumulation in leaves, speed of their movement in tubers, synthetic and decomposing enzyme activities in plant organs, the content of starch in tubers depending on the combination of fertilizers. The necessity for dose phosphorus application level not lower than nitrogen is reasoned. Recommendations on the optimal combination of macrofertilizers, ensuring compromise between yield and tuber starchiness for sod-podzoil sandy-loam and loamy, grey forest, peat, chernozem soils in dry-farming and irrigation are given [ru

  16. Comparisons of Three Indicators for Frey's Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minor's Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan; Park, Bumjung

    2013-12-01

    To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects were divided into seven groups according to the temperature differences between operated and unoperated sites. The thermal differences were correlated with the results from Minor's starch iodine test and the subjective symptoms questionnaire. Of the 59 patients, 20 patients (33.9%) reported subjective symptoms after eating; 30 patients (50.8%) tested positive for Minor's starch iodine test, 19 patients (63.3%) of which reported subjective symptoms. Of the 29 patients who were negative for the iodine test, 2 patients (6.9%) reported subjective symptoms. Thus, subjective symptoms were well correlated with Minor's starch iodine test (r=0.589, Piodine test was 0.82℃±0.26℃, and that in the negative group was 0.10℃±0.47℃. With increased thermal differences, more patients showed positivity in the iodine test (χ(2)=29.9, Pstarch iodine test, and infrared thermography are well correlated with one another. Quantitative thermography provides clues for the wide variation in the incidence of Frey's syndrome, and could be a useful method for diagnosing and studying Frey's syndrome.

  17. Effect of Salt and Ethanol Addition on Zein-Starch Dough and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Selling, Gordon; Sessa, David; Aramouni, Fadi M

    2017-03-01

    Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein-starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein-80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na 2 SO 4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein-starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of β-ME had minimal softening effects on zein-starch dough. Specific volumes of zein-starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tailoring the structure and properties of amorphous starch blending and EB-radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandal, D.; Bliard, C.; Coqueret, X.; Mikus, P.Y.; Dole, P.; Baumberger, S.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Starch can be used alone and in combination with other compounds to make biodegradable articles from renewable resources. Lignins and their derivatives are good candidates for limiting the water sensitivity of starch-based materials, but they exhibit poor compatibility in blends with polysaccharides. Electron beam (EB) processing is proposed as an efficient method for inducing covalent linkages between the two constituents. Compared to unirradiated starting materials, the surface and bulk properties of EB-irradiated starch - lignin blends submitted to EB irradiation showed an interesting reduction in hydrophilicity. Radiation induced grafting of lignin models onto starch was shown to impede long-term retrogradation, with limited loss of mechanical properties. The reactivity under radiation of model blends was examined by several analytical methods. Maldi-T of mass spectrometry allowed us to propose reasonable free radical mechanisms that account for the grafting of various benzyl and cinnamyl alcohols onto maltodextrins. The presence of cinnamyl derivatives was found not only to limit degradation, but also modify the properties of the formulations (improved hydrophobicity, mechanical properties). Size exclusion chromatography and gel fraction measurements confirmed unambiguously the attachment of UV-absorbing chromophores onto the maltodextrin main chain. The combination of the obtained results demonstrates the possibility of altering in a favourable way the tensile properties of plasticized starch by applying high energy radiation to properly formulated blends including aromatic compounds like cinnamyl alcohol.

  20. Initial sustainability assessment of tapioca starch production system in Lake Toba area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Asido; Manik, Yosef

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore to what extent the principles of sustainability have been applied in a tapioca industry located in Lake Toba area and to explore the aspects that open the opportunities for system improvement. In conducting such assessment, we adopted the life-cycle approach using Mass Flow Analysis methods that covers all cassava starch production processes from fresh cassava root till dry cassava starch. The inventory data were collected from the company, in the form of both production record and interviews. From data analysis the authors were able to present a linked flow that describes the production process of tapioca starch that quantifies into the functional unit of one pack marketable tapioca starch weighs 50 kg. In order to produce 50 kg of tapioca, 200 kg cassava root and 800 kg of water are required. This production efficiency translates to 25% yield. This system generates 40 kg of cassava peel, 60 kg of pulp and 850 kg of waste water. For starch drying 208.8 MJ of thermal energy is required in the form of heating fuel. The material flow analysis is employed for impact assessment. Several options in improving the operation are proposed includes utilization of pulp into more valuable co-products, integration of waste treatment plant to enable the use of water recycled from the extraction operation for the washing process, and to application of a waste water treatment system that produces biogas as a renewable energy, which reduces the consumption of fuel in dryer unit.

  1. Simple Preparation of Novel Metal-Containing Mesoporous Starches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Manuel; Budarin, Vitaliy; Shuttleworth, Peter S.; Clark, James H.; Pineda, Antonio; Balu, Alina M.; Romero, Antonio A.; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Metal-containing mesoporous starches have been synthesized using a simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology followed by metal impregnation in the porous gel network. Final materials exhibited surface areas >60 m2 g−1, being essentially mesoporous with pore sizes in the 10–15 nm range with some developed inter-particular mesoporosity. These materials characterized by several techniques including XRD, SEM, TG/DTA and DRIFTs may find promising catalytic applications due to the presence of (hydr)oxides in their composition. PMID:28809249

  2. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  3. The "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2018-04-13

    This article reviews the application of the "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: (a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on "cryostabilization technology" of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); (b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; (c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of "solvent retention capacity" technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; (d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; (e) production of "baked-not-fried," chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; (f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; and (g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  4. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  5. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  6. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the

  7. Synthesis of poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted starch co-polymers by ring-opening polymerisation using silylated starch precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugih, Asaf K.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted corn starch co-polymers were synthesized using a hydrophobised silylated starch precursor. The silylation reaction was performed using hexamethyl disilazane (HMDS) as the reagent in DMSO at 70 degrees C. Silylated starch with a degree of substitution (DS) between

  8. Quantifying Resistant Starch Using Novel, In Vivo Methodology and the Energetic Utilization of Fermented Starch in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, M.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural 13C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch

  9. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitatecompatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy and wettability tests...

  10. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2012-01-01

    , a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high......Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded...... amylose-only grains may be due to an important physiological role played by amylopectin ordered crystallinity for rapid starch remobilization explaining the broad conservation in the plant kingdom of the amylopectin structure....

  11. Significance of thermal transitions on starch digestibility and firming kinetics of restricted water mixed flour bread matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Piga, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    The impact of wheat (WT) flour replacement up to 45% (weight basis) by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours on the thermal profiles of quaternary blended dough matrices have been investigated by simulating baking, cooling, and storage in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans. Endothermal transitions related to suitable patterns for low and slow starch hydrolysis, softer crumb and retarded firming kinetics in blended breads include delayed temperatures for starch gelatinization, and for the dissociation of amylose-lipid complex. In addition, (a) higher stability for the amylose-lipid inclusion complex, (b) lower energy for starch gelatinization, (c) lower limiting melting enthalpy and (d) slower rate for amylopectin retrogradation meet thermal requirements for achieving suitable textural and starch digestibility features in blended breads, fulfilled by adding T/GP/BW to replace 45% of WT flour in blended dough formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  13. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  14. Comprehensive review on electrospinning of starch polymer for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemamalini, Thillaipandian; Giri Dev, Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami

    2018-01-01

    Starch is an emerging polymer in biomedical research area due to its ease of availability, low- cost and biological values. Starch polymer has been used as powder and film in applications such as tissue engineering and hemostatic application. Starch in fibrous form is very difficult to produce due to the branched amylopectin structure. With the advent of electrospinning fibrous form of starch is attempted by various researchers. The present paper reports comprehensive review of attempts made on electrospinning of starch and its potential applications in biomedical and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristic of Arenga Starch-Taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) Flour Noodle with Addition of Beetroot Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, E. R. N.; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Elfanti, M. P.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour can be mixed with arenga starch in noodle making with 25% taro flour and 75% arenga starch as the best proportion. Addition of beetroot extract as red natural color may improve consumer preference and change the noodle characteristic. This research purpose is to know the effect of addition of beetroot extract on the noodle characteristic. Coloring extraction was done using 5 variances of beetroot (0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1; and 1.2 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and characteristic including physical and sensory properties were evaluated. The result showed that coloring extracts addition decreased the break compression, elongation, and tensile strength of arenga starch-taro flour sohun. Beetroot extract addition increased the red color and didn’t change sensory properties significantly.

  16. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis: combination of the starch-iodine test with the tumescent liposuction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, J M

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate and permanently improve axillary hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating of the axillae is a common problem for which patients frequently seek dermatologic advice and therapy. Many treatments, including aluminum chloride, topical and systemic anticholinergic agents, tranquilizers, iontophoresis, direct surgical excision, botulinum toxin injection, and thoracic sympathectomy, have been employed to control this problem. All have drawbacks of one sort or another. The starch-iodine technique for delineation of preoperative and postoperative axillary sweating is described in detail. A method of sweat gland removal utilizing tumescent liposuction is discussed. The combination of the starch-iodine technique and tumescent liposuction is safe and effective for therapy of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  17. Acute kidney injury with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Rasmus Gamborg; Haase, Nicolai; Lange, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to detail the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) vs. Ringer's on kidney function including the interaction with mortality in post-hoc analyses as resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 increased mortality in the Scandinavian Starch for Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock (6S) trial. METHODS...... on mortality was reduced when adjusting for AKI stage as a time-dependent covariate (P = 0.15). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe sepsis, HES appeared to increase the rate of severe AKI and use of RRT within the first 5 days. The increased mortality observed with HES may have been partly mediated through...

  18. Modelling the Effects of Ageing Time of Starch on the Enzymatic Activity of Three Amylolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nelson P.; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of increasing ageing time (t) of starch on the activity of three amylolytic enzymes (Termamyl, San Super, and BAN) was investigated. Although all the enzymatic reactions follow michaelian kinetics, v max decreased significantly (P enzymes and the release of the reaction products to the medium. A similar effect was observed when the enzymatic reactions were carried out with unaged starches supplemented with different concentrations of gelatine [G]. The inhibition in the amylolytic activities was best mathematically described by using three modified forms of the Michaelis-Menten model, which included a term to consider, respectively, the linear, exponential, and hyperbolic inhibitory effects of t and [G]. PMID:22666116

  19. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  20. Physicochemical characterization of starches from seven improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... plastic film manufacturing, so that the films would be biodegradable. Hence, based on their granules sizes, starch varieties of V4, V54 and V64 could be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as dusting agent, while V55, V66 and V73 could be involved in plastic films. It would be worth recalling ...

  1. Changes in sorghum starch during parboiling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Young, R

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains varying in grain hardness or endosperm texture (soft and intermediate) and starch composition (nonwaxy and waxy) were parboiled. Whole grain (one volume) and water (three volumes) were boiled, soaked for 12 hr, and brought to boil...

  2. Wheat B-starch based polymeric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotek, Jiří; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 9 (2011), s. 731 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /7./. 02.11.2011-04.11.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable plastic * polycaprolactone * B- starch Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE STARCH PASTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past~ng properties (gelatinization temperature, gelatinization time, viscosity, ease of cooking and starch stat;ility) of cassava, plantain and banana flours have been found to be affected by processing. Roasting and boiling, reduced peak .... and compare the effect of the afore mentioned processing methods on the pasting ...

  4. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  5. Lysozyme Uptake by Oxidized Starch Polymer Microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; de Vries, Renko; Kleijn, Mieke; Slaghek, Ted; Timmermans, Johan; Stuart, Martien Cohen; Norde, Willem

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of determining suitable conditions for uptake and release of globular proteins on microgels, we studied the interaction between phosphated, highly cross-linked, negatively charged oxidized potato starch polymer (OPSP) microgel particles and lysozyme from hen eggs. Our microgel shows a

  6. Lysozyme uptake by oxidized starch polymer microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Vries, de R.J.; Kleijn, J.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Timmermans, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of determining suitable conditions for uptake and release of globular proteins on microgels, we studied the interaction between phosphated, highly cross-linked, negatively charged oxidized potato starch polymer (OPSP) microgel particles and lysozyme from hen eggs. Our microgel shows a

  7. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  8. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  11. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of starch films from Andean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E

    2011-05-01

    Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  13. Review on Patents of starch nanoparticles: Preparation, Applications, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Feng, Tao; Zhuang, Ning Hai; Xu, Min Zhi; Ye, Ran; Sun, Min

    2018-03-20

    This review attempts to visualize the actual impact of starch nanoparticle-based materials in different areas. In recent patent databases, starch nanoparticles showed the importance of this material, as well as relevant topics concerning the applications of starch nanoparticles in different domains. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, papermaking, medicines as well as various composites. In this review, the most common techniques for starch nanoparticles preparation were found to be acid and enzymatic procedures, ultrasonic treatment, combination of hydrolysis and Ultrasonic treatment, high pressure homogenization, enzymatic hydrolysis and recrystallization and emulsion-crosslinking. This review is a useful tool for researchers to provide an update on starch nanoparticles patents in an expanding and interesting field of nanotechnology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  15. Modification of rice starch by gamma irradiation to produce soluble starch of low viscosity for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Saadany, R.M.A.; El Saadany, F.M.; Foda, Y.H.

    1974-01-01

    Because starch of low viscosity is important for industrial purposes this research was carried out to study the possibility of producing this sort of starch by treating rice starch with γ-irradiation. Results indicated than when rice starch was modified by γ-irradiation, the reducing power increased and degradation as well as molecular breakdown occured followed by sharp decrease of its viscosity, specific viscosity and intrisinc viscosity. Results showed that starch became more soluble by treating with γ-irradiation and lost its resistance to water as its swelling capacity decreased. All these changes were proportional to the doses of γ-irradiation. (orig.) [de

  16. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  17. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  18. Explaining perceived oral texture of starch-based custard desserts from standard and novel instrumental tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of in vitro and in vivo instrumental tests have been developed to reflect various aspects of the perceived oral texture of starch-based vanilla custard desserts. These tests include measurements of the food's infra-red reflectance (IRR), of the turbidity of spat-out rinse water, and of the

  19. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  20. Nanostructural Features of Silver Nanoparticles Powder Synthesized through Concurrent Formation of the Nanosized Particles of Both Starch and Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hebeish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green innovative strategy was developed to accomplish silver nanoparticles formation of starch-silver nanoparticles (St-AgNPs in the powder form. Thus, St-AgNPs were synthesized through concurrent formation of the nanosized particles of both starch and silver. The alkali dissolved starch acts as reducing agent for silver ions and as stabilizing agent for the formed AgNPs. The chemical reduction process occurred in water bath under high-speed homogenizer. After completion of the reaction, the colloidal solution of AgNPs coated with alkali dissolved starch was cooled and precipitated using ethanol. The powder precipitate was collected by centrifugation, then washed, and dried; St-AgNPs powder was characterized using state-of-the-art facilities including UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, particle size analyzer (PS, Polydispersity index (PdI, Zeta potential (ZP, XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and TGA. TEM and XRD indicate that the average size of pure AgNPs does not exceed 20 nm with spherical shape and high concentration of AgNPs (30000 ppm. The results obtained from TGA indicates that the higher thermal stability of starch coated AgNPS than that of starch nanoparticles alone. In addition to the data obtained from EDX which reveals the presence of AgNPs and the data obtained from particle size analyzer and zeta potential determination indicate that the good uniformity and the highly stability of St-AgNPs.

  1. Studies on rye starch properties and modification. Pt. 1. Composition and properties of rye starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, F.; Radosta, S.; Richter, M.; Kettlitz, B. (Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung, Potsdam (Germany)); Gernat, C. (Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin (Germany))

    1991-09-01

    Rye is considered as a potential raw material for starch industry. Starting from a survey of technical procedures of isolating starches from rye-flour and -grits investigations will be reported, which were performed on pilot plant- and laboratory-isolated rye starches. The present paper deals with its granule appearance and composition. A distribution of granule size between small granules ({<=} 10 {mu}m - 15%) and large granules ({>=} 11 ... {<=} 40 {mu}m = 85%) is typical for the totality of the starches. Differing distributions depend on the conditions of isolation: The entity of starch containing samples resulted from the latoratory procedures under investigation. Large-granule starch preparations were isolated in the pilot plant: The centrifuge-overflow contains the small-granule fraction which is high in impurities. Granule crystallinity amounts to 16%. The crystalline component - like in wheat and triticale starches - consists predominantly of A-polymorph - with up to 9% of the B-type. The isotherms of water exchange are of the cereal type. The contents of minor constituents largely relate to the small granule fraction which assembles the majority of crude protein, pentosans and lipids, which are difficult to remove. Lipid components in all fractions influence the results of linear chain-iodine interactions and they must be removed to proceed from apparent to absolute polysaccharide indices. The absolute amylose contents amount to {approx equal} 25% for large granule samples and to 20-21% for small granule samples. The average chain-length of iodine binding helical regions was determined with 220-240 AGU. (orig.).

  2. Graft polymerization of vinyl acetate onto starch. Saponification to starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanta, G.F.; Burr, R.C.; Doane, W.M.; Russell, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    Graft polymerizations of vinyl acetate onto granular cornstarch were initiated by cobalt-60 irradiation of starch-monomer-water mixtures, and ungrafted poly(vinyl acetate) was separated from the graft copolymer by benzene extraction. Conversions of monomer to polymer were quantitative at a radiation dose of 1.0 Mrad. Over half of the polymer was present as ungrafted poly(vinyl acetate) (grafting efficiency less than 50%), and the graft copolymer contained only 34% grafted synthetic polymer (34% add-on). Lower irradiation doses produced lower conversions of monomer to polymer and gave graft copolymers with lower % add-on. Addition of minor amounts of acrylamide, methyl acrylate, and methacrylic acid as comonomers produced only small increases in % add-on and grafting efficency. Grafting efficiency was increased to 70% when a monomer mixture containing about 10% methyl methacrylate was used. Grafting efficiency could be increased to over 90% if the graft polymerization of vinyl acetate--methyl methacrylate was carried out near 0 0 C; although conversion of monomers to polymer was low and grafted polymer contained 40 to 50% poly(methyl methacrylate). Selected graft copolymers were treated with methanolic sodium hydroxide to convert starch-g-poly(vinyl acetate) to starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol). The molecular weight of the poly(vinyl alcohol) moiety was about 30,000. The solubility of starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) in hot water was less than 50; however, solubility could be increased by substituting either acid-modified or hypochlorite-oxidized for unmodified starch in the graft polymerization reaction. Vinyl acetate was also graft polymerized onto acid-modified starch which had been dispersed and partially solubilized by heating in water. A total irradiation dose of either 1.0 or 0.5 Mrad gave starch-g-poly

  3. Microstructure, thermal properties and crystallinity of amadumbe starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukurumbira, Agnes; Mariano, Marcos; Dufresne, Alain; Mellem, John J; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-09-01

    Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta), commonly known as taro is a tropical tuber that produces starch-rich underground corms. In this study, the physicochemical properties of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared by acid hydrolysis of amadumbe starches were investigated. Two varieties of amadumbe corms were used for starch extraction. Amadumbe starches produced substantially high yield (25%) of SNC's. These nanocrystals appeared as aggregated and individual particles and possessed square-like platelet morphology with size: 50-100nm. FTIR revealed high peak intensities corresponding to OH stretch, CH stretch and H 2 O bending vibrations for SNCs compared to their native starch counterparts. Both the native starch and SNC exhibited the A-type crystalline pattern. However, amadumbe SNCs showed higher degree of crystallinity and slightly reduced melting temperatures than their native starches. Amadumbe SNCs presented similar thermal decomposition property as their native starches. Amadumbe starch nanocrystals may have potential application in biocomposite films due to their square-like platelet morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  5. Characterization of the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase I Gene in Chenopodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglass C. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L. is a relatively under-studied genus that includes the cultivated seed crop quinoa ( Willd.. Quinoa is an allotetraploid (2 = 4 = 36, AABB genomes that is cultivated by subsistence farmers and commercial growers in the Andean regions of South America. Approximately 60% of a quinoa seed is starch, a glucose polymer that is an important carbohydrate energy source in the human diet. Seed starch is normally composed of amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio. The accumulation of the amylose fraction of starch is controlled by a single dominant gene in quinoa, . We report the sequencing and characterization of the gene in 18 accessions of , including Andean quinoa and the related Mesoamerican chenopod domesticate, subsp. Saff. Two distinct homeologs ( and were identified in the tetraploid accessions, and 19 different alleles were identified, including three null mutants—one in an accession of quinoa and two in a waxy landrace of subsp. . Expression analysis of the null mutants revealed that and were both strongly expressed late in seed development. sequences were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships between quinoa and other members of the genus. This study and the discovery of null-mutants will assist in the development of new crops with novel starches.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Some Polyethylene Modified- Starch Biodegradable Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badrana, A.S.; Ramadanb, A.M.; Ibrahim, N.A.; Kahild, T.; Hussienc, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Blends of LDPE with soluble starch, wheat flour and commercial starch were prepared by mixing starch (or flour) with styrene then blending the mixture with LDPE, The starch percents vary between 5 and 50% of the total weight. Their physical and mechanical properties were recorded and compared with pure LDPE. It was observed that the increase in starch or wheat flour contents of the mixture was reversibly proportional to the tensile strength and % elongation. Samples were tested for water absorption. All of the samples were insoluble in cold and boiling water. Moisture uptake increased with immersion time and increasing starch content. The changes in the tensile strength of LDPE/starch (or wheat flour) after the course of thermal oxidation was measured. These results show negligible changes in the tensile strength of the control sample as compared to that of the samples containing the additives. Oxidation processes take advantage of the high temperatures (40-50 degree C) and the time. It was also observed that after 10 weeks of soil burial, the mechanical properties of the films decrease, mainly, due to starch removal from the films. Also, for the weight loss a drastic decrease was observed after 10 weeks of soil burial thereafter it preceded slowly. The LDPE/ starch strips showed weight loss after treating with a-amylase this due to hydrolysis and leaching of the starch. The rate of starch hydrolysis increases with the increase in starch content of the sample. The influence of addition of starch on the overall migration of these films, with different food simulant, was studied, at different temperatures (-4 degree. 25 degree and 40 degree C). All values were significantly lower than the upper limit for overall migration set by the EU (10 mg/dirf) for food grade plastics packaging materials

  7. The test of Tensile Properties and Water Resistance of a Novel Cross-linked Starch Prepared by Adding Oil-Flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dawei; Wang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to solve the poor water resistance and the low mechanical properties of starch, a mixed-starch composite matrix which including glycerol, sorbitol, and urea, were prepared via single-crew extrusion, then adding oil-flax to improve its physical mechanical and used to a source of biodegradable plastics material. The composite matrix was systematically characterized using various analytic tools including XRD, SEM and TG. The composite showed a maximum tensile strength of 18.11Mpa and moisture absorption 17.67%, while the original starch matrix was only 12.51 Mpa and 24.98%, respectively.

  8. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R 2 values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the structure of solids present in this residue was studied, seeking to future applications for new materials. The solids of the wastewater were spray dried with maltodextrin (MD with dextrose equivalent (DE of 5 and 15 and the structure of the powder was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. A regular structure with a network arrangement was observed for the dried material with MD of 5 DE, in contrast to the original and fermented starches structure, which suggests a regular organization of this new material, to be studied in future applications.

  10. Characterisation of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch as compared to commercial modified starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowakon Wattanachant

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch (HPST were determined and compared with five types of commercial modified starches (CMST in order to evaluate its quality for further applications. The HPST was prepared on a large scale having molar substitution (MS and degree substitution (DS values in the range of 0.038 to 0.045 and 0.004 to 0.005, respectively. The properties of HPST in terms of sediment volume, swelling power, solubility and paste clarity were 15.75%, 16.7, 8.62% and 5.18%T650 , respectively. The MS value, phosphorus content, paste clarity, swelling power and syneresis after six freeze-thaw cycles of HPST when compared to that of commercially available modified starches which are normally used or incorporated in acidic, frozen and canned foods did not differ significantly. The pasting characteristic of HPST exhibited thin to thick viscosity which was similar (P>0.05 to that of commercial hydroxypropylated crosslinked tapioca starch (NAT 8. The acid stability, solubility and freeze-thaw stability of both starches were also similar (P>0.05 but the swelling power of HPST was slightly lower (P<0.05 than that of NAT 8 .

  11. Cassava starch films containing acetylated starch nanoparticles as reinforcement: Physical and mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Ana Paula; Mali, Suzana; Romero, Natália; de Carvalho, Gizilene Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the use of acetylated starch nanoparticles (NPAac) as reinforcement in thermoplastic starch films. NPAac with an average size of approximately 500 nm were obtained by nanoprecipitation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that NPAac are more thermally stable and essentially amorphous when compared with acetylated starch. Thermoplastic starch films with different proportions of NPAac (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 10.0%, w/w) were obtained and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), adsorption isotherms, TGA and mechanical tests. The inclusion of reinforcement caused changes in film properties: WVP was lowered by 41% for film with 1.5% (w/w) of NPAac and moisture adsorption by 33% for film with 10% (w/w) of NPAac; and the Young's modulus and thermal stability were increased by 162% and 15%, respectively, for film with 0.5% (w/w) of NPAac compared to the starch film without the addition of NPAac. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dry heat treatment on physical property and in vitro starch digestibility of high amylose rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of dry heat treatment (DHT) of high amylose rice starch was investigated on starch digestibility and physical properties and their characteristics were compared through the PCA analysis. High amylose rice starch was prepared by DHT under different temperatures (110, 130, and 150°C) and times (0, 1, 2, and 4h). The gelatinization temperature and enthalpy decreased as temperature and time increased, revealing the change of semi-crystalline region. There were significant increases in gel strength and pasting viscosity above 130°C, whereas gel strength and pasting viscosity were reduced with increasing heating time. On in vitro starch digestibility of DHT starch gel, the rapidly digestible starch and predicted glycemic index of DHT starches were lower than those of native starch. Both the lowest predicted glycemic index and the highest gel strength was observed at 130°C for 1h. In the results of PCA analysis, the heating temperature was negatively correlated with in vitro starch digestibility as well as pasting viscosity and gel strength. These results demonstrated that DHT could be useful of enhancing the physical and nutritional properties of high amylose rice starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiate Ivo Mottin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  15. Computational modeling of biodegradable starch based polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin Sudhakar

    2007-12-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study is to improve the favorable molecular interactions between starch and PPC by addition of grafting monomers MA and ROM as compatibilizers, which would advance the mechanical properties of starch/PPC composites. Methodology. DFT and semi-empirical methods based calculations were performed on three systems: (a) starch/PPC, (b) starch/PPC-MA, and (c) starch-ROM/PPC. Theoretical computations involved the determination of optimal geometries, binding-energies and vibrational frequencies of the blended polymers. Findings. Calculations performed on five starch/PPC composites revealed hydrogen bond formation as the driving force behind stable composite formation, also confirmed by the negative relative energies of the composites indicating the existence of binding forces between the constituent co-polymers. The interaction between starch and PPC is also confirmed by the computed decrease in stretching CO and OH group frequencies participating in hydrogen bond formation, which agree qualitatively with the experimental values. A three-step mechanism of grafting MA on PPC was proposed to improve the compatibility of PPC with starch. Nine types of 'blends' produced by covalent bond formation between starch and MA-grafted PPC were found to be energetically stable, with blends involving MA grafted at the 'B' and 'C' positions of PPC indicating a binding-energy increase of 6.8 and 6.2 kcal/mol, respectively, as compared to the non-grafted starch/PPC composites. A similar increase in binding-energies was also observed for three types of 'composites' formed by hydrogen bond formation between starch and MA-grafted PPC. Next, grafting of ROM on starch and subsequent blend formation with PPC was studied. All four types of blends formed by the reaction of ROM-grafted starch with PPC were found to be more energetically stable as compared to the starch/PPC composite and starch/PPC-MA composites and blends. A blend of PPC and ROM grafted at the '

  16. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyńska, Renata; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Kapuśniak, Kamila; Kapuśniak, Janusz

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion - they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells) counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  17. Preparation and characterization of 1,6 anhydrous Β-D-Glucopyranose from starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Lopez, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to prepare 2-deoxi-2-fluoride-D-glucosa (2FDG) in an inert form there are several synthesis methods, but the more interesting one for our study is based in a reaction from the 1,6 anhydrous, Β-D-glucopyranose (1,6AGP), in an attempt to compare the labelling efficiency rate of 2FDG with F-18, which is highly used in nuclear medicine. In the present paper the attainment of starch from white potatoe, infrared analysis of this starch and fusion point are included. Also results are compared with an analytical reactive standard. The process of preparation of 1,6AGP by pyrolysis of starch under reduced pressure, its separation and purification by crystallization and infrared characterization of 1,6AGP, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are also included. 10 kg. of potatoes were used, and 93059 g. ±5.8 of starch with an efficiency rate of 9.32 ±0.631; fusion point was 272 o C and there was a 9.83 ± 1.48 % of humidity. After the pyrolysis, crystallization an purification processes, 1.71 ±0.54 % of 1,6AGP were obtained. Later results of compound characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectrometry were compared with a commercial product and it was proved that it corresponds to such pure compound. (Author)

  18. Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Ederson Paulo Xavier; de Oliveira, Jocilane Pereira; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Cota, Junio; Mara Aparecida de Carvalho, Bruna

    2017-11-01

    A bioreactor was built by means of immobilizing alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae by encapsulation, through cryopolymerization of acrylamide monomers for the continuous starch hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis was evaluated regarding pH, the concentration of immobilized amylase on cryogel, the concentration of starch solution and temperature. The maximum value for starch hydrolysis was achieved at pH 5.0, concentration of immobilized enzyme 111.44 mg amylase /g cryogel , concentration of starch solution 45 g/L and temperature of 35°C. The immobilized enzyme showed a conversion ratio ranging from 68.2 to 97.37%, depending on the pH and temperature employed. Thus, our results suggest that the alpha-amylase from A. oryzae immobilized on cryogel monoliths represents a potential process for industrial production of maltose from starch hydrolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of carboxymethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl starch was synthesized by the esterification of starch with monochloroacetic acid in ethanol as a reaction medium. Three samples of carboxymethyl starch having different degrees of substitution were prepared. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of concentrated carboxymethyl starch solutions, as well as the dynamic-mechanical properties of the concentrated solutions were investigated. The activation energy of viscous flow was determined and it was found that it decreased with increasing degree of substitution. The results of the dynamic-mechanical measurements showed that solutions of starch and carboxymethyl starches with higher degrees of substitution behave as gels. Values of the storage modulus in the rubbery plateau were used to calculate the molar masses between two points of physical crosslinking, the density of crosslinking and the distance between two points of crosslinking.

  20. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  1. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  2. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on starch and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenha, J.; Bockova, J.

    1973-09-01

    The investigation is reported of the effects of ionizing radiation both on macromolecular systems generally and on polysaccharides, starch and cellulose. Attention is focused on changes in the physical and physico-chemical properties of starch and cellulose, such as starch swelling, gelation, viscosity, solubility, reaction with iodine, UV, IR and ESR spectra, chemical changes resulting from radiolysis and from the effect of amylases on irradiated starch, changes in cellulose fibre strength, water absorption, stain affinity, and also the degradation of cellulose by radiation and the effect of cellulases on irradiated cellulose. Practical applications of the findings concerning cellulose degradation are discussed. (author)

  4. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  5. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical properties of trays based on starch of native plant species and fiber of agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural fibers derived from agro-industrial waste in density, weight and mechanical properties of the termoprensadas foams made of starch native species, such as sweet potatoes, oca and arracacha. The thermoforming process was carried out at a temperature of 145 ° C and a pressure of 60 bar. The baking time was 10-15 min depending on water content in the mixture. The trays were characterized by their density, weight, impact test, deflection tests, colorimetry, hardness, and fracturability values. The trays prepared by thermopressure based on sweet potato starch-bagasse fiber from sugar cane at 15%, and arracacha starch -peladilla asparagus fiber at 30% had higher values in flexural strength versus those made with other types of starches and fibers, including blank tests. Generally, the hardness of the trays is favored with increasing fiber, however fracturability decreases or does not improve the integrity of the polymeric matrix. The results shown in this study allow the preparation of biodegradable trays for various industrial applications.

  7. Characteristics of taro (Colocasia esculenta) starches planted in different seasons and their relations to the molecular structure of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting-Jang; Lin, Jheng-Hua; Chen, Jia-Ci; Chang, Yung-Ho

    2008-03-26

    Physico-chemical properties and molecular structure of starches from three cultivars (Dog hoof, Mein, and KS01) of taro tubers planted in summer, winter, and spring were investigated. The effects of the planting season on the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch were determined, and the relations between the physico-chemical properties and the molecular structure of starch are discussed. Results indicate that taro starches from tubers planted in summer had the largest granule size, a low uniformity of gelatinization, and a high tendency to swell and collapse when heated in water. Taro starch planted in summer also showed an elasticity during gelatinization that was higher than that of starches planted in the other seasons. In addition to the planting season and the variety, rheological and pasting properties of taro starches studied are influenced not only by the amylose content but also by the chain-length distribution of amylopectin, whereas swelling power and solubility only depend on the amylose content of starch. Taro starch with relatively high amylose content, high short-to-long-chain ratio, and long average chain length of long-chain fraction of amylopectin displayed high elasticity and strong gel during heating.

  8. Effect of dietary fiber/starch balance on the cecal proteome of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanli; Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Xuepeng; Li, Bing; Li, Fuchang

    2014-05-30

    Dietary fiber/starch imbalance can lead to diarrhea in rabbits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, and this is the first study on the proteome profile of the cecal tissue of diarrheic rabbits. In this study, one group of weanling rabbits was fed a high fiber/starch diet (control group), and another group was fed a low fiber/starch diet (diarrhea group). We applied 2-D gel electrophoresis, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes in the proteome of the cecal tissue from healthy and diarrheic growing rabbits. We identified 29 protein spots showing differential abundance between the two groups. We identified the proteins and found that they participated in key biological processes, including absorption, digestion and transport; cell structure and motility; inflammatory response; glucose and energy metabolism; mineral and vitamin metabolism; stress response and cell redox homeostasis. Moreover, the results of our proteomics analysis revealed continuous impairment and compensatory intestinal repair in the rabbits with diarrhea. Therefore, these findings shed light on the main mechanisms and the main proteins involved in intestinal degradation in diarrhea. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cecal damage and repair in diarrhea in rabbits caused by dietary factors. The different cecal protein expressions were compared between healthy and diarrhea in growing rabbit model fed different fiber/starch diets. Diarrhea caused by feeding high-starch diet induced mucosal injury and inflammation. In this work we identify protein spots by MALDI-TOF MS and classify by biological function. The finding that the expression of all other proteins belonging to seven functional groups was significantly increased in the diarrheic rabbits, except for CMBL, suggests that many intestinal functional proteins may be related to up-regulation, such as cell absorption, digestion, transport

  9. The cereal starch endosperm development and its relationship with other endosperm tissues and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The cereal starch endosperm is the central part of endosperm, and it is rich in starch and protein which are the important resources for human food. The starch and protein are separately accumulated in starch granules and protein bodies. Content and configuration of starch granules and protein bodies affect the quality of the starch endosperm. The development of starch endosperm is mediated by genes, enzymes, and hormones, and it also has a close relationship with other endosperm tissues and embryo. This paper reviews the latest investigations on the starch endosperm and will provide some useful information for the future researches on the development of cereal endosperm.

  10. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Thomas W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-05-11

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and the plastidial starch phosphorylase1 (Pho1) are two regulatory enzymes whose catalytic activities are essential for starch granule synthesis. Conversion of the pre-starch granule to the mature form is dependent on AGPase, which produces ADPglucose, the substrate used by starch synthases. The catalytic activity of AGPase is controlled by small effector molecules and a prime goal of this project was to decipher the role of the two subunit types that comprise the heterotetrameric enzyme structure. Extensive genetic and biochemical studies showed that catalysis was contributed mainly by the small subunit although the large subunit was required for maximum activity. Both subunits were needed for allosteric regulatory properties. We had also demonstrated that the AGPase catalyzed reaction limits the amount of starch accumulation in developing rice seeds and that carbon flux into rice seed starch can be increased by expression of a cytoplasmic-localized, up-regulated bacterial AGPase enzyme form. Results of subsequent physiological and metabolite studies showed that the AGPase reaction is no longer limiting in the AGPase transgenic rice lines and that one or more downstream processes prevent further increases in starch biosynthesis. Further studies showed that over-production of ADPglucose dramatically alters the gene program during rice seed development. Although the expression of nearly all of the genes are down-regulated, levels of a starch binding domain containing protein (SBDCP) are elevated. This SBDCP was found to bind to and inhibit the catalytic activity of starch synthase III and, thereby preventing maximum starch synthesis from occurring. Surprisingly, repression of SBDCP elevated expression of starch synthase III resulting in increasing rice grain weight. A second phase of this project examined the structure-function of Pho1, the enzyme required during the initial phase of pre-starch granule formation and its

  11. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starchstarch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  12. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  13. Microbial starch-binding domains as a tool for targeting proteins to granules during starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Modification of starch biosynthesis pathways holds an enormous potential for tailoring granules or polymers with new functionalities. In this study, we explored the possibility of engineering artificial granule-bound proteins, which can be incorporated in the granule during biosynthesis. The

  14. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    testing laboratories analyzed 10 homogenous test materials representing animal feedstuffs and pet foods in duplicate using the dietary starch assay. The test samples ranged from 1 to 70% in dietary starch content and included moist canned dog food, alfalfa pellets, distillers grains, ground corn grain, poultry feed, low starch horse feed, dry dog kibbles, complete dairy cattle feed, soybean meal, and corn silage. The average within-laboratory repeatability SD (sr) for percentage dietary starch in the test samples was 0.49 with a range of 0.03 to 1.56, and among-laboratory repeatability SDs (sR) averaged 0.96 with a range of 0.09 to 2.69. The HorRat averaged 2.0 for all test samples and 1.9 for test samples containing greater than 2% dietary starch. The HorRat results are comparable to those found for AOAC Method 996.11, which measures starch in cereal products. It is recommended that the dietary starch method be accepted for Official First Action status.

  15. The effect of starch paste and sodium starch glycolate on thecompaction behavior of wet granulated acetaminophenformulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsvatkumar Patel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect, of varying the proportion of binder starch paste (SP and the disintegrant sodium starch glycolate(SSG, on the compaction behavior of wet granulated acetaminophen (ACM formulations using a fullyinstrumented rotary tablet press, was studied. Wet granulation formulations were prepared using ACM, SP asbinder (equal to 2.5%, 5% or 10% starch concentration, SSG as disintegrant (0%, 4%, 8%, or 12 % w/w,microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and magnesium stearate (MS (1.5 % w/w. Upper and lower punch force-displacement data during in-die compaction was captured using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press at 13.8rpm at 96 ± 8, 163 ± 13, 235 ±12 MPa compaction pressures. Elastic energy [EE] and tablet tensile strengthwas determined as a function of starch and SSG concentration and compaction pressure. At a givencompactionpressure, increasing the proportion of SSG resulted in higher values of elastic energy (0.28 to0.76 Nm with increase in SSG from 0% to 12% at 5% starch and 235 ±12 MPa compaction pressures. Thenegative effect of SSG on the overall compressibility of granules was due to its high elastic energy anddecrease in interparticulate bonding. When examining the elastic energy at increasing SP levels, a decrease inelastic energy was evident (0.60, 0.50 and 0.31 Nm for 2.5%, 5% and 10% starch at 4% SSG and 235 ±12MPa compaction pressures respectively. At a given composition, an increase in compaction pressure led to anincrease in elastic energy (0.15, 0.33 and 0.50 Nm at 4% SSG and 5% starch for 96 ± 8, 163 ± 13, 235 ±12MPa compaction pressures, respectively. When changing SSG and binder (SP concentration levels tensilestrength was indirectly proportional to elastic energy during compaction. Negative influence of SSG on elasticenergy indicated by increased EE and decreased tensile strength and positive influence of SP was evident onlower elastic energy and higher tensile strength of tablets.

  16. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Alcohol-Alkaline-Treated Rice Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starch (Thai Flour Industry, Thailand), sodium starch glycolate (Explotab®, Rama Chem,. Thailand), colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil® 200,. Evonik Industries AG, Germany) and magnesium stearate (Fluka Chemika, Switzerland) were of commercial grade. Preparation of MRS. MRS was prepared by a method of Chen and.

  18. Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of 3 Lilium Bulb Starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Lilium (Liliaceae) is an important wild plant and is used as food and traditional medicine worldwide. One Lilium cultivar (Lilium lancifolium) and 2 wild types (Lilium leucanthum and Lilium rosthornii) that are commonly distributed in Western China were investigated to completely utilize Lilium resources. The morphology of the flowers, bulbs, and scales and soluble sugar, total starch and amylose contents was remarkably different among the 3 Lilium species. Starches from the 3 Lilium species presented different granule size and shape. The starch of L. lancifolium exhibited higher swelling power and solubility than that of L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. The starches from the 3 Lilium bulbs presented similar X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the 3 Lilium species, L. lancifolium showed the lowest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structures in granule external region. Gelatinization temperatures and retrogradation percentage were significantly lower, but gelatinization enthalpy was significantly higher in L. lancifolium than those in L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Pasting properties of starch were different among the 3 Lilium species. Starch from L. lancifolium showed the highest degree of amylopectin branching, followed by L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Starches from L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii showed higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis compared to that of L. lancifolium. These results indicated that 3 Lilium bulbs exhibited remarkable differences in morphological, crystal, thermal, pasting, and hydrolysis properties of starches. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Utilization of sweetpotato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. ..... It is affected by moisture content and particle size ... Tables 3. Sensory evaluation of Bread produced from wheat: sweet potato starch and flour composite. Sample. Starch. Flour. Colour. Taste. Texture.

  20. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... (Raj, 2003). Also, starch based plastic did not have a negative effect on the environment and also reduced the green house effect (Bastioli, 2001). Synthetic plastic takes a long time to degrade in nature. The use of starch as a biodegradable agent accelarated the time of degradation in the environment.

  1. Crystallinity in starch plastics: consequences for material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, J.J.G. van

    1997-01-01

    The processing of starches with biodegradable additives has made biodegradable plastics suitable for a number of applications. Starch plastics are partially crystalline as a result of residual crystallinity and the recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin. Such crystallinity is a key determinant

  2. Potential industrial utilization of starches extracted from new yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, starches of some improved cassava varieties were analyzed in order to detect those revealing potentialities and aptitude for industrial exploitation. ... All starches showed very strong water absorption capacity with the strong value recorded by V53 (122.52 ± 1.57 %) and the lowest by V63 (104.84 ± 0.55 %) and ...

  3. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic materials remain in the nature for decades. Slow degradation of plastics in the environment caused a public trend to biodegradable polymers. The aim of this research was to produce the microbial biodegradable low density polyethylene with potato starch. Degradation of potato starch based low density polyethylene ...

  4. Degradation and Moisture Absorption Study of Potato-starch Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    More thrust is paid to blending of synthetic polymers with macromolecules such as starch, chitin and chitosan etc(Van Soest and. Kortleve, 1999; Salmoral, et al., 2000; Park et al., 2001). Starch is widely considered a choice filler for this purpose; it is biodegradable, relatively cheap, non toxic and available in many forms(Lim ...

  5. Physicochemical properties of two brands of pregelatinised starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A commercially available pregelatinised starch (PS) and a traditional starch (CS) were employed for comparison. 68% each of EGP and PS were retained on sieve size 100 and their particle size ranged between 30 and 130µm. The packing and flow characteristics of EGP and PS such as bulk densities of EGP and PS were ...

  6. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  7. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  8. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to formulate metronidazole tablets using starch from Xanthosoma sagittifolium as binder and disintegrant in metronidazole tablets. Metronidazole tablets were produced by wet granulation method using X. sagittifolium starch as binder at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w, and as disintegrant ...

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of starches of two quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate physico-chemical and functional properties of starches from two novel (white and yellow QPM) varieties of maize cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire in order to explore their potential use in food and non food industries. Methodology and results: Starches ...

  10. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... were converted into starch and analysed for some functional and pasting properties. Variations were observed in the functional properties of the starch samples; water absorption capacity ranged from. 59.75 – 68.02%; oil absorption capacity 60.70 – 80.01%; swelling power 5.49 – 6.92% and solubility index.

  11. Biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen different modified-cassava starch-LLDPE blends containing starch in the range of 10-40% by weight were prepared. Calcium chloride, D-glucose, chloroform and alumina were differently used as modifying agents. The Moisture uptake and biodegradation of each of the composites were investigated. Both of these ...

  12. Effects of Native and Pregelatinised Fonio starches on compression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native and modified (pregelatinised) Fonio starches were evaluated as binding agents in comparison with maize starch B.P. in paracetamol tablet formulations. Compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and assessed by the compression equation of Heckel. The mechanical ...

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Starches from eight Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-04

    Sep 4, 2006 ... Starches from eight Dioscorea alata cultivars grown in Jamaica were isolated and characterized. The starches were found to possess the open hydrated hexagonal crystalline pattern (type-B) with apparent amylose content ranging from 20.117 ± 0.017 gKg-1 for Darknight yam to 23.001 ± 0.058 gKg-1 for.

  14. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  15. Investigation on modification of cassava starch using active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ginger grates at concentrations of l, 5 and 20 g per 150 g of cassava starch suspension in 200 ml of water at room temperature were investigated in order to evaluate the potentials of active components of the ginger in modifying pasting and some physicochemical properties of the starch. Pasting properties of the ...

  16. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Soma [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Teraoka, Iwao [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering; Miller, Lisa M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); Gross, Richard A. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing of Macromolecules, Othmer Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science and Engineering

    2004-12-13

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into the outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.

  17. Ruminal and postruminal digestion of dietary protein and starch in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the small intestine may be quantitatively and qualitatively even more important. This results firstly because, since amino. S. Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 1996,26(314). Ruminal and postruminal digestion of dietary protein and starch in steers: 2. Multivariate model prediction of non-ammonia nitrogen and starch passage and digestibility.

  18. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  19. Preparation and properties of starch-based colloidal microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziechciarek, Y.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Philipse, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Novel starch microgels were prepared by emulsion cross-linking and characterized with respect to shape, volume, and mass density. Starch microgels appear to be negatively charged (similar to-50 mV), with a particle size varying as a function of the type of cross-linker (ca. 0.25-10 mum).

  20. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  1. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  2. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  3. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  4. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... properties of the particles affect the packing and cohesive properties of the starches, and are important in predicting the behaviour of the starches during handling and use in pharmaceutical preparations. These properties need to be closely controlled in pre-formulation studies. Keywords: Packing and cohesive properties, ...

  5. Evaluation of Some Starches as Disintegrants in Sodium Salicylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disintegrant properties of official maize and potato starches and locally produced cassava starch in sodium salicylate tablet formulations were studied. The disintegrants were added intragranularly in each batch. Concentration range of 5 % to 15 % w/w of each disintegrant was used. In vitro dissolution profile, uniformity ...

  6. Kinetics of the gas-solid hydroxyethylation of potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Beenackers, A.A C M

    The kinetics of the reaction between gaseous ethylene oxide and semidry granular potato starch was studied in a pressure-controlled semibatch reactor with and without impregnation of the starch with the catalyst sodium hydroxide. Four parallel reactions are involved: the catalyzed (with reaction

  7. Effects of processing conditions on hydrolysis of cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different procedures for hydrolyzing raw cassava starch were studied, namely: acid, acid-enzyme and enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis. The effects of temperature, initial cassava starch concentration, acid concentration and time on acid hydrolysis using dilute hydrochloric acid were investigated. In addition, the effect of initial ...

  8. The kinetics of the acetylation of gelatinised potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.A.; Broekroelofs, G.A.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1995-01-01

    The reaction rates, in the base-catalysed acetylation of gelatinised aqueous starch (4 wt%), by vinylacetate (ViAc), were investigated in a semibatch reactor at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 degrees C. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel

  9. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exceed 0.075 percent and sulfur dioxide, not to exceed 0.05 percent Chlorine, as calcium hypochlorite... a component of batter for commercially processed foods. Chlorine, as sodium hypochlorite, not to... hypochlorite, not to exceed 0.055 pound of chlorine per pound of dry starch. (d) Food starch may be esterified...

  10. Potential Targets for Seed Improvement through Bioengineering Starch Synthesis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is the principle carbohydrate in the food chain and is a renewable and biodegradable polymer widely used in the food, beverage, paper, textile, and livestock feed industries. It is the major component of the harvestable organs in many agronomic plants. The quantity and quality of starch thus ...

  11. Pickering emulsions stabilized by media-milled starch particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanxuan; Xiao, Jie; Huang, Qingrong

    2018-03-01

    A simple, organic solvent-free media-milling process was applied to modify the structure and morphology of maize starch granules. During the milling process, the sizes of starch granules reduced dramatically while their crystalline structure was largely damaged as verified by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The surface hydrophobicity of milled starch was also characterized by contact angle measurement. These media-milled starch suspensions with different starch concentrations (i.e., 2.4%, 7.2% and 10.0%) were used as stabilizers to form Pickering emulsions. The droplet sizes of the Pickering emulsions prepared in this study ranged from approximately 10μm to 900μm depending on the milling time and the initial starch concentration. The droplet sizes decreased with prolonged milling time and increased initial starch concentration. Milled starch particles of around 100nm anchored at the emulsion interfaces were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Although some emulsions creamed immediately after homogenization, most emulsions exhibited stability against coalescence during the long-term storage of 6months. The emulsions also exhibited benign stability against a wide range of pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions. This research provides a new green approach to form food-grade emulsions to deliver active food ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated

  13. Understanding the role of plasticisers in spray-dried starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were produced by compression moulding of solution spray-dried TPS powder and by direct solution casting. Oxidised potato starch was used as a feedstock for production of plasticised formulations containing glycerol or urea, or their combinations with

  14. Combination of malted cereals and cassava starch in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative capacity of malted cereals and their optimum conditions of temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of starch were studied. Malted cereals prepared from rice, maize, sorghum and millet were used to degrade cassava starch to produce sugar syrup. Effect of pH and temperature on the level of dextrose equivalent ...

  15. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  16. Effect of cassava starch substituion on the functional and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The starch cake was rinsed four times, dried in the oven at 40oC for 24 hrs, milled and sieved. The cassava starch was used to substitute 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of trifoliate yam flour. The control white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers were peeled, washed and diced. The diced yam tubers were parboiled at temperature of ...

  17. Modelling oral conditions and thickness perception of a starch product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, C.I.; Smit, G.; Dransfield, E.

    2008-01-01

    Food components stimulate salivation, and the flow and composition of the saliva also affect the perception of the food product. In starch-containing foods, salivary ¿-amylase breaks down the starch and this may cause thinning in semi-solid foods. The aims were to determine the importance of

  18. Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-01-01

    This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC...

  19. Isolation and physicochemical characterisation of starch from cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) grown in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweta, Davies E; Labuschagne, Maryke T; Bonnet, Susanna; Swarts, Jannie; Saka, John D K

    2010-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of starches isolated from Malawian cocoyams and compare them with those of cassava and corn starches. The purity of the isolated starches varied from 851 to 947 g kg(-1) and pH from 4.93 to 6.95. Moisture, ash, protein, fat and amylose contents ranged from 104 to 132, 0.3 to 1.5, 3.5 to 8.4, 0.9 to 1.6, and 111 to 237 g kg(-1), respectively. Cocoyam starches gave higher potassium and phosphorus but lower calcium levels than the other starches. The shape of starch granules varied from spherical to polygonal with cocoyam starches displaying smaller-sized granules than cassava and corn starches. Cocoyam starches gave a higher wavelength of maximum iodine absorption and blue value but lower reducing capacity values than cassava and corn starches. The extent of acid hydrolysis of the starches also differed. Cocoyam starches exhibited amylopectin molecules of higher molecular weights but amylose molecules of lower molecular weights than cassava and corn starches. Cocoyam starches exhibited lower water absorption capacity and swelling power, paste clarity and viscosity but higher solubility, gelatinisation temperatures and retrogradation tendencies than cassava and corn starches. The physicochemical properties of native Malawian cocoyam starches vary among the different accessions and differ from those of cassava and corn starches. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Redox Impact on Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skryhan, Katsiaryna

    Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism...... are coordinated by the redox state of the cell via post-translational modification of the starch metabolic enzymes containing redox active cysteine residues and these cysteine residues became cross-linked upon oxidation providing a conformational change leading to activity loss; 2) cysteine residues...... of chloroplast enzymes can play a role not only in enzyme activity and redox sensitivity but also in protein folding and stability upon oxidation. Several redox sensitive enzymes identified in this study can serve as potential targets to control the carbon flux to and from starch during the day and night...

  2. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  3. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  4. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  5. Synthesis of graft copolymers onto starch and its semiconducting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Çankaya

    Full Text Available Literature review has revealed that, although there are studies about grafting on natural polymers, especially on starch, few of them are about electrical properties of graft polymers. Starch methacrylate (St.met was obtained by esterification of OH groups on natural starch polymer for this purpose. Grafting of synthesized N-cyclohexyl acrylamide (NCA and commercial methyl methacrylate (MMA monomers with St.met was done by free radical polymerization method. The graft copolymers were characterized with FT-IR spectra, thermal and elemental analysis. Thermal stabilities of the graft copolymers were determined by TGA (thermo gravimetric analysis method and thermal stability of the copolymers is decreased via grafting. The electrical conductivity of the polymers was measured as a function of temperature and it has been observed that electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature. The absorbance and transmittance versus wavelength of the polymers have been measured. Keywords: Starch, Graft copolymer, Semiconducting, Thermal stability, Starch methacrylate

  6. Irradiation of starches for industrial uses: Chemical and physical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.

    1999-01-01

    Corn and cassava starches have been irradiated with gamma doses from 10 to 180 kGy and pastes have been prepared by boiling the starches in water. The rheological properties of the pastes have been determined showing that the 10 kGy dose reduces sharply the viscosity of the aqueous pastes. The solubility of the irradiated starches has been also studied. The cassava starch irradiated with 180 kGy is soluble in boiling water and remains soluble at room temperature. After some considerations on the chemical effects of the irradiation it is concluded that the irradiation technique is suitable to replace the chemical treatment in many industrial applications of the starch. (author)

  7. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Function of isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 in the Zea mays leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiaohui; Facon, Maud; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dinges, Jason R; Wattebled, Fabrice; D'Hulst, Christophe; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    Conserved isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISAs), including the catalytic ISA1 and noncatalytic ISA2, are major starch biosynthesis determinants. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves require ISA1 and ISA2 for physiological function, whereas endosperm starch is near normal with only ISA1. ISA functions were characterized in maize (Zea mays) leaves to determine whether species-specific distinctions in ISA1 primary structure, or metabolic differences in tissues, are responsible for the differing ISA2 requirement. Genetic methods provided lines lacking ISA1 or ISA2. Biochemical analyses characterized ISA activities in mutant tissues. Starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin fine structure were determined. Three ISA activity forms were observed in leaves, two ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimers and one ISA1 homomultimer. ISA1 homomultimer activity existed in mutants lacking ISA2. Mutants without ISA2 differed in leaf starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin structure compared with nonmutants or lines lacking both ISA1 and ISA2. The data imply that both the ISA1 homomultimer and ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer function in the maize leaf. The ISA1 homomultimer is present and functions in the maize leaf. Evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots probably explains the ability of ISA1 to function as a homomultimer in maize leaves, in contrast to other species where the ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer is the only active form. No claim to original US goverment works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  10. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  11. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  12. The Mechanism of Starch Over-Accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii High-Starch Mutants Identified by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang M. Koo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1 expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway. Interestingly, transcript levels of phosphoglucose isomerase 1 (PGI1, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 1 and 2 (FBA1 and FBA2 were down-regulated in all mutants; PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 act on downstream of glucose 6-phosphate conversion in glycolytic pathway. Therefore, down-regulations of PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 may lead to accumulation of upstream metabolites, notably glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in induction of PGM1 expression through feed-forward regulation and that PGM1 overexpression caused starch over-accumulation in mutants. These results suggest that PGI1, FBA1, FBA2, and PGM1 correlate with each other in terms of coordinated transcriptional regulation and play central roles for starch over-accumulation in C. reinhardtii.

  13. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Bolam, D.N.; Gilbert, H.J.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptice

  15. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barczyńska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion – they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  16. Influence of barley grain treated with alkaline compounds or organic extracts on site and extent of digestion of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naseroleslami

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two ex vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effect of barley grain (Nusrat cultivar treated with alkaline compounds (AC including alum, ammonium, and sodium hydroxide or cation-exchanged organic extracts (OE prepared from alfalfa hay, sugar beet pulp and Ulva Fasciata, on extent and digestion of starch. Methods In the first study, the in vitro first order disappearance kinetic parameters of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch were estimated using a non-linear model (D(t = D(i · e(−kd · time + I, where: D(t = potentially digestible residues at any time, D(i = potentially digestible fraction at any time, kd = fractional rate constant of digestion (/h, I = indigestible fraction at any time. In the second experiment, the ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, and starch were determined using in situ mobile nylon bag. Results Barley grains treated with alum and alfalfa extract had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.11 and 0.09/h than others. Barley grain treated with OE had a higher constant rate of CP digestion and that of treated with AC had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.08 and 0.11/h compared with those of the other treatments. The indigestible fraction of starch treated with alum and sugar beet pulp extract was higher than that of the control group (0.24 and 0.25 vs 0.21. Barley grain treated with AC and OE had significant CP disappearance in the rumen, post-rumen and total tract, and also starch disappearance for post-rumen and total tract compared with the untreated (p<0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated that AC and OE might have positive effects on the starch degradation of the barley grain. In addition, treating barley grain with alum and sugar beet pulp extract could change the site and extend digestion of protein and starch.

  17. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains......The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......-anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan...

  18. Studies on alkali-modified cassava starch - changes of structural and enzyme (. alpha. -amylase) susceptibility properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, K.C.M. (Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India). Fermentation Section)

    1992-04-01

    Properties of cassava starch could be modified by subjecting to alkali treatment under controlled experimental conditions. Modified starch samples showed lower amylose content and higher alkali number. Compared to untreated starch samples, alkali modified starches had higher {alpha}-amylase (Bacillus sp.) susceptibility. The properties could be advantageously made use of for preparing maltodextrins having DE 20-23. (orig.).

  19. Hydroxypropylation of pigeon pea (cajanus cajan) starch: Preparation, functional characterizations and enzymatic digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, O.S.

    2008-05-01

    Hydroxypropyl starch derivatives were prepared from pigeon pea starch (NPPS) which is an unconventional starch source. Functional parameters and characterization of both native and modified starches were carried out. The starch granules appeared oval or elliptical in shape with sizes ranging from 7 - 40 μm in width and 10 . 30 μm in length. Hydroxypropylation did not alter the shape of the starch granules in a pronounced way. Generally, the x-ray diffractograms of both native and hydroxypropyl derivatives showed the 'C' pattern. However, slight reductions were observed in the intensity of starches after modification. At all temperatures studied (30 - 90 deg. C), swelling and solubility of hydroxypropylated starches were higher than the NPPS. Progressive increases in swelling capacity and solubility were observed as the MS increased among the hydroxypropylated starches. Hydroxypropylation reduced starch paste turbidity on storage. Also, studies showed that syneresis reduced after hydroxypropylation. In addition, syneresis reduced as the MS of the hydroxypropyl starches increased. The results indicate that pasting temperature and peak temperature reduced after modification but peak viscosity increased in hydroxypropylated starch derivatives compared with the native starch. Setback reduced in hydroxypropylated starches compared with the native starch. Enthalpy of gelatinization and percentage retrogradation reduced after hydroxypropylation and progressive reductions were observed as the MS increased among the starch derivatives. Hydroxypropylation increased enzymatic digestibility. (author)

  20. KINETICS OF THE HYDROXYETHYLATION OF STARCH IN ALKALINE SALT-CONTAINING AQUEOUS SLURRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWARNERS, A; STAMNHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A two-phase kinetic model is presented for the base-catalyzed hydroxyethylation of potato starch using ethylene oxide at temperatures between 293 and 318 K in aqueous starch slurries containing sodium sulfate. The rate of the hydroxyethylation of starch as a function of starch anion concentration

  1. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  2. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic

  3. Thermoplastic starch composites with TiO2 particles: preparation, morphology, rheology and mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Mikešová, Jana; Krejčíková, Sabina; Nevoralová, Martina; Šturcová, Adriana; Zhigunov, Alexander; Michálková, Danuše; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 101, August (2017), s. 273-282 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoplastic starch * titanium dioxide particles * morphology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  4. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  5. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  6. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  7. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi Sharlina, M S; Yaacob, W A; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Lim, Seng Joe; Abdullah, Sapina; Noordin, Akram; Kumaran, Malina

    2017-04-01

    Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modification of Cilembu sweet potato starch with ethanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudatussa'adah, A.; Rahmawati, Y.; Sudewi

    2016-04-01

    Cilembu sweet potato harvest was abundant, its use was still limited. Starch was required by various industries. Starch is generally beige, and requires a long time for the drying process. The purpose of this research was to produce a modified starch with ethanoic acid. The method used in this study was the experimental method. The results showed acid modified starch yield was 18%, with the color characteristics of L*: 96.38 ± 0.82; a*: -0.70±0.02 b*: 2.70±0.03 C: 2.79±0.02. Native starch yield was 16%, with the color characteristics of L*: 93.55 ± 0.91; a*: -0.86±0.06 b*: 2.93±0.04 C: 3.05±0.03. The conclusion of this study was modified starch of Cilembu sweet potato using ethanoic acid have higher yield and more white bright than native starch.

  10. Physicochemical properties of cassava starch and starch-keratin prepared biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwasina Olugbenga Oladayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic plastics pose one of the biggest threats to the environment and a promising solution is biodegradable polymers. This study investigates the properties of biofilms prepared using starch/keratin blend with and without formaldehyde. Some starch properties in percentage are; moisture content 0.27, hydration capacity 189.66, amylopectin content 65.79 and amylose content 34.21. From the water testing results, thickness swelling, water absorption capacity and linear expansion of biofilm without formaldehyde after 10 s of soaking in water were 28.59%, 8.89% and 4.90% respectively and 65.30%, 91.33% and 46.29% respectively after 40 s. But, higher values are recorded for those biofilms made with addition of formaldehyde. Thus using water effect on the properties of the biofilms as the performance index, the research indicates that biofilms without formaldehyde had better performance than those with formaldehyde

  11. 1H-13C NMR-based profiling of biotechnological starch utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is used in food-and non-food applications as a renewable and degradable source of carbon and energy. Insight into the chemical detail of starch degradation remains challenging as the starch constituents amylose and amylopectin are homopolymers. We show that considerable molecular detail...... of starch fragmentation can be obtained from multivariate analysis of spectral features in optimized 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of starch fragments to identify relevant features that distinguish processes in starch utilization. As a case study, we compare the profiles of starch fragments in commercial beer...... samples. Spectroscopic profiles of homooligomeric starch fragments can be excellent indicators of process conditions. In addition, differences in the structure and composition of starch fragments have predictive value for down-stream process output such as ethanol production from starch. Thus, high...

  12. Structure, function and regulation of the enzymes in the starch biosynthetic pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Jim

    2013-11-30

    Starch is the major reserve polysaccharide in nature and accounts for the majority of the caloric intact of humans. It is also gaining importance as a renewable and biodegradable industrial material. There is burgeoning interest in increasing the amount and altering the properties of the plant starches by plant genetic modification. A rational approach to this effort will require a detailed, atomic-level understanding of the enzymatic processes that produce the starch granule. The starch granule is a complex particle made up of alternating layers of crystalline and amorphous lamellae. It consists of two types of polymer, amylose, a polymer of relatively long chains of α-1,4-linked glucans that contain virtually no branches, and amylopectin, which is highly branched and contains much shorter chains. This complex structure is synthesized by the coordinate activities of the starch synthases (SS), which elongate the polysaccharide chain by addition of glucose units via α-1,4 linkages using ADP- glucose as a donor, and branching enzymes (BE), which branch the polysaccharide chain by cleavage of α₋1,4 linkages and subsequent re-attachment via α₋1,6 linkages. Several isoforms of both starch synthase (SS) and branching enzyme (BE) are found in plants, including SSI, SSII, SSIII and granule- bound SS (GBSS), and SBEI, SBEIIa and SBEIIb. These isoforms have different activities and substrate and product specificities and play different roles in creating the granule and determining the properties of the resulting starch. The overarching goal of this proposal is to begin to understand the regulation and specificities of these enzymes at the atomic level. High-resolution X-ray structures of these enzymes bound to substrates and products will be determined to visualize the molecular interactions responsible for the properties of the enzymes. Hypotheses regarding these issues will then be tested using mutagenesis and enzyme assays. To date, we have determined the

  13. In-vitro starch hydrolysis of chitosan incorporating whey protein and wheat starch composite gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of chitosan, incorporated into whey protein and wheat starch thermo gels, on the in-vitro hydrolysis of the polysaccharide. Gels were subjected to the following external conditions containing α-amylase at constant incubation temperature of 37 °C: In the first procedure, they were immersed in phosphate buffer (0.05 M and maintained at pH 6.9 throughout the entire digestion. In the second instance, they were introduced into a salt solution, with pH and total volume adjusted at times in sync with the human gastrointestinal tract. Results indicate that low and medium molecular weight chitosan, in combination with whey protein, were effective at enhancing the protective barrier against starch degradation. Less maltose was liberated from gels containing medium molecular weight chitosan, as opposed to the low molecular weight counterpart, and results compare favorably with the outcome of the in-vitro digestion of binary whey protein and wheat starch composites. Keywords: Food science

  14. Is hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is heavily debated whether or not treatment with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 contributes to the development of acute kidney failure in patients with severe sepsis. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Muller and colleagues report no association between initial resuscitation...... with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and renal impairment in a cohort of septic patients. Can we then consider hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 a safe intervention? The answer is no - observational data should be interpreted with caution and should mainly be used to identify risks, while safety must be assessed...

  15. Investigating the phase transformations in starch during gelatinisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, I.; Sopade, P.A.; Halley, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Starch, a natural polymer of amylose and amylopectin, continues to be a prime material for biodegradable plastic applications as well as many food and non-food uses. Raw starch exists as semicrystalline granules with complex internal supramolecular packing and can be hierarchically organised on four length scales: molecular scale (∼ Angstroms), lamellar structure (∼90 Angstroms); growth rings (∼ 0.1 μm) and the whole granule morphology (∼μm). Starch can be converted into thermoplastic material (TPS) through destructurisation in the presence of plasticisers under specific extrusion conditions. During the transformation of granular starch into TPS, the complex granular supramolecular structure gives rise to the characteristic endothermic first order transition known as gelatinization. Despite advances in research on starch gelatinisation, the precise structural change and transitions involved are still a matter of debate. Moreover, structural variables such as botanical origins, amylose/amylopectin ratio, macromolecular sizes, etc, have been known to influence the physicochemical properties of starch and the transitions it undergoes.While understanding the linkage between structural characteristics and gelatinisation behaviour will provide fundamental knowledge that is critical for the development of next-generation starch biodegradable plastics, this has proved difficult mainly due to poor knowledge of the exact mechanism involved in gelatinisation. This is further complicated by the sketchy idea on the role of structure and organisation of the starch granule. Studies in our laboratory on four types of maize starches with different amylose/amylopectin ratio revealed that although there is a general trend on the variation of gelatinisation parameters with plasticisers concentration, the extent of the variation are different for different types of starch. It was also found that these differences are not a directly related to the variation in

  16. Gravimetric enrichment of high lipid and starch accumulating microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Morteza; Abbasabadi, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Hosseini, Maryam; Sheikhbaglou, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This study presents gravimetric enrichment of mixed culture to screen starch and lipid producing species separately in a sequencing batch reactor. In the enriched starch-producing mixed culture photobioreactor, the starch content at the end of steady state batch became 3.42 times the beginning of depletion. Whereas in the enriched lipid-producing photobioreactor, the lipid content at the end of steady state batch became 3 times the beginning of famine phase. The obtained results revealed that the gravimetric enrichment is a suitable screening method for specific production of storage compounds in none-sterile large-scaled condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of substituent type on properties of starch derivates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study was investigation of influence of substituent type on the properties of starch derivates in diluted solutions. Three samples were prepared: two anionic (carboxymethyl starch, CMS and one cationic starch (KS. Starch derivates were synthesized in two steps. The first step was preparation of alkali starch by the addition of sodium-hydroxide to the starch dispersed in ethanol or water. In the second step, the required amount of sodium monocloracetate or 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl-threemethylamonium chloride was added to the obtained alkali starch in order to prepare CMS or KS, respectively. The degree of substitution of carboxymethyl starch was determined by back titration method, and the degree of substitution of cationic starch was determined by potentiometric titration. The degrees of substitution of prepared samples were: 0.50 (assigned as CMS-0.50 and 0.70 (assigned as CMS-0.70 for carboxymethyl starch and 0.30 (assigned as KS-0.30 for cationic starch. The properties of starch derivatives in dilute solutions were investigated by the methods of static and dynamic light scattering. Aqueous solutions of sodium chloride of different concentrations were used as solvent. The values of the mass average molar mass, MW, radius of gyration, Rg, and second virial coefficient, A2, were determined for all samples together with hydrodynamic radius, Rh. Molar masses of the samples were: 5.06×106, 15.4×106 and 19.2×106 g/mol for CMS-0.50, CMS-0.70 and KS-0.30, respectively. The samples, CMS-0.70 and KS-0.30 had similar molar mass and hydrodynamic radius, but radius of gyration of KS-0.30 was smaller then radius of gyration of CMS-0.70 at all sodium chloride concentrations. Consequently, ρ value for KS-0.30 was smaller then for CMS-0.70, as a result of more compact architecture of KS-0.30 then of CMS-0.70. Kratky graph confirmed this result. For all samples, radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius decreased with increasing of

  18. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  19. Functional properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch and its chemical modification by acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, G.; Martínez, P.; Velezmoro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of starch which is underused in Peru, as are mainly imported potato starch, for has not been achieved yet, industrialization starch extraction is a success. This study aimed to obtain, characterize and modify chemically by acetylation, starch of a commercial potato variety, Unique. Extraction was performed with water and chemical modification was performed by acetylation using acetic anhydride at different levels (% v/w starch): 5, 10 y 15...

  20. Production of Dextrins from Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at producing dextrins from cassava starch and also to investigate the effects of acid concentration, roasting temperature and time on dextrin produced using 8 run screen experimental design before the preparation of adhesive.It was shown in the result that the best of white dextrin, yellow dextrin and British gum were obtained at concentrations of acid of 0.3M, 0.3M, and 0.23M and at roasting time of 30, 180 and 180 minutes and at roasting temperature of 60oC, 90oC and 120oC respectively.The best of white dextrin which had the highest solubility of 36.1 per cent was used to formulate the adhesive.

  1. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  2. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallem, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg-1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg-1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour

  3. Amylolytic bacteria in the equine hindgut: Effect of starch source and a case for antimicrobial-mediated competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal grains are often included in equine diets. A high proportion of grain in the diet can allow starch to reach the hindgut where bacteria compete for the substrate, produce lactic acid and decrease pH. The ecological theory of niche predicts that competition for a resource will negatively impact...

  4. Structure and function of starch and resistant starch from corn with different doses of mutant amylose-extender and floury-1 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ni; Paez, Alix V; White, Pamela J

    2009-03-11

    Four corn types with different doses of mutant amylose-extender (ae) and floury-1 (fl1) alleles, in the endosperm, including no. 1, aeaeae; no. 2, fl1fl1fl1; no. 3, aeaefl1; and no. 4, fl1fl1ae, were developed for use in making Hispanic food products with high resistant starch (RS) content. The RS percentages in the native starch (NS) of 1-4 were 55.2, 1.1, 5.7, and 1.1%, respectively. All NS were evaluated for pasting properties with a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) and for thermal properties with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). NS 1 had a low peak viscosity (PV) caused by incomplete gelatinization, whereas NS 3 had the greatest PV and breakdown of all four starch types. On the DSC, NS 2 had the lowest onset temperature and greatest enthalpy. NS 1 and 3 had similar onset and peak temperatures, both higher than those of NS 2 and 4. The gel strength of NS heated with a RVA was evaluated by using a texture analyzer immediately after RVA heating (fresh, RVA-F) and after the gel had been stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days (retrograded, RVA-R). NS 1 gel was watery and had the lowest strength (30 g) among starch gel types. NS 3 gel, although exhibiting syneresis, had greater gel strength than NS 2 and 4. The structures of the NS, the RS isolated from the NS (RS-NS), the RS isolated from RVA-F (RS-RVA-F), and the RS isolated from RVA-R (RS-RVA-R) were evaluated by using size exclusion chromatography. NS 1 had a greater percentage of amylose (AM) (58.3%) than the other NS (20.4-26.8%). The RS from all NS types (RS-NS) had a lower percentage of amylopectin (AP) and a greater percentage of low molecular weight (MW) AM than was present in the original NS materials. The RS-RVA-R from all starches had no AP or high MW AM. The percentages of longer chain lengths (DP 35-60) of NS were greater in 1 and 3 than in 2 and 4, and the percentages of smaller chain lengths (DP 10-20) were greater in 2 and 4 than in 1 and 3. In general, NS 3 seemed to have inherited some pasting

  5. Good Housekeeping Implementation for Improving Efficiency in Cassava Starch Industry (Case Study : Margoyoso District, Pati Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Wijayanto Setyo; Purwanto; Suherman, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cassava starch industry is one of the leading small-medium enterprises (SMEs) in Pati Regency. Cassava starch industry released waste that reduces the quantity of final product and potentially contamined the environment. This study was conducted to observe the feasibility of good housekeeping implementation to reduce waste and at the same time improve efficiency of production process. Good housekeeping opportunities are consideration by three aspect, technical, economy and environmental. Good housekeeping opportunities involved water conservation and waste reduction. These included reuse of water in washing process, improving workers awareness in drying section and packaging section. Implementation of these opportunities can reduce water consumption, reduce wastewater and solid waste generation also increased quantity of final product.

  6. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J. (WU); (Danforth)

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  7. Study of the compatibilizer effect in the properties of starch/polyester blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bonametti Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical, viscoelastic and structural properties of starch/ poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced by reactive extrusion were evaluated using citric acid (CA and maleic anhydride (MA as compatibilizers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed more homogeneous structure when CA and MA were included in the formulation. The tensile strength (MPa was improved with the inclusion of the highest proportion of both compatibilizers (1.5 %wt. A larger elastic component with values between 0.42-0.45 for the degree of solidity (1-c1 was observed for the intermediate concentration of compatibilizers. A high level of glycerol (10 %wt results in films with increased % elongation. Three partially miscible phases were observed in the blends. Biodegradable films of starch/PBAT with better properties could be produced by one-step reactive extrusion using CA and/or MA as compatibilizers.

  8. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyte

    Full Text Available The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7 or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7 for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001. Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to

  9. Lipid partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm highlights relationships among starch lipids, amylose, and vitreousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier

    2015-04-08

    Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.

  10. Depressing Iron Mineral by Metallic-Starch Complex (MSC in Reverse Flotation and Its Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of metallic-starch complex (MSC solutions, synthesized by mixing relevant metallic ionic solutions with the caustic starch solution, were used as the flotation depressants to investigate their depressing effects on hematite ore. The MSC is a nano-sized colloidal complex which is configured by hydrophilic metallic hydroxide as the colloidal nucleus on which starch and hydroxyl complex are adsorbed, resulting in a larger molecule than starch itself. The flotation tests showed that the depressing abilities of various MSC (Fe3+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and Mg2+ on the iron minerals were higher than the caustic starch, and the order of depression ability was: Zn2+-starch > Pb2+-starch > Fe3+-starch > Mg2+-starch > caustic starch. Based on the adsorption analysis, the high depressing ability of the MSC arose from increasing the adsorption density of starch on iron minerals and slightly reducing the absorption of the collector dodecylamine. Adsorption behaviour also indicated that the adsorption of the MSC on mineral surfaces was thicker than the caustic starch, and among various MSC the adsorption of Fe3+-starch exhibited the thickest adsorption layer while that of Mg2+-starch the thinnest. Zeta potential indicated that with a weaker electronegativity than the caustic starch, MSC adsorbed onto iron minerals more easily, and the strong electrostatic adsorption with the aid of the hydrogen bonding and chemisorption agreed well with the high depressing ability of the MSC.

  11. Proteome Profile of Starch Granules Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa) Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihai; Meng, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Lihui; Mujahid, Hana; Zhao, Chunfang; Zhang, Yadong; Wang, Cailin; Peng, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most important food energy source in cereals. Many of the known enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis are partially or entirely granule-associated in the endosperm. Studying the proteome of rice starch granules is critical for us to further understand the mechanisms underlying starch biosynthesis and packaging of starch granules in rice amyloplasts, consequently for the improvement of rice grain quality. In this article, we developed a protocol to purify starch granules from mature rice endosperm and verified the quality of purified starch granules by microscopy observations, I2 staining, and Western blot analyses. In addition, we found the phenol extraction method was superior to Tris-HCl buffer extraction method with respect to the efficiency in recovery of starch granule associated proteins. LC-MS/MS analysis showed identification of already known starch granule associated proteins with high confidence. Several proteins reported to be involved in starch synthesis in prior genetic studies in plants were also shown to be enriched with starch granules, either directly or indirectly, in our studies. In addition, our results suggested that a few additional candidate proteins may also be involved in starch synthesis. Furthermore, our results indicated that some starch synthesis pathway proteins are subject to protein acetylation modification. GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the identified proteins were mainly located in plastids and involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This study substantially advances the understanding of the starch granule associated proteome in rice and post translational regulation of some starch granule associated proteins.

  12. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Mikael R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus found in the environment, on foods and feeds and is used as host for production of organic acids, enzymes and proteins. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 was recently found to be produced by A. niger and hence very little is known about production and regulation of this metabolite. Proteome analysis was used with the purpose to reveal how fumonisin B2 production by A. niger is influenced by starch and lactate in the medium. Results Fumonisin B2 production by A. niger was significantly increased when lactate and starch were combined in the medium. Production of a few other A. niger secondary metabolites was affected similarly by lactate and starch (fumonisin B4, orlandin, desmethylkotanin and pyranonigrin A, while production of others was not (ochratoxin A, ochratoxin alpha, malformin A, malformin C, kotanin, aurasperone B and tensidol B. The proteome of A. niger was clearly different during growth on media containing 3% starch, 3% starch + 3% lactate or 3% lactate. The identity of 59 spots was obtained, mainly those showing higher or lower expression levels on medium with starch and lactate. Many of them were enzymes in primary metabolism and other processes that affect the intracellular level of acetyl-CoA or NADPH. This included enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ammonium assimilation, fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative stress protection. Conclusions Lactate added in a medium containing nitrate and starch can increase fumonisin B2 production by A. niger as well as production of some other secondary metabolites. Changes in the balance of intracellular metabolites towards a higher level of carbon passing through acetyl-CoA and a high capacity to regenerate NADPH during growth on medium with starch and lactate were found to be the likely cause of this effect. The results lead to the hypothesis that fumonisin production by A. niger

  13. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  14. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  15. Application of iodinated starch powder using an atomizer spray gun - a new and effective tool to evaluate hypohidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J H-L; Choo, W; Chang, J H; Tey, H L; Chong, W-S

    2016-08-01

    Hypohidrosis is defined as diminished sweating in response to an appropriate thermal or sympathetic stimulus. When encountered in a clinical setting, it necessitates an accurate documentation of its pattern and extent to prognosticate the risk of associated heat-related illnesses. This can be achieved by thermoregulatory sweat testing which includes a starch-iodine sweat test that can be administered via various methods. To describe and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun in administering the starch-iodine test. We describe the administration of the starch-iodine test via an atomizer spray gun (Series 700 Lab Model; Mitsuba Systems, Mumbai, India). The method was utilized for the evaluation of 30 individuals who presented with symptoms of hypohidrosis. Application of iodinated starch powder prepared in-house with the atomizer spray gun achieved a lightweight and homogeneous coat on our patients' skin which allowed for clear visualization of the sweating pattern in areas of anhidrosis. The sharp demarcation of the pathological regions enabled the precise calculation of the affected body surface area of impaired sweating. Unlike the starch-iodine tests using the Minor and Wada methods, neither staining of the skin nor irritation was detected in this method. We report a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun to perform the starch-iodine test in a rapid, reproducible, effective, and safe manner suitable for use in the clinical evaluation of hypohidrosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch; Preparacao e caracterizacao de materiais termoplasticos preparados a partir de amido de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S., E-mail: barbarapont@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  17. Nano structural Features of Silver Nanoparticles Powder Synthesized through Concurrent Formation of the Nano sized Particles of Both Starch and Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebeish, A.; El-Rafie, M.H.; El-Sheikh, M.A.; El-Naggar, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Green innovative strategy was developed to accomplish silver nanoparticles formation of starch-silver nanoparticles (St-AgNPs) in the powder form. Thus, St-AgNPs were synthesized through concurrent formation of the nano sized particles of both starch and silver. The alkali dissolved starch acts as reducing agent for silver ions and as stabilizing agent for the formed AgNPs. The chemical reduction process occurred in water bath under high-speed homogenizer. After completion of the reaction, the colloidal solution of AgNPs coated with alkali dissolved starch was cooled and precipitated using ethanol. The powder precipitate was collected by centrifugation, then washed, and dried; St-AgNPs powder was characterized using state-of-the-art facilities including UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), particle size analyzer (PS), Polydispersity index (PdI), Zeta potential (ZP), XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and TGA. TEM and XRD indicate that the average size of pure AgNPs does not exceed 20 nm with spherical shape and high concentration of AgNPs (30000 ppm). The results obtained from TGA indicates that the higher thermal stability of starch coated AgNPS than that of starch nanoparticles alone. In addition to the data obtained from EDX which reveals the presence of AgNPs and the data obtained from particle size analyzer and zeta potential determination indicate that the good uniformity and the highly stability of St-AgNPs).

  18. Physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of gamma irradiated chickpea starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khalid; Aggarwal, Manjeet

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10kGy) on physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of chickpea starch. Results revealed that the pasting properties showed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, trough viscosity and pasting temperature in dose dependent manner. Swelling, solubility index, oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity increased significantly with dose, while as syneresis decreased with dose. Gelatinization temperatures T o , T p and T c decreased significantly with dose. X-ray diffraction showed a characteristic C type pattern of the starches and the crystallinity decreased with dose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small oval shaped starch granules and slight surface fissures were seen in the irradiated starch treated with 5 and 10kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of selected cooking characteristics of prime starch and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    1959) with modification for small samples at three temperature (60, 70 and 80oC) regimes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Several studies had been reported on pasting or cooking properties of cassava starch some of which ...

  20. In vitro binding of puroindolines to wheat starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....

  1. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  2. Glass transition of anhydrous starch by fast scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Xavier; Maigret, Jean-Eudes; Lourdin, Denis; Saiter, Allisson

    2017-10-01

    By means of fast scanning calorimetry, the glass transition of anhydrous amorphous starch has been measured. With a scanning rate of 2000Ks -1 , thermal degradation of starch prior to the glass transition has been inhibited. To certify the glass transition measurement, structural relaxation of the glassy state has been investigated through physical aging as well as the concept of limiting fictive temperature. In both cases, characteristic enthalpy recovery peaks related to the structural relaxation of the glass have been observed. Thermal lag corrections based on the comparison of glass transition temperatures measured by means of differential and fast scanning calorimetry have been proposed. The complementary investigations give an anhydrous amorphous starch glass transition temperature of 312±7°C. This estimation correlates with previous extrapolation performed on hydrated starches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO 3 . Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO 3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  4. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal, E-mail: perumal.ramasamy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Technology, A.C.Tech. Campus, Anna University, Chennai – 600 025 (India); Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO{sub 3}. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  5. Structural modification in the formation of starch - silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Aswal, V. K.; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  6. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  7. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  8. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  9. XRD Investigation of Some Thermal Degraded Starch Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Todica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of some starch based materials was investigated using XRD method. The samples were obtained by thermal extrusion of mixtures of different proportions of starch, glycerol, and water. Such materials are suitable for the manufacturing of low pollutant packaging. Thermal degradation is one of the simplest ways to destroy such materials and this process is followed by structural modification of the local ordering of samples, water evaporation, crystallization, oxidation, or destruction of the chemical bonds. These modifications need to be studied in order to reduce to the minimum production of pollutant residues by burning process. XRD measurements show modification of the local ordering of the starch molecules depending on the temperature and initial composition of the samples. The molecular ordering perturbation is more pronounced in samples with low content of starch.

  10. Preparation and characterization of thermoplastic starch/zein blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Corradini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch and zein plasticized with glycerol were prepared by melting processing in an intensive batch mixer connected to a torque rheometer at 160 °C. The resulting mixtures were compression molded and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X ray diffraction and water-absorption experiments. The blends were immiscible, showing two distinct phases of starch and zein. The water uptake at equilibrium and its diffusion coefficient were determined. The water uptake at equilibrium decreased with increasing zein content. The diffusion coefficient fell sharply on addition of 20% zein and remained constant as zein content was increased. No appreciable effect of zein on starch crystallization was observed by X ray diffraction. The use of zein in thermoplastic starch compositions causes a decrease in the water sensitivity of these materials and lower its melt viscosity during processing making zein a suitable and very promising component in TPS compositions.

  11. Development of maleated starches using an internal mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fernanda T.G.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2009-01-01

    Novel maleated starches (MSt) were prepared by chemical modification of cornstarch with maleic anhydride (MA), using an internal mixer as a reactor. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was chosen as initiator. Physico-chemical parameters were determined for the process carried out at different MA contents, under the same reaction conditions. Processing was carried out at 50 deg C, 30 rpm for 8 min.Torque developed during processing was given by the digital display of the rheometer, and the total specific mechanical energy (SME) input was estimated. FTIR measurements confirmed the successful incorporation of MA into the starch backbone. In addition, WAXS diffraction analyses revealed disruption of the crystalline structure of native starch for the products. Such reactions promoted by MA reduced the crystallinity of the products. The results indicated that the MA content had a significant effect on the characteristics of the processed starch samples. (author)

  12. Effect of the Starch Source on the Performance of Cationic Starches having Similar Degree of Substitution for Papermaking using Deinked Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Liu; Rendang Yang; Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cationic waxy corn starch was prepared from waxy corn starch with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETMAC) as a cationic etherifying reagent. Its structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that quaternary ammonium groups were introduced successfully into the waxy corn starch, and the cationic reaction occurred on the surface of the starch granules. Cationic wa...

  13. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  14. Modification of in natura starch for application in adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Gisela K.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2001-01-01

    Commercial modified starches used in adhesive formulations have been characterized by infrared, spectroscopy, 13 C-NMR and viscosimetry. Several reactions have been carried out with starch in natura in acid solutions and the resulting products have been compared with the commercial samples. The product obtained by acid hydrolysis at 60 deg C for 90 min was characterized as the most appropriate to be used in adhesive formulations. (author)

  15. Nanosilver: A Catalyst in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowska Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are widely used, because of their antimicrobial properties. In this paper, the rate of starch digestion in the presence of nanocatalyst was compared with the rate of reaction without nanosilver. The rate of enzymatic degradation of starch was found to be increased in the presence of silver nanoparticles. It is considered that α-amylase was immobilized onto the surface of nanoparticles.

  16. Development of silver and clay-starch bio-nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana S.; Oliveira, M.; Machado, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Starch, among biopolymers is that had the lowest production cost, wide availability, fully biodegradability and is a renewable agriculture resource. Starch due to its sensitivity to humidity and poor mechanical properties cannot be used in many applications. For that, the dispersion of clays in this material improves their physical and mechanical properties, at very low filler loadings. On the other hand, the incorporation of silver nanoparticles into biocompatible and biod...

  17. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peak viscosity ranged from 74.25 – 178.25 RVU. Starch from the local best CK had the highest peak viscosity (at a temperature of 63.80°C in 3.68 min) and TMS01/0040 had the lowest (at 63.90°C in 3.88 min). The breakdown viscosity ranged from 56.50 – 107.75 RVU with starch from local best CK having the highest ...

  18. Adaptation to the digestion of nutrients of a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet in group-housed pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    A trial was conducted with twenty group-housed pregnant sows to study the adaptation in nutrient digestibility to a starch-rich diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during a time period of 6 weeks. The starch-rich diet was primarily composed of wheat, peas

  19. Starch bioavailability in the upper gastrointestinal tract of colectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, L A; Marlett, J A

    1991-05-01

    Colectomized rats were used to compare the bioavailability of starch from canned peas, kidney beans, lima beans, corn, cooked rice and AIN-76A purified diet. Postoperative weight gains of colectomized and sham-operated rats were not different. Test meals of approximately 2 and approximately 3.3 g (dry weight) of each food containing chromic oxide (0.6 g/100 g) were administered to 4-6 rats by gastric intubation. Chromium recovery in ileal digesta 10 h after the meal ranged from 94 to 102%. Significant starch (11-15%) from peas, lima beans or kidney beans was recovered in the ileal digesta; 0.2-0.4% of starch from rice, corn or AIN-76A was in the ileal digesta. Pretreatment of kidney or lima beans with a heat-stable endo-alpha-amylase decreased the starch recovered in the ileal digesta to 2.7-4.3% of that fed; pretreatment with the amylase and pepsin had no further effect. Oligosaccharide extraction, the size of the test meal and the amount of starch did not affect starch bioavailability.

  20. Molecular fractionation of starch by density-gradient ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae Wook; Lim, Seung Taik

    2003-03-28

    Amylose and amylopectin in corn and potato starches were fractionated by centrifugation at 124,000g for 3-72 h at 40 degrees C in a gradient media, Nycodenz, based on their sedimentation rate differences. The fractions were collected from a centrifuge tube, and then analyzed by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and iodine-binding test. Amylopectin, a large and highly branched starch molecule, migrated faster than amylose and quickly reached its isopycnic point with a buoyant density of about 1.25 g/mL, exhibiting a sharp and stable carbohydrate peak. Amylose, which is a relatively small and linear molecule, however, migrated slowly in a broad density range and continued moving to higher density regions, eventually overlapping with amylopectin peak as the centrifugation continued. This could indicate that the buoyant density of amylose is similar to that of amylopectin. Under centrifugal conditions of 3 h and 124,000g, amylose and amylopectin molecules were clearly separated, and the presence of intermediate starch molecules (11.5 and 7.7% for corn and potato starch, respectively) was also observed between amylose and amylopectin fractions. The amylose content of corn and potato starches was 22.6 and 21.1%, respectively, based on the total carbohydrate analysis after the ultracentrifugation for 3 h. In alkaline gradients (pH 11 or 12.5), the sedimentation rate of starch molecules and the buoyant density of amylopectin were reduced, possibly due to the structural changes induced by alkali.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-starch polyblend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetty Kemala; M Syaeful Fahmi; Suminar S Achmadi

    2010-01-01

    Polystyrene foam (PS) is a polymer that is widely used but not biodegradable. Therefore, PS-starch polyblend was developed. In this research the effect of glycerol as plasticizer was evaluated based on mechanical and thermal analyses. PS-starch polyblends were produced by mixing PS and starch solution with composition ratios of 60:40, 65:35, 70:30, 75:25, and 80:20 percent by weight. Polylactic acid (20 %) was added as compatibilizer. The polyblends were analyzed its tensile strength, thermal properties, and density. The PS-starch polyblends were white opaque in color and fragile. The properties of tensile strength and density of the polyblends were in the range of that of pure PS. The tensile strength and density increases as PS constituents increasing with the best composition ratio of 80 PS to 20 of starch. Peak of glass transition and melting point seen a single on composition ration 80 PS to 20 of starch. Additional amount of glycerol did not affect the thermal property, but has caused a slight decrease in tensile strength and density. (author)

  2. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  3. Polycaprolactone/starch composite: Fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Akbari Ghavimi, Soheila; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-07-01

    Interests in the use of biodegradable polymers as biomaterials have grown. Among the different polymeric composites currently available, the blend of starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) has received the most attention since the 1980s. Novamont is the first company that manufactured a PCL/starch (SPCL) composite under the trademark Mater-Bi®. The properties of PCL (a synthetic, hydrophobic, flexible, expensive polymer with a low degradation rate) and starch (a natural, hydrophilic, stiff, abundant polymer with a high degradation rate) blends are interesting because of the composite components have completely different structures and characteristics. PCL can adjust humidity sensitivity of starch as a biomaterial; while starch can enhance the low biodegradation rate of PCL. Thus, by appropriate blending, SPCL can overcome important limitations of both PCL and starch components and promote controllable behavior in terms of mechanical properties and degradation which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. This article reviewed the different fabrication and modification methods of the SPCL composite; different properties such as structural, physical, and chemical as well as degradation behavior; and different applications as biomaterials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  5. Effect of temperature and selected sugars on dilute solution properties of two hairless canary seed starches compared with wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Irani, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, influence of temperature (25, 35, 45 and 55°C) and sugars (sucrose and lactose) at different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%) on some molecular parameters of starches from two canary seed varieties (C05041 and CDC Maria) in the dilute regime were investigated in comparison to wheat starch (WS). The results indicated that the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) values of C05041, CDC Maria and WS samples were 1.42, 1.46 and 1.70dl/g at 25°C, respectively. Intrinsic viscosity of selected starches decreased with an increase in temperature, but the effect of high temperatures were somewhat unnoticeable. By increasing the sugar concentration, intrinsic viscosity of each starch solution significantly decreased in comparison with the value determined for sugar free solution. Lactose had more pronounced effect on the intrinsic viscosity reduction of CDC Maria starch and WS at 25°C and 35°C compared with sucrose (Pproperties in food systems. One of the aspects can help to understand the characteristic of biopolymers such as starches is determination of their dilute solution properties as a function of common additives which are used in food systems. As a matter of fact, dilute solution properties can help to understand the potential applications of biopolymers in food and non-food application. Attentively, dilute solution properties would give some priceless information about molecular properties, biopolymer behavior and its interaction with copolymers. For instance, intrinsic viscosity provides deep insight into fundamental properties of the solute and its interaction with the solvent and/or cosolutes, conformation of flexible chains. There are many studies which investigated the effect of different parameters such as temperature, salts and sugars on dilute solution properties of hydrocolloids, especially gums. Regrettably, few researches scrutinized the influence of various cosolutes on dilute solution properties of starch. Then in this paper, we studied the

  6. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural Orders of Wheat Starch Do Not Determine the In Vitro Enzymatic Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shaokang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the rate-limiting step for wheat starch digestion. Wheat starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) ranging from 0 to 100% were prepared. As DG increased, the ordered structures of the starch were disrupted increasingly. In contrast, almost all of the increase in the rate and extent of in vitro enzymatic digestion coincided with a DG of only 6% and a minor loss of structural order. As DG increased beyond 6%, digestibility of the starch increased only slightly. We propose that the access and binding of enzymes to starch is greatly increased with only a small DG, which is followed by the simultaneous hydrolysis of crystalline and amorphous areas in gelatinized starch. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch was determined predominantly by enzyme binding to starch rather than the ordered structures of starch.

  8. Comparison of some physico-chemical properties of irradiated cereal starches, separated or contained in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, H.; Zamrozniak-Rys, I.; Achremowicz, B.

    1997-01-01

    In this study some physico-chemical properties of separated wheat starch from flour type 500 and 850, rye starch from flour type 720 and triticale starch from flour type 680 were compared. All starches were irradiated with medium doses of gamma rays: 2,3 and 5 kGy directly (after their separation from flour) and in flour. The water binding capacity of starches, their solubility in water and reduction capacity were found to depend on the dose applied and the method of irradiation, individually for each starch. Additional direct irradiation of all starches caused a smaller decrease in the viscosity of starch pastes and a stronger inhibition of the retrogradation process, in comparison to the starches separated from the irradiated flours. (author)

  9. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  10. Effect of salt on the glass transition of condensed tapioca starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-08-15

    This work examines the effect of including hydrated NaCl and CaCl 2 (up to 6% w/w) on the physicochemical properties of condensed tapioca starch. Samples were prepared by hot pressing at 120°C to produce condensed systems that covered a range of moisture contents from 7.34% w/w (23% relative humidity) to 19.52% w/w (75% relative humidity). Tensile storage modulus and heat flow measurements were taken using DMA and MDSC, which were accompanied by FTIR, WAXD and ESEM. Increasing the salt level enhances the mechanical strength of starch in the glassy state and shifts the glass transition temperature to a higher value. Antiplasticising effects of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the non-phosphorylated tapioca starch are indistinguishable from each other. Observations are complemented by intensification of absorbance peaks in FTIR spectra and a systematic change in shape and intensity of diffraction patterns with increasing addition of salt consistent with interactions between added ions and macromolecule. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of lipids on enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed to understand effects of lipids, including corn oil (CO), soy lecithin (SL), palmitic acid (PA), stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA), on the enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of normal corn (NCS), tapioca (TPS), waxy corn (WCS), and high-amylose corn (HA7) starch, and to elucidate mechanisms of interactions between the starches and lipids. After cooking with the lipids (10%, w/w, dsb), NCS, TPS, and HA7 showed significant decreases in enzymatic hydrolysis, and their DSC thermograms displayed amylose-lipid-complex dissociation peaks except with the CO. (13)C NMR spectra of amylodextrin with CO showed downfield changes in the chemical shifts of carbons 1 and 4 of the anhydroglucose unit, indicating helical complex formation. Generally, free fatty acids (FFAs) reduced, but SL increased the peak viscosities of starches. FFAs and SL decreased, but CO increased the gel strength of NCS. These lipids displayed little impacts on the enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of WCS because it lacked amylose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of interfacial adhesion between starch and grafted poly(ε-caprolactone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Toro, Rodrigo; Santagata, Gabriella; Gomez d'Ayala, Giovanna; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Talens Oliag, Pau; Chiralt Boix, M Amparo; Malinconico, Mario

    2016-08-20

    The use of a modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (gPCL) to enhance polymer miscibility in films based on thermoplastic starch (S) and poly(ε-caprolactone) is reported. PCL was functionalized by grafting with maleic anyhdride (MA) and/or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by reactive blending in a batch mixer. gPCL based materials were analysed in terms of their grafting degree, structural and thermal properties. Blends based on starch and PCL (wt. ratio 80:20) with including gPCL (0, 2.5 and 5wt.%), as a compatibilizer, were obtained by extrusion and compression moulding, and their structural, thermal, mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Blends containing gPCL evidenced better interfacial adhesion between starch and PCL domains, as deduced from both structural (XRD, FTIR, SEM) and bulk properties (DSC, TGA). Moreover, grafted PCL-based compatibilizers greatly improved functional properties of S-PCL blend films, as pointed out from mechanical performance and higher barrier properties, valuable to meet the food packaging requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films based on potato starch/halloysite nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh-Hassani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-06-01

    In this research casting method was used to prepare potato starch based bio-nanocomposite films with halloysite nanoclay as the reinforcing materials. The composition included potato starch with 40% (w/w) of a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1as plasticizer) with nanoclay (0-5% w/w). The films were dried under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as solubility in water, water absorption capacity (WAC), water vapour permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of nanoclay, mechanical properties of films were improved. Tensile strength was increased from 7.33 to 9.82MPa, and elongation at break decreased from 68.0 to 44.0%. Solubility in water decreased from 35 to 23%, and heat seal strength increased from 375 to 580N/m. Also incorporation of clay nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decreased permeability of the gaseous molecules. In summary, addition of halloysite nanoclay, improve the barrier and mechanical properties of potato starch films and this bionanocomposites have high potential to be used for food packaging purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Vinhas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In spite of the short time that the blends were exposed to the fungi, the microorganisms promoted physical and chemical changes in the structure of the blend, modifying its thermal and mechanical properties. The alteration of the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of the blends could be indications of the modification caused by the biodegradation process.Nesse trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre diferentes tipos de amido quanto ao crescimento, e a atividade amilolítica de culturas mistas e isoladas dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Avaliaram-se também as propriedades térmicas e mecânicas das blendas de polietileno/amido anfótero (na proporção 80/20 (m/m antes e apos a inoculação das culturas mistas desses fungos.O amido regular Amidex 3 e o amido modificado Fox5901 foram os que se destacaram quanto ao crescimento celular e produção da enzima amilase. Apesar do pouco tempo de exposição dos filmes com os fungos, pode-se concluir que os microrganismos promovem mudanças físicas e químicas na estrutura da blenda, modificando suas propriedades térmicas e mecânicas. A alteração do grau de cristalinidade e das propriedades mecânicas das blendas podem ser indícios da modificação provocada pelo processo de biodegradação.

  16. Effect of low-doses gamma radiation on physico-chemical properties of cereal starches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, H.; Juszczak, L.; Achremowicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat starch of Emika variety was treated with 3 and 5 kGy doses of gamma radiation, rye starch of Dankowskie Zlote variety and triticale starch of Dagro variety - with 3 kGy doses. Radiation of this starch caused an increase of reduction ability and water solubility at 60 and 80 o C. However with the increased radiation doses a significant decrease of maximum viscosity and of the viscosity of starch pastes being cooled to 50% was observed. Mild radiopolimerization also decreased the degree of retrogradation of wheat and rye starch pastes stored at above 0 o C. (author)

  17. Chemical, physical and morphometric properties of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza B.) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Borneo, R; Melito, C G; Tovar, J

    1999-01-01

    Starch was isolated from Peruvian carrot (PC)--or arracacha--(Arraccacia xanthorrhiza B.) roots. Its chemical, physical, physicochemical and granular structural properties were compared to those of commercial cassava starch. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a granular size for PC starch ranging between 4 and 26 microns in diameter, with spherical and truncated-egg shapes. PC and cassava starches were similar regarding gross chemical composition and basic physical characteristics but differed in pasting properties, with PC starch showing lower breakdown and consistency indices. The two starches also showed different water absorption and solubility patterns.

  18. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  19. Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donahoo William

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effects of resistant starch (RS on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia have been extensively studied, little is known about the impact of RS on fat metabolism. This study examines the relationship between the RS content of a meal and postprandial/post-absorbative fat oxidation. Results 12 subjects consumed meals containing 0%, 2.7%, 5.4%, and 10.7% RS (as a percentage of total carbohydrate. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acid (FFA concentrations. Respiratory quotient was measured hourly. The 0%, 5.4%, and 10.7% meals contained 50 μCi [1-14C]-triolein with breath samples collected hourly following the meal, and gluteal fat biopsies obtained at 0 and 24 h. RS, regardless of dose, had no effect on fasting or postprandial insulin, glucose, FFA or TAG concentration, nor on meal fat storage. However, data from indirect calorimetry and oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein to 14CO2 showed that addition of 5.4% RS to the diet significantly increased fat oxidation. In fact, postprandial oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein was 23% greater with the 5.4% RS meal than the 0% meal (p = 0.0062. Conclusions These data indicate that replacement of 5.4% of total dietary carbohydrate with RS significantly increased post-prandial lipid oxidation and therefore could decrease fat accumulation in the long-term.

  20. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  1. Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization

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    Monserrat Escamilla-García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified starches. In addition, films were tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CT, waxy (WS, oxidized (OS and acetylated (AS corn starches and their mixtures. The CT-starches films showed improved barrier and mechanical properties as compared with those made from individual components, CT-OS film presented the lowest thickness (74 ± 7 µm, water content (11.53% ± 0.85%, w/w, solubility (26.77% ± 1.40%, w/v and water vapor permeability ((1.18 ± 0.48 × 10−9 g·s−1·m−1·Pa−1. This film showed low hardness (2.30 ± 0.19 MPa, low surface roughness (Rq = 3.20 ± 0.41 nm and was the most elastic (Young’s modulus = 0.11 ± 0.06 GPa. In addition, films made from CT-starches mixtures reduced CT antimicrobial activity against L. innocua, depending on the type of modified starch. This was attributed to interactions between acetyl groups of AS with the carbonyl and amino groups of CT, leaving CT with less positive charge. Interaction of the pyranose ring of OS with CT led to increased OH groups that upon interaction with amino groups, decreased the positive charge of CT, and this effect is responsible for the reduced antimicrobial activity. It was found that the type of starch modification influenced interactions with chitosan, leading to different films properties.

  2. Improvement of hydrocyclone installations for starch production lines

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    N. R. Andreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicyclonic installations contain up to 15 steps of division (multicyclones. Improvement of work quality at the reduction of quantity of steps of division can be reached by increasing an starch yield from the step with the reduction of an exit of a liquid phase. To achieve that, a connection of three multicyclones according to the cross scheme is used as for a step of division instead of a separate multicyclone. It is shown that at the three multicyclones a step of division of change in redistribution of suspension components is created the design solution of the division step where liquid products are going out with only to liquid ones, and condensed products – only with condensed ones. At this step the starch yield increases in the condensed product while reducing the end product volume; therefore is received in one step the higher quality starch because of its increased quantity in the condensed descent product step. However, at such connection of multicyclones starch gets to a liquid descent of each step, therefore it is condensed additionally to release starch by con-necting of four multicyclones in to one step of division. New multistage multicyclonic installation consists of 12 multicyclones instead of 15 ones. That reduces capital and operational costs. Thus, varying manipulating the scheme of microcyclones connection in the unit, it is possible to receive the required technological result with the improved economic indicators. AllRussian Research Institute of starch products has developed lines of potato processing for dry starch on the basis 10 and 50 t / per day of initial raw materials using hydrocyclone installations. That allows to organize a new production without big capital expenditures. The hydrocyclone design with the changed external way of supply of suspension is developed at which the flow enters the already rotating product to exclude the influence of an inflow on the quality of suspension fractionation.

  3. Synthesis and properties of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jia; He, Ling

    2013-10-15

    The latex of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch for coating materials, VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA), is obtained by two step grafting reactions. Vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) is primarily grafted onto starch by condensation between Si-OH and C-OH at 120 °C, and then the copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA) is grafted onto the VTMS-starch by emulsion polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to confirm the chemically grafting reactions in every step. The conversion percent, grafting percent and grafting efficiency for VTMS-starch/p(MMA/BA/3FMA) latex indicate that the optimum conditions should be controlled at 75 °C for 1h as VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) in 1/3 weight ratio. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis have revealed that the latexes exhibit the uniform spherical particles of 40-60 nm in a narrow size distribution. The latex films perform the obvious hydrophobic (107°) property, lower surface free energy (25-35 mN/m) and the higher thermostability (330-440 °C) than starch (51°, 51.32 mN/m, 100-330 °C). Dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA) shows that the latex film could gain considerable toughness and strength with an elongation at break of 39.45% and a tensile strength of 11.97 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Research on Thermal Properties and Hydrophobility of the Native Starch/hydrolysis Starch Blends with Treated CaCO3 Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-I.; Huang, Chi-Yuan

    2008-08-01

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO3 increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 μmol and 0.14 μmol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO3 treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60° to 95° when 15wt% treated CaCO3 was added. Treated CaCO3 was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively.

  5. THE RESEARCH ON THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HYDROPHOBILITY OF THE NATIVE STARCH/HYDROLYSIS STARCH BLENDS WITH TREATED CaCO3 POWDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-I; Huang, C.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO 3 increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 μmol and 0.14 μmol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO 3 treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60 deg. to 95 deg. when 15wt% treated CaCO 3 was added. Treated CaCO 3 was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively

  6. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends

    OpenAIRE

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2011-01-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein...

  7. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  8. Utilization of mango seed starch in manufacture of bioplastic reinforced with microparticle clay using glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida; Kartika, T.; Harahap, M. B.; Ginting, M. H. S.

    2018-02-01

    Bioplastics are plastics that can be used just like conventional plastics but will disintegrate by the activity of microorganisms into water and carbon dioxide. Starch is a natural polymer material that can used for bioplastic production. The addition of reinforcing particles has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of bioplastics. The aim of this research is to know the potency of mango seed starch and microparticle clay as filler and glycerol concentration as plasticizer on tensile strength and elongation at break, functional group (FTIR) and surface morphology (SEM). In this study used mango seed starch size of 5 grams, with the variation of clay filler mass of 0; 3; 6 and nine wt%, while the mass of glycerol with a variation of 0; 20; 25; 30; And 35% wt. The heating temperature of the bioplastics solution used was 80.53 °C. The resulting bioplastics was analyzed for their physical and chemical properties, including FTIR, SEM, tensile strength, elongation at break. The FTIR analysis shows that no new functional groups was formed. From the analysis of mango starch content obtained 62.82%, 44.0% amylopectin content, amylose content 14.82%, and water content 12.65%. In this study obtained bioplastics with the best conditions on the use of 6% clay and 25% glycerol, with a tensile strength of 5.657MPa, percent elongation at breakup 43.431%.

  9. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiu; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo

    2016-02-10

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed that the molecular order of reheated retrograded starch samples is lower than that of DSC gelatinized starch. These findings have led us to conclude that enthalpy change of retrograded starch at low water contents involves the melting of recrystallized starch during storage and residual starch crystallites after DSC gelatinization, and that the endothermic transition of retrograded starch gels at low water contents does not fully represent the retrogradation behavior of starch. Very low or high water contents do not favor the occurrence of starch retrogradation.

  10. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch–glycerol and potato starch–glycerol–surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films. The starch was irradiated with a dose of 30 kGy. The films were prepared by casting from solutions with addition of 0, 20 and 30 wt% of glycerol. Two endotherms attributed to glass transitions were observed in water or glycerol plasticised samples, the first one shifting to higher temperature after irradiation. A similar shift was observed after irradiation of films prepared from starch–sodium laurate and starch–sodium palmitate systems, while a decrease in glass transition temperature was observed in the case of starch–cetyltrimethylammonium bromide films. Small differences in the content of the volatile fraction reached after the appropriate conditioning had no impact on the direction of temperature shift of Tg observed after irradiation. - Highlights: • The films were prepared basing starch, surfactant and glycerol. • Two glass transitions were observed showing an existence of two phase system. • The first Tg of the starch–CTAB films shifts after irradiation to lower temperature. • In all the other cases it shifts after irradiation to higher temperature. • Differences in volatile fractions content are not important for the temperature shift

  13. Preparation and characteristic of gelatine/oxidized corn starch and gelatin/corn starch blend microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhi Hua; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1%wt; 3%wt; 5%wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques. Blends solutions of G/OCS showed longer Gel time, higher transparency and lower viscosity; further displayed faster dissolution rate than that of G/CS under similar conditions. This was attributed to the formed Schiff base between the aldehyde group of OCS and amino group of G which improved the compatibility between G and OCS. All results indicated that the composites could be prepared with excellent properties by G/OCS (6:4) which would overcome some disadvantage such as thermodynamic incompatibility and phase separation by G/CS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Genetic manipulation of amylotic yeast for degradation of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of a variety of techniques in Genetic Engineering has greatly facilitated the manipulation of hereditary material. These methodologies provide effective tools to utilize the existing microorganisms for creating novel combinations of hybrid strains for the degradation of substrates that can be converted into alcohol. Yeasts have several distinct advantages including the long standing industrial experience of scaling up the growth. The present report deals with the account of some experimental approaches used to obtained amylolytic yeast strains with ability to degrade starch. From among the naturally occurring yeasts schwanniomyces was found to be very efficient for this purpose. Both gene cloning and protoplast fusion were used to transfer DNA from Saccharomyces diastaticus to the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The glucoamylase gene of S. diastaticus has been successfully cloned into S. cerevisiae. The observations are discussed as there relate to the current efforts to degrade substrates for energy placing special emphasis on the tremendous potential that naturally occurring microbes may have. This emphasizes the need to examine this aspect critically before initiating attempts to genetically engineer microbes for heterologous gene transfer, which appears to have serious limitations as far as the production of the end products adequate for industrial purposes are concerned. (author)

  15. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Helle; Andersson, Mariette; Marttila, Salla; Thulin, Ingela; Hofvander, Per

    2014-04-23

    Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance.Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic.

  16. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Dhital

    Full Text Available Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph, and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary

  17. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function.

  18. Mammalian Mucosal α-Glucosidases Coordinate with α-Amylase in the Initial Starch Hydrolysis Stage to Have a Role in Starch Digestion beyond Glucogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function. PMID

  19. Influence of High Pressure or Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles and Pullulanase Treatment on Buckwheat Starch Properties and Resistant Starch Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górecki Adrian R.

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat starch was subjected to cycles of high pressure-cooling (P-CC or autoclaving-cooling (A-CC combined with pullulanase debranching to determine changes in resistant starch (RS content, digestibility, rheological properties and microstructure. Native buckwheat starch had 11.9 g/kg of RS, while the highest RS content (58.7 g/kg was reached after A-CC and 6 h of pullulanase treatment. Among the P-CC samples, the highest RS content (43.3 g/kg was obtained after treatment with 600 MPa/9 min and 6 h pullulanase debranching. The digestibility of the starch samples was negatively correlated with RS content and its highest values were noted for native and P-CC 200 MPa preparations subjected to 2 and 16 h of pullulanase treatment (95.18–95.35%. Buckwheat starch A-CC preparations after 6 h of pullulanase treatment exhibited the lowest digestibility (85.87%. Rheological analysis of 6% starch pastes showed that all investigated samples demonstrated a non-Newtonian flow, pseudoplastic properties and thixotropy. The Ostwald de Waele rheological model was very well fitted to the flow curves of the investigated pastes (R2>0.98. Both P-CC and A-CC reduced the consistency coefficient (K and thixotropy values, while the flow behavior index (n was increased only after P-CC treatment. The P-CC and A-CC treatment resulted in starch granule breakdown and porous gel structure formation, differing in surface properties.

  20. Properties of Edible Films Based on Oxidized Starch and Zein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Argüello-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of zein and film formulation on mechanical and structural properties of native (FNS, and oxidized with 2.5% (FOSA and 3.5% (FOSB banana starch. The oxidized starch showed differences from native starch due to the oxidation process, showing a decrease in lipids, proteins, and amylose. The increase of the sodium hypochlorite increased the content of carbonyl and carboxyl groups in the ranges 0.015–0.028% and 0.022–0.031%, respectively. The film obtained from FOSB displayed the highest tensile strength (5.05 MPa and satisfactory elongation value (27.1%. The zein addition caused a decrease in these mechanical properties, as well as a significant decrease in water vapour permeability (WVP. However, films from FOSA and FOSB showed higher permeability than that of the native starch. The addition of glycerol and the level of oxidation increased the films moisture. Micrographs showed that, during the oxidation process, impurities were largely eliminated from the starch granule, noting more homogeneous structures both in granules and films.

  1. Starch encapsulation of microbial pesticides for sustained activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, M.R.; Shasha, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Many environmental and biological factors act to reduce the insecticidal potential of microbial pesticides. Each of these factors can be addressed through formulation. Over the past five years, we have investigated formulation of microbial insecticides within starch matrices. While chemical pesticides have been encapsulated in starch for many years, the biological nature of microbial insecticides has prohibited the use of the harsh chemicals or extreme pH necessary to ensure gelatinization of the starch and subsequent entrapment of active ingredient. Pregelatinized starches and flours have facilitated formulation of microbial pesticides. Three distinct types of starch formulations have been developed: a sprayable and two granular baits. Bioassays of cotton or cabbage leaf tissue treated with the sprayable formulations demonstrated increased residual activity of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) after simulated (greenhouse) or actual (field) rainfall. Similarly, experiments with small field plots of cabbage treated with the sprayable formulations demonstrated efficacy similar to that of conventional chemical insecticides. The granular formulations have been tested extensively against European corn borer in whorl stage corn. Sunlight screens incorporated within the granules significantly increased residual activity of Btk when granules were exposed to direct sunlight. Under field conditions, feeding stimulants allowed a decrease in Btk concentration without significant loss of inset control. Work with these formulations is continuing with the addition of viruses and fungi to our research program. Clearly, improvements to formulations of microbial pesticides will enhance the acceptance and reliability of these important pest control tools. 22 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  2. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  4. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  5. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  6. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  7. Flexible starch-polyurethane films: Physiochemical characteristics and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, N L; Adhikari, Raju; Shanks, Robert; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-05-01

    Starch-polyurethane (PU) composite films with improved mechanical and hydrophobic properties were developed in this work. A simple and effective microwave-aided starch gelatinisation instrument was used to prepare glycerol plasticized high amylose starch (HAGS) material. Polyethylene glycol-isocyanate (PEG-iso) linker was prepared by reacting PEG 1000 with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). PEG-iso linker was then grafted into HAGS forming three dimensional urethane networks (PEG-PU). HAGS-PEG-PU composite blends were prepared and dried at ambient temperature to obtain HAGS-PEG-PU films. The mechanical properties and hydrophobicity (as contact angle, CA) of the HAGS-PEG-PU films were measured and analysed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed good grafting of PEG-iso into starch structure. Increase of PEG-iso concentration up to 20% (w/w) improved the molecular mixing and interpenetration between the starch and PEG-PU. The HAGS-PEG-PU films had improved hydrophobicity as indicated by CA values ranging from 51 to 110°and very high flexibility as evidenced from elongation at break (ε B ) values from 17 to 1000%. The HAGS-PEG-PU film formulation containing 20% (w/w) PEG-iso provided the best flexibility (ε B >1000%) and hydrophobicity (CA>110°). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding shape and morphology of unusual tubular starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Liu, Wenxia; Tan, Hua; Yu, Dehai; Song, Zhaoping; Lucia, Lucian A

    2016-10-20

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are aptly described as the insoluble degradation byproducts of starch granules that purportedly display morphologies that are platelet-like, round, square, and oval-like. In this work, we reported the preparation of SNC with unprecedented tubular structures through sulfuric acid hydrolysis of normal maize starch, subsequent exposure to ammonia and relaxation at 4°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation clearly proved that the SNCs possess tubular nanostructures with polygonal cross-section. After further reviewing the transformations of SNC by acid hydrolysis, ammonia treatment, and curing time at 4°C, a mechanism for T-SNC formation is suggested. It is conjectured that T-SNC gradually self-assembles by combination of smaller platelet-like/square nanocrystals likely loosely aggregated by starch molecular chains from residual amorphous regions. This work paves the way for the pursuit of new approaches for the preparation of starch-based nanomaterials possessing unique morphologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure and properties of pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewtatip, Kaewta; Tanrattanakul, Varaporn

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pregelatinized starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. ► The tensile strengths of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► Degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. -- Abstract: Pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. The morphology of the fractured surfaces, retrogradation behavior, thermal decomposition temperatures and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using scanning election microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile testing, respectively. The tensile strengths and thermal degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch (TPS). The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. The water absorption was measured after aging for 12 and 45 days at a relative humidity (RH) of 15% and 55%. It indicated that all the composites displayed lower water absorption values than TPS.

  10. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, P.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  12. Digestion of starch in a dynamic small intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Fonseca, M R; Gouseti, O; Fryer, P J; Wickham, M S J; Bakalis, S

    2016-12-01

    The rate and extent of starch digestion have been linked with important health aspects, such as control of obesity and type-2 diabetes. In vitro techniques are often used to study digestion and simulated nutrient absorption; however, the effect of gut motility is often disregarded. The present work aims at studying fundamentals of starch digestion, e.g. the effect of viscosity on digestibility, taking into account both biochemical and engineering (gut motility) parameters. New small intestinal model (SIM) that realistically mimics gut motility (segmentation) was used to study digestibility and simulated oligosaccharide bio accessibility of (a) model starch solutions; (b) bread formulations. First, the model was compared with the rigorously mixed stirred tank reactor (STR). Then the effects of enzyme concentration/flow rate, starch concentration, and digesta viscosity (addition of guar gum) were evaluated. Compared to the STR, the SIM showed presence of lag phase when no digestive processes could be detected. The effects of enzyme concentration and flow rate appeared to be marginal in the region of mass transfer limited reactions. Addition of guar gum reduced simulated glucose absorption by up to 45 % in model starch solutions and by 35 % in bread formulations, indicating the importance of chyme rheology on nutrient bioaccessibility. Overall, the work highlights the significance of gut motility in digestive processes and offers a powerful tool in nutritional studies that, additionally to biochemical, considers engineering aspects of digestion. The potential to modulate food digestibility and nutrient bioaccessibility by altering food formulation is indicated.

  13. Thermal Behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides Starch-Based Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Shuhada Mohd Makhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is used whenever there is a need for natural elastic properties combined with low cost of production. However, the hydrophilic properties in structural starch will decrease the thermal performance of formulated starch polymer. Therefore, the effect of glycerol, palm olein, and crude palm oil (CPO, as plasticizers, on the thermal behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides starch incorporated with natural rubber in biopolymer production was investigated in this paper. Four different formulations were performed and represented by TPE1, TPE2, TPE3, and TPE4. The compositions were produced by using two-roll mill compounding. The sheets obtained were cut into small sizes prior to thermal testing. The addition of glycerol shows higher enthalpy of diffusion in which made the material easily can be degraded, leaving to an amount of 6.6% of residue. Blending of CPO with starch (TPE3 had a higher thermal resistance towards high temperature up to 310°C and the thermal behavior of TPE2 only gave a moderate performance compared with other TPEs.

  14. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  15. Kinetics of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Cassava Starch and Bitter Cassava Flour and Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst Flour at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargono Hargono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a potential substrate for this purpose, but the extra cost is needed to hydrolyze it into reducing sugar. As an alternative to the expensive and energy demanding conventional hydrolysis process, the low-temperature hydrolysis is being studied. Granular Starch Hydrolysing Enzyme (GSHE was used in the process to degrade starch into reducing sugar at 30°C and pH 4. The substrates included bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour. Starch concentrations studied were 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 g/L, respectively, while concentration of enzyme was 1.5 % (w/w. The optimum condition of the process was hydrolysis using 200 g/L of substrate concentration and enzyme  concentration of 1.5% for 12 h. It was found that the reducing sugar was  49.3  g/L and the productivity of reducing sugar (Qrs was 4.11 (gL-1 h-1.   Lineweaver-Burk plot of Michaelis-Menten equation was used to study the inhibition kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km  for these three substrates were determined as 141.64 g/L, 137,64 g/L and 140.84 g/L for bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour, respectively. The value of  Vm/Km, which denotes the affinity of the enzyme to the substrate, were determined and compared, and the result showed that the affinity (Vm to the enzyme to this substrate followed  the order of sweet cassava starch˃ bitter cassava flour˃ gadung flour, and all are non-competitive inhibitor, while the  Ki value was 0.022 h -1.

  16. A thermostable glucoamylase from Bispora sp. MEY-1 with stability over a broad pH range and significant starch hydrolysis capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Hua

    Full Text Available Glucoamylase is an exo-type enzyme that converts starch completely into glucose from the non-reducing ends. To meet the industrial requirements for starch processing, a glucoamylase with excellent thermostability, raw-starch degradation ability and high glucose yield is much needed. In the present study we selected the excellent Carbohydrate-Activity Enzyme (CAZyme producer, Bispora sp. MEY-1, as the microbial source for glucoamylase gene exploitation.A glucoamylase gene (gla15 was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 34.1 U/ml. Deduced GLA15 exhibits the highest identity of 64.2% to the glucoamylase from Talaromyces (Rasamsonia emersonii. Purified recombinant GLA15 was thermophilic and showed the maximum activity at 70°C. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (2.2-11.0 and at high temperature up to 70°C. It hydrolyzed the breakages of both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages in amylopectin, soluble starch, amylose, and maltooligosaccharides, and had capacity to degrade raw starch. TLC and H1-NMR analysis showed that GLA15 is a typical glucoamylase of GH family 15 that releases glucose units from the non-reducing ends of α-glucans. The combination of Bacillus licheniformis amylase and GLA15 hydrolyzed 96.14% of gelatinized maize starch after 6 h incubation, which was about 9% higher than that of the combination with a commercial glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger.GLA15 has a broad pH stability range, high-temperature thermostability, high starch hydrolysis capacity and high expression yield. In comparison with the commercial glucoamylase from A. niger, GLA15 represents a better candidate for application in the food industry including production of glucose, glucose syrups, and high-fructose corn syrups.

  17. Rheology of different hydrocolloids–rice starch blends. Effect of successive heating–cooling cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocolloids are frequently used for modifying starch functionality. In the present study the possible interaction of three different hydrocolloids - guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and xanthan gum - with rice starch was explored by determining the pasting, viscoelastic and swelling ...

  18. Oxidized potato starch based thermoplastic films : Effect of combination of hydrophilic and amphiphilic plasticizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    Different combinations of hydrophilic (glycerol and water) and amphiphilic (isoleucine) plasticizers were studied in the production of thermoplastic starch (TPS) powders and films from oxidized potato starch. All powder samples had an irregular and shrivelled morphology. In all mixtures containing

  19. Solid state characterization and rheological properties of native and modified Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Odeniyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the suitability of native, pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Vigna subterranean (Bambara nut starches for pharmaceutical applications, through their characterization by means of physicochemical, rheological, thermal, morphological and instrumental spectroscopic methods. The native starch was extracted from Bambara nut, after which it was used to prepare both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated forms. Microscopy revealed increased in granular size on modification. Both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Bambara starches had better flow properties and swellability compared to the native starch. Native Bambara starch had greater tendency to retrogradation, was more sensitive to heat and heat change, these were alleviated by both pregelatinization and carboxymethylation. DSC confirmed that carboxymethylated Bambara starch was the most thermally stable starch. Presence of functional groups and crystallinity were established by FTIR and XRD, respectively. Native and modified Bambara starches can be used as locally and readily available alternative excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.