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Sample records for include current gender-specific

  1. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  2. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Gender specific determinants of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshid, F.; Kerstin, C.; Elena, G.; Wilhelm, O.; Karl, W.; Hwe, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the strong implications of differences between females and males in the risk of goitre, gender-specific issues have not been extensively addressed in investigations of goitre prevalence. The Objective of our analysis was to investigate the gender-specific determinants of goitre. Methods: A total of 853 healthy employees from 4 institutions in western part of Germany aged between 18 and 68 years were examined by ultrasound of the neck to determine the thyroid volume between April 2001 and April 2002. Information on sex, age, daily use of iodised salt, the history of goitre in the first degree relatives, type and amount of' smoking, oral contraceptives and number of pregnancies were assessed by standardised questionnaires. Gender-specific predictors of goitre prevalence were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of goitre among study subjects was (204/853) 23.9%. Goitre was present in 80 out of 370 females (21.6%) vs. 124/483 (25.7%) in males.In general smoking (<0.0001), increasing age (p<0.0001) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.004) associated with goitre prevalence, but not sex (0.4) and family history of goitre (p=0.2). In 370 females, parity (p=0.004) and lack of daily intake of iodised salt (p=0.01) were the major determinants for goitre, whereas, age (p=0.2), oral contraceptives (p=0.8), family history of goitre (p=0.3), and smoking (p=0.1) did not affect the goitre prevalence. In 483 males, smoking (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.001) affected the goitre prevalence, but not family history of goitre (p=0.4) and the iodine status failed just to reach the significant level (p=0.08) in this analysis. Conclusions: Gender specific determinants of goitre are parity and iodine status in females and smoking and increasing age in males. (authors)

  4. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  5. Optimizing personalized normative feedback: the use of gender-specific referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2007-03-01

    Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one's behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women.

  6. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  7. GenderMedDB: an interactive database of sex and gender-specific medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dunkel, Mathias; Preissner, Robert; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Searches for sex and gender-specific publications are complicated by the absence of a specific algorithm within search engines and by the lack of adequate archives to collect the retrieved results. We previously addressed this issue by initiating the first systematic archive of medical literature containing sex and/or gender-specific analyses. This initial collection has now been greatly enlarged and re-organized as a free user-friendly database with multiple functions: GenderMedDB (http://gendermeddb.charite.de). GenderMedDB retrieves the included publications from the PubMed database. Manuscripts containing sex and/or gender-specific analysis are continuously screened and the relevant findings organized systematically into disciplines and diseases. Publications are furthermore classified by research type, subject and participant numbers. More than 11,000 abstracts are currently included in the database, after screening more than 40,000 publications. The main functions of the database include searches by publication data or content analysis based on pre-defined classifications. In addition, registrants are enabled to upload relevant publications, access descriptive publication statistics and interact in an open user forum. Overall, GenderMedDB offers the advantages of a discipline-specific search engine as well as the functions of a participative tool for the gender medicine community.

  8. Gender-specific information search behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Parinaz Maghferat; Wolfgang G. Stock

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical gender study in the context of information science. It discusses an exploratory investigation, which provides empirical data about differences of information seeking activities by female and male students. The research focus was on whether there are gender-specific differences when people perform searches with the aid of general search engines and specialized Deep Web information services. It has been observed how the participants behaved in getting informatio...

  9. The need for detailed gender-specific occupational safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Rios, Fernanda; Chong, Wai K; Grau, David

    2017-09-01

    The female work in population is growing in the United States, therefore the occupational health and safety entities must start to analyze gender-specific data related to every industry, especially to nontraditional occupations. Women working in nontraditional jobs are often exposed to extreme workplace hazards. These women have their safety and health threatened because there are no adequate policies to mitigate gender-specific risks such as discrimination and harassment. Employers tend to aggravate this situation because they often fail to provide proper reporting infrastructure and support. According to past studies, women suffered from workplace injuries and illnesses that were less prominent among men. Statistics also confirmed that men and women faced different levels of risks in distinct work environments. For example, the rates of workplace violence and murders by personal acquaintances were significantly higher among women. In this paper, the authors analyze prior public data on fatal and nonfatal injuries to understand why we need to differentiate genders when analyzing occupational safety and health issues. The analyses confirmed that women dealt with unique workplace hazards compared to men. It is urgent that public agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Labor, record gender-specific data in details and by occupations and industries. The reader will become aware of the current lack - and need - of data and knowledge about injuries and illnesses separated by gender and industry. Finally, safety and health researchers are encouraged to investigate the gender-specific data in all industries and occupations, as soon as they become available. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described ... used for analysis. ... risk due to LVH and that cardiac adaptation to ... had history taking, physical examination and ..... between the gender specific differences in cardiac ... A metaanalysis of individual.

  11. Femicide. Violent deaths of women as gender-specific crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Inés Munevar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss femicide as a gender-specific crime. It affords a feminist analysis on the conceptual dimensions of the crime; it includes the main arguments explored in Latin America, examines different aspects defended by feminists and women movement activists, discusses some reactions to the crime and considers the general structure of this crime in six countries: Costa Rica (special law, 2007, Guatemala (special law, 2008, Mexico (general law, 2007, El Salvador (special and integral law, 2010, Colombia and Chile (reforms to criminal laws, 2008 and 2010. The criminal issue has provoked numerous debates in the judicial and legislatives bodies and it has opened new ways to continue the critical research of this kind of gender violence against women’s bodies and women’s right to live their lives without violence.

  12. ["Gender-specific needs of nursing home residents" : Focus on personal hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, J; Dummert, S

    2016-12-01

    Residential nursing homes are specialized in dealing with people in need of care and are required to respect their dignity and right to self-determination. This includes the respectful handling of gender-specific needs and wishes of residents. Personal hygiene is one important area to which this applies. This study was carried out to investigate residents' gender-specific perception of life and care in nursing homes. This article focuses on unspecific and gender-specific needs in the area of personal hygiene, seeking to identify where changes are needed. Structured interviews were conducted in four nursing homes with a total of ten male and ten female residents without cognitive impairments. Content analysis and description of findings proceeded in two stages: interviewees' experiences of everyday life and care were first reconstructed before gender-specific aspects were analyzed. Both universal and gender-specific needs were identified in the area of personal hygiene. The gender-unspecific wish for respect for dignity and privacy was in some cases neglected. A need for meaningful communication and respectful relationships was also gender-unspecific. Gender-specific wishes related in particular to the gender of persons assisting with or conducting personal hygiene measures. In addition to improved perception and consideration of gender-specific needs, it is also necessary to adapt nursing in residential institutions more closely to the individual needs of residents. Further research is needed in relation to the perspectives of nursing staff and the development of participatory methods for involving residents in shaping everyday life in residential institutions.

  13. Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... on household food security among smallholders in Western Province of Kenya.

  14. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Better Educational Website Interface Design: The Implications from Gender-Specific Preferences in Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-chang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated graduate students gender-specific preferences for certain website interface design features, intending to generate useful information for instructors in choosing and for website designers in creating educational websites. The features investigated in this study included colour value, major navigation buttons placement, and…

  16. GENDER-SPECIFIC CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Žikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the incidence of depression is twice as often in women than in men. However, data about the clinical picture and the course of the disorder in men and in women are inconsistent. The purpose of our research is to find out if there are any differences in terms of symptomatology and course of unipolar depression in men and in women. The study included 84 subjects affected by unipolar depresson, who were divided in two groups according to the gender: a group of males, comprising 20 subjects and a group of female subjects, that comprised 64 affected persons. We used the general semistructured questionnaire with questions about the course of unipolar depression and sociodemographic data, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL- 90-R, Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Regarding symptoms occurring within unipolar depression, there was no statistically significant gender-specific difference finding. Males tended to somewhat higher frequency of anhedonia and hostility, while females tended to more frequent sleep disturbance and decrease in energy. In terms of the course of disorder, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference in the age at the onset of disorder (M:Ž=43.9:34.72 years and frequency of episodes (males had more frequent episodes. Men and women, affected by unipolar depression differ in terms of the course of unipolar depression, but not in the sense of its clinical manifestation.

  17. General versus gender-specific attributes of the psychology major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Jason A; King, Alan R; Bailly, Matthew D

    2005-04-01

    In the present study, the authors extended the search for general and gender-specific factors associated with the selection of psychology as a college major by using the Family Environment Scale (FES; R. H. Moos & B. S. Moos, 1994) and Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; F. L. Coolidge & M. M. Merwin, 1992). The findings were restricted to one general (Schizoid) and one gender-specific (Self-Defeating) set of personality traits that seemed to be associated with the selection of a college major. The intuitive role of many presumed gender-specific factors (e.g., women are more open to discussing personal problems with others) may prove difficult to establish empirically.

  18. Religious Activities and Suicide Prevention: A Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Stack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis contributes to the existing literature on religion and suicide in three interrelated ways: (1 providing an analysis of suicide completions whereas most research is based on non-lethal levels of suicidality; (2 assessing the relationship with concrete individual level data on completed suicides instead of aggregated data marked by the ecological fallacy issue; and (3 providing gender specific analyses to determine if the relationship is gendered. METHODS. Data come from the U.S. Public Health Service, National Mortality Followback Survey. They refer to 16,795 deaths including 1385 suicides. Significant others of the deceased were interviewed to measure all variables. The dependent variable is a binary variable where 1 = death by suicide and 0 = all other causes. The central independent variable is an index of religious activities. Controls are included for five categories of confounders (1 psychiatric morbidity; (2 help-seeking behavior; (3 Opportunity factors such as firearms; (4 social integration; and (5 demographics. RESULTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that controlling for 16 predictors of suicide, a one unit increase in religious activities reduced the odds of a suicide death by 17% for males and by 15% for females. The difference in coefficients is not significant (Z = 0.51. Other significant predictors of suicide deaths included suicide ideation (OR = 8.87, males, OR = 11.48, females and firearm availability (OR = 4.21, males, OR = 2.83, females. DISCUSSION. Religious activities were found to lower suicide risk equally for both men and women. Further work is needed to assess pathways, including suicide ideation, between religious activities and lowered suicide risk. This is the first U.S. based study to test for a gendered association between religion and suicide at the individual level of analysis.

  19. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  20. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  1. A legal perspective on reproductive health and gender-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, efforts have been made by national governments to advocate for human rights, improve the status of women and promote gender equality in every way possible. The centrality of gender-specific human rights in advancing the status of women is now ...

  2. Gender-specific association between childhood adversities and smoking in adulthood: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Filippelli, J; Lue-Crisostomo, C A

    2013-05-01

    To investigate gender-specific differences between individual adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking behaviours in adulthood; while controlling for several known risk factors, including adult health behaviours, adult mental health, adult socio-economic indicators and social support. Data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample included 19,356 individuals (11,506 females and 7850 males) aged ≥18 years who were asked questions about their ACEs. Using logistic regression, the independent factors associated with ever smoking and current smoking were determined. Childhood physical abuse was associated with ever smoking for both males and females. Neither sexual abuse nor verbal abuse were significantly associated with ever smoking for males, but they were for females [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63 and OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27, respectively]. For both genders, childhood exposure to parental separation or divorce, household drug abuse or household problem drinking, were significantly associated with ever smoking. These findings underscore the need for future research that investigates gender-specific differences, and the possible mechanisms, linking individual ACEs and smoking behaviours. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  4. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  5. Gender-Specificity in Viewing Time Among Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Rahman, Qazi; Zheng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Measures of sexual interest tend to be more gender-specific in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Cognitive measures, such as viewing time to attractive stimuli, may also show similar patterns of gender-specificity or nonspecificity among men and women and thus serve as useful adjuncts to more direct measures of sexual interest. The objectives of the present research were to determine the extent of gender-specificity in women's viewing times for female pictures (varying in their perceived physical attractiveness) and explore the influence of social comparison of physical appearance on these patterns of responses. In Study 1, we recorded only women's viewing times for pictures of both genders, measured self-reported menstrual cycle phase, and manipulated the waist-to-hip ratio of the women in the female pictures. In Study 2, we recorded women's and men's viewing times, self-reported sexual attraction to pictures of males and females, and physical appearance social comparison. Study 1 found that heterosexual women's viewing time toward female pictures was not associated with manipulation of the perceived attractiveness of those pictures. Study 2 found that heterosexual men were more gender-specific than heterosexual women in their viewing time patterns. We also found that reported sexual attraction and physical appearance social comparison were associated with heterosexual women's viewing times for female pictures, while heterosexual men's viewing times were associated with sexual attraction only. Our results are discussed in relation to the utility of viewing time as an indicator of visual attention toward attractive or sexually appealing visual stimuli.

  6. Do we need a gender-specific total knee replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M G; Husted, H; Bencke, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a gender-specific high-flexion posterior-stabilised (PS) total knee replacement (TKR) would offer advantages over a high-flex PS TKR regarding range of movement (ROM), 'feel' of the knee, pain and satisfaction, as well as during activity. A total......, satisfaction and daily 'feel' of each knee. Patients underwent gait analysis pre-operatively and at one year, which yielded kinematic, kinetic and temporospatial parameters indicative of knee function during gait. At final follow-up we found no statistically significant differences in ROM (p = 0.......82). The median pain score was 0 (0 to 8) in both groups (p = 0.95). The median satisfaction score was 9 (4 to 10) in the high-flex group and 8 (0 to 10) in the gender-specific group (p = 0.98). The median 'feel' score was 9 (3 to 10) in the high-flex group and 8 (0 to 10) in the gender-specific group (p = 0...

  7. [Gender-specific manifestations of daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in elderly people of Surgut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, S I; Malkov, M N; Nikolayev, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective of the study was to establish gender-specific characteristics of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in elderly people living in Yugra North. 295 residents of Surgut (102 men aged 62,9±5,3 years, 35%; 193 women aged 61,9±3,8 years, 65%) were subject to a IPAQ-RU questionnaire. The study revealed the gender-specific differences in body length and mass, body mass and body fat indices. It was detected that more energy is spent on the housework and physical activity in the country (moderate-intensity physical activity for women and high-intensity one for men). The study data showed no statistically significant gender-specific differences in general physical activity. Sedentary behavior is more popular among men rather than women (2543 vs 2441 min/week). 47% of low-active men and 56% of women reported the sitting times of 6-9 hours per day, 42% - 9-12 hours per day. Actions need to be taken to increase physical activity which is low at the moment and decrease sedentary behavior which is currently on the high level.

  8. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Rion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.

  9. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice.

  10. Gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for term babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Liam; Prior, Tomas; Greer, Ristan; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in term, singleton, appropriately grown babies. De-identified, routinely collected data of all women meeting inclusion criteria between 2001 and 2011 were examined (n=9223). Inclusion criteria were public (non-insured), primiparous women who had delivered singleton, appropriately grown babies at term. In this retrospective cohort study, we estimated 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes measured were maternal demographics, mode of delivery, birthweight, APGAR score, cord blood acidemia, respiratory distress, any resuscitation requirement, nursery admission and stillbirth rates. The sex ratio of male babies was 1.05:1 (4718 males; 4505 females, p=0.85). Male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental (p=0.004) or caesarean (pinfluencing factor on mode of delivery. Even after adjusting for birthweight, male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental delivery (OR 1.24, pgender may play an independent role in influencing pregnancy outcomes, although the underlying contributing physiology is not definitively established. The gender of the baby perhaps should be considered when counselling parents in the antepartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the

  12. A study in pink : What determines the success of gender-specific advertising?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Drost, Willemijn

    2014-01-01

    Gender-specific marketing gains importance as women become more influential as consumers. The study investigated an efficiency of two approaches to gender-specific marketing: designing a stereotypically “feminine” product and priming an interdependent self-construal with an advertising scenario.

  13. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Incorporating and evaluating an integrated gender-specific medicine curriculum: a survey study in Dutch GP training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Bottema, Ben JAM; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine LM

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently set standards for gender-specific medicine training as an integrated part of the GP training curriculum. This paper describes the programme and evaluation of this training. Methods The programme is designed for GP registrars throughout the 3-year GP training. The modules emphasize interaction, application, and clinically integrated learning and teaching methods in peer groups. In 2005 - 2008, after completion of each tutorial, GP registrars were asked to fill in a questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale to assess the programme's methods and content. GP registrars were also asked to identify two learning points related to the programme. Results The teaching programme consists of five 3-hour modules that include gender themes related to and frequently seen by GPs such as in doctor-patient communication and cardiovascular disease. GP registrars evaluated the training course positively. The written learning points suggest that GP registrars have increased their awareness of why attention to gender-specific information is relevant. Conclusion In summary, gender-specific medicine training has been successfully integrated into an existing GP training curriculum. The modules and teaching methods are transferable to other training institutes for postgraduate training. The evaluation of the teaching programme shows a positive impact on GP registrars' gender awareness. PMID:19737396

  15. Incorporating and evaluating an integrated gender-specific medicine curriculum: a survey study in Dutch GP training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagro-Janssen Toine LM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently set standards for gender-specific medicine training as an integrated part of the GP training curriculum. This paper describes the programme and evaluation of this training. Methods The programme is designed for GP registrars throughout the 3-year GP training. The modules emphasize interaction, application, and clinically integrated learning and teaching methods in peer groups. In 2005 - 2008, after completion of each tutorial, GP registrars were asked to fill in a questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale to assess the programme's methods and content. GP registrars were also asked to identify two learning points related to the programme. Results The teaching programme consists of five 3-hour modules that include gender themes related to and frequently seen by GPs such as in doctor-patient communication and cardiovascular disease. GP registrars evaluated the training course positively. The written learning points suggest that GP registrars have increased their awareness of why attention to gender-specific information is relevant. Conclusion In summary, gender-specific medicine training has been successfully integrated into an existing GP training curriculum. The modules and teaching methods are transferable to other training institutes for postgraduate training. The evaluation of the teaching programme shows a positive impact on GP registrars' gender awareness.

  16. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  17. Gender-specific profiles of tobacco use among non-institutionalized people with serious mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groening Marlee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death. In North America, reductions in population smoking levels are stabilising and, in recent years, those involved in tobacco control programming have turned their attention to particular segments of society that are at greatest risk for tobacco use. One such group is people with mental illness. A picture of tobacco use patterns among those with mental illness is beginning to emerge; however, there are several unanswered questions. In particular, most studies have been limited to particular in-patient groups. In addition, while it is recognised that men and women differ in relation to their reasons for smoking, levels of addiction to nicotine, and difficulties with cessation, these sex and gender differences have not been fully explored in psychiatric populations. Methods Community residents with serious mental illness were surveyed to describe their patterns of tobacco use and to develop a gender-specific profile of their smoking status and its predictors. Results Of 729 respondents, almost one half (46.8% were current tobacco users with high nicotine dependence levels. They spent a majority of their income on tobacco, and reported using smoking to cope with their psychiatric symptoms. Current smokers, compared with non-smokers, were more likely to be: diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (rather than a mood disorder; male; relatively young; not a member of a racialised group (e.g., Aboriginal, Asian, South Asian, Black; poorly educated; separated or divorced; housed in a residential facility, shelter, or on the street; receiving social assistance; and reporting co-morbid substance use. There is evidence of a gender interaction with these factors; in the gender-specific multivariate logistic regression models, schizophrenia spectrum disorder versus mood disorder was not predictive of women's smoking, nor was education, marital status or

  18. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  19. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women's Sexual Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Bouchard, Katrina N; Timmers, Amanda D

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or "straight" women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women's sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women's sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed.

  20. Straight but Not Narrow; Within-Gender Variation in the Gender-Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L.; Bouchard, Katrina N.; Timmers, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or “straight” women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women). It is therefore unclear if gender-nonspecific responding is found in both exclusively and predominantly androphilic women. The current studies investigated within-gender variability in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. Two samples of women reporting concurrent andro/gynephilia viewed (Study 1, n = 29) or listened (Study 2, n = 30) to erotic stimuli varying by gender of sexual partner depicted while their genital and subjective sexual responses were assessed. Data were combined with larger datasets of predominantly gyne- and androphilic women (total N = 78 for both studies). In both studies, women reporting any degree of gynephilia, including those who self-identified as heterosexual, showed significantly greater genital response to female stimuli, similar to predominantly gynephilic women; gender-nonspecific genital response was observed for exclusively androphilic women only. Subjective sexual arousal patterns were more variable with respect to sexual attractions, likely reflecting stimulus intensity effects. Heterosexually-identified women are therefore not a homogenous group with respect to sexual responses to gender cues. Implications for within-gender variation in women’s sexual orientation and sexual responses are discussed. PMID:26629910

  1. The association between anxiety and chronic pain after whiplash injury: gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Jones, Allan

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that anxiety is related more strongly to chronic pain experience in men relative to women. The aim of the present study was to examine for the first time gender-specific associations between anxiety and chronic pain experience in men and women exposed to whiplash trauma. One thousand seven hundred and nine people with whiplash (1349 women, 360 men) belonging to the Danish Society for Polio, Traffic, and Accident Victims completed a battery of questionnaires measuring demographic, psychologic, and pain-related factors (including frequency of painful episodes, level of pain interference, number of anatomic regions in which pain was felt, and the level of general disability). Anxiety was found to be positively related to the level of general disability to a significantly stronger magnitude in men compared with women. A trend difference in correlation magnitude was also found between men and women when comparing anxiety with pain frequency, with the magnitude of correlation being higher in men. The stronger association between anxiety and symptoms of whiplash trauma in men compared with women may be due to gender differences in the attribution of anxiety-related autonomic arousal as symptoms of whiplash injury. Alternatively, anxiety may differentially affect the willingness of men and women to report pain and other health indices. Anxiety is an important factor in understanding gender differences in whiplash-related symptoms such as chronic pain and disability, and requires further investigation.

  2. Gender-specific differences in risk for intimate partner violence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjee; Stefani, Katherine M; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea.

  3. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  4. Gender-specific health implications of minority stress among lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Emily; Lyons, Anthony; Leonard, William

    2016-12-01

    Lesbians and gay men are exposed to unique minority stressors. We examined the health implications of one type of distal minority stressor (victimisation) and one type of proximal minority stressor (sexual identity concealment due to anticipated stigma) among lesbians and gay men. Gender-specific health implications were assessed. Data were collected via an online survey involving an Australian sample of 1,470 gay men and 1,264 lesbians. Survey questions assessed demographics, experiences of different forms of sexual identity-related victimisation and sexual identity concealment in a variety of contexts. Health outcomes included self-reported general health, illicit drug use, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and weight status. Gay men reported higher rates of victimisation and identity concealment than lesbians. Controlling for demographic differences, experiences of victimisation were associated with poorer self-rated health, illicit drug use, and smoking among both gay men and lesbians. In contrast, identity concealment was linked with poorer health outcomes among lesbians only. Our findings offer new insights into the potential antecedents of the health inequalities that have previously been reported for these populations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Bangladesh Norms for a Gender-Specific Functional Fine Dexterity Test (FFDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra K. Lindstrom-Hazel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good psychometrics and cultural relevance are needed for evidence-based practice. Occupational therapy (OT assessment tools in Bangladesh have been developed outside of Bangladesh and have not been validated or normed for Bangladeshis. This normative and psychometric study was to provide culturally relevant norms for in Bangladesh for bilateral fine motor. Method: The Functional Fine Dexterity Test (FFDT consists of two functional/self-care gender-specific task instruments: a shirt with five buttons for males and a pinning board for females. Raters were trained in timing these tasks. Results: Intra-Class Correlation (ICC scores were > .85 for all rater teams. Participants were timed three times while they completed the task. Convergent validity was examined using a Pearson’s Product-Moment correlation to compare the average of three trials of the FFDT and three trials of the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT. Male and female norms were developed for the FFDT using descriptive statistics. The sample included 180 Bangladesh participants. Convergent validity, when compared to the NHPT, ranged from r = .4 to .67 for males (ages 18-29 and 40-49, p < .05; and r = .53 to .76 for females (aged 18-39, p < .05. FFDT norms were developed for gender and age categories. Conclusion: The FFDT is a valid test to use for evaluating fine motor dexterity in Bangladesh. This is the first OT instrument to be studied for culturally relevancy.

  6. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender-specific calculation of the effective dose: The example of thoracic computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetticher, H. von; Lachmund, J.; Hoffmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Systematic gender-specific differences in anatomy and physiology are mostly neglected in standard methodologies for the determination of effective doses. This paper presents and discusses three different concepts for the derivation of gender-specific effective doses. Based on the most convincing approach - especially through the influence of tissue weighting factors for the breast - the effective dose for a serial CT scan of the chest is higher for women (+11%) and lower (-11%) for men in comparison to the 'gender-neutral' average value. These differences amount to ±30% for coronary serial CT applications. (orig.) [de

  8. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  9. A conceptual muddle: an empirical analysis of the use of 'sex' and 'gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hammarström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of 'gender-specific medicine' which is directed towards analysing 'sex' and 'gender' differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are used in the new field of 'gender-specific medicine', as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field. METHOD AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43. In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors. Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender'. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between 'sex' and gender' referred to only in six of the papers. CONCLUSION: The use of the concepts of 'sex' and gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms 'sex' and 'gender' in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between 'sex' and 'gender' in relation to different diseases.

  10. Gender-Specific Effect of -102G>A Polymorphism in Insulin Induced Gene 2 on Obesity in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2 encodes a protein that has a biological effect on regulation of adipocyte metabolism and body weight. This study aimed to investigate the association of INSIG2 gene -102G>A polymorphism with obesity related phenotypes in Chinese children and test gender-specific effects. Methods. The 2,030 independent individuals aged from 7 to 18 years, including 705 obese cases and 1,325 nonobese controls, were recruited from local schools. We measured the obesity-related phenotypes and detected the serum lipids. We genotype -102G>A polymorphism by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results. In all individuals, we found that the GG/GA genotype of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism was associated with risk of severe obesity (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11–2.36, and P=0.012 under the dominant model. The association with severe obesity existed only in boys (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15–3.17, P=0.012. The GG/GA genotype of -102G>A polymorphism was also associated with higher waist circumference (β=2.61 cm, P=0.031 in boys. No similar association was found in girls. The polymorphism was not associated with other obesity-related phenotypes, neither in all individuals nor in gender-specific population. Conclusions. This study identified a gender-specific effect of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism on risk of severe obesity and waist circumference in Chinese boys.

  11. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  12. Full-wave calculation of fast-wave current drive in tokamaks including kparallel upshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical calculations of fast-wave current drive (FWCD) efficiency have generally been of two types: ray tracing or global wave calculations. Ray tracing shows that the projection of the wave number (k parallel) along the magnetic field can vary greatly over a ray trajectory, particularly when the launch point is above or below the equatorial plane. As the wave penetrates toward the center of the plasma, k parallel increases, causing a decrease in the parallel phase speed and a corresponding decrease in the current drive efficiency, γ. But the assumptions of geometrical optics, namely short wavelength and strong single-pass absorption, are not greatly applicable in FWCD scenarios. Eigenmode structure, which is ignored in ray tracing, can play an important role in determining electric field strength and Landau damping rates. In such cases, a full-wave or global solution for the wave fields is desirable. In full-wave calculations such as ORION k parallel appear as a differential operator (rvec B·∇) in the argument of the plasma dispersion function. Since this leads to a differential system of infinite order, such codes of necessity assume k parallel ∼ k var-phi = const, where k var-phi is the toroidal wave number. Thus, it is not possible to correctly include effects of the poloidal magnetic field on k parallel. The problem can be alleviated by expressing the electric field as a superposition of poloidal modes, in which case k parallel is purely algebraic. This paper describes a new full-wave calculation, Poloidal Ion Cyclotron Expansion Solution, which uses poloidal and toroidal mode expansions to solve the wave equation in general flux coordinates. The calculation includes a full solution for E parallel and uses a reduced-order form of the plasma conductivity tensor to eliminate numerical problems associated with resolution of the very short wavelength ion Bernstein wave

  13. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  14. Organization, execution and evaluation of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care - an executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    With the goal of reducing inequalities in patient care, the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," convened a diverse group of researchers, clinicians, health care providers, patients, and representatives of federal agencies and policy-makers in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014. The executive and steering committees identified seven clinical domains as key to gender-specific emergency care: cardiovascular, neurological, trauma/injury, substance abuse, pain, mental health, and diagnostic imaging. The main aims of the conference were to: 1) summarize and consolidate current data related to sex- and gender-specific research for acute care and identify critical gender-related gaps in knowledge to inform an EM research agenda; 2) create a consensus-driven research agenda that advances sex- and gender-specific research in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute diseases and identify strategies to investigate them; and 3) build a multinational interdisciplinary consortium to disseminate and study the sex and gender medicine of acute conditions. Over a 2-year period, this collaborative network of stakeholders identified key areas where sex- and gender-specific research is most likely to improve clinical care and ultimately patient outcomes. The iterative consensus process culminated in a daylong conference on May 13, 2014, with a total of 133 registrants, with the majority being between ages 31 and 50 years (57%), females (71%), and whites (79%). Content experts led the consensus-building workshops at the conference and used the nominal group technique to consolidate consensus recommendations for priority research. In addition, panel sessions addressed funding mechanisms for gender-specific research as well as gender-specific regulatory challenges to product development and approval. This special issue of AEM reports the

  15. The Efficacy of Goal Setting in Cardiac Rehabilitation-a Gender-Specific Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Brünger, Martin; Michel, Anne; Bongarth, Christa; Spyra, Karla

    2016-08-08

    Patients with coronary heart disease undergo cardiac rehabilitation in order to reduce their cardiovascular risk factors. Often, however, the benefit of rehabilitation is lost over time. It is unclear whether this happens in the same way to men and women. We studied whether the setting of gender-specific behavior goals with an agreement between the doctor and the patient at the end of rehabilitation can prolong its positive effects. This study was performed with a mixed-method design. It consisted of qualitative interviews and group discussions with patients, doctors and other treating personnel, and researchers, as well as a quantitative, randomized, controlled intervention trial in which data were acquired at four time points (the beginning and end of rehabilitation and then 6 and 12 months later). 545 patients, 262 of them women (48.1%), were included. The patients were assigned to a goal checking group (n = 132), a goal setting group (n = 143), and a control group (n = 270). The primary endpoints were health-related behavior (exercise, diet, tobacco consumption), subjective state of health, and medication adherence. The secondary endpoints included physiological protection and risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol (HDL, LDL, and total), blood sugar, HbA1c, and body-mass index. The intervention had no demonstrable effect on the primary or secondary endpoints. The percentage of smokers declined to a similar extent in all groups from the beginning of rehabilitation to 12 months after its end (overall figures: 12.4% to 8.6%, p exercise behavior, diet, and subjective state of health also improved over the entire course of the study. Women had a healthier diet than men. Subgroup analyses indicated a possible effect of the intervention on exercise behavior in women who were employed and in men who were not (pgoal setting was not demonstrated. Therefore, no indication for its routine provision can be derived from the study results.

  16. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  17. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  18. Gender-specific associations between physical functioning, bone quality and fracture risk in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, R.; van Schoor, N.M.; de Haan, A.; Lips, P.; de Jongh, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which parameters of physical functioning are associated with bone quality and fracture risk and whether gender-specific differences exist within these associations. We studied 1,486 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. As measures of

  19. Novel gender-specific visceral adiposity index for Mexican pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Garcés

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: VAI formula construction seemed to be different in children compared to adults. In the present study we propose a new gender-specific visceral adipose index for pediatric Mexican population living in urban areas that could be further used to predict abnormal cardiometabolic outcomes.

  20. The Utility of a Gender-Specific Definition of Binge Drinking on the AUDIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…

  1. Going against the Grain: Gender-Specific Media Education in Catholic High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapayese, Yvette V.

    2012-01-01

    The Catholic Church has addressed the power of media, as well as the critical importance of understanding and educating Catholic youth on the media's role and place in modern culture. In this article, the narratives of female Catholic teachers are prioritized to illustrate how gender-specific media education influences the schooling experiences of…

  2. Gender-specific heart rate dynamics in severe intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2013-06-01

    Management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major issue in perinatology. The objective of this paper was the assessment of gender-specific fetal heart rate (FHR) dynamics as a diagnostic tool in severe IUGR. FHR was analyzed in the antepartum period in 15 severe IUGR fetuses and 18 controls, matched for gestational age, in relation to fetal gender. Linear and entropy methods, such as mean FHR (mFHR), low (LF), high (HF) and movement frequency (MF), approximate, sample and multiscale entropy. Sensitivities and specificities were estimated using Fisher linear discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out method. Overall, IUGR fetuses presented significantly lower mFHR and entropy compared with controls. However, gender-specific analysis showed that significantly lower mFHR was only evident in IUGR males and lower entropy in IUGR females. In addition, lower LF/(MF+HF) was patent in IUGR females compared with controls, but not in males. Rather high sensitivities and specificities were achieved in the detection of the FHR recordings related with IUGR male fetuses, when gender-specific analysis was performed at gestational ages less than 34 weeks. Severe IUGR fetuses present gender-specific linear and entropy FHR changes, compared with controls, characterized by a significantly lower entropy and sympathetic-vagal balance in females than in males. These findings need to be considered in order to achieve better diagnostic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  4. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  5. Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n = 2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

  6. Effect of gender specific anthropometric characteristics on lung function in young competitive triathletes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Hanapi M; Zainudin, Hakimi A; Knight, Victor F; Lumley, Steven A; Subramanium, Ananthan S; Caszo, Brinnell A; Gnanou, Justin V

    2017-04-01

    Anthropometric and lung function characteristics of triathletes are important for the implementation of individual specific training and recovery recommendations. However, limited data are available for these parameters in triathletes. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and examine the gender differences of lung function and anthropometry parameters in competitive triathletes from Malaysia. Body composition assessment and lung function tests were performed on sixteen competitive triathletes (nine male and seven female). The subject's body composition profile including muscle mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), and percent body fat was measured using a bio-impedance segmental body composition analyzer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by Quark PFT2 spirometer. The anthropometric measurements revealed that male triathletes were significantly taller than female triathletes and had significantly more protein and skeletal muscle mass. The female triathletes, however, had significantly higher percent body fat. Male triathletes had statistically significant higher FVC and FEV1 than female triathletes. Both the male and female triathletes showed a positive correlation between height, fat free mass and the lung function markers FVC and FEV1. This association was not seen with Body Mass Index (BMI) in female triathletes. The data from our study shows that anthropometric parameters are directly linked to lung function of a triathlete. We also found the relationship between BMI and lung function to be gender specific in triathletes and is dependent on the body protein and fat content. Hence, body composition characterization is essential and provides valuable information for developing individual specific training modules.

  7. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovany Moreno

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.

  8. Axisymmetric disruption dynamics including current profile changes in the ASDEX-Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Pautasso, G.; Gruber, O.; Jardin, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Axisymmetric MHD simulations have revealed a new driving mechanism that governs the vertical displacement event (VDE) dynamics in tokamak disruptions. A rapid flattening of the plasma current profile during the disruption plays a substantial role in dragging a single null-diverted plasma vertically towards the divertor. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom-diverted discharges. This dragging effect, due to an abrupt change in the current profile, is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. These simulation results are consistent with experiments in ASDEX-Upgrade. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents induced by the plasma current quench, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of the disruptive termination. (author)

  9. Autonomy, positive relationships, and IL-6: evidence for gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research centre for blood draws. In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that moderate autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men. In the US national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, moderate autonomy was again associated with higher IL-6 in men only. Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. What is already known on this subject? A host of previous work indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women. Further, there is some evidence suggesting that well-being consistent with gender-linked values is more health protective, such that relationships are more protective for women than for men, while

  10. Gender-specific effects of depression and suicidal ideation in prosocial behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior.We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16-36. Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior.Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression.

  11. Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval: a panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alyson J; Barr, Helen; Greenberg, Marna R; Safdar, Basmah; Wildgoose, Peter; Wright, David W; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-12-01

    On May 13, 2014, a 1-hour panel discussion session titled "Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval" was held during the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." The session sought to bring together leaders in emergency medicine (EM) research, authors, and reviewers in EM research publications, as well as faculty, fellows, residents, and students engaged in research and clinical practice. A panel was convened involving a representative from the Office of Women's Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, two pharmaceutical executives, and a clinical EM researcher. The moderated discussion also involved audience members who contributed significantly to the dialogue. Historical background leading up to the session along with the main themes of the discussion are reproduced in this article. These revolve around sex- and gender-specific research, statistical analysis of sex and gender, clinical practice, financial costs associated with pharmaceutical development, adaptive design, and specific recommendations on the regulatory process as it affects the specialty of EM. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    alongshore winds favoring upwelling circulation. As for the other EBUS (e.g., Humboldt, Benguela, and Canary Currents ), equatorward winds drive...Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents , Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests...environments OBJECTIVES The central scientific questions are how the eddies control the persistent currents by their eddy-induced momentum and buoyancy fluxes

  13. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...,839B; TA-W-70,839C] Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off... Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood, CA; Amended...

  14. Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Mirkov, Dragan; Cavar, Mile; Sattler, Tine

    2013-03-01

    The quick change of direction (i.e., agility) is an important athletic ability in numerous sports. Because of the diverse and therefore hardly predictable manifestations of agility in sports, studies noted that the improvement in speed, power, and balance should result in an improvement of agility. However, there is evident lack of data regarding the influence of potential predictors on different agility manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-specific influence of speed, power, and balance on different agility tests. A total of 32 college-aged male athletes and 31 college-aged female athletes (age 20.02 ± 1.89 years) participated in this study. The subjects were mostly involved in team sports (soccer, team handball, basketball, and volleyball; 80% of men, and 75% of women), martial arts, gymnastics, and dance. Anthropometric variables consisted of body height, body weight, and the body mass index. Five agility tests were used: a t-test (T-TEST), zig-zag test, 20-yard shuttle test, agility test with a 180-degree turn, and forward-backward running agility test (FWDBWD). Other tests included 1 jumping ability power test (squat jump, SQJ), 2 balance tests to determine the overall stability index and an overall limit of stability score (both measured by Biodex Balance System), and 2 running speed tests using a straight sprint for 10 and 20 m (S10 and S20, respectively). A reliability analysis showed that all the agility tests were reliable. Multiple regression and correlation analysis found speed and power (among women), and balance (among men), as most significant predictors of agility. The highest Pearson's correlation in both genders is found between the results of the FWDBWD and S10M tests (0.77 and 0.81 for men and women, respectively; p Power, measured using the SQJ, is significantly (p balance measures were significantly related to the agility performance for men but not for women. In addition to demonstrating a known relationship

  15. [Gender-specific influences on incidence, screening, treatment, and outcome of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2013-08-01

    This overview comments on potential gender-specific differences in incidence, anatomic site, screening, treatment, and outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). For the literature review, the Medline database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "colorectal carcinoma AND gender" and "gender differences AND colorectal cancer". Publications of the last 9 years (2005-2013) were firstly retrieved. CRC is more commonly observed in men than in women, with the higher tumour risk for men being limited to the distal colon and rectum. Risk factors for the development of CRC include overweight and obesity, this relationship is more pronounced for men than for women. The extent to which gender is a prognostic factor for patient survival is controversial. A better survival of women compared to men is found especially in the younger age groups, from which can be derived a protective effect of oestrogens on the development of CRC. As for the frequency with which men and women undergo a screening of CRC, sometimes higher screening rates have been reported for men than women, however, the socio-economic status of persons invited to participate has much more influence on screening attendance than gender. An analysis of surgical procedures indicates that it is more difficult to perform the low anterior resection of the rectum in men than women, with the result that men managed by less experienced surgeons are more likely to receive abdominoperineal excision. Furthermore, the risk of anastomotic leakage is higher in men than women. The essential gender difference, however, is the longer life expectancy of women compared to men which has been not always clearly (risk adjusted) elaborated in the studies available so far. This difference alone can already explain at a high rate the poorer prognosis of right-sided colon cancers compared to left-sided cancers. Comparable levels of CRC risk are reached in women as compared to men at a higher age. This may influence the

  16. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  17. Current treatments in Parkinson's including the proposal of an innovative dopamine microimplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velázquez-Paniagua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is a chronic, debilitating, progressive neurological disorder of multifactorial origin. It affects between 0.3% and 2% of the over-65 population worldwide, with a predilection for men, and is characterised by bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Parkinson's is caused by decreased dopamine levels due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Because dopamine is a highly oxidisable molecule, precursors such as levodopa, together with catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase inhibitors to prevent degradation, are used in the treatment of this disease. These therapies, however, are not without their adverse effects. Surgical treatments for Parkinson's include pallidotomy, therapy deep brain stimulation, and stem cells. A more recent development involves a titanium dioxide micro-implant containing nanopores that stabilise the dopamine for continuous release. When inserted into the caudate nucleus, this micro-implant was found to counteract 85% of symptoms in hemiparkinsonian rats, and is a promising therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease.

  18. Gender-specific estimates of COPD prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntritsos G

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgios Ntritsos,1 Jacob Franek,2 Lazaros Belbasis,1 Maria A Christou,1 Georgios Markozannes,1 Pablo Altman,3 Robert Fogel,3 Tobias Sayre,2 Evangelia E Ntzani,1 Evangelos Evangelou1,4 1Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Doctor Evidence, Client Solutions, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 3Global Medical Affairs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK Rationale: COPD has been perceived as being a disease of older men. However, >7 million women are estimated to live with COPD in the USA alone. Despite a growing body of literature suggesting an increasing burden of COPD in women, the evidence is limited. Objectives: To assess and synthesize the available evidence among population-based epidemiologic studies and calculate the global prevalence of COPD in men and women. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis reporting gender-specific prevalence of COPD was undertaken. Gender-specific prevalence estimates were abstracted from relevant studies. Associated patient characteristics as well as custom variables pertaining to the diagnostic method and other important epidemiologic covariates were also collected. A Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis was performed investigating gender-specific prevalence of COPD stratified by age, geography, calendar time, study setting, diagnostic method, and disease severity. Measurements and main results: Among 194 eligible studies, summary prevalence was 9.23% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 8.16%–10.36% in men and 6.16% (95% CrI: 5.41%–6.95% in women. Gender prevalences varied widely by the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease subregions, with the highest female prevalence found in North America (8.07% vs 7.30% and in participants in urban settings (13.03% vs 8.34%. Meta

  19. Gender-specific and gonadectomy-specific effects upon swim analgesia: role of steroid replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M T; Cooper, M L; Komisaruk, B R; Bodnar, R J

    1988-01-01

    Both gender-specific and gonadectomy-specific effects have been observed for the analgesic responses following continuous and intermittent cold-water swims (CCWS and ICWS respectively): female rats display significantly less analgesia than males, and gonadectomized rats display significantly less analgesia than sham-operated controls. The present study evaluated the effects of steroid replacement therapy with testosterone propionate (TP: 2 mg/kg, SC) upon CCWS and ICWS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests and hypothermia in sham-operated or gonadectomized male and female rats. Thirty days following surgery, rats received either no treatment, a sesame oil vehicle or TP for 14 days prior to, and then during testing. Relative to the no treatment condition, repeated vehicle injections in sham-operated rats eliminated the gender-specific, but did not affect the gonadectomy-specific effects upon CCWS and ICWS analgesia. TP reversed the deficits in CCWS and ICWS analgesia observed in both castrated and ovariectomized rats on both pain tests. TP only potentiated CCWS analgesia in sham-operated males on the tail-flick test. TP potentiated CCWS and ICWS hypothermia in gonadectomized rats and in male sham-operated rats. These data indicate that gonadal steroids play a major modulatory role in the etiology of swim analgesia, and that the observed gender effects are sensitive to possible adaptational variables.

  20. Gender-specific role of mitochondria in the vulnerability of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated mesencephalic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Magdalena; Beyer, Cordian; Arnold, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Morbus Parkinson, exhibit a gender-dependency showing a higher incidence in men than women. Most of the neurodegenerative disorders involve either causally or consequently a dysfunction of mitochondria. Therefore, neuronal mitochondria may demonstrate a gender-specificity with respect to structural and functional characteristics of these organelles during toxic and degenerative processes. The application of 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) in vitro and in vivo represents a well-accepted experimental model of Parkinson's disease causing Parkinsonian symptoms. Besides the known effects of 6-OHDA on mitochondria and neuronal survivability, we aimed to demonstrate that the mitochondrial neurotoxin affects the morphology and survival of primary dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon in a gender-specific manner by influencing the transcription of mitochondrial genes, ATP and reactive oxygen species production. Our data suggest that cell death in response to 6-OHDA is primarily caused due to increased oxidative stress which is more pronounced in male than in female mesencephalic neurons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender-Specific Election Violence: The Role of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Bardall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising influence of new information and communication technologies (ICTs has paralleled the rapid development of women’s political participation worldwide. For women entering political life or holding public positions, new ICTs are frequently used as tools of gender-specific electoral and political violence. There is evidence of ICTs being used to perpetrate a broad range of violent acts against women during elections, especially acts inflicting fear and psychological harm. Specific characteristics of ICTs are particularly adapted to misuse in this manner. Despite these significant challenges, ICTs also offer groundbreaking solutions for preventing and mitigating violence against women in elections (VAWE. Notably, ICTs combat VAWE through monitoring and documenting violence, via education and awareness-raising platforms and through empowerment and advocacy initiatives.

  2. Parental overprotection increases sociotropy with gender specificity in parents and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2012-02-01

    There have been few studies which examined the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability of depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on sociotropy and autonomy, the personality vulnerability factors in the cognitive theory of depression. The subjects were 416 healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which has care and protection factors, and sociotropy and autonomy were assessed by the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale. In males, neither sociotropy nor autonomy was affected by paternal rearing or maternal rearing. In females, higher levels of sociotropy were related to higher maternal protection (β=0.308, poverprotection increases sociotropy with gender specificity in parents and recipients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender-specific issues in cardiac rehabilitation: do women with ischaemic heart disease need specially tailored programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Grande, Gesine; Loewel, Hannelore; Völler, Heinz; Mittag, Oskar

    2007-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has changed from a disease of middle-aged men in the late 1970s to a disease of elderly women in the 2000s. Most clinical studies during the past three decades have been conducted with men. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes were also developed with special regard to improving the rate of return to work in middle-aged men. The rehabilitation needs of older patients and women in particular have been largely neglected. The aim of this review is briefly to outline our present knowledge on gender issues in cardiac rehabilitation, and to specify barriers with regard to physical activities especially in (older) women. Coping with a cardiac event, women tend to minimize or play down the impact of their health situation and avoid burdening their social contacts. After a first cardiac event, women report greater psychological distress and lower self-efficacy and self-esteem. In addition, older age, lower exercise levels and reduced functional capacity or co-morbid conditions such as osteoporosis and urinary incontinence are barriers to physical activities in women with IHD. Recent studies on psychosocial intervention revealed less favourable results in women compared with men. These findings have not yet been well explained. This emphasizes our current lack of knowledge about the processes and determinants of successful psychosocial interventions in men and women with IHD. A large (European) trial on gender-specific coping styles, needs, and preferences of older women, and the effects of psychosocial intervention is proposed.

  4. Non-linear Simulations of MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks Including Eddy Current Effects and Perspectives for the Extension to Halo Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzl, M; Merkel, P; Lackner, K; Strumberger, E; Huijsmans, G T A; Aleynikova, K; Liu, F; Atanasiu, C; Nardon, E; Fil, A; McAdams, R; Chapman, I

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can be strongly influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realistic toroidal X-point geometry consistently coupled with a model for the vacuum region and the resistive conducting structures. With this in mind, the non-linear finite element MHD code JOREK [1, 2] has been coupled [3] with the resistive wall code STARWALL [4], which allows us to include the effects of eddy currents in 3D conducting structures in non-linear MHD simulations. This article summarizes the capabilities of the coupled JOREK-STARWALL system and presents benchmark results as well as first applications to non-linear simulations of RWMs, VDEs, disruptions triggered by massive gas injection, and Quiescent H-Mode. As an outlook, the perspectives for extending the model to halo currents are described

  5. A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Porcu

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3 and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2. Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2 show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Thyroid-Related Traits Reveals Novel Loci and Gender-Specific Differences in the Regulation of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; H.Vermeulen, Sita; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:23408906

  7. Differential Patterns of Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Activation Predict Gender-Specific Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921

  8. A gender-specific analysis of suicide methods in deliberate self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran K Kumar

    2017-01-01

    the Indian setting compared to the worldwide literature on the subject. Nevertheless, the unique, gender-specific characteristics pertaining to DSH attempters in our population emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions in future clinical treatment.

  9. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  10. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p care (β = 0.195, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  11. Gender-Specific Association of Desacylated Ghrelin with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michela; Gortan Cappellari, Gianluca; Semolic, Annamaria; Burekovic, Ismet; Fonda, Maurizio; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin, a gastric hormone with pleiotropic effects modulates vascular function and may influence atherosclerosis. Plasma ghrelin is reduced in the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is also characterized by early atherosclerosis. Ghrelin circulates in acylated (AG) and desacylated (DAG) forms. Their relative impact and that of gender on subclinical atherosclerosis in MS is unknown. To investigate potential associations of total, AG and DAG with carotid atherosclerosis and with gender in the MS. Plasma total ghrelin, AG, DAG and carotid artery IMT (cIMT) were measured in 46 MS patients (NCEP-ATP III criteria, 22M/24F). Compared with males, females had higher (p ghrelin nor AG and DAG were associated with cIMT in all MS patients nor in the male subgroup. In females, a negative (p ghrelin and AG. In multivariate modeling, DAG remained negatively (p <0.05) associated with cIMT after adjusting for plasma glucose and cardiovascular risk factors. These data indicate a negative independent association between DAG and cIMT in middle-aged women with the MS and suggest a gender-specific modulatory function of DAG in the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender-specific hierarchy in nuage localization of PIWI-interacting RNA factors in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko C Siomi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs are germline-specific small non-coding RNAs that form piRNA-induced silencing complexes (piRISCs by associating with PIWI proteins, a subclade of the Argonaute proteins predominantly expressed in the germline. piRISCs protect the integrity of the germline genome from invasive transposable DNA elements by silencing them. Multiple piRNA biogenesis factors have been identified in Drosophila. The majority of piRNA factors are localized in the nuage, electron-dense non-membranous cytoplasmic structures located in the perinuclear regions of germ cells. Thus, piRNA biogenesis is thought to occur in the nuage in germ cells. Immunofluorescence analyses of ovaries from piRNA factor mutants have revealed a localization hierarchy of piRNA factors in female nuage. However, whether this hierarchy is female-specific or can also be applied in male gonads remains undetermined. Here, we show by immunostaining of both ovaries and testes from piRNA factor mutants that the molecular hierarchy of piRNA factors shows gender-specificity, especially for Krimper (Krimp, a Tudor-domain containing protein of unknown function(s: Krimp is dispensable for PIWI protein Aubergine (Aub nuage localization in ovaries but Krimp and Aub require each other for their proper nuage localization in testes. This suggests that the functional requirement of Krimp in piRNA biogenesis may be different in male and female gonads.

  13. Gender specific changes in cortical activation patterns during exposure to artificial gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Robinson, Ryan; Smith, Craig; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Goswami, Nandu

    2014-11-01

    Keeping astronauts healthy during long duration spaceflight remains a challenge. Artificial gravity (AG) generated by a short arm human centrifuges (SAHC) is proposed as the next generation of integrated countermeasure devices that will allow human beings to safely spend extended durations in space, although comparatively little is known about any psychological side effects of AG on brain function. 16 participants (8 male and 8 female, GENDER) were exposed to 10 min at a baseline gravitational load (G-Load) of +.03 Gz, then 10 min at +.6 Gz for females and +.8 Gz for males, before being exposed to increasing levels of AG in a stepped manner by increasing the acceleration by +.1 Gz every 3 min until showing signs of pre-syncope. EEG recordings were taken of brain activity during 2 min time periods at each AG level. Analysing the results of the mixed total population of participants by two way ANOVA, a significant effect of centrifugation on alpha and beta activity was found (p<.01). Furthermore results revealed a significant interaction between G-LOAD and GENDER alpha-activity (p<.01), but not for beta-activity. Although the increase in alpha and beta activity with G-LOAD does not reflect a general model of cortical arousal and therefore cannot support previous findings reporting that AG may be a cognitively arousing environment, the gender specific responses identified in this study may have wider implications for EEG and AG research.

  14. Gender-specific activity demands experienced during semiprofessional basketball game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Dascombe, Ben J; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Peucker, Jessica L; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-07-01

    To compare game activity demands between female and male semiprofessional basketball players. Female (n=12) and male (n=12) semiprofessional basketball players were monitored across 3 competitive games. Time-motion-analysis procedures quantified player activity into predefined movement categories across backcourt (BC) and frontcourt (FC) positions. Activity frequencies, durations, and distances were calculated relative to live playing time (min). Work:rest ratios were also calculated using the video data. Game activity was compared between genders for each playing position and all players. Female players performed at greater running work-rates than male players (45.7±1.4 vs. 42.1±1.7 m/min, P=.05), while male players performed more dribbling than female players (2.5±0.3 vs. 3.0±0.2 s/min; 8.4±0.3 vs. 9.7±0.7 m/min, P=.05). Positional analyses revealed that female BC players performed more low-intensity shuffling (P=.04) and jumping (P=.05), as well as longer (P=.04) jogging durations, than male BC players. Female FC players executed more upper-body activity (P=.03) and larger work:rest ratios (Pbasketball. Furthermore, position-specific variations between female and male basketball players should be considered. These data may prove useful in the development of gender-specific conditioning plans relative to playing position in basketball.

  15. Development of an Age- and Gender-specific Model for Strontium Metabolism in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N. B.; Degteva, M. O.; Tolstykh, E. I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a development of a new biokinetic model for strontium, which accounts for age and gender differences of metabolism in humans. This model was developed based on the long-term follow-up of the residents living on the banks of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) contaminated with 89,90Sr in 1950-1956. The new model uses the structure of ICRP model for strontium but model parameters have been estimated to account for age, gender and population differences in strontium retention and elimination. Estimates of age- and gender-specific model parameters were derived from (a) the results of long-term measurements of 90Sr-body burden for the Techa River population; (b) experimental studies of calcium and strontium metabolism in humans and (c) non-radiological data regarding bone metabolism (mineral content of the body, bone turnover, etc). As a result, the new model satisfactorily describes data on long-term retention of 90Sr in residents of the Techa River settlements of all ages and both genders and also data from studies during the period of global fallout in the UK and the USA and experimental data on strontium retention in humans. The new model can be used to calculate dose from 89,90Sr for the Techa River residents and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and also for other populations with similar parameters of skeletal maturation and involution. (Author) 27 refs

  16. Gender-Specific Differences in the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory and Intertemporal Choice in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayke Seinstra

    Full Text Available As the population of older adults grows, their economic choices will have increasing impact on society. Research on the effects of aging on intertemporal decisions shows inconsistent, often opposing results, indicating that yet unexplored factors might play an essential role in guiding one's choices. Recent studies suggest that episodic future thinking, which is based on the same neural network involved in episodic memory functions, leads to reductions in discounting of future rewards. As episodic memory functioning declines with normal aging, but to greatly variable degrees, individual differences in delay discounting might be due to individual differences in the vitality of this memory system in older adults. We investigated this hypothesis, using a sample of healthy older adults who completed an intertemporal choice task as well as two episodic memory tasks. We found no clear evidence for a relationship between episodic memory performance and delay discounting in older adults. However, when additionally considering gender differences, we found an interaction effect of gender and autobiographical memory on delay discounting: while men with higher memory scores showed less delay discounting, women with higher memory scores tended to discount the future more. We speculate that this gender effect might stem from the gender-specific use of different modal representation formats (i.e. temporal or visual during assessment of intertemporal choice options.

  17. Bullying development across adolescence, its antecedents, outcomes, and gender-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Deković, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2017-08-01

    In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation in the outcomes, with a number of studies (but not all) showing increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. We used a developmental framework and data from 2,230 participants of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) to examine bullying perpetration across adolescence, to test the links with various antecedents in preadolescence, and to elucidate the outcomes in early adulthood. Latent growth models indicated significant variance in initial bullying perpetration levels and an overall decrease between pre- and late adolescence. Individual, family, and peer factors were associated with initial levels and partially associated with bullying development over time. Bullying perpetration was linked to later maladjustment and substance use, although only in girls. Finally, bullying perpetration appears to function as an intermediate variable between preadolescent individual, family, and peer risk and substance use more than 10 years later. These results have important implications for understanding the gender-specific nature of bullying perpetration and its outcomes and for demonstrating that bullying carries early risk into adulthood.

  18. Rush hour commuting in the Netherlands : Gender-specific household activities and personal attitudes towards responsibility sharing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.; Nijland, E.W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Apart from work-hour commitments, rush hour commuting is dependent on household activities and responsibilities. It can also be gender specific when gender differences in performing household activities prevail. To that end, this study investigates gender differences in rush hour commuting in

  19. Rush hour commuting in the Netherlands: Gender-specific household activities and personal attitudes towards responsibility sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Nijland, E.W.L.; Dijst, M.

    2016-01-01

    Apart from work-hour commitments, rush hour commuting is dependent on household activities and responsibilities. It can also be gender specific when gender differences in performing household activities prevail. To that end, this study investigates gender differences in rush hour commuting in

  20. Climbing the ladder : Gender-specific career advancement in financial services and the influence of flexible work-time arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the gender-specific career advancement of about 10,000 middle- and top-level managers in a Dutch financial services company. Our results indicate that women earn less, work at lower job levels, but show slightly higher career mobility than men. However,

  1. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  2. Age- and Gender-Specific Unemployment in Scandinavian Countries: An Analysis based on Okun’s Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Hutengs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates Scandinavian countries and their male and female unemployment rates. Okun’s law is used to estimate age cohort and gender-specific Okun coefficients to make inference about the business-cycle dependence of young peoples’ unemployment across Scandinavian countries. Results...

  3. Academic Self-Concept and Achievement in Polish Primary Schools: Cross-Lagged Modelling and Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel, Pawel; Modzelewski, Michal; Pisarek, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    This study reports relationships between general academic self-concept and achievement in grade 3 and grade 5. Gender-specific effects were investigated using a longitudinal, two-cycle, 3-year autoregressive cross-lagged panel design in a large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils (N = 4,226). Analysis revealed (a) reciprocal…

  4. Gender-Specific Differences in Baseline, Peak, and Delta Serum Creatinine: The NACSELD Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Wong, Florence; Reddy, K Rajender; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Kamath, Patrick S; Biggins, Scott W; Fallon, Michael B; Subramanian, Ram M; Maliakkal, B; Thacker, Leroy; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2017-03-01

    Women have lower serum creatinine values than men for similar renal function. We aimed to determine the differential effect of baseline, peak, and delta creatinine between genders on outcomes in infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients. North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease is a 15-center consortium of tertiary care hepatology centers prospectively enrolling infected cirrhotic inpatients. Baseline, peak, and delta creatinine during hospitalization were compared between genders, and their impact on overall survival, transplant-free survival, probability of transplantation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) was analyzed. In total, 532 patients with cirrhosis (males = 59% median admission MELD = 20) had significantly lower median baseline (1.07 vs. 1.30 mg/dL, p creatinine (1.47 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p = 0.024) in women than men during hospitalization for an infection, but both genders had similar delta creatinine levels (0.30 vs. 0.30 mg/dL, p = 0.957). Thirty-day mortality was similar between genders. RRT was not used more often in women (19 vs. 12%, p = 0.050), and women were 1.8 times more likely than men to receive RRT at the same creatinine (p = 0.028). Both peak and delta creatinine significantly predicted 6-month overall and transplant-free survival (p creatinine. Infected hospitalized cirrhotic women are significantly more likely than men to receive RRT at similar creatinine levels. Gender-specific differences in baseline, peak, and delta creatinine need further investigation to determine whether women need acute kidney injury treatment at lower creatinine thresholds than men.

  5. Gender-Specific Peculiarities of Motor Preparedness of Children Aged 6-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Іващенко

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to determine the gender-specific peculiarities of motor preparedness of children aged 6-10.  Materials and methods: the participants in the study were girls aged 6 (n = 36, aged 7 (n = 48, aged 8 (n = 57, aged 9 (n = 38, aged 10 (n = 46; boys aged 6 (n = 48, aged 7 (n = 45, aged 8 (n = 60, aged 9 (n = 47, aged 10 (n = 40. To achieve the tasks set, the study relied on the following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, pedagogical testing and methods of mathematical statistics of research data reduction. The study used discriminant analysis as the modeling method. Results: the classification results of motor preparedness of girls and boys aged 6-10 indicate that the study has correctly classified 81.9-100% of the initial observations. The graphic material demonstrates the density of objects within each class and a clear distinction between the classes. This allows to maintain that there is a significant difference between girls and boys aged 6-10 in their motor preparedness. Conclusions. The girls aged 6-10 show the best results in movement coordination related to combinations of movements of arms and legs, as well as flexibility. The girls aged 10 show the best results in test No. 10 “300-m Race”. The boys aged 6-10, unlike the girls, show the best results in the development of general coordination of movements, strength, speed strength, strength and general endurance. It is possible to argue with a high level of reliability that by their classification characteristics girls and boys belong to different classes, and significantly differ in motor preparedness.

  6. Gender-specific relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E; Rogers, Valerie; Smith, Tracey; Ryherd, Susan J; Botchway, Albert; Steward, David E

    2015-12-01

    To assess the gender-specific effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on obesity in elementary school students. We evaluated body mass index (BMI) data from 2,648 first- and fourth-grade students (1,377 male and 1,271 female students) in eight elementary schools in Springfield, Illinois, between 2012 and 2014. Other factors considered in analysis were grade level, year of data collection, school, race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic disadvantage (SD). Students were considered SD if they were eligible for free/reduced price lunch, a school-based poverty measure. We performed Fisher's exact test or chi-square analysis to assess differences in gender and obesity prevalence by the other factors and gender-stratified logistic regression analysis to determine if SD contributed to increased odds of obesity. A higher proportion of SD female students (20.8%) were obese compared to their non-SD peers (15.2%) (p=0.01). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated no difference in obesity in SD and non-SD male students. However, in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, SD female students had higher odds of obesity than their peers. Even after controlling for grade level, school, year of data collection, and race/ethnicity, SD female students had 49% higher odds of obesity than their non-SD classmates (odds ratio:1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.04). Obesity was elevated in SD female students, even after controlling for factors such as race/ethnicity, but such an association was not seen in male students. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of this disparity, and interventions should be developed to target SD female students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age- and gender-specific differences in left ventricular cardiac function and volumes determined by gated SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, P. de; Wiele, C. van de; Winter, F. de; Dierckx, R.A.; Sutter, J. de; Backer, G. de

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine normative volumetric data and ejection fraction values derived from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using the commercially available software algorithm QGS (quantitative gated SPET). From a prospective database of 876 consecutive patients who were referred for a 2-day stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin (925 MBq) gated SPET study, 102 patients (43 men, 59 women) with a low (<10%) pre-test likelihood of coronary disease were included (mean age 57.6 years). For stress imaging, a bicycle protocol was used in 79 of the patients and a dipyridamole protocol in 23. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic and -systolic volumes (EDV and ESV) were calculated by QGS. EDV and ESV were corrected for body surface area, indicated by EDVi and ESVi. To allow comparison with previous reports using other imaging modalities, men and women were divided into three age groups (<45 years, ≥45 years but <65 years and ≥65 years). Men showed significantly higher EDVi and ESVi values throughout and lower LVEF values when compared with women in the subgroup ≥65 years (P<0.05, ANOVA). Significant negative and positive correlations were found between age and EDVi and ESVi values for both women and men and between LVEF and age in women (Pearson P≤0.01). LVEF values at bicycle stress were significantly higher than at rest (P=0.000, paired t test), which was the result of a significant decrease in ESV (P=0.003), a phenomenon which did not occur following dipyridamole stress (P=0.409). The data presented suggest that LVEF and EDVi and ESVi as assessed by QGS are strongly gender-specific. Although the physiological significance of these results is uncertain and needs further study, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of cardiac function and volumes of patients by means of QGS should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  8. The influence of gender-specific loading patterns of the stop-jump task on anterior cruciate ligament strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Paul S; Stewart, Jason-Dennis N; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2007-08-01

    Studies have shown that women are at higher risk of sustaining noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in specific sports. Recent gait studies of athletic tasks have documented that gender differences in knee movement, muscle activation, and external loading patterns exist. The objective of this study was to determine in a knee cadaver model if application of female-specific loading and movement patterns characterised in vivo for a stop-jump task cause higher ACL strains than male patterns. Gender-specific loading patterns of the landing phase of the vertical stop-jump task were applied to seven cadaver knees using published kinetic/kinematic results for recreational athletes. Loads applied consecutively included: tibial compression, quadriceps, hamstrings, external posterior tibial shear, and tibial torque. Knee flexion was fixed based on the kinematic data. Strain of the ACL was monitored by means of a differential variable reluctance transducer installed on the anterior-medial bundle of the ACL. The ACL strain was significantly increased (P<0.05) for the female loading pattern relative to the male loading pattern after the posterior tibial shear force was applied, and showed a similar trend (P=0.1) to be increased after the final tibial torque was applied. This study suggests that female motor control strategies used during the stop-jump task may place higher strains on the ACL than male strategies, thus putting females at greater risk of ACL injury. We believe these results suggest the potential effectiveness of using training programs to modify motor control strategies and thus modify the risk of injury.

  9. Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttolph, Jasmine; Inwani, Irene; Agot, Kawango; Cleland, Charles M; Cherutich, Peter; Kiarie, James N; Osoti, Alfred; Celum, Connie L; Baeten, Jared M; Nduati, Ruth; Kinuthia, John; Hallett, Timothy B; Alsallaq, Ramzi; Kurth, Ann E

    2017-03-08

    Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya. The objective of this multi-method protocol is to outline a rigorous and replicable methodology for a gender-specific combination HIV prevention pilot study for youth in high-burden settings, illustrating the triangulated methods undertaken to ensure that age, sex, and context are integral in the design of the intervention. The mixed-methods, cross-sectional, longitudinal cohort pilot study protocol was developed by first conducting a systematic review of the literature, which shaped focus group discussions around prevention package and delivery options, and that also informed age- and sex- stratified mathematical modeling. The review, qualitative data, and mathematical modeling created a triangulated evidence base of interventions to be included in the pilot study protocol. To design the pilot study protocol, we convened an expert panel to select HIV prevention interventions effective for youth in SSA, which will be offered in a mobile health setting. The goal of the pilot study implementation and evaluation is to apply lessons learned to more effective HIV prevention evidence and programming. The combination HIV prevention package in this protocol includes (1) offering HIV testing and counseling for all youth; (2) voluntary medical circumcision and condoms for males; (3) pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr

  10. Body Mass Index Differences in the Gut Microbiota Are Gender Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Gao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity, but the influence of gender remains elusive. Using a large cohort of Chinese adults, our study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota as a function of body mass index (BMI and investigate gender specific features within these differences.Methods: Five hundred fifty-one participants were categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese, based on their BMI. Fecal microbiome composition was profiled via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Generalized linear model (GLM, BugBase, PICRUSt, and SPIEC-EASI were employed to assess the variabilities in richness, diversity, structure, organism-level microbiome phenotypes, molecular functions, and ecological networks of the bacterial community that associated with BMI and sex.Results: The bacterial community of the underweight group exhibited significantly higher alpha diversity than other BMI groups. When stratified by gender, the pattern of alpha diversity across BMI was maintained in females, but no significant difference in alpha diversity was detected among the BMI groups of males. An enrichment of Fusobacteria was observed in the fecal microbiota of obese males, while obese females demonstrated an increased relative abundance of Actinobacteria. Analysis of microbial community-level phenotypes revealed that underweight males tend to have more anaerobic and less facultatively anaerobic bacteria, indicating a reduced resistance to oxidative stress. Functionally, butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase was enriched in obese individuals, which might favor energy accumulation. PhoH-like ATPase was found to be increased in male obese subjects, indicating a propensity to harvest energy. The microbial ecological network of the obese group contained more antagonistic microbial interactions as well as high-degree nodes.Conclusion: Using a large Chinese cohort, we demonstrated BMI

  11. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  12. Language, gender, and sexual orientation: Gender-specific features of discursive styles of homosexual users of an internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether and in which way homosexual people rely on gender-specific style characteristics when communicating in the internet environment. It is assumed that the basis of differences in language practices is not some identity category (either gender or sexual), that uses these practices only as a means of expression. Instead, language is seen as a resource that allows us to respond to a variety of communication situations. The methodological framework for col...

  13. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development......, the data of calculated daily macro- and micronutrient intake do not suggest any explicit influence of gender-specific nutrition in the development of ALD....

  14. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small nonrepresentative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing those limitations. Analyses were limited to respondents ages 15 and 16 in wave 1 (16–17 in wave 2, and 21–22 in wave 3) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 6244, 49.5% males). Self-report nonviolent and violent delinquencies were simultaneously entered into latent class analysis. Four latent classes were identified: low, desister, decliner, and chronic (male-only). In addition to finding a male-specific chronic class, gender differences included differences in levels of nonviolent and violent delinquency between synonymous classes of males and females, and differences in prevalence of classes across genders. Neighborhood disadvantage and family support predicted trajectories. PMID:23375843

  15. Magnetic analysis including the field due to vacuum vessel eddy currents in the Hitachi Tokamak (HT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Fukumoto, Hideshi; Otsuka, Michio

    1989-01-01

    A magnetic analysis to determine plasma surface position is applied to the magnetic data of the Hitachi Tokamak (HT-2). The analysis takes account of toroidal eddy currents on the vacuum vessel wall. Magnetic probes in HT-2 are placed on both sides of the wall (plasma side and outside), making it possible to determine magnitudes of eddy currents which flow in the toroidal direction. The magnitudes of the coil currents and eddy currents are determined so as to reproduce the measured magnetic fields, and to reconstruct flux surfaces and plasma surface are reconstructed. Taking into account the eddy currents, the determination errors of the plasma surface position are reduced by up to 1/2.3 during start-up and terminating phases, compared with the case without eddy currents. (author)

  16. [Gender-specific evaluation of student's career planning during medical study in terms of orthopaedic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, S C; Antony, P; Ruesseler, M; Pfeifer, R; Drescher, W; Simon, M; Pape, H-C; Knobe, M

    2011-08-01

    Due to recent changes in the medical licencing act as well as to the introduction of a new model-course programme for medical studies, careers in medicine have become increasingly more attractive. However, there is still a dramatic shortage in younger generation physicians, especially within the surgical fields. The goal of this cross-sectional study was the gender-specific assessment of the ideal career wishes of students during medical school, with a focus being placed in orthopaedic trauma surgery. During the winter semester of 2010/2011 an online questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was created for students enrolled in their 3rd to 12th semester (n=887). The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions [Likert scale (LS); 5 = agree, 1 = disagree] along with 10 free response questions. The scope of these questions ranged from personal career goals, within the context of their learning environment, to general life goals and planning. With regard to career choice, a differentiation was made between students' ideal career choices/subjects (IS), which were based solely on personal affinity, and so-called reality-based subjects (RS), which students considered more practical and to which they were more likely to apply in the future. The response rate was 36,4% (n=323, 23,4 years, 6.3 semesters, 226 [70.0%] female [f] and 97 [30.0%] male [m]). A total of 206 students (63.8%; m=55.7% vs. f=66.7%; p=0.047) were able to pinpoint an IS, this percentage increased with increasing semester number (p=0.048). Overall, 29.1% of students indicated that their IS lay in the field of orthopaedic trauma, while 20.0% of men and 19.1% of women saw it as a realistic career path (RS). Throughout the course of their studies, from the 3rd semester to their practical year, a declining tendency was observed regarding the agreement between ideal and realistic career paths. Particularly evident was a decreasing interest in the field of orthopaedic trauma, beginning around the 9th semester and

  17. Gender-specific mortality in DTP-IPV- and MMR±MenC-eligible age groups to determine possible sex-differential effects of vaccination: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink-van't Klooster, Tessa M; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2015-03-24

    Several studies suggested that vaccines could have non-specific effects on mortality depending on the type of vaccine. Non-specific effects seem to be different in boys and girls. In this study we want to investigate whether there are differences in gender-specific mortality among Dutch children according to the last vaccination received. We tested the hypothesis that the mortality rate ratio for girls versus boys is more favourable for girls following MMR±MenC vaccination (from 14 months of age) compared with the ratio following DTP-IPV vaccination (2-13 months of age). Secondarily, we investigated whether there were gender-specific changes in mortality following booster vaccination at 4 years of age. This observational study included all Dutch children aged 0-11 years from 2000 until 2011. Age groups were classified according to the last vaccination offered. The mortality rates for all natural causes of death were calculated by gender and age group. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed using a multivariable Poisson analysis to compare mortality in boys and girls across different age groups. The study population consisted of 6,261,472 children. During the study period, 14,038 children (0.22%) died, 91% of which were attributed to a known natural cause of death. The mortality rate for natural causes was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Adjusted IRRs for girls compared with boys ranged between 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.89) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.77-1.07) over the age groups. The IRR did not significantly differ between all vaccine-related age groups (p=0.723), between children 2-13 months (following DTP-IPV vaccination) and 14 months-3 years (following MMR±MenC vaccination) (p=0.493) and between children 14 months-3 years and 4-8 years old (following DTP-IPV vaccination) (p=0.868). In the Netherlands, a high income country, no differences in gender-specific mortality related to the type of last vaccination received were observed in DTP-IPV- and MMR

  18. Life satisfaction and problematic Internet use: Evidence for gender specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Kannen, Christopher; Cooper, Andrew; Montag, Christian

    2016-04-30

    The present study investigates, using a large sample (N=4852 participants; 51.71% males), how problematic Internet use (PIU) relates to general life satisfaction and distinct facets of everyday life such as job, leisure, and health. Data on Internet usage was gathered using a short form of the Young Internet Addiction Test. Life satisfaction was measured with standardized items taken from the socioeconomic panel (Germany). Highly significant associations were observed between PIU and the facets of life satisfaction, health and leisure. Of note, these associations between the mentioned facets of life satisfaction and PIU were significantly higher for females compared to males, although the reported total level of PIU was significantly lower for females. This suggests the presence of different thresholds for males and females with respect to negative effects on well-being due to PIU. The current study underlines the importance of including gender as a critical variable when investigating the association between life satisfaction and PIU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current and emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) issues in the healthcare sector, including home and community care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T. de; Bos, E.; Pawlowska-Cyprysiak, K.; Hildt-Ciupinska, K.; Malinska, M.; Nicolescu, G.; Trifu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the current and emerging OSH issues for health- and social care workers and how these affect their safety and health at work and influence the quality of care they provide. It combines a literature review and the responses received to a questionnaire sent to OSH

  20. A feasibility study of a culturally and gender-specific dance to promote physical activity for South Asian immigrant women in the greater Toronto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample evidence demonstrating the protective effect of physical activity, the uptake of regular physical activity among South Asian (SA) women remains relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and health impacts of implementing a culture- and gender-specific physical activity among SA immigrant women residing in Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. A community-based mixed methods approach combining cohort pretest and posttest design and qualitative methods employing in depth interviews was used. Twenty-seven SA women from the GTA participated in a 6-week, 2 days per week, Bollywood Dance exercise program led by a female SA instructor. The participation rate was considerably high (85%) and approximately 82% of the participants attended 10 or more of the classes offered. The participants' physical measurements (weight, waist and hip, and body mass index) decreased, although not significantly, over the 6-week period and there was an improvement in their physical, mental, and social health. During the face-to-face interviews, participants reported feeling less stressed and tired, being more mentally and physically robust, and having a sense of fulfillment and self-satisfaction. The only common criticism expressed was that the 6-week duration of the intervention was too short. The results showed that the Bollywood Dance was a feasible strategy in engaging SA immigrant women in physical activity. The key aspects when designing culture- and gender-specific dance interventions include community participation and active engagement in planning and implementation of the program, a supportive environment, same gender and culturally attuned dance instructor, easy access, and minimal to no cost. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current and investigational non-dopaminergic agents for management of motor symptoms (including motor complications) in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous combination of motor and non motor symptoms. The nigrostriatal dopamine deficit is one of its essential pathophysiologic features. Areas covered: This invited narrative review provides an overlook over current available and future promising non dopaminergic therapeutics to modulate altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease. Current research strategies aim to proof clinical efficacy by amelioration of motor symptoms and preponderant levodopa related movement fluctuations. These so-called motor complications are characterized by involuntary movements as a result of an overstimulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or by temporary recurrence of motor symptoms, when beneficial effects of dopamine substituting drugs vane. Expert opinion: Non dopaminergic modulation of dopamine replacement is currently mostly investigated in well defined and selected patients with motor complications to get approval. However, the world of daily maintenance of patients with its individually adapted, so-called personalised, therapy will determine the real value of these therapeutics. Here the clinical experience of the treating neurologists and the courage to use unconventional drug combinations are essential preconditions for successful treatments of motor and associated non motor complications in cooperation with the patients and their care giving surroundings.

  2. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison on Heat of Hydration between Current Concrete for NPP and High Fluidity Concrete including Pozzolan Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are exposed to many construction factors that lower the quality of concrete due to densely packed reinforcements and heat of hydration since they are mostly constructed with mass concrete. The concrete currently being used in Korean NPPs is mixed with Type I cement and fly ash. However, there is a demand to improve the performance of concrete with reduced heat of hydration and superior constructability. Many advantages such as improving workability and durability of concrete and decreasing heat of hydration are introduced by replacing cement with pozzolan binders. Therefore, the manufacturing possibility of high fluidity concrete should be investigated through applying multi-component powders blended with pozzolan binders to the concrete structure of NPPs, while the researches on properties, characteristic of hydration, durability and long-term behavior of high fluidity concrete using multi-component cement should be carried out. High fluidity concrete which is made using portland cement and pozzlonan powders such as fly ash and blast furnace slag has better properties on heat of hydration than the concrete currently in use for NPPs

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. 75 FR 20386 - Auburn Hosiery Mills, Inc., Currently Known as Delta Galil, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,321] Auburn Hosiery Mills, Inc... Auburn Hosiery Mills, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Quality Personnel, Auburn, Kentucky... related to apparel. Information shows that Auburn Hosiery Mills was merged into its parent company, Delta...

  6. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Dawson

    Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

  7. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  8. Lack of gender-specific antibody recognition of products from domains of a var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Zornig, Hanne D; Buhmann, Caecilie

    2003-01-01

    Gender-specific and parity-dependent acquired antibody recognition is characteristic of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed by chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-adherent Plasmodium falciparum involved in pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). However, antibody recognition of recombinant products...

  9. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  10. C-Tactile Mediated Erotic Touch Perception Relates to Sexual Desire and Performance in a Gender-Specific Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Johanna; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Ritschel, Gerhard; Olausson, Håkan; Weidner, Kerstin; Croy, Ilona

    2017-05-01

    Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. To investigate the relations between sexual desire and sexual performance and the perception of touch mediated by CT afferents. Seventy healthy participants (28 men, 42 women; mean age ± SD = 24.84 ± 4.08 years, range = 18-36 years) underwent standardized and highly controlled stroking stimulation that varied in the amount of CT fiber stimulation by changing stroking velocity (CT optimal = 1, 3 and 10 cm/s; CT suboptimal = 0.1, 0.3, and 30 cm/s). Participants rated the perceived pleasantness, eroticism, and intensity of the applied tactile stimulation on a visual analog scale, completed the Sexual Desire Inventory, and answered questions about sexual performance. Ratings of perceived eroticism of touch were related to self-report levels of sexual desire and sexual performance. Pleasantness and eroticism ratings showed similar dependence on stroking velocity that aligned with the activity of CT afferents. Erotic touch perception was related to sexual desire and sexual performance in a gender-specific way. In women, differences in eroticism ratings between CT optimal and suboptimal velocities correlated positively with desire for sexual interaction. In contrast, in men, this difference correlated to a decreased frequency and longer duration of partnered sexual activities. The present results lay the foundation for future research assessing these relations in patients with specific impairments of sexual functioning (eg, hypoactive sexual desire disorder). The strength of the study is the combination of standardized neurophysiologic methods and behavioral data. A clear limitation of the study design is the exclusion of exact data on the female menstrual cycle and the recruitment of an inhomogeneous sample

  11. Gender-specific induction of cytochrome P450s in nonylphenol-treated FVB/NJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Juan P.; Chapman, Laura M.; Kretschmer, Xiomara C.; Baldwin, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are used in a variety of industrial, agricultural, household cleaning, and beauty products. NP is one of the most commonly found toxicants in the United States and Europe and is considered a toxicant of concern because of its long half-life. NP is an environmental estrogen that also activates the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and in turn induces P450s. No study to date has examined the gender-specific effects of NP on hepatic P450 expression. We provided NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days to male and female FVB/NJ mice and compared their P450 expression profiles. Q-PCR was performed on hepatic cDNA using primers to several CYP isoforms regulated by PXR or its relative, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In female mice, NP induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp2b13, and downregulated the female-specific P450s, Cyp3a41 and Cyp3a44. In contrast, male mice treated with NP showed increased expression of Cyp2a4, Cyp2b9, and Cyp2b10. Western blots confirmed induction of Cyp2b subfamily members in both males and females. Consistent with the Q-PCR data, Western blots showed dose-dependent downregulation of Cyp3a only in females and induction of Cyp2a only in males. The overall increase in female-predominant P450s in males (Cyp2a4, 2b9) and the decrease in female-predominant P450s in females (Cyp3a41, 3a44) suggest that NP is in part feminizing the P450 profile in males and masculinizing the P450 profile in females. Testosterone hydroxylation was also altered in a gender-specific manner, as testosterone 16α-hydroxylase activity was only induced in NP-treated males. In contrast, NP-treated females demonstrated a greater propensity for metabolizing zoxazolamine probably due to greater Cyp2b induction in females. In conclusion, NP causes gender-specific P450 induction and therefore exposure to NP may cause distinct pharmacological and toxicological effects in males compared to females

  12. Age- and gender-specific epistasis between ADA and TNF-α influences human life-expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolioni, Valerio; Carpi, Francesco M; Giannì, Paola; Sacco, Roberto; Di Blasio, Luca; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Lucarini, Nazzareno; Persico, Antonio M

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenotype with multiple determinants but a strong genetic component significantly impacts on survival to extreme ages. The dysregulation of immune responses occurring with increasing age is believed to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. Conversely, some genetic determinants of successful aging might reside in those polymorphisms for the immune system genes regulating immune responses. Here we examined the main effects of single loci and multi-locus interactions to test the hypothesis that the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes may influence human life-expectancy. ADA (22G>A, rs73598374) and TNF-α (-308G>A, rs1800629; -238G>A, rs361525) functional SNPs have been determined for 1071 unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy (18-106 years old) divided into three gender-specific age classes defined according to demographic information and accounting for the different survivals between sexes: for men (women), the first class consists of individuals88 years old (>91 years old). Single-locus analysis showed that only ADA 22G>A is significantly associated with human life-expectancy in males (comparison 1 (age class 2 vs. age class 1), O.R. 1.943, P=0.036; comparison 2 (age class 3 vs. age class 2), O.R. 0.320, P=0.0056). Age- and gender-specific patterns of epistasis between ADA and TNF-α were found using Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). In comparison 1, a significant two-loci interaction occurs in females between ADA 22G>A and TNF-α -238G>A (Sign Test P=0.011). In comparison 2, both two-loci and three-loci interaction are significant associated with increased life-expectancy over 88 years in males. In conclusion, we report that a combination of functional SNPs within ADA and TNF-α genes can influence life-expectancy in a gender-specific manner and that males and females follow different pathways to attain longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We...... computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based......), and "Low Healthy Behaviour" (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males). We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters), and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students...

  14. How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földvári, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Bas; Van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli

    2012-01-01

    The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

  15. Gender-specific impacts of apnea, age, and BMI on parasympathetic nerve dysfunction during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gender-specific influences of various confounding factors, including apnea, age, BMI, and cigarette consumption, on the function of the parasympathetic nerve system (PNS during sleep in OSA patients has never been investigated. METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven males and 63 females with OSA were subjected to full PSG examinations including assessment of R-R intervals (RRIs during an overnight ECG. The PNS-derived modulatory effect on the RRIs and the variability of this effect were quantified during REM and NREM using instantaneous time-frequency analysis with complex demodulation. The spectral domain with the maximum instantaneous amplitude in the high-frequency band between 0.15 and 0.4 Hz was defined as the main HF peak and used as a surrogate marker of PNS discharge. Based on density-spectrum-array maps of the main HF peaks (HF-DSA map, shifts in the central frequency of the main HF peak over time were continuously observed. When the main HF peaks on the HF-DSA maps maintained the same central frequency for more than 20 sec or 5 min, the PNS functions were considered to be "stable" or "very stable", respectively. RESULTS: Apneas enhanced PNS-derived cardiac-modulation during REM in males, but more importantly, they made PNS-function unstable during both REM and NREM in males and during NREM in females. Aging blunted the PNS-derived cardiac-modulation during both REM and NREM regardless of gender, but aging had no impact on the stability of PNS-function. BMI blunted PNS-eliciting cardiac-modulation during REM in males and during NREM in both males and females. BMI made the PNS unstable during REM in females. Neither height nor cigarette consumption influenced any PNS-related parameter. CONCLUSIONS: The PNS-derived cardiac-modulation was generally inhibited by aging and obesity, in which the effect of obesity was gender-specific. The PNS instability at nighttime was mainly induced by apneas but by obesity particularly during

  16. Stroke and myocardial infarction: a comparative systematic evaluation of gender-specific analysis, funding and authorship patterns in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Wiedmann, Silke; Endres, Matthias; Nolte, Christian H; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Heuschmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Major gender differences exist in cardiovascular diseases and lead to different outcomes in women and men. However, attention and incorporation of sex-/gender-specific research might vary among disciplines. We therefore conducted a systematic review comparing publication characteristics and trends between stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) with respect to sex- and gender-related aspects. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify gender-/sex-related articles published for stroke and MI between 1977 and 2008. A specifically designed text mining program was used, and all literature was rated by two independent investigators. Publications were classified according to type of research performed, publication year, funding, geographical location, and gender of first and last authors. 962 articles were retrieved and limited to 405 (42%) gender-relevant publications; 131 on stroke and 274 on MI. Type of performed research differed, especially in disease management, which received little attention (17%) in stroke, while representing the major focus in MI (40%). In both areas, clinical presentation received little attention (3 and 5%). Although publications progressively increased in both fields, an 8- to 10-year time gap emerged for stroke compared to MI. Last authors in both areas were predominantly men, but female last authorship is increasing more significantly over time in the field of stroke. Research on sex and gender differences in MI and stroke is largely underfunded, particularly by the EU. The data demonstrate how sex-/gender-specific research differs between specialties, most likely due to the diverse interest, funding opportunities and authorship distributions identified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  18. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  19. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  20. [Images of gender and gender-specific therapies in German homoeopathic and naturopathic guidebooks (c. 1870-1930)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth century sex and gender became crucial categories not only in the medical discourse of German speaking countries. At the very centre of this discourse was the idea of women as the weaker sex. Because of the paradigm shift in the history of medicine (due to the discovery of the cytopathology) the principle of a weaker sex seemed to be corroborated by scientific research, a fact which impacted on medical practice in many ways. "Nervous" disease evolved as the major threat "of our times," with urban girls, young women and "weak" young men being most at risk. At the same time homoeopaths and naturopaths challenged modern medicine, offering alternative health practices, cures and drugs for people who could not afford the help of physicians or distrusted them. An analysis of several alternative medical guidebooks printed between c. 1870 and 1930 showed that homoeopaths and naturopaths shared the "sexualization" of medical discourse and practice only to an extent. On the one hand they believed that disorders such as hysteria, masturbation, chorea Sydenham and anaemia were nervous in nature and that the chances of curing them were poor. With the exception of masturbation these "deadly" threats were considered to be typically female. The general approach of alternative physicians, on the other hand, was unisex. The cures they offered to the public used unisex scales of constitutional characters. They even ignored the gender specificity of sick headaches. Gender-specific problems such as difficult deliveries and childbed fever were treated as "natural" and mild cures were favoured. The conclusion is that the influences of upper and middle class discourse on common health practices should not be overestimated.

  1. Development of a PubMed Based Search Tool for Identifying Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Michael M; Simonsen, Cheryl K; Wilson, Joanna D; Jenkins, Marjorie R

    2016-02-01

    An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH.

  2. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Gupta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression.We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex.Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32], higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86], and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81] were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74], living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65], having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74], anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed (2.04 [1.27-3.29], and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41] were independently associated with depression.Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

  3. Prevalence and Gender-Specific Influencing Factors of Hypertension among Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has become the leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among Nanchang adults are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and gender-specific influencing factors of hypertension in adults in Nanchang, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2722 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above between May and September 2016, with a response rate of 92.4% (2516/2722. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in this study. Data on prevalence and influencing factors were obtained from a standard questionnaire and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the influencing factors. The age-standardized prevalence was 19.8% (18.2–21.3 (male: 19.5% (18.0–21.1; female, 20.01% (18.5–21.6. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were past smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM, and overweight and obesity in both genders. Abdominal obesity and family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were risk factors only in males; sleeping time and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were related to the prevalence of hypertension only in females. These findings will form the baseline information for the development of more effective approaches to enhance current prevention and control management of hypertension.

  4. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...

  5. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    business trades and men's dominance in bureaucratic and political affairs. Current patterns reflect gender occupation specialization that is tied to historical patterns linked to religion and ideology.

  6. High fat diet feeding results in gender specific steatohepatitis and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michal; Csak, Timea; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-07-14

    To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and oil-red-o staining; biochemical studies to look at ALT and triglyceride levels; RNA analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; and cytokine analysis, which included the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to look at interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels. Furthermore, at each length of feeding we also looked at insulin resistance and glucose tolerance using insulin tolerance tests (ITT) and glucose tolerance tests. There was no insulin resistance, steatosis, or inflammasome activation at 6 wk. In contrast, at 16 wk we found significant insulin resistance demonstrated by impaired glucose and ITT in male, but not female mice. In males, elevated alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride levels, indicated liver damage and steatosis, respectively. Increased liver TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein, correlated with steatohepatitis. The inflammasome components, adaptor molecule, Aim2, and NOD-like receptor 4, increased at the mRNA level, and functional inflammasome activation was indicated by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein levels in male mice fed a long-term HFD. Male mice on HFD had increased α-smooth muscle actin and pro-collagen-1 mRNA indicating evolving fibrosis. In contrast, female mice displayed only elevated triglyceride levels, steatosis, and no fibrosis. Our data

  7. Gender-specific pattern differences of the ossification centers in the pediatric elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bijal; Reed, Martin; Patel, Shamir

    2009-01-01

    Only a limited number of studies have investigated the age ranges in which the secondary centers of the elbow appear and ossify. Knowledge of sequence, gender differences and age ranges can aid in accurate assessment of radiographs, especially in cases of injury. To determine the sequence and general age ranges in which each ossification center both appears and fuses, and also to identify differences between genders. This study included 412 sets of radiographs of children's elbows that were analyzed prospectively by a single experienced pediatric radiologist. The presence as well as state of fusion of each ossification center was noted. The ages of the children ranged from 2 months to 17 years. In girls, the radial head and medial epicondyle appeared at the same age. In boys, there was a trend towards the radial head appearing earlier than the medial epicondyle. There was no statistically significant difference between the age at which the trochlea and olecranon appeared. Our results demonstrate a statistically significant difference between genders in both appearance and fusion. All centers both appeared and fused earlier in girls, with the exception of the appearance of the capitellum. The sequence of appearance and fusion was similar between genders. Ossification centers at the elbow both appear and fuse earlier in females but the normal range in age for the times of appearance and fusion of these centers is quite wide for both sexes. (orig.)

  8. Tolerance to uncertainty in the context of social support:gender specificity in the youth environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Lifintsev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of social support for young males and females, and also its relationship with tolerance of uncertainty. A series of psychodiagnostic tools were used to study gender determinants of social support, tolerance of uncertainty and interpersonal intolerance in young people with different levels of emotional and instrumental support. Young males and females aged 18–22 years with a high level of tolerance of uncertainty are susceptible to various forms of social support. The ability to accept uncertainty, to function in the system of unclear interpersonal communication and to act in the face of changing circumstances determine the level of satisfaction with social support in the participants. The research (N=165 confirmed the assumption that first and foremost social support as a communicative phenomenon has differences in the perception of emotional forms in young males and females. Secondly, the specific features of person functioning in the social supporting act system are interrelated, including the level of tolerance of uncertainty. Thirdly, social support can reduce human state of uncertainty and eventually neutralize the negative impact of stressful events. The human ability to «see and discover» the social support, be sensitive and attentive to the supporting acts of social environment has a close relationship with the ability to accept uncertainty and maintain stability in a state of discomfort if any.

  9. Friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood: a gender-specific structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miething, Alexander; Almquist, Ylva B; Östberg, Viveca; Rostila, Mikael; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2016-07-11

    The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association. A random sample of Swedes born in 1990 were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was 55.3 % at baseline and 43.7 % at follow-up, resulting in 772 cases eligible for analysis. Gender-specific structural equation modeling was conducted to explore the associations between network quality and well-being. The measurement part included a latent measure of well-being, whereas the structural part accounted for autocorrelation for network quality and for well-being over time and further examined the cross-lagged associations. The results show that network quality increased while well-being decreased from age 19 to age 23. Females reported worse well-being at both time points, whereas no gender differences were found for network quality. Network quality at age 19 predicted network quality at age 23, and well-being at age 19 predicted well-being at age 23. The results further show positive correlations between network quality and well-being for males and females alike. The strength of the correlations diminished over time but remained significant at age 23. Simultaneously testing social causation and social selection in a series of competing models indicates that while there were no cross-lagged associations among males, there was a weak reverse association between well-being at age 19 and network quality at age 23 among females. The study

  10. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-06-23

    Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.

  11. Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute

    2017-05-01

    Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.

  12. Age- and gender-specific risk of death after first hospitalization for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosterd A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalization for heart failure (HF is associated with high-in-hospital and short- and long-term post discharge mortality. Age and gender are important predictors of mortality in hospitalized HF patients. However, studies assessing short- and long-term risk of death stratified by age and gender are scarce. Methods A nationwide cohort was identified (ICD-9 codes 402, 428 and followed through linkage of national registries. The crude 28-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality was computed by age and gender. Cox regression models were used for each period to study sex differences adjusting for potential confounders (age and comorbidities. Results 14,529 men, mean age 74 ± 11 years and 14,524 women, mean age 78 ± 11 years were identified. Mortality risk after admission for HF increased with age and the risk of death was higher among men than women. Hazard ratio's (men versus women and adjusted for age and co-morbidity were 1.21 (95%CI 1.14 to 1.28, 1.26 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.31, and 1.28 (95%CI 1.24 to 1.31 for 28 days, 1 year and 5 years mortality, respectively. Conclusions This study clearly shows age- and gender differences in short- and long-term risk of death after first hospitalization for HF with men having higher short- and long-term risk of death than women. As our study population includes both men and women from all ages, the estimates we provide maybe a good reflection of 'daily practice' risk of death and therefore be valuable for clinicians and policymakers.

  13. Recent age- and gender-specific trends in mortality during stroke hospitalization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Markovic, Daniela; Towfighi, Amytis

    2011-10-01

    Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have resulted in better clinical outcomes after stroke; however, the influence of age and gender on recent trends in death during stroke hospitalization has not been specifically investigated. We assessed the impact of age and gender on nationwide patterns of in-hospital mortality after stroke. Data were obtained from all US states that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 1998 (n=1 351 293) and 2005 and 2006 (n=1 202 449), with a discharge diagnosis of stroke (identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes), were included. Time trends for in-hospital mortality after stroke were evaluated by gender and age group based on 10-year age increments (84) using multivariable logistic regression. Between 1997 and 2006, in-hospital mortality rates decreased across time in all sub-groups (all P84 years. In unadjusted analysis, men aged >84 years in 1997-1998 had poorer mortality outcomes than similarly aged women (odds ratio 0·93, 95% confidence interval=0·88-0·98). This disparity worsened by 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·88, 95% confidence interval=0·84-0·93). After adjusting for confounders, compared with similarly aged women, the mortality outcomes among men aged >84 years were poorer in 1997-1998 (odds ratio 0·97, 95% confidence interval=0·92-1·02) and were poorer in 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·92, 95% confidence interval=0·87-0·96), P=0·04, for gender × time trend. Over the last decade, in-hospital mortality rates after stroke in the United States have declined for every age/gender group, except men aged >84 years. Given the rapidly ageing US population, avenues for boosting in-hospital survival among very elderly men with stroke need to be explored. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Gender-Specific Covariations between Competencies, Interest and Effort during Science Learning in Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophel, Eva; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Women are still underrepresented in engineering courses although some German universities offer separate women's engineering courses which include virtual STEM learning environments. To outline information about fundamental aspects relevant for virtual STEM learning, one has to reveal which similarities both genders in virtual learning show. Moreover, the question arises as to whether there are in fact differences in the virtual science learning of female and male learners. Working with virtual STEM learning environments requires strategic and arithmetic-operative competences. Even if we assume that female and male learners have similar competences levels, their correlational pattern of competences, motivational variables, and invested effort during virtual STEM learning might differ. If such gender differences in the correlations between cognitive and motivational variables and learning behavior were revealed, it would be possible to finetune study conditions for female students in a separate engineering course and shape virtual STEM learning in a more gender-appropriate manner. That might support an increase in the number of women in engineering courses. To reveal the differences and similarities between female and male learners, a field study was conducted with 56 students (female = 27, male = 29) as part of the Open MINT Labs project (the German term for Open STEM Labs, OML). The participants had to complete a virtual STEM learning environment during their regular science lessons. The data were collected with questionnaires. The results revealed that the strategic competences of both genders were positively correlated with situational interest in the virtual learning environment. This result shows the big impact strategic competences have for both genders regarding their situational interest. In contrast, the correlations between mental effort and competences differed between female and male participants. Especially female learners' mental effort decreased if

  15. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    gender gap in this view. Greater mortality rate in men implies diversity of factors and characteristics of concrete social context. Part of the response lies in their greater exposure to risky behavior. Apart from that, the importance of socio-psychological factors has been recognized, which includes the prevailing concept of gender roles and gender relations. The asymmetric division of activities and obligations regarding parenthood represents an increasingly important determinant of low reproductive norms. Empirical research confirms the prevailing realization of motherhood in everyday parent activities and in the responsibility for raising and upbringing children. Sweden is an example of a country in which the above average European fertility rates correspond with a more equal division of parenting roles, whereby the support for coordinating parenthood and the profession is orientated both towards mothers and fathers equally. A gender sensible approach in solving demographic matters implies recognizing the position and status of both sexes and acknowledging the gender relations as a relevant factor. The analyzed issues are not specific only to the demographic development of Serbia. Nevertheless, their solving implies confronting cultural norms, achieved degrees of economic and social development, as well as building necessary institutional mechanisms.

  16. Gender-specific factors associated with the suicidal ideation of children in Taiwan: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Peng, Wu-Der; Lin, Ying-Chun; Lee, Chien-Hung; Hu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Shun-Te

    2017-07-06

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideation (SI) and the depressed mood, life stress and parenting styles in children. A large-scale survey was conducted including 5328 children from 65 elementary schools in Taiwan. SI was measured by asking children if any suicidal thoughts had occurred in the previous month. A series of regression models was analysed separately for male and female students. Compared with boys, girls demonstrated a higher proportion of SI. Among boys, SI was significantly associated with a high level of perceived environmental stress (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61), a high degree of depressed mood (aOR = 2.39), authoritative (aOR = 1.72) and authoritarian (aOR = 2.53) parenting styles and two or more life-stress events (aOR = 1.45). A high level of perceived environmental stress (aOR = 2.09), a high degree of depressed mood (aOR = 2.89) and an authoritarian parenting style (aOR = 1.76) were significantly associated with the SI in girls. Gender-specific interventions aimed at preventing SI must enhance support systems at school and at home, particularly for students who suffer from a high degree of stress and depressed mood, and are subjected to an authoritarian parenting style. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. The discovery of how gender influences age immunological mechanisms in health and disease, and the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and ultimately improve therapeutic success rates

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    Berghella Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of human health and diseases in the elderly population is becoming a challenge, since mean age and life expectation are progressively increasing as well as chronic degenerative diseases. These disorders are of complex diagnosis and they are difficult to be treated, but it is hoped that the predictive medicine will lead to more specific and effective treatment by using specific markers to identify persons with high risk of developing disease, before the clinical manifestation. Peripheral blood targets and biomarkers are currently the most practical, non-invasive means of disease diagnosing, predicting prognosis and therapeutic response. Human longevity is directly correlated with the optimal functioning of the immune system. Recent findings indicate that the sexual dimorphism of T helper (Th cytokine pathways and the regulation of Th cell network homeostasis are normally present in the immune response and undergoes to adverse changes with ageing. Furthermore, immune senescence affects both men and women, but it does not affect them equally. Therefore, we hypothesize that the comprehension of the interferences between these gender specific pathways, the ageing immunological mechanism in pathological or healthy state and the current therapies, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and eventually improve the therapeutic success rates. Reaching this aim requires the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers that could easily reveal the above mentioned correlations.

  18. Impact of Gender-Specific Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Recommendations on Uptake of Other Adolescent Vaccines: Analysis of the NIS-Teen (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    In the United States, human papillomavirus vaccination was routinely recommended for adolescent females in 2006 and provisionally recommended for adolescent males in 2009. We evaluated the hypothesis that gender-specific human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations would impact gender-specific uptake of other vaccines using National Immunization Survey-Teen public use data sets (2008-2012). Female adolescents had higher coverage than males of at least 1 other adolescent vaccine in 2008 (3.0% higher) and 2009 (4.3% higher). Gender differences abated in 2010, 2011, and 2012 (0.2%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively). To evaluate unintended consequences of gender-based recommendations, countries with female-only human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations should evaluate gender-specific uptake of other adolescent vaccines.

  19. Gender specific differences in peripheral artery disease and their impact on cardiovascular rehabilitation -the experience of a Romanian Rehabilitation Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horațiu Comșa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. As the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD is increasing in developing countries, so are the healthcare and socio-economic costs it brings about. This particular form of atherosclerotic disease is very much age-dependent, and along with the increase in life-expectancy, the lasts decades have seen a sharp rise in PAD prevalence in women. Knowledge regarding gender-specific aspects of the disease are scarce. This has a negative effect on overall outcomes of female PAD patients. Aim. This research aimed to identify gender peculiarities of PAD and evaluate their impact on cardiovascular rehabilitation. Material and methods. This was a retrospective observational study of 104 PAD patients (73 men and 31 women admitted in 2016 to the Cardiology department of the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca. Demographic, clinical and biological parameters were recorded, as well as the treatment/rehabilitation regimens prescribed. The subjects were divided into to groups according to gender. Statistical analysis was done using the student t-test for unequal variances, hi-square test and the stepwise method for multivariate analysis. Results. The female group had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (45% vs 33%, p=ns, but men were more likely smokers (74% vs 51%- p=0.017. Women had higher median total cholesterol values (p=0.006 and lower HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.033. More than half of the female patients were already experiencing symptoms of critical limb ischemia on admission (57%, while intermittent claudication was predominant with men (66%. Multivariate analysis identified identified female gender (p=0.028 and ABI (p<0.0001 as sole independent predictors for the severity of the disease. Revascularization using percutaneous techniques was the preferred option for women (35% vs 27%, while surgery was performed more often in men (38% vs 29%- p=ns. Home-based exercise training was indicated on discharge for more than half of the

  20. The relationship between dysfunctional family patterns and symptom severity among adolescent patients with eating disorders: A gender-specific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Sepulveda, Ana R; Parks, Melissa; Cuellar-Flores, Isabel; Graell, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the authors in this study was to identify factors related to dysfunctional family functioning that may be associated with the severity of symptoms among adolescent patients with an eating disorder (ED) at first-contact care. A total of forty-eight mothers and forty-five fathers of fifty patients with EDs were recruited from an ED unit in Madrid, Spain, between October 2011 and July 2012. Parents completed self-report assessments related to family functioning and psychological wellbeing. Patients went through clinical interviews and completed a self-report questionnaire assessing symptom severity. Compared to fathers, mothers showed higher levels of anxiety and emotional over-involvement and perceived to a greater degree the positive and negative aspects of their experience as caregivers. Regarding the relationship between family functioning and symptom severity, mothers' perceptions of their family relationships as enmeshed and less adaptive, along with anxiety, accounted for 39% of variance in the severity of ED symptoms. Anxiety and symptom accommodation by the fathers accounted for 27% of variance in the symptom severity. Interventions that help parents to cope with their caregiving role should target behavioral, cognitive, and emotional aspects of their functioning and be gender-specific, to improve the outcome of ED in patients.

  1. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  2. Communication skills of medical students during the OSCE: Gender-specific differences in a longitudinal trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joachim; Smolka, Robert; Simoes, Elisabeth; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian; Holderried, Friederike; Wosnik, Annette; Doherty, Anne M; Menzel, Karina; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2017-05-02

    Communication skills are essential in a patient-centred health service and therefore in medical teaching. Although significant differences in communication behaviour of male and female students are known, gender differences in the performance of students are still under-reported. The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in communication skills of medical students in the context of an OSCE exam (OSCE = Objective Structured Clinical Examination). In a longitudinal trend study based on seven semester-cohorts, it was analysed if there are gender differences in medical students' communication skills. The students (self-perception) and standardized patients (SP) (external perception) were asked to rate the communication skills using uniform questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed by using frequency analyses and t-tests in SPSS 21. Across all ratings in the self- and the external perception, there was a significant gender difference in favour of female students performing better in the dimensions of empathy, structure, verbal expression and non-verbal expression. The results of male students deteriorated across all dimensions in the external perception between 2011 and 2014. It is important to consider if gender-specific teaching should be developed, considering the reported differences between female and male students.

  3. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  4. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  5. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  6. Age- and gender-specific estimates of partnership formation and dissolution rates in the Seattle sex survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sara J; Hughes, James P; Foxman, Betsy; Aral, Sevgi O; Holmes, King K; White, Peter J; Golden, Matthew R

    2010-04-01

    Partnership formation and dissolution rates are primary determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission dynamics. The authors used data on persons' lifetime sexual experiences from a 2003-2004 random digit dialing survey of Seattle residents aged 18-39 years (N=1,194) to estimate age- and gender-specific partnership formation and dissolution rates. Partnership start and end dates were used to estimate participants' ages at the start of each partnership and partnership durations, and partnerships not enumerated in the survey were imputed. Partnership formation peaked at age 19 at 0.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.04) partnerships per year and decreased to 0.1 to 0.2 after age 30 for women and peaked at age 20 at 1.4 (95% CI: 1.08-1.64) and declined to 0.5 after age 30 for men. Nearly one fourth (23.7%) of partnerships ended within 1 week and more than one half (51.2%) ended within 12 weeks. Most (63.5%) individuals 30 to 39 years of age had not formed a new sexual partnership in the past 3 years. A large proportion of the heterosexual population is no longer at substantial STI risk by their early 30s, but similar analyses among high-risk populations may give insight into reasons for the profound disparities in STI rates across populations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrophysiological heterogeneity of pacemaker cells in the rabbit intercaval region, including the SA node: insights from recording multiple ion currents in each cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Tsutsui, Kenta; Ziman, Bruce; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells, including cells of the sinoatrial node, are heterogeneous in size, morphology, and electrophysiological characteristics. The exact extent to which these cells differ electrophysiologically is unclear yet is critical to understanding their functioning. We examined major ionic currents in individual intercaval pacemaker cells (IPCs) sampled from the paracristal, intercaval region (including the sinoatrial node) that were spontaneously beating after enzymatic isolation from rabbit hearts. The beating rate was measured at baseline and after inhibition of the Ca 2+ pump with cyclopiazonic acid. Thereafter, in each cell, we consecutively measured the density of funny current ( I f ), delayed rectifier K + current ( I K ) (a surrogate of repolarization capacity), and L-type Ca 2+ current ( I Ca,L ) using whole cell patch clamp . The ionic current densities varied to a greater extent than previously appreciated, with some IPCs demonstrating very small or zero I f . The density of none of the currents was correlated with cell size, while I Ca,L and I f densities were related to baseline beating rates. I f density was correlated with I K density but not with that of I Ca,L . Inhibition of Ca 2+ cycling had a greater beating rate slowing effect in IPCs with lower I f densities. Our numerical model simulation indicated that 1) IPCs with small (or zero) I f or small I Ca,L can operate via a major contribution of Ca 2+ clock, 2) I f -Ca 2+ -clock interplay could be important for robust pacemaking function, and 3) coupled I f - I K function could regulate maximum diastolic potential. Thus, we have demonstrated marked electrophysiological heterogeneity of IPCs. This heterogeneity is manifested in basal beating rate and response to interference of Ca 2+ cycling, which is linked to I f . NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the present study, a hitherto unrecognized range of heterogeneity of ion currents in pacemaker cells from the intercaval region is demonstrated

  8. Gender-Specific Differences in Low-Dose Haloperidol Response for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettner, Florian; Janitza, Silke; Prüll, Kathrin; Weninger, Ernst; Mansmann, Ulrich; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jovanovic, Alexander; Pollwein, Bernhard; Chappell, Daniel; Zwissler, Bernhard; von Dossow, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and distressing complications after general anesthesia and surgery, with young non-smoking females receiving postoperative opioids being high-risk patients. This register-based study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose haloperidol (0.5 mg intravenously) directly after induction of general anesthesia to reduce the incidence of PONV in the postoperative anesthesiological care unit (PACU). Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital. Haloperidol 0.5 mg is associated with a reduced risk of PONV in the total collective (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: [0.56, 0.99], p = 0.05). The results indicate that there is a reduced risk in male patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval: [0.28, 0.73], p = 0.001) if a dose of 0.5 mg haloperidol was administered while there seems to be no effect in females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: [0.71, 1.46], p = 0.93). Currently known risk factors for PONV such as female gender, duration of anesthesia and the use of opioids were confirmed in our analysis. This study suggests that low-dose haloperidol has an antiemetic effect in male patients but has no effect in female patients. A confirmation of the gender-specific effects we have observed in this register-based cohort study might have major implications on clinical daily routine.

  9. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector; Valla, Maria Ines

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage.

  10. Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes: results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chor, Dora; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years. Baseline assessments (2008-2010) included clinical and laboratory measurements and interviews on sociodemographic, occupational, and health characteristics. In the baseline sample (N=14 427), 19.6% were classified as having DM2 and 20.5% as having IGT. Mean age was 52.1 (SD 9.1) years. A total of 2041 participants worked at night for 1-20 years and 687 for >20 years. Among women exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work after adjustments for potential confounders, including obesity, the odds ratios (OR) derived from multinomial logistic regression for DM2 and IGT were 1.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-1.45] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), respectively. Among men exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work, the OR for DM2 and IGT were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.01), respectively. The association between years of night work and diabetes is stronger among women than men. Longitudinal studies from ELSA-Brasil will be able to corroborate or refute these findings.

  11. Genetic markers of a Munc13 protein family member, BAIAP3, are gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine abuse in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Tantra, Martesa; Stepniak, Beata; Man, Kwun-Nok M; Müller-Ribbe, Katja; Begemann, Martin; Ju, Anes; Papiol, Sergi; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gurvich, Artem; Shin, Yong; Augustin, Iris; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-07-24

    Anxiety disorders and substance abuse, including benzodiazepine use disorder, frequently occur together. Unfortunately, treatment of anxiety disorders still includes benzodiazepines, and patients with an existing comorbid benzodiazepine use disorder or a genetic susceptibility for benzodiazepine use disorder may be at risk of adverse treatment outcomes. The identification of genetic predictors for anxiety disorders, and especially for benzodiazepine use disorder, could aid the selection of the best treatment option and improve clinical outcomes. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor I-associated protein 3 (Baiap3) is a member of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13) protein family of synaptic regulators of neurotransmitter exocytosis, with a striking expression pattern in amygdalae, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Deletion of Baiap3 in mice leads to enhanced seizure propensity and increased anxiety, with the latter being more pronounced in female than in male animals. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human BAIAP3 may also be associated with anxiety. By using a phenotype-based genetic association study, we identified two human BAIAP3 single-nucleotide polymorphism risk genotypes (AA for rs2235632, TT for rs1132358) that show a significant association with anxiety in women and, surprisingly, with benzodiazepine abuse in men. Returning to mice, we found that male, but not female, Baiap3 knockout (KO) mice develop tolerance to diazepam more quickly than control animals. Analysis of cultured Baiap3 KO hypothalamus slices revealed an increase in basal network activity and an altered response to diazepam withdrawal. Thus, Baiap3/BAIAP3 is gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine use disorder, and the analysis of Baiap3/BAIAP3-related functions may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the development of both disorders.

  12. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  13. Gender-specific hip fracture risk in community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors age 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, M; Sidelnikov, E; Orav, E J; Dawson-Hughes, B; Theiler, R; Egli, A; Platz, A; Simmen, H P; Meier, C; Grob, D; Beck, S; Stähelin, H B; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2014-01-01

    In this study of acute hip fracture patients, we show that hip fracture rates differ by gender between community-dwelling seniors and seniors residing in nursing homes. While women have a significantly higher rate of hip fracture among the community-dwelling seniors, men have a significantly higher rate among nursing home residents. Differences in gender-specific hip fracture risk between community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors have not been well established, and seasonality of hip fracture risk has been controversial. We analyzed detailed data from 1,084 hip fracture patients age 65 years and older admitted to one large hospital center in Zurich, Switzerland. In a sensitivity analysis, we extend to de-personalized data from 1,265 hip fracture patients from the other two large hospital centers in Zurich within the same time frame (total n = 2,349). The denominators were person-times accumulated by the Zurich population in the corresponding age/gender/type of dwelling stratum in each calendar season for the period of the study. In the primary analysis of 1,084 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.1 years; 78% women): Among community-dwelling seniors, the risk of hip fracture was twofold higher among women compared with men (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.74-2.69) independent of age, season, number of comorbidities, and cognitive function; among institutionalized seniors, the risk of hip fracture was 26% lower among women compared with men (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) adjusting for the same confounders. In the sensitivity analysis of 2,349 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.0 years, 76% women), this pattern remained largely unchanged. There is no seasonal swing in hip fracture incidence. We confirm for seniors living in the community that women have a higher risk of hip fracture than men. However, among institutionalized seniors, men are at higher risk for hip fracture.

  14. The Mediating Role of Anxiety Sensitivity in Uncontrolled Drinking: A Look at Gender-Specific Parental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Ashley M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Luk, Jeremy W; Voorhies, Kirsten; Warner, Olivia; Leeman, Robert F

    2018-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) reflects an individual's belief that experiencing anxiety will cause illness or embarrassment, and may be a reason individuals self-medicate with alcohol. Harsh or indulgent parenting could contribute to the development of AS. We examined the direct and indirect associations between parenting styles and alcohol-related variables through AS and impaired control over drinking (IC; i.e., perceived failure to adhere to limits on alcohol consumption in the future). A multiple-group structural equation model with 614 university students (344 men; 270 women) was examined. Structural invariance tests were conducted to evaluate moderation by gender. We used a bias corrected bootstrap technique to obtain the mediated effects. Father authoritarianism and mother permissiveness were directly linked to AS among women, whereas father permissiveness was directly linked to AS among men. This suggests unique parental influences based on gender regarding AS. While AS was directly linked to alcohol-related problems for both men and women, several gender-specific associations were found. AS was directly linked to IC for men but not for women. For men, father permissiveness was directly related to AS, and AS mediated the indirect link between father permissiveness and IC along both the heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems pathways. Similar to other internalizing constructs (e.g., neuroticism and depression), higher AS was directly associated with less heavy episodic drinking but more alcohol-related problems. Our findings highlight the dangers of AS for men as an important correlate of under-controlled drinking behaviors. Additionally, permissive parenting of the same-gender parent was associated with AS, which is consistent with the gender-matching hypothesis. Together, these results underscore the importance of measuring the independent influence of both parents. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Gender-Specific Risk of Stroke in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Guan, Tianjia; Shen, Ying; Chao, Baohua; Li, Mei; Wang, Longde; Liu, Yuanli

    2018-07-01

    The lifestyle interventions are effective preventive measures for stroke in general population, and the stroke risk with lifestyle factors may be modified by gender, health conditions, etc. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the gender-specific association between stroke risk and lifestyle factors in adults with diabetes based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey. Structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and information regarding lifestyle factors, history of chronic medical conditions, and family history of stroke and the status of treatment. The case group comprised individuals diagnosed with first-ever stroke in 2013-2014 screening period. Their corresponding controls (frequency-matched for age group and urban/rural ratio) were randomly selected from individuals with diabetes without stroke. There were 170 total stroke cases (500 controls) and 152 ischemic stroke cases (456 controls) among men with diabetes, and 183 total stroke cases (549 controls) and 168 ischemic stroke cases (504 controls) among women with diabetes. We found that physical inactivity was significantly associated with increased risk of total stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.21) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36) in women with diabetes. We found no significant association of smoking, overweight/obesity, or physical inactivity with risk of total or ischemic stroke in men with diabetes. Among the lifestyle factors of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, physical inactivity might increase the risk of total and ischemic stroke in women with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  18. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  19. Is the population level link between drinking and harm similar for women and men?--a time series analysis with focus on gender-specific drinking and alcohol-related hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Barbro; Ramstedt, Mats

    2011-08-01

    A question that has not been addressed in the literature is whether the population level association between alcohol and harm differs between men and women. The main aim of this article is to fill this gap by analysing recently collected time series data of male and female self-reported drinking in relation to gender-specific harm indicators in Sweden. Male and female per capita and risk consumption was estimated on the basis of self-reported data from monthly alcohol surveys for the period 2002-07. Overall per capita consumption including recorded sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption were also collected for the same period. Alcohol-related hospitalizations were used as indicators of alcohol-related harm. Data were aggregated into quarterly observations and analysed by means of time series analyses (ARIMA-modelling). Overall per capita consumption was significantly related to both male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations. Male per capita consumption and risk consumption were also significantly related to alcohol-related hospitalizations among men. Female per capita consumption and risk consumption had also a positive association with alcohol-related hospitalizations but statistical significance was only reached for alcohol poisonings where the association was even stronger than for men. Changes in alcohol consumption in Sweden was associated with changes in male and female alcohol-related hospitalizations also in analyses based on gender-specific consumption measures. There was no clear evidence that the population level association between alcohol and harm differed between men and women.

  20. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Jaeggi

    Full Text Available Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD, we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4 ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9 vs. 3.4 (±4.9 ng/mL; P<0.001. Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.

  1. Periapical Cemento-osseous Dysplasia Is Rarely Diagnosed on Orthopantomograms of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Is Not a Gender-specific Feature of the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Reul, Anika

    2018-04-01

    Several skeletal aberrations of the skull have been described for the tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Recently, periapical cemental/cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) has been described in females affected with NF1. This reactive lesion of the hard tissues in tooth-bearing areas of the jaw has been proposed to represent a gender-specific radiological feature of NF1. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of COD in patients with NF1. The orthopantomograms (OPGs) of 179 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NF1 were analyzed for COD. The results were compared to radiographic findings obtained in OPGs of age- and sex-matched controls. The NF1 patient group was further differentiated according to the evidence of facial plexiform neurofibroma. COD was a very rare finding in both groups. The extension of the diagnostic criteria including radiologically-healthy teeth and a widened periodontal gap in the periapical area only marginally increased the number of considered cases. Although there was a somewhat more common occurrence of such changes in the patient group compared to the control group and the number of affected women was greater than the number of men, none of these differences reached statistical significance. Furthermore, COD or widening of the periradicular periodontal space was not found to be associated with facial tumor type in NF1. The investigation revealed that COD is not a diagnostic feature of NF1. There is no clear association of the rare finding of COD with gender. These studies should be compared with patient groups of other ethnic backgrounds. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Absence of race- or gender-specific income disparities among full-time white and Asian general internists working for the Veterans Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2010-02-01

    Gender-based, but not race-based, income disparities exist among general internists who practice medicine in the private sector. The aim of this study was to assess whether race- or gender-based income disparities existed among full-time white and Asian general internists who worked for the Veterans Health Administration of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between fiscal years 2004 and 2007, and whether any disparities changed after the VA enacted physician pay reform in early 2006. A retrospective study was conducted of all nonsupervisory, board-certified, full-time white or Asian VA general internists who did not change their location of practice between fiscal years 2004 and 2007. A longitudinal cohort design and linear regression modeling, adjusted for physician characteristics, were used to compare race- and gender-specific incomes in fiscal years 2004-2007. A total of 176 physicians were included in the study: 82 white males, 33 Asian males, 30 white females, and 31 Asian females. In all fiscal years examined, white males had the highest mean annual incomes, though not statistically significantly so. Regression analyses for fiscal years 2004 through 2006 revealed that physician age and years of service were predictive of total income. After physician pay reform was enacted, Asian male VA primary care physicians had higher annual incomes than did physicians in all other race or gender categories, after adjustment for age and years of VA service, though these differences were not statistically significant. No significant gender-based income disparities were noted among these white and Asian VA physicians. Our findings for white and Asian general internists suggest that the VA' s goal of maintaining a racially diverse workforce may have been effected, in part, through use of market pay among primary care general internists. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.; Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  4. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    successful in their junior age and those who consume dietary supplements. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in female team-sport athletes. While the associations between the studied factors and doping behaviour are different between males and females, the gender-specific approach to exploring the covariates of doping behaviour is warranted. PMID:27928206

  5. Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuferov V

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vadim Yuferov,* Eduardo R Butelman,* Mary Jeanne Kreek Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC, a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. Methods: In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males, we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp (PDYN 68 bp promoter repeats with categorical diagnoses of cannabis dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, as well as with a rapid dimensional measure of maximum lifetime cannabis exposure (the Kreek–McHugh–Schluger–Kellogg cannabis scale. Results: The PDYN 68 bp genotype (examined as short–short [SS], short–long [SL], or long–long [LL], based on the number of repeats was not significantly associated with categorical cannabis-dependence diagnoses, either in males or in females. However, in males, the PDYN 68 bp SS+SL genotype was associated with both greater odds of any use of cannabis (p<0.05 and earlier age of first cannabis use, compared to the LL genotype (ie, 15 versus 16.5 years of age; p<0.045. Males in the SS+SL group also had greater odds of high lifetime exposure to cannabis, compared to the LL group (p<0.045. Of interest, none of the aforementioned genetic associations were significant in females. Conclusion: This study provides the first data on how the PDYN 68 bp genotype is associated with gender-specific patterns of

  6. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Akter, Salima; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD) and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD), were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004), postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003) as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046) and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039) in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I) (1.11-1.51), P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I) (0.89-0.98), P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I) (0.99-10.95), P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I) (1.01-1.20), P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  7. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  8. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Ara Hossain

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD, were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004, postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003 as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046 and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039 in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P <0.001 after adjusting the effects of body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and HOMA%B in male subjects with NAFLD. In binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I (1.11-1.51, P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I (0.89-0.98, P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I (0.99-10.95, P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I (1.01-1.20, P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  9. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maja, Mengistu M.; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-01-01

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  10. Gender-specific differences in the awareness and intake of vitamin D among adult population in Qassim region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajeed Alharbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the abundance of sunshine throughout the year, vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent among different Saudi populations. Aims The objective of the current study was to evaluate the awareness and intake of vitamin D rich sources and their associations among adults of both genders. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between June 2016 and August 2016 among adult patients and their family members (>18 years attending 6 primary care centres in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Results A total of 500 study participants were included in the current analysis. Approximately 54.6 per cent of the participants were males and the most frequent age was 26–50 years. The majority of the participants heard of vitamin D before (91.4 per cent, believed in its importance for health (92.8 per cent, were aware of the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency (72.6 per cent, and were able to identify sun exposure (81.4 per cent and diet (70.4 per cent as sources. The sources of vitamin D used by the participants were sun exposure (57.2 per cent, vitamin D rich foods (51.2 per cent and supplements (18.8 per cent. There was a significant association between overall awareness of vitamin D and intake of at least 2 sources of vitamin D in males (p < 0.001 but not females (p=0.920. Although females had better awareness than males, sun exposure was much lower among females than males. Conclusion As supplementation was very low in both gender and since cultural factors promoting limited sun exposure among females are not easily modifiable, the current findings further highlight the critical importance of vitamin D supplementation, especially among females in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Peter A; Ahl, Ragnhild; Hedstrom, Erik; Ugander, Martin; Allansdotter-Johnsson, Ase; Friberg, Peter; Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male). Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006) and ESV (p < 0.001), similar SV (p = 0.51) and lower EF (p = 0.014). No gender differences were seen in the youngest, 11–15 year, age range. LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use

  12. Genetic Counselling for Predictive Testing in Huntington's Disease in One Centre since 1993. Gender-Specific Aspects of Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa; Witt, Constantin N; Epplen, Jörg T; Stemmler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    are discussed longitudinally and in the context of the experience in other centres. We present new gender-specific aspects of decision-making for predictive HD tests.

  13. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  14. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Donin, Angela S; Newton, Sian L; Furness, Cheryl A; Howard, Emma L; Gillings, Rachel D; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height(2)/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height(2)/Z+weight)}. Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can misrepresent these ethnic differences.

  15. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  16. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  17. Age- and gender-specific differences in left and right ventricular cardiac function and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, J.; Lipke, C.; Beer, M.; Hofmann, S.; Pabst, T.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.; Neubauer, S.

    2000-01-01

    We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 ± 7), women aged under 45 (27 ± 6), men aged over 45 (59 ± 8), and women aged over 45 (57 ± 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 ± 18 and 110 ± 16 g; LV EDV, 118 ± 27 and 96 ± 21 ml; LV ESV, 40 ± 13 and 29 ± 9 ml; RV mass, 52 ± 10 and 39 ± 5 g; RV EDV, 131 ± 28 and 100 ± 23 ml; RV ESV, 53 ± 17 and 33 ± 15 ml). Normalization to body surface area eliminated differences in LV volumes but not those in LV mass, RV mass, or RV function. Functional parameters such as cardiac output and LV ejection fraction showed nonsignificant or only slight differences and were thus largely independent of age and gender. Intra- and interobserver variability ranged between 1.4 % and 5.9 % for all parameters. Cine magnetic resonance imaging thus shows age- and gender-specific differences in cardiac function, and therefore the evaluation of cardiac function in patients should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  18. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  19. [Gender-specific predictors of institutionalisation in the elderly--results of the Leipzig longitudinal study of the aged (LEILA 75+)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppa, Melanie; Gentzsch, Katrin; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-05-01

    Especially given the different socialization and life conditions of men and women, it could not be assumed that factors leading to nursing home admission (NHA) can be equally applied to both genders. We aimed to determine gender-specific predictors of NHA. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. 1,058 older adults were interviewed six times on average every 1.4 years. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychometric variables were obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine predictors of NHA. 10.3 % of men and 19.5 % of women (p cognitive impairment, poor self-rated health status, and less than two specialist's visits in the preceding 12 months for women, and being unmarried, moderate educational status, and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were predictors of NHA for men. Gender differences in prediction of NHA do actually exist. The inclusion of gender-specific factors in design and application of interventions to support individuals at home and delay or prevent NHA appears to be warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  1. Gender-Specific Hippocampal Dysrhythmia and Aberrant Hippocampal and Cortical Excitability in the APPswePS1dE9 Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Papazoglou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a multifactorial disorder leading to progressive memory loss and eventually death. In this study an APPswePS1dE9 AD mouse model has been analyzed using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry to perform long-term EEG recordings from the primary motor cortex M1 and the hippocampal CA1 region in both genders. Besides motor activity, EEG recordings were analyzed for electroencephalographic seizure activity and frequency characteristics using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT based approach. Automatic seizure detection revealed severe electroencephalographic seizure activity in both M1 and CA1 deflection in APPswePS1dE9 mice with gender-specific characteristics. Frequency analysis of both surface and deep EEG recordings elicited complex age, gender, and activity dependent alterations in the theta and gamma range. Females displayed an antithetic decrease in theta (θ and increase in gamma (γ power at 18-19 weeks of age whereas related changes in males occurred earlier at 14 weeks of age. In females, theta (θ and gamma (γ power alterations predominated in the inactive state suggesting a reduction in atropine-sensitive type II theta in APPswePS1dE9 animals. Gender-specific central dysrhythmia and network alterations in APPswePS1dE9 point to a functional role in behavioral and cognitive deficits and might serve as early biomarkers for AD in the future.

  2. Comparison of 2015 Medicare relative value units for gender-specific procedures: Gynecologic and gynecologic-oncologic versus urologic CPT coding. Has time healed gender-worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M F; Ma, J F; Upperman, B A

    2017-02-01

    In 1992, Congress implemented a relative value unit (RVU) payment system to set reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In 1997, data supported that a significant gender bias existed in reimbursement for gynecologic compared to urologic procedures. The present study was performed to compare work and total RVU's for gender specific procedures effective January 2015 and to evaluate if time has healed the gender-based RVU worth. Using the 2015 CPT codes, we compared work and total RVU's for 50 pairs of gender specific procedures. We also evaluated 2015 procedure related provider compensation. The groups were matched so that the procedures were anatomically similar. We also compared 2015 to 1997 RVU and fee schedules. Evaluation of work RVU's for the paired procedures revealed that in 36 cases (72%), male vs female procedures had a higher wRVU and tRVU. For total fee/reimbursement, 42 (84%) male based procedures were compensated at a higher rate than the paired female procedures. On average, male specific surgeries were reimbursed at an amount that was 27.67% higher for male procedures than for female-specific surgeries. Female procedure based work RVU's have increased minimally from 1997 to 2015. Time and effort have trended towards resolution of some gender-related procedure worth discrepancies but there are still significant RVU and compensation differences that should be further reviewed and modified as surgical time and effort highly correlate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Self-Esteem of 8-14-Year-Old Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Disorder- and Gender-Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p 2 between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.

  4. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the state of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas

    2010-01-01

    The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.

  5. A method of multi-crack shape identification from eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes including support plates as noise sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying multiple cracks from eddy current testing (ECT) signals obtained in a steam generator tube with a support plate and deposits. Assume two-dimensionally scanned ECT signals to be a picture image, then the signal processing by a multi-frequency technique eliminates noise caused by the support plate and deposits. A template matching with help of genetic algorithms detects number and positions of cracks from the image after the signal processing. Inverse analysis estimates the crack profile based on the predicted position of cracks. The number and positions of the cracks are sufficiently well predicted. Crack shape reconstructions are achieved with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. (author)

  6. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  7. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  8. Gender-specific patterns in age-related decline in general health among Danish and Chinese: A cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  Studies carried out in Western populations have shown age-related changes in multiple health domains together with gender-specific patterns. By focusing on five health domains, self-rated health, hand grip strength, sit-to-stand test, cognitive performance and depression, we examined the age....... Conclusion:  Our cross population analysis identified significant gender and population differences suggesting endogenous biological, physical and social environmental determinants in age-related decline in general health. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2011; ••: ••-••....... trajectories in general health in a cross-sectional Chinese sample representing the world's largest ethnic population and compare with Danish data that represent Western populations in developed countries. Methods:  Multiple regression models were fitted to compare patterns across genders and populations...

  9. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 40 102 Patients With First-Ever Ischemic Stroke A Nationwide Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Andersen, Z. J.; Olsen, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—We describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at stroke onset in men and women of all ages. Methods—A registry started in 2001, designed to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, now holds 40 102 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Patients...... the independent effect of gender and age on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and calculated age and gender-specific prevalence rates for each risk factor. Results—The register contained 47.9% women and 52.1% men. Men had more often diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, intermittent arterial...... claudication, and over the limit alcohol consumption. Women had more often hypertension and obesity. Atrial fibrillation and smoking were equally frequent in both genders. Age stratification revealed that the lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors smoking, alcohol, and obesity were more common in the younger...

  10. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder. Part 5: how essential are gender-specific forensic psychiatric services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men's and women's treatment and management needs are different. Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder-accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services.

  11. Gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Al-Sultan, Omar A; Alghamdi, Qusay A; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim K; Alqannas, Sulaiman I

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the gender-specific difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in 4 hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to identify depression and anxiety. A total of 438 patients completed the study questionnaire; 135 (31%) females, and 303 (69%) males. Compared with males, females had more depression symptoms (44% versus 32%, p=0.012), anxiety symptoms (34% versus 24%, p=0.036), anxiety-associated difficulty (65% versus 52%, p=0.012), but similar suicidal thoughts (14% versus 11%, p=0.347). Females had similar gastrointestinal complaints but longer duration of symptoms. In both females and males, the most common first interventions were using medications (63% versus 69%), and undergoing endoscopy (19% versus 15%), while very few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation `Roquia` (7% versus 8%). Compared with males, females were more likely to subsequently seek help at private clinics (23% versus 14%, p=0.014), or with a Quran therapist (11% versus 5%, p=0.012). There are clear gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and associated perceived difficulty, but modest differences in help-seeking behavior. Female patients at the gastroenterology clinic may deserve more psychological attention to diagnose depression and anxiety and to alleviate their impact.

  12. Gender-gaps and glass ceilings: A survey of gender-specific publication trends in Psychiatry between 1994 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süßenbacher, S; Amering, M; Gmeiner, A; Schrank, B

    2017-07-01

    Within academic psychiatry, women are underrepresented in the higher academic ranks. However, basic determinants of women's lack of academic advancement such as publication activity are poorly understood. The present study examines women's publication activity in high-impact psychiatry journals over two decades and reports developments in the numbers of male and female authorship over time and across cultural areas. We conducted a retrospective bibliometric review of all articles published in 2004 and 2014 in three high-ranking general psychiatry journals. Statistical comparisons were made between the two years and with results from a baseline assessment in 1994. The overall percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.2% in 2004 to 38.9% in 2014. Though increases in female authorship were statistically significant for both decades, there was less difference between 2004 and 2014, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Rates of female first authors increased between 1994 and 2014, though to a lesser degree between 2004 and 2014. Numbers of female corresponding authors plateaued between 2004 and 2014. Within Europe, Scandinavia displayed the most balanced gender-wise first author ratios. Western European and Central European countries increased their rates of female first authors substantially between 2004 and 2014. Despite gains in some areas, our study reveals considerable deficits in the diversity of the current academic psychiatric landscape. Ongoing efforts and interventions to enhance the participation of underrepresented groups on institutional, political and editorial levels are necessary to diversify psychiatric research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Opioid Addiction: Social Problems Associated and Implications of Both Current and Possible Future Treatments, including Polymeric Therapeutics for Giving Up the Habit of Opioid Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benéitez, M Cristina; Gil-Alegre, M Esther

    2017-01-01

    Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive. Our study of the available oral treatments for opioid dependence has revealed that no current treatment can actually claim to be fully effective. These treatments require daily oral administration and, consequently, regular visits to dispensaries, which in most cases results in a lack of patient compliance, which causes fluctuations in drug plasma levels. We then reviewed alternative treatments in the available scientific literature on polymeric sustained release formulations. Research has been done not only on release systems for detoxification but also on release systems for giving up the habit of taking opioids. These efforts have obtained the recent authorization of polymeric systems for use in patients that could help them to reduce their craving for drugs.

  14. Opioid Addiction: Social Problems Associated and Implications of Both Current and Possible Future Treatments, including Polymeric Therapeutics for Giving Up the Habit of Opioid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Benéitez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. Methods. A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive. Results and Conclusion. Our study of the available oral treatments for opioid dependence has revealed that no current treatment can actually claim to be fully effective. These treatments require daily oral administration and, consequently, regular visits to dispensaries, which in most cases results in a lack of patient compliance, which causes fluctuations in drug plasma levels. We then reviewed alternative treatments in the available scientific literature on polymeric sustained release formulations. Research has been done not only on release systems for detoxification but also on release systems for giving up the habit of taking opioids. These efforts have obtained the recent authorization of polymeric systems for use in patients that could help them to reduce their craving for drugs.

  15. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    . Besides this, an additional set of measures has been defined, which will result in an extra 10 Mton emission reduction. The Dutch government wants to realise a reduction of 25 Mton in other countries. Without additional policy the emission of greenhouse gases in 2030 will, from a policy point of view, be about twice that preferred; Up to 2010 emissions of pollutants causing acidification will decrease, thanks to partly already implemented policies. The 2010 targets of the National Environmental Policy Plan will not be met: emission levels will be about 30% higher. The UN-ECE targets are less stringent, except for SO2. Neither will these targets be met. After 2010 emissions will stabilise or increase unless additional policies are implemented. Costs to avoid emissions of NH3, NOx, and SO2 will increase: the cheap measures have already been introduced, while the more expensive ones have not. In almost all sectors, measures additional to those introduced as a result of current policies are available. These are cheaper than the relatively expensive transport measures that will be taken in response to current policy. Emissions of pollutants causing local air quality problems will show a strong decrease, PM10 being the most important exception. In the next decade emissions of PM10 will stabilise. PM10 is one of the most important pollutants expected to cause health impacts. In the period up to 2030 total noise emissions from road, rail and air transport will increase. Noise emissions from passenger cars will either not or hardly decrease. Emissions from lorries will decrease marginally. This decrease is not enough to compensate for the increase in road transport. refs

  16. Gender-specific differences in cannibalism between a laboratory strain and a field strain of a predatory mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revynthi, A M; Janssen, A; Egas, M

    2018-03-01

    Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior. We hypothesize that this should especially affect cannibalism by females, because they consume far more food. We tested these hypotheses by comparing males and females from two strains, one of which had been in culture for over 20 years, whereas the other was recently collected from the field. It is known that this predator can discriminate between kin and non-kin and prefers cannibalizing the latter, hence to construct lines with high relatedness we created isofemale lines of these two original strains. We subsequently tested to what extent the adult females and males of the original strains and the isofemale lines cannibalized conspecific larvae from the same strain/line in a closed system. Relatedness with the victims did not affect cannibalistic behavior, but males engaged more often in cannibalism than females, and females of the laboratory strain engaged more in cannibalism than those of the field strain, both in agreement with our ideas. We hypothesize that the difference in cannibalism between the two genders will increase when they have the alternative to disperse.

  17. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  18. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jessica T; Cullen, Mark R; Desai, Manisha; Modrek, Sepideh

    2013-11-08

    Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one's manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers' response to an employee's psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee's manager's gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor of time to first acute injury (p

  19. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  20. Osbpl8 deficiency in mouse causes an elevation of high-density lipoproteins and gender-specific alterations of lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8 encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8(-/- (KO C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (+79% and phospholipids (+35%, while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27% was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT or hepatic lipase (HL activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model

  1. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  2. [Gender-specific differences relating to depressiveness in 1st and 2nd generation migrants: results of a cross-sectional study amongst employees of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, S; Ziegenbein, M; Graef-Calliess, I T; Ersöz, B; Machleidt, W; Sieberer, M

    2014-10-01

    This study analysed the risk of depression in men and women with a background of immigration by means of a cross-sectional study amongst employees of a German university hospital. In addition we identified gender-specific differences related to risk factors for depressiveness in the subgroups. 7062 employees with or without a 1st (1G) or 2nd (2G) generation background of migration were questioned with regard to their socio-economic status, to single markers of acculturation, and to existing symptoms of depression assessed on the general depression scale (CES-D). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression. The response rate was 41.7% (n=2932). In comparison to non-migrants a higher risk of clinically relevant depressiveness was found for 1G male migrants (OR 2.35, 95% Cl 1.11-4.96), 1G female migrants (OR 1.94, 95% Cl 1.26-2.97) and for 2G female migrants (OR 1.82, 95% Cl 1.03-3.19). There was no significant increase in risk for 2G male migrants (OR 1.06, 95% Cl 0.31-3.62). 2G female migrants who considered themselves to retain a "close relationship to their native culture" had a significantly higher risk of depression than 2G male immigrants (OR 7.31; p = 0.032). Male 1G migrants without a "close relationship to their native culture" had a significantly higher risk of depression than those with a "close relationship to their native culture" (OR 5.79; p = 0.010). The results of this study point to gender-specific risk constellations for depression amongst 1st and 2nd generation migrants. It would appear that a strong orientation to the native culture increases the risk of depression for 2G female migrants, whereas for 1G male migrants this factor is associated with a lower risk of depression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36-53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender.

  4. Gender-specific cerebral activation during cognitive tasks using functional MRI: comparison of women in mid-luteal phase and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Forsting, Michael; Krause, Eva; Senf, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of gender-specific differences in functional imaging during spatial and language tasks have been inconclusive. Furthermore, among women, such differences may occur during mid-luteal phase compared to the rest of the menstrual cycle. In order to examine further gender differences, functional MRI was performed in 12 male volunteers and 12 female volunteers (in the mid-luteal phase) during mental rotation and verb-generation tests. Two-sample t-tests with uncorrected P values of <0.001 for the specific regions of interest (ROIs) revealed cerebral activation differences in both stimuli. During mental rotation tests, higher levels of activation were noted in the right medial frontal, precentral, and bilateral inferior parietal cortex, while in women this occurred in the right inferior and medial temporal, right superior frontal cortex, and left fusiform gyrus. During verb-generation tests, higher levels of activation in men was found in the left medial temporal and precentral cortex. Our results indicate that differences in cerebral activity during cognitive tasks can be shown between men and women in the mid-luteal phase. Gender differences while performing a mental rotation task were more prominent than during a verb-generation task. (orig.)

  5. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Qingming [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: j.nair@dkfz.de; Sun Xin [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hadjiolov, Dimiter [National Oncological Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N{sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA) and 3, N{sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytidine ({epsilon}dC) by immunoaffinity/{sup 32}P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in {omega}-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis.

  6. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  7. Gender-specific changes in physical activity pattern in Iran: national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Etemad, Koorosh; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Meysamie, Alipasha; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Asgari, Fereshteh; Noshad, Sina; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Rafei, Ali; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Khajeh, Elias; Ebadi, Maryam; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the gender-specific pattern of physical activity (PA) in Iran 2011. The 4-year changes in PA levels (domains) are also determined according to the Iran's national surveys conducted on 2007 and 2011. Physical activity assessed based on the global physical activity questionnaire. In all, 4,121 (2007), and 7,436 (2011) adults were analyzed. Based on 2011 survey, 56.4 %, 39.2 %, and 74.4 % of participants were physically inactive at work, commuting and recreation, respectively. In all domains of PA, males showed a higher degree of activity (min/day) than females (P value physical inactivity was increased from 15 % (2007) to 21.5 % (2011) (P value physical activity (MET × min/week) and the duration of commuting activity were noted in both genders. Work-related activity was dramatically decreased in females. However, the time spent in recreational activity remained relatively constant. This report indicating that the Iranian population, particularly females, have become less active during the survey period. Physical inactivity should receive more attention as a public health issue.

  8. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  9. Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as gender-specific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Langvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p  < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.

  10. Gender-specific effects of genetic variants within Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes on the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cáliz

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes differentially influence the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in women and men. In phase one, 27 functional/tagging polymorphisms in C-type lectins and MCP-1/CCR2 axis were genotyped in 458 RA patients and 512 controls. Carriers of Dectin-2 rs4264222T allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.10-1.96 whereas patients harboring the DC-SIGN rs4804803G, MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.49-0.88; OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.50-0.89; OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.55-0.97 and OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.51-0.91. Interestingly, significant gender-specific differences were observed for Dectin-2 rs4264222 and Dectin-2 rs7134303: women carrying the Dectin-2 rs4264222T and Dectin-2 rs7134303G alleles had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.93, 95%CI 1.34-2.79 and OR = 1.90, 95%CI 1.29-2.80. Also five other SNPs showed significant associations only with one gender: women carrying the MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of RA (OR = 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.87; OR = 0.67, 95%CI 0.47-0.95 and OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.42-0.86. In men, carriers of the DC-SIGN rs2287886A allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.03-2.78, whereas carriers of the DC-SIGN rs4804803G had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.32-0.89. In phase 2, we genotyped these SNPs in 754 RA patients and 519 controls, leading to consistent gender-specific associations for Dectin-2 rs4264222, MCP-1 rs1024611, MCP-1 rs13900 and DC-SIGN rs4804803 polymorphisms in the pooled sample (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.08-1.77; OR = 0.74, 95%CI 0.58-0.94; OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.59-0.97 and OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.93. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of significant SNPs also showed a

  11. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  12. Gender-specific differences in cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in pathologic tumor stage T4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias; Bastian, Patrick J; Brookman-May, Sabine; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Tilki, Derya; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Gilfrich, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Herrmann, Edwin; Moritz, Rudolf; Tiemann, Arne; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian G; Wieland, Wolf F; Höfner, Thomas; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haferkamp, Axel; Roigas, Jan; Zacharias, Mario; Nuhn, Philipp; Burger, Maximilian

    2013-10-01

    Bladder cancer (UCB) staged pT4a show heterogeneous outcome after radical cystectomy (RC). No risk model has been established to date. Despite gender-specific differences, no comparative studies exist for this tumor stage. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 245 UCB patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy staged pT4a, pN0-2, M0 after RC were analyzed in a retrospective multi-center study. Seventeen patients were excluded from further analysis due to carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra and/or positive surgical margins. Average follow-up period was 30 months (IQR: 14-45). The influence of different clinical and histopathologic variables on CSS was determined through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Two risk groups were generated using factors with independent effect in multivariate models. Internal validity of the prediction model was evaluated by bootstrapping. Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 192) were male; 72% (n = 165) showed lymphovascular invasion (LVI). The 5-year CSS rate was 31%, and significantly different between male and female (35% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression modeling, female gender (HR = 1.83, P = 0.008), LVI (HR = 1.92, P = 0.005), and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, P = 0.020) significantly worsened CSS. Two risk groups were generated using these 3 criteria, which differed significantly between each other in CSS (5-year-CSS: 46% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). The c-index value of the risk model was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68, P < 0.001). Prognosis in UCB staged pT4a is heterogeneous. Female gender and LVI are adverse factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve outcome. The present analysis establishes the first risk model for this demanding tumor stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of traumatic long-bone fractures requiring in-hospital management: a prospective age- and gender-specific analysis of 4890 fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meling, Terje; Harboe, Knut; Søreide, Kjetil

    2009-11-01

    Musculoskeletal trauma represents a considerable global health burden; however, reliable population-based incidence data are lacking. Thus, we prospectively investigated the age- and sex-specific incidence patterns of long-bone fractures in a defined population. A 4-year prospective study of all long-bone fractures in a defined Norwegian population was carried out. The demographic data, as well as data on fracture type and location and mode of treatment were collected using recognised classification (e.g., AO/OTA - Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association; Gustilo-Anderson (GA) for open fractures). Age- and sex-adjusted incidences were calculated using population statistics. During the study period, 4890 long-bone fractures were recorded. The overall incidence per 100,000 per year was 406 with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 395-417. The age-adjusted incidence for those lower than that for those >or=16 years (427; 95%CI: 414-440). The overall male incidence (337; 95%CI: 322-355) was lower than the female (476; 95%CI: 459-493), but the male:female ratio was 2:1 among those or=50 years. The upper limb fractures had an overall incidence of 159 (95%CI: 152-166), whereas the lower limb fracture incidence was 247 (95%CI: 238-256). Open fractures occurred in 3%, with an incidence of 13 (95%CI: 11-15). Paediatric fractures were more likely to be treated conservatively with only 8% requiring internal fixation, compared to 56% internal fixation in those >or=16 years of age. An increase in the use of angular stable plates occurred during the study period. This prospectively collected study of long-bone fractures in a defined population recognises age- and gender-specific fracture patterns. Boys predominate in the younger age group for which treatment is basically conservative. In the senior population, women and operative treatment predominate.

  14. [Gender-specific influencing factors on incidence, risk factors and outcome of carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2014-04-01

    This overview comments on gender-specific differences in incidence, risk factors and prognosis in patients with carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas. For the literature review, the MEDLINE database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "liver cancer", "gallbladder cancer", "extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma", "pancreatic cancer" AND "gender". There were significant gender differences in the epidemiology of the analysed carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is much higher in men than in women, one of 86 men, but only 1 out of 200 women develop a malignant primary liver tumour in Germany in the course of their life. The lifetime risk for carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts in Germany amounts to about 0.6 % for women and 0.5 % for men, specifically gallbladder carcinomas are observed more frequently in women than in men. For pancreatic cancer, no clear gender preference exists in Germany, although the mortality risk for men is higher than that for women (age-adjusted standardised death rate in men 12.8/100, 000 persons, in women 9.5). Remarkable is furthermore the shift of the tumour incidence in the last decades. Liver cancer has increased among men in Germany by about 50 % in the last 30 years, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma has inversely dropped. The prognosis of these cancers across all tumour stages is uniformly bad in an unselected patient population. This is probably the main reason why only little - if any - gender differences in survival are described. In addition to avoiding the known risk factors such as hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol abuse, and smoking, the avoidance of overweight and obesity plays an increasingly important role in the prevention of these cancers. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Geographic variation in the age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: analysis of Taiwanese National Health Insurance-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-02-01

    We studied geographic variation in age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in four different areas of Taiwan. By using large-scale, National Health Insurance (NHI)-based data from 2000-2003 in Taiwan, we identified 131,287 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD code 345) receiving at least of one of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Information on age, gender, and location were also collected. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of the morbidity of epilepsy in different regions. External data validation was also performed to assess the accuracy of capturing epilepsy cases through our NHI data set. The age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of epilepsy were 5.85 (per 1,000) between 2000 and 2003 and 97 (per 100,000 person-years) during the follow-up time from 2001 to 2003 in Taiwan. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 coding for epilepsy in the NHI data set were 83.91% and 99.83%, respectively, resulting in a slight overestimation. Male patients had a higher probability of having epilepsy than did females. East Taiwan had significantly higher prevalence and incidence than did other areas. The age-specific incidence pattern in east Taiwan was atypical in that it revealed clustering in young and middle-aged groups. Our study demonstrated geographic variation in epidemiologic patterns of epilepsy within Taiwan. The findings are informative and provide insight into the clinical management of epilepsy based on consideration of different target groups in different areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  17. Gender-specific association between tobacco smoking and central obesity among 0.5 million Chinese people: the China Kadoorie Biobank Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors are well-known important modifiable risk factors for obesity; the association between tobacco smoking and central obesity, however, is largely unknown in the Chinese population. This study examined the relationship between smoking and central obesity in 0.5 million Chinese adults, a population with a low prevalence of general obesity, but a high prevalence of central obesity.A total of 487,527 adults (200,564 males and 286,963 females, aged 30-79 years, were enrolled in the baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB Study conducted during 2004-2008. Waist circumference (WC and WC/height ratio (WHtR were used as measures of central obesity.The prevalence of regular smokers was significantly higher among males (60.6% than among females (2.2%. The prevalence of central obesity increased with age and BMI levels, with a significant gender difference (females>males. Of note, almost all obese adults (99.4% were centrally obese regardless of gender. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusting for age, education, physical activity, alcohol use and survey site, regular smoking was inversely associated with BMI in males (standardized regression coefficients, β= -0.093, p<0.001 and females (β= -0.025, p<0.001. Of interest, in the BMI stratification analyses in 18 groups, all βs of regular smoking for WHtR were positive in both genders; the βs showed a significantly greater increasing trend with increasing BMI in males than in females. In the analyses with model adjustment for BMI, the positive associations between regular smoking and WHtR were stronger in males (β= 0.021, p<0.001 than in females (β= 0.008, p<0.001 (p<0.001 for gender difference. WC showed considerably consistent results.The data indicate that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for central obesity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the adjustment for general obesity.

  18. eGender-from e-Learning to e-Research: a web-based interactive knowledge-sharing platform for sex- and gender-specific medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeland, Ute; Nauman, Ahmad T; Cornelis, Alissa; Ludwig, Sabine; Dunkel, Mathias; Kararigas, Georgios; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (http://egender.charite.de), to ensure that future doctors and health professionals will have adequate knowledge and communication skills on sex and gender differences in order to make informed decisions for their patients. The web-based eGender knowledge-sharing platform was designed to support the blended learning pedagogical teaching concept and follows the didactic concept of constructivism. Learning materials developed by Sex and Gender Medicine experts of seven universities have been used as the basis for the new learning tools . The content of these tools is patient-centered and provides add-on information on gender-sensitive aspects of diseases. The structural part of eGender was designed and developed using the open source e-learning platform Moodle. The eGender platform comprises an English and a German version of e-learning modules: one focusing on basic knowledge and seven on specific medical disciplines. Each module consists of several courses corresponding to a disease or symptom complex. Self-organized learning has to be managed by using different learning tools, e.g., texts and audiovisual material, tools for online communication and collaborative work. More than 90 users from Europe registered for the eGender Medicine learning modules. The most frequently accessed module was "Gender Medicine-Basics" and the users favored discussion forums. These e-learning modules fulfill the quality criteria for higher education and are used within the elective Master Module "Gender Medicine

  19. Hip shape is symmetric, non-dependent on limb dominance and gender-specific. Implications for femoroacetabular impingement. A 3D CT analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Castro, Miguel; Jans, Lennart; Marques, Rui M.; Gouveia, Nelia; Consciencia, Jose G.; Soldado, Francisco; Ayeni, Olufemi R.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the reference intervals (RefInt) of the quantitative morphometric parameters of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in asymptomatic hips with computed tomography (CT) and determine their dependence on age, side, limb dominance and sex. We prospectively included 590 patients and evaluated 1111 hips with semi-automated CT analysis. We calculated overall, side- and sex-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam [omega and alpha angle (α )] and pincer-type morphology [acetabular version (ACvers), lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) and cranio-caudal coverage]. Hip shape was symmetrical and did not depend on limb dominance. The 95% RefInt limits were sex-different for all cam-type parameters and extended beyond current abnormal thresholds. Specifically, the upper limits of RefInt for α at 12:00, 1:30 and 3:00 o'clock positions were 56 , 70 and 58 , respectively, and 45 for LCEA. Acetabular morphology varied between age groups, with a trend toward an LCEA/ACvers increase over time. Our morphometric measurements can be used to estimate normal hip morphology in asymptomatic individuals. Notably they extended beyond current thresholds used for FAI imaging diagnosis, which was most pronounced for cam-type parameters. We suggest the need to reassess α RefInt and consider a 60 threshold for the 12:00/3:00 positions and 65-70 for other antero-superior positions. (orig.)

  20. Cardiovascular RiskprofilE - IMaging and gender-specific disOrders (CREw-IMAGO): rationale and design of a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoet, Gerbrand A; Meun, Cindy; Benschop, Laura; Boersma, Eric; Budde, Ricardo P J; Fauser, Bart C J M; de Groot, Christianne J M; van der Lugt, Aad; Maas, Angela H E M; Moons, Karl G M; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Steegers, Eric A P; van Rijn, Bas B; Laven, Joop S E; Franx, Arie; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-08-07

    Reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) like pre-eclampsia (PE), are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Detection of early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as identification of risk factors among women of reproductive age which improve cardiovascular risk prediction, is a challenge and current models might underestimate long-term health risks. The aim of this study is to assess cardiovascular disease in patients with a history of a reproductive disorder by low-dose computed tomography (CT). Women of 45 - 55 years, who experienced a reproductive disorder (PCOS, POI, HPD), are invited to participate in this multicenter, prospective, cohort study. Women will be recruited after regular cardiovascular screening, including assessment of classical cardiovascular risk factors. CT of the coronary arteries (both coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS), and contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography (CCTA)) and carotid siphon calcium scoring (CSC) is planned in 300 women with HPD and 300 women with PCOS or POI. In addition, arterial stiffness (non-invasive pulse wave velocity (PWV)) measurement and cell-based biomarkers (inflammatory circulating cells) will be obtained. Initial inclusion is focused on women of 45 - 55 years. However, the age range (40 - 45 years and/or ≥ 55 years) and group composition may be adjusted based on the findings of the interim analysis. Participants can potentially benefit from information obtained in this study concerning their current cardiovascular health and expected future risk of cardiovascular events. The results of this study will provide insights in the development of CVD in women with a history of reproductive disorders. Ultimately, this study may lead to improved cardiovascular prediction models and will provide an opportunity for timely adjustment of preventive

  1. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  2. Gender-specific contribution of cardiometabolic index and lipid accumulation product to left ventricular geometry change in general population of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Sun, Yingxian; Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Shuang; Ye, Ning; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-04-10

    Despite current interest in the unfavorable impact of cardiometabolic index (CMI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) on diabetes and cardiovascular risk, information regarding the relation of CMI and LAP to left ventricular (LV) geometry has not been specifically addressed. We aimed to examine the hypothesis: (1) CMI and LAP represent an independent determinant of LV remodeling in general population of rural China; (2) there are gender differences in obesity-related alterations in terms of LV morphology. The sample for this cross-sectional analysis included 11,258 participants (mean age 53.9 years; 54.0% females) who underwent assessment of basic metabolic and anthropometric parameters in rural areas of northeast China. Comprehensive echocardiography-defined LV geometric pattern was determined according to left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness. The prevalence rate of eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH) presented a proportional increase with elevated quartiles of CMI and LAP in a dose-response manner (all P factor of 3.552 and 1.768 in females and males, respectively. In contrast to females, where LAP fourth quartile and concentric LVH were positively associated (OR:2.544, 95%CI:1.537-4.209), higher LAP did not correlate with concentric LVH in males (OR:1.234, 95%CI:0.824-1.849). CMI and LAP give rise to a new paradigm of accounting for gender difference in obesity-related abnormal LV geometry, an effect that was substantially greater in females. These two indices, acting in concert, may also be advantageous prognostically for refining cardiovascular risk stratification in individuals with LV remodeling.

  3. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Moretti, D.; Kvalsvig, J.; Holding, P.A.; Tjalsma, H.; Kortman, G.A.M.; Joosten, I.; Mwangi, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0+/-1.1 months (mean+/-SD), we

  4. Gender-Specific Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts among the Community-Dwelling General Population with Suicidal Ideation: the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We identified traditional risk factors and investigated poorly understood risk factors for suicide attempts according to gender in a large Korean population. We analyzed the data from 6,768 males and 12,475 females with suicidal ideation obtained from the nationwide 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. The dependent variable was suicide attempts within the past year. There was a significant trend towards an increase in suicide attempts with decreasing age in both genders. Compared with those who were married, suicide attempts were significantly higher among those who were widowed, divorced, or separated for males (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–3.20), but lower for females (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45–0.98). Current smoking and depression were significant risk factor for suicide attempts in males and females. However, monthly household income, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis were significantly associated with suicide attempts only in males, whereas education level, recipient of National Basic Livelihood Security, family contact, leisure activity, and drinking frequency were significantly associated only in females. These findings indicate that gender difference should be considered in the assessment, prevention, and management of future suicide attempts by community policy-makers and clinicians. PMID:27822943

  5. Gender-specific mental health care needs of women veterans treated for psychiatric disorders in a Veterans Administration Women's Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura J; Ghadiali, Nafisa Y

    2015-04-01

    This pilot study aims to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health, and of gynecologic conditions that could interact with psychiatric conditions, among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a Veterans Administration (VA) Women's Health Clinic (WHC). Participants included all women veterans (N=68) who received psychiatric evaluations within a VA WHC over a 5-month period. This setting encompasses colocated and coordinated primary care, gynecologic and mental health services. Evaluations included a Women's Mental Health Questionnaire, a psychiatric interview, and medical record review. Deidentified data were extracted from a clinical data repository for this descriptive study. High proportions of study participants reported that their emotional problems intensified premenstrually (42.6%), during pregnancy (33.3%), in the postpartum period (33.3%), or during perimenopause (18.2%). Unintended pregnancy (70.0% of pregnancies) and pregnancy loss (63.5% of women who had been pregnant) were prominent sex-linked stressors. Dyspareunia (22.1% of participants) and pelvic pain (17.6% of participants) were frequent comorbidities. Among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a VA WHC, there are high rates of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health. This population also has substantial comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with dyspareunia and pelvic pain. This underscores the importance of recognizing and addressing women veterans' sex-specific care needs, including interactions among reproductive cycle phases, gynecologic pain, and psychiatric symptoms. The findings support the need for greater awareness of the sex-specific mental health needs of women veterans, and for more definitive studies to further characterize these needs.

  6. Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilal, Faheem Gul; Zhang, Jian; Gilal, Naeem Gul; Gilal, Rukhsana Gul

    2018-01-01

    The present study integrates self-determined needs satisfaction into a relationship between product design (eg, aesthetic, functional, and symbolic design) and consumer behavior (eg, willingness-to-pay [WTP] a premium and negative word-of-mouth [WOM]) and to explore whether gender can differentiate the effects of aesthetic, functional, and symbolic product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction. To this end, participants from Pakistan and China were recruited, and the hypotheses for this study were tested using structural equation modeling and SPSS-PROCESS. The effects of three product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction were significantly positive across samples. The results further show that self-determined needs satisfaction had the strongest positive effect on WTP a premium and the strongest negative effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistanis. Self-determined needs frustration had the strongest negative effect on the WTP a premium for Chinese participants and an equivalent magnitude effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistani and Chinese participants. The cross-cultural gender-specific findings revealed that Pakistani men are more aesthetic and hedonic than women in Pakistan. Surprisingly, Chinese women resemble Pakistani men in the sense that they prefer aesthetically pleasing products. Chinese men resemble Pakistani women in terms of little interest in symbolic products, whereas Chinese women and Pakistani men respond similarly regarding their decisions to choose symbolic products. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to integrate self-determined needs into the relationship between product design and consumer WTP a premium and WOM, and further explore cross-cultural gender-specific differences across Pakistan and China. The findings of the present study may help international marketers in terms of segmenting, targeting, and positioning their markets.

  7. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  8. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: “Healthy Eaters” (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males, “Physically Active” (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males, and “Low Healthy Behaviour” (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males. We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters, and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines, with little gender differences across the countries. About 18–47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults’ engagement in PA.

  9. Smokers' increased risk for disability pension: social confounding or health-mediated effects? Gender-specific analyses of the Hordaland Health Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukenes, Inger; Riise, Trond; Haug, Kjell; Farbu, Erlend; Maeland, John Gunnar

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that cigarette smokers have an increased risk for disability pension, presumably mediated by adverse health effects. However, smoking is also related to socioeconomic status. The current study examined the association between smoking and subsequent disability pension, and whether the association is explained by social confounding and/or health-related mediation. A subsample of 7934 men and 8488 women, aged 40-46, from the Hordaland Health Study, Norway (1997-1999), provided baseline information on smoking status, self-reported health measures and socioeconomic status. Outcome was register-based disability pension from 12 months after baseline to end of 2004. Gender stratified Cox regression analyses were used adjusted for socioeconomic status, physical activity, self-reported health and musculoskeletal pain sites. A total of 155 (2%) men and 333 (3.9%) women were granted disability pension during follow-up. The unadjusted disability risk associated with heavy smoking versus non-smoking was 1.88 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.89) among men and 3.06 (95% CI 2.23 to 4.20) among women. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for socioeconomic status, HRs were 1.33 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.11) among men and 2.22 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.13) among women. Final adjustment for physical activity, self-reported health and musculoskeletal pain further reduced the effect of heavy smoking in women (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.16). Socioeconomic status confounded the smoking-related risk for disability pension; for female heavy smokers, however, a significant increased risk persisted after adjustment. Women may be particularly vulnerable to heavy smoking and to its sociomedical consequences, such as disability pension.

  10. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  11. Identification of weak and gender specific effects in a short 3 weeks intervention study using barley and oat mixed linkage β-glucan dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimigno, Alessia; Khakimov, Bekzod; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    acid analysis was performed on day three fecal samples. ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis was applied to partition the data variation according to the study design, and PLS-DA was used to select most discriminative metabolite markers. RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate data analysis revealed...... a dominating effect of inter-individual variances followed by a gender effect. Weak effects of BG intake were identified including an increased level of gamma-amino-butyrate and palmitoleic acid in males and a decreased level of enterolactone in females. Barley and oat derived BG were found to influence......, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study show that human fecal metabolome largely reflects individual (∼28% variation) and gender (∼15% variation) differences, whereas the treatment effect of the BG (∼8% variation) only manifests in a few key metabolites (primarily by the metabolites: d-2-aminobutyric acid...

  12. Gender-specific differences in the incidence of microalbuminuria in metabolic syndrome patients after treatment with fimasartan: The K-MetS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Su-A; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2017-01-01

    The effect of resolving metabolic syndrome on target organ damage in hypertensive patients is not well described. We evaluated whether treating metabolic syndrome (MetS) with an angiotensin receptor blocker subsequently reduced microalbuminuria in the K-MetS cohort. Among 10,601 total metabolic syndrome patients, 3,250 (52.2% male, 56.2±10.0 years) with sufficient data on five specific metabolic components were included in this study. Patients were divided into four groups based on MetS status at baseline and 3 months. All patients received an angiotensin receptor blocker, fimasartan, for these 3 months; thereafter, treatment was modified at the discretion of each patient's physician. Microalbuminuria and the albumin/creatine ratio were evaluated as a proxy of organ damage. Blood pressure and waist circumference decreased from baseline to 3 months and 1 year. The average albumin/creatinine ratio significantly improved during the first three months of the study from 36.0±147.4 to 21.0±74.9 mg/g (pTreatment of hypertensive patients for one year with the angiotensin receptor blocker fimasartan significantly reduced the albumin/creatine ratio, irrespective of whether the patient had MetS; however, the albumin/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in patents with persistent or newly developed MetS compared to patients without MetS. Additionally, these findings were more prominent in women than in men.

  13. Mutations in DDX3X Are a Common Cause of Unexplained Intellectual Disability with Gender-Specific Effects on Wnt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders Blok, Lot; Madsen, Erik; Juusola, Jane; Gilissen, Christian; Baralle, Diana; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Helsmoortel, Céline; Cho, Megan T; Hoischen, Alexander; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Koemans, Tom S; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn; Eichler, Evan E; Romano, Corrado; Van Esch, Hilde; Stumpel, Connie; Vreeburg, Maaike; Smeets, Eric; Oberndorff, Karin; van Bon, Bregje W M; Shaw, Marie; Gecz, Jozef; Haan, Eric; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Loeys, Bart L; Van Dijck, Anke; Innes, A Micheil; Racher, Hilary; Vermeer, Sascha; Di Donato, Nataliya; Rump, Andreas; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Parker, Michael J; Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A; Fryer, Alan; Ross, Alison; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Kini, Usha; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Chandler, Kate; Male, Alison; Dijkstra, Sybe; Schieving, Jolanda; Giltay, Jacques; van Gassen, Koen L I; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Tan, Perciliz L; Pediaditakis, Igor; Haas, Stefan A; Retterer, Kyle; Reed, Patrick; Monaghan, Kristin G; Haverfield, Eden; Natowicz, Marvin; Myers, Angela; Kruer, Michael C; Stein, Quinn; Strauss, Kevin A; Brigatti, Karlla W; Keating, Katherine; Burton, Barbara K; Kim, Katherine H; Charrow, Joel; Norman, Jennifer; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Kline, Antonie D; Kimball, Amy; Zackai, Elaine; Harr, Margaret; Fox, Joyce; McLaughlin, Julie; Lindstrom, Kristin; Haude, Katrina M; van Roozendaal, Kees; Brunner, Han; Chung, Wendy K; Kooy, R Frank; Pfundt, Rolph; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mehta, Sarju G; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2015-08-06

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1%-3% of humans with a gender bias toward males. Previous studies have identified mutations in more than 100 genes on the X chromosome in males with ID, but there is less evidence for de novo mutations on the X chromosome causing ID in females. In this study we present 35 unique deleterious de novo mutations in DDX3X identified by whole exome sequencing in 38 females with ID and various other features including hypotonia, movement disorders, behavior problems, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and epilepsy. Based on our findings, mutations in DDX3X are one of the more common causes of ID, accounting for 1%-3% of unexplained ID in females. Although no de novo DDX3X mutations were identified in males, we present three families with segregating missense mutations in DDX3X, suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. In these families, all males with the DDX3X variant had ID, whereas carrier females were unaffected. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms accounting for the differences in disease transmission and phenotype between affected females and affected males with DDX3X missense variants, we used canonical Wnt defects in zebrafish as a surrogate measure of DDX3X function in vivo. We demonstrate a consistent loss-of-function effect of all tested de novo mutations on the Wnt pathway, and we further show a differential effect by gender. The differential activity possibly reflects a dose-dependent effect of DDX3X expression in the context of functional mosaic females versus one-copy males, which reflects the complex biological nature of DDX3X mutations. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age- and gender-specific associations of napping duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Panpan; Fan, Jingjing; Xu, Fei; Yang, Kaili; Hu, Dongsheng; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-05-01

    The consistency and strength of the relationship between napping duration and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remained uncertain, especially in the rural population. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between napping duration and T2DM in a Chinese rural population. A total of 12663 participants (4365 males and 8298 females) were derived from the RuralDiab study in China. Napping duration was obtained through a standardized questionnaire, and was divided into five categories: no napping (reference), 1∼, 31∼, 61∼, and ≥91 min. Fasting blood glucose was measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A meta-analysis including seven studies was conducted to validate the result of the RuralDiab study. The crude and age-standardized prevalence of T2DM were 10.31% and 8.14%, respectively. Compared with no napping, the adjusted OR (95%CI) for napping duration ≥91 min was 1.23 (1.05-1.45). A similar relationship was found only in females aged 45-54 years, but not in males and other age group females. In addition, napping duration was associated with T2DM in a positive dose-dependent manner among females aged 45-54 years (P for trend napping duration compared with no napping was 1.28 (1.22-1.35). Longer napping duration is associated with higher risk of T2DM in the Chinese rural population, and this association varies across gender and age. Further multi-center prospective researches are needed to confirm the relationship and reveal underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of public programs on fertility and gender specific investment in human capital of children in rural India: cross sectional and time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, P; Malathy, R

    1991-01-01

    Cross sectional and time series analyses are conducted with 1971 and 1981 rural district level data for India in order to estimate variations in program impacts on household decisionmaking concerning fertility, child mortality, and schooling; to analyze how the variation in public program subsidies and services influences sex specific investments in schooling; and to examine the bias in cross sectional estimates by employing fixed effects methodology. The theory of household production uses the framework development by Rosenzweig and Wolpin. The utility function is expressed as a function of families' desired number of children, sex specific investment in human capital of children measured by schooling of males and females, and a composite consumption good. Budget constraints are characterized in terms of the biological supply of births or natural fertility, the number of births averted by fertility control, exogenous money income, the prices of number of children, contraceptives, child schooling, and consumption of goods. Demand functions are constructed from maximizing the utility function subject to the budget constraint. Data constitute 40% of the total districts and 50% of the rural population. The empirical specification of the linear model and variable description are provided. Other explanatory variables included are adult educational attainment; % of scheduled castes and tribes and % Muslim; and % rural population. Estimation methods are described and justification is provided for the use of ordinary least squares and fixed effects methods. The results of the cross sectional analysis reveal that own-program effects of family planning and primary health centers reduced family size in 1971 and 81. The increase in secondary school enrollment is evidenced in only 1971. There is a significant effect of family planning (FP) clinics on the demand for surviving children only in 1971. The presence of a seconary school in a village reduces the demand for children in

  16. Age- and gender-specific estimates of cumulative CT dose over 5 years using real radiation dose tracking data in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunsol; Goo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jae-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a mechanism to estimate and analyze cumulative radiation risks from multiple CT exams in various clinical scenarios in children. To identify major contributors to high cumulative CT dose estimates using actual dose-length product values collected for 5 years in children. Between August 2006 and July 2011 we reviewed 26,937 CT exams in 13,803 children. Among them, we included 931 children (median age 3.5 years, age range 0 days-15 years; M:F = 533:398) who had 5,339 CT exams. Each child underwent at least three CT scans and had accessible radiation dose reports. Dose-length product values were automatically extracted from DICOM files and we used recently updated conversion factors for age, gender, anatomical region and tube voltage to estimate CT radiation dose. We tracked the calculated CT dose estimates to obtain a 5-year cumulative value for each child. The study population was divided into three groups according to the cumulative CT dose estimates: high, ≥30 mSv; moderate, 10-30 mSv; and low, <10 mSv. We reviewed clinical data and CT protocols to identify major contributors to high and moderate cumulative CT dose estimates. Median cumulative CT dose estimate was 5.4 mSv (range 0.5-71.1 mSv), and median number of CT scans was 4 (range 3-36). High cumulative CT dose estimates were most common in children with malignant tumors (57.9%, 11/19). High frequency of CT scans was attributed to high cumulative CT dose estimates in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (35 in 1 child) and malignant tumors (range 18-49). Moreover, high-dose CT protocols, such as multiphase abdomen CT (median 4.7 mSv) contributed to high cumulative CT dose estimates even in children with a low number of CT scans. Disease group, number of CT scans, and high-dose CT protocols are major contributors to higher cumulative CT dose estimates in children. (orig.)

  17. Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilal FG

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Faheem Gul Gilal,1 Jian Zhang,1 Naeem Gul Gilal,2 Rukhsana Gul Gilal3 1Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Business Administration, Sukkur IBA University, Sindh, Pakistan Background: The present study integrates self-determined needs satisfaction into a relationship between product design (eg, aesthetic, functional, and symbolic design and consumer behavior (eg, willingness-to-pay [WTP] a premium and negative word-of-mouth [WOM] and to explore whether gender can differentiate the effects of aesthetic, functional, and symbolic product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction. Methods: To this end, participants from Pakistan and China were recruited, and the hypotheses for this study were tested using structural equation modeling and SPSS-PROCESS. Results: The effects of three product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction were significantly positive across samples. The results further show that self-determined needs satisfaction had the strongest positive effect on WTP a premium and the strongest negative effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistanis. Self-determined needs frustration had the strongest negative effect on the WTP a premium for Chinese participants and an equivalent magnitude effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistani and Chinese participants. The cross-cultural gender-specific findings revealed that Pakistani men are more aesthetic and hedonic than women in Pakistan. Surprisingly, Chinese women resemble Pakistani men in the sense that they prefer aesthetically pleasing products. Chinese men resemble Pakistani women in terms of little interest in symbolic products, whereas Chinese women and Pakistani men respond similarly regarding their decisions to choose symbolic products. Conclusion: To the best of the

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carlino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, and Panic Disorder (PAD. Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes.

  19. Gender-specific changes in laboratory indexes and structural parameters of the left ventricle myocardium in chronic heart failure on the background of diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bidzilya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies have shown that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic heart failure (CHF specifically, in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is about 50%. Aim. To study gender-specific changes in laboratory indexes and structural myocardial parameters of left ventricle (LV in CHF on the background of diabetes mellitus (DM type 2. 111 patients with I–III functional class of disease with normal, overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. Methods and results. Clinical and biochemical blood tests? glomerular filtration rate were used. Structural parameters of the myocardium were estimated with echocardiography. It is established that in CHF on the background of DM type 2 and obesity there is a tendency to develop anemia and renal dysfunction in women. Structural changes of the myocardium is more pronounced in men and presents the prevalence ofLV hypertrophy and dilatation of the heart cavities. Conclusion. This demonstrates different ways of negative impact of gender factor on the laboratory indexes and structural myocardial parameters in CHF on the background of DM type 2 and obesity.

  20. Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexion—use of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233–244, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

  1. Gender specific association of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C Arg72Pro, IVS3+40-41ins16, and IVS6+62G>A), with risk of oral cancer subtypes and overall survival of the patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagam, Srivani L S S; Katta, Saritha; Prasad, Vidudala V T S

    2017-03-01

    Reports on the association of TP53 polymorphisms with oral cancer are not only limited but also not specific to site and/or gender. Hence, we examined the effect of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C, IVS3+40-41ins16 and IVS6+62G>A) on buccal mucosa cancer (BMC) and tongue cancer (TC) risk, survival of patients in relation to risk and clinical factors, gender wise (excepting for estimating hazards ratio [HR]), using Fisher's Exact Test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox-proportional hazards models. The exonic polymorphism increased BMC and TC risk in males by 2-4-fold. The IVS3+40-41ins16 was protective against BMC and TC in both genders, whereas IVS6+62G>A protected only males against TC. Genotype combinations and haplotypes which altered the risk of cancers in males and females were different. TC males, aged 40-44 years and females, aged 55-59 years survived better than BMC patients. The IVS3+40-41ins16 polymorphism differentially impacted survival of female patients exposed to tobacco. TC patients with EX4 215GC with lymphovascular spread (LVS) and metastasis exhibited higher HR while, patients with EX4 215CC and perineural invasion (PNI) showed lower HR. Impact of the intronic variants along with clinical parameters on survival and HR estimates varied between BMC and TC. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed the presence of CTCF binding site within TP53 gene. In conclusion, the polymorphisms altered risk and survival of BMC and TC in a gender specific manner, which varied with mode of tobacco and/or alcohol use. The current study, therefore underscores strong need for research, stratified by tumor site and gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resistive mode in rotating plasma columns including the hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new resistive mode is shown to exist in rotating plasma columns. The mode is localized in the neighbourhood of the radius where the angular velocity of the bulk plasma is equal to minus half the local angular velocity of the ions. This singular point is caused by the Hall term in the generalized Ohm law. The growth rate of the mode scales with eta sup(1/2), where eta is the plasma resistivity. (Author) [pt

  3. Current laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis b virus infection including 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient management. ... into visually palatable information using the myriad of available bioinformatics tools. J G M SIM, BSc, MB ... Clinical Pathologist, Drs Martin & Sim Inc., Clinical Pathologists, Toga Laboratories, Johannesburg ... system. Therefore, this phase is sometimes called the immune escape phase although it.

  4. Early-life nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: gender-specific associations from a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskiewicz, Bruna Lucas; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; do Amaral, Joana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Giatti, Luana

    2018-06-01

    In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old. Cross-sectional analysis. Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008-2010. MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. LBW (<2·5 kg) and age- and sex-standardized relative leg length (high, medium and low) were the explanatory variables studied. The strength of the associations between the explanatory variables and MetS was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance. MetS prevalence was 34·2 %; it was more prevalent in men (36·8 %) than in women (32·2 %). In multivariate analysis, LBW was associated (prevalence ratio; 95 % CI) with MetS only in women (1·28; 1·24, 1·45). Shorter leg length was associated with MetS in both men (1·21; 1·09, 1·35 and 1·46; 1·29, 1·65 for low and medium lengths, respectively) and women (1·12; 1·00, 1·25 and 1·40; 1·22, 1·59 for low and medium lengths, respectively). Additional adjustments for age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old did not change the associations. Poor nutritional status as estimated by LBW and lower leg length in childhood was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS, although LBW was a significant factor only among women.

  5. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  8. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  9. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  11. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  12. The relationship of dysthymia, minor depression, and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Pilver, Corey E; Desai, Rani A; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    Although data clearly link major depression and smoking, little is known about the association between dysthymia and minor depression and smoking behavior. The current study examined changes in smoking over 3 years for current and former smokers with and without dysthymia and minor depression. Participants who were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and completed the Wave 2 assessment were included in these analyses (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of current dysthymia, lifetime dysthymia, and minor depression (a single diagnostic category that denoted current and/or lifetime prevalence) on continued smoking for Wave 1 current daily smokers and continued abstinence for Wave 1 former daily smokers. Wave 1 current daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23, 3.70) or minor depression (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.07, 2.18) were more likely than smokers without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 former daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20, 0.96) and lifetime dysthymia (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15, 0.91) were less likely than those without the diagnosis to remain abstinent from smoking at Wave 2. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant, suggesting that the impact of dysthymia and minor depression on smoking behavior is similar among men and women. Current dysthymia and minor depression are associated with a greater likelihood of continued smoking; current and lifetime dysthymia are associated with a decreased likelihood of continued smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  15. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  16. Eddy current seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-11-01

    The paper presents the fifth symposium in the series of Eddy Current Seminars, held in Abingdon, 1988. The meeting included a discussion on three-dimensional eddy current formulations, as well as thirteen contributed papers on computational electromagnetics. Of the thirteen papers, two papers on eddy currents in tokamaks were selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  17. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  18. The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: age-, education-, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Daerr, Moritz; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Zimmermann, Thomas; Köhler, Mirjam; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Kaufeler, Teresa; Pentzek, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Wollny, Anja; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological (CERAD-NP) battery represents a commonly used neuropsychological instrument to measure cognitive functioning in the elderly. This study provides normative data for changes in cognitive function that normally occur in cognitively healthy individuals to interpret changes in CERAD-NP test scores over longer time periods. Longitudinal cohort study with three assessments at 1.5-year intervals over a period of 3 years. : Primary care medical record registry sample. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients, a sample of 1,450 cognitively healthy general practitioner patients, age 75 years and older, was assessed. Age-, education-, and gender-specific Reliable Change Indices (RCIs) were computed for a 90% confidence interval for selected subtests of the CERAD-NP battery. Across different age, education, and gender subgroups, changes from at least six to nine points in Verbal Fluency, four to eight points in Word List Memory, two to four points in Word List Recall, and one to four points in Word List Recognition indicated significant (i.e. reliable) changes in CERAD-NP test scores at the 90% confidence level. Furthermore, the calculation of RCIs for individual patients is demonstrated. Smaller changes in CERAD-NP test scores can be interpreted with only high uncertainty because of probable measurement error, practice effects, and normal age-related cognitive decline. This study, for the first time, provides age-, education-, and gender-specific CERAD-NP reference values on the basis of RCI methods for the interpretation of cognitive changes in older-age groups.

  19. Gender-specific differences in associations of overweight and obesity with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in 30 056 children: result from 25 districts of Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Qian, Zhengmin; Wang, Jing; Yang, Mingan; Lee, Yungling Leo; Liu, Fan; Liu, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yi-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between obesity and allergic respiratory diseases in childhood is still controversial. Furthermore, significant debate on the issue of whether or not gender modifies this association also exists due to inconsistent findings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between obesity and respiratory health in children, and to investigate the modifications of gender on this association. 30 056 children (aged 2-14 years) were randomly selected from 25 districts within 7 cities in Northeastern China in 2009. A standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society was used to characterize the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses. Child weight and height were measured, and obesity was calculated with an age and sex-specific body mass index. The overall prevalence rates of obesity and overweightness were 14.08% and 12.32%, respectively. Compared to the children with normal body weights, asthma and asthma-related symptoms were more prevalent in overweight and obese children. Analysis stratified by gender showed that obesity was associated with more respiratory symptoms and diseases in females than in males. A significant association between obesity and diagnosed asthma [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.60], as well as current wheezing (aOR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79) was found in females but not in males. There is an association between asthma symptoms and obesity in these Chinese children, and obesity had a significantly larger effect on females than males.

  20. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F.; Oyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  1. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, X. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  2. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  3. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    of BMI relative to exposure and onset of disease. - Highlights: • Few studies assessed interactions of obesity and air pollution on CVDs in Chinese. • We included a large population of 24,845 Chinese adults from three cities of China. • Obesity enhanced the effects of air pollution on stoke and CVDs in Chinese adults. • Modification of obesity was significant only in females.

  4. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Trevathan, Edwin; Emo, Brett; Paul, Gunther; Ren, Wan-Hui; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    exposure and onset of disease. - Highlights: • Few studies assessed interactions of obesity and air pollution on CVDs in Chinese. • We included a large population of 24,845 Chinese adults from three cities of China. • Obesity enhanced the effects of air pollution on stoke and CVDs in Chinese adults. • Modification of obesity was significant only in females

  5. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  6. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  7. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  8. NOAA/EcoFOCI Chukchi Sea mooring time-series data, stations C1, C2, and C3, 2010-08-29 to 2012-08-21, including currents, temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll a, and nitrate data (NCEI Accession 0157701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These EcoFOCI mooring time-series datasets consist of RCM-9 current data, Ecofluorometer, Seacat and nitrate data from moored instruments at 3 stations in the...

  9. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  10. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  11. Gender-specific predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Gender is an important risk factor for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents; however, little is known about the influence of gender when considering their common co-occurrence. This study examined whether problematic substance use, attachment...

  12. Femicide. Violent deaths of women as gender-specific crime

    OpenAIRE

    Munevar, Dora Inés

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es el femicidio considerado como un delito por razones de género. Ofrece un análisis feminista de las dimensiones conceptuales del tipo penal; incluye los principales argumentos explorados en América Latina, examina diferentes aspectos defendidos por feministas y activistas del movimiento de mujeres, tiene en cuenta algunas reacciones desencadenadas por la tipificación y considera la estructura general del delito tal como ha sido aprobado en seis países: Costa Ri...

  13. GENDER SPECIFICS OF USING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES BY CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Gulshat Firazovna Shakirova*

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the gender characteristics of children of preschool age that are actively using digital technologies in everyday life are studied, the age characteristics of children are described, and the terminology of the research is defined. The study used psychological methods: questionnaire, observation of children of preschool age on the basis of the questionnaire "Masculinity, femininity and gender personality type" (a modification of O. G. Lopukhova), the conversation "Boys and ...

  14. The woman's voice. Social policy should be gender specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, S

    1989-01-01

    The burdens of the elderly cannot be fully understood in a nonfeminist framework--that is, one that does not consider women's special concerns--for these burdens fall primarily on women. Surprisingly little attention has been given to the woman's voice in discussions of the aging society, but times are changing. Elaine M. Brody defines "women in the middle" as those who care for a parent or parent-in-law while also fulfilling parental duties and possibly working outside the home. Even the traditionalist who stridently affirms filial caretaking must recognize that these duties have limits. Obligations to one's parents or parents-in-law, to one's children, and to oneself can conflict. Some dismiss the need to develop support programs for family caretakers. Familial care for the elderly is the ideal. Government can assist families, however, without being invasive. The fastest way to deplete caring is not to care for the care giver. This debate is not gender neutral. Those in need of respite are most often women. Feminist and nonfeminist women soon will find common cause in supporting new policies that ease the burdens of family caretaking.

  15. Determinants of gender-specific wages in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Diese Arbeit besteht aus empirischen und methodischen Beiträgen zur Literatur über den deutschen Lohnunterschied zwischen Männern und Frauen. Bisher war es aus Mangel an geeigneten Daten nicht möglich, den potentiellen Einfluss von Arbeitgebern bzw. Firmen auf diesen Lohnunterschied zu untersuchen. Auf der Basis neuer Linked Employer-Employee Daten wird dies in drei empirischen Studien untersucht. Die erste Studie wendet sich dem innerbetrieblichen Lohnunterschied zu. Dabei zeigt sich, dass...

  16. "Gender-specific HIV policies and programmes at South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    2004-06-07

    Jun 7, 2004 ... will discuss employers' duties in the fight against HIV/AIDS with ..... The breach of the duty of care can also take the form of an omission.26 Brassey states: ... responsibility to the employer for the consequences of a negligent ...

  17. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  18. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  19. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  20. Current neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy: DNA diagnosis in practice; Central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging; and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of neurologic diseases

  1. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  2. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  3. Opinions on Current Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

  4. Current level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a dc signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference ac signal is applied. The unknown dc signal acts on the reference ac signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown dc current. The device may be used to provide overcurrent protection for proportional wire chambers

  5. Development and Utilization of Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Delicacy, Imprecision, and Uncertainty of Oceanic Simulations: An Investigation with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Ocean Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). Eddy Effects in General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, including Submesoscale Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    biogeochemisty: chemical cycles, water quality, blooms , micro-nutrients, larval dispersal, biome transitions, and coupling to higher tropic levels. We...eddies in the Peru- Chile Current System. Climate Dynamics 39, 509-529. Colas, F., X. Wang, X. Capet, Y. Chao, & J.C. McWilliams, 2012b: Untangling the

  6. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1994-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  9. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  10. Electric current sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The review makes a brief overview of traditional methods of measurement of electric current and shows in more detail relatively new types of current sensors. These include Hall sensors with field concentrators, AMR current sensors, magneto-optical and superconducting current sensors. The influence of the magnetic core properties on the error of the current transformer shows why nanocrystalline materials are so advantageous for this application. Built-in CMOS current sensors are important tools for monitoring the health of integrated circuits. Of special industrial value are current clamps which can be installed without breaking the measured conductor. Parameters of current sensors are also discussed, including geometrical selectivity. This parameter specific for current sensors means the ability to suppress the influence of currents external to the sensor (including the position of the return conductor) and also suppress the influence on the position of the measured conductor with respect to the current. (topical review)

  11. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  12. Mathematic modulation of a simulation program for a coal and wood counter-current moving bed gasifier, which includes pyrolysis and drying processes and processes alternatives; Modelagem matematica e simulacao em computador de gaseificador de leito fixo contra-corrente para carvoes e biomassa com inclusao de processos de pirolise, secagem e alternativas do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, M.L. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    A new version of a simulation program for coal and wood counter-current fixed bed gasifier has been completed and provides: all the principal information variables of the process throughout the bed as mass flow and composition for 13 gases and 6 solids, temperature of the gas and solid phases, reaction rates of combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and drying processes; composition, mass flow, temperature, combustion enthalpy and other produced gases physical and chemical properties; possibility of process alternatives analysis as volatiles recycling in order to eliminate tar, double withdrawn of gases and combinations. Comparisons between simulation and experimental results are presented. (author). 26 refs., 1 tab

  13. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  14. The role of education for current, former and never-smoking among non-western immigrants in Norway. Does the pattern fit the model of the cigarette epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedøy, Tord Finne

    2013-01-01

    The aim was (1) to investigate the association between education and smoking status (current, former and never-smoking) among non-western immigrants in Norway and (2) examine if these associations fit the pattern predicted by the model of the cigarette epidemic. Data came from the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health study (2000-2002). The first included all Oslo citizens from seven selected birth cohorts. The second included all Oslo citizens born in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. 14,768 respondents answered questions on smoking, education and relevant background variables (over-all response rate 43.3%). Two gender specific multinomial logistic regression models with smoking status [current, former or never-smoker (reference)] as dependent variable were computed and predicted probabilities of smoking status among groups with different levels of education were calculated. Smoking prevalence among men ranged from 19% among Sri Lankans to 56% among Turks. Compared to the smoking prevalence among Norwegian men (27%), smoking was widespread among Iranians (42%) and Vietnamese (36%). Higher education was associated with lower probability of current smoking among all male immigrant groups except Sri Lankans. Never having smoked was positively associated with education among Pakistani and Norwegian men. Among women, education was higher than for other levels of education. The probability of being a never-smoker was high among Turkish and Iranian women with primary education. High smoking prevalence among Turkish and Iranian men highlights the importance of addressing smoking behaviour in subgroups of the general population. Smoking was almost non-existent among Pakistani, Vietnamese and Sri Lankan women and indicates strong persistent social norms against smoking.

  15. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  16. FY 1997 report on the survey on the current residential waste treatment and integrated utilization of waste including heat supply in Shanghai city; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Shanghai shi ni okeru seikatsu gomi shori no genjo narabini kyonetsunado wo fukumu sogo riyo ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Survey was made on residential waste treatment in Shanghai city. Shanghai city with nearly 13 million registered residents produces on average 10,000-11,000 tons/day residential solid wastes. Such wastes are basically disposed by land filling. A landfill site has a current disposal capacity of 7,500 tons/day, and is scheduled to be expanded up to 9,000 tons/day. Problems of waste disposal in Shanghai city are as follows: transportation of wastes collected in the city by trucks, transportation through transit stations to the landfill site by ships, and high disposal cost. Shanghai Environmental Sanitation Bureau is pursuing researches on recycling of wastes, reduction of wastes and harmless treatment in place of conventional land filling. As the survey result, adoption of complete separate collection of wastes is basically important, and application of the latest technologies such as combustion treatment for every waste, heat use, gasification fusion furnace, and RDF (refuse derived fuel) for coal-firing boilers should be considered. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the State of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda larvae infestation Distribuição atual de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo com registro de infestação por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.É apresentada a distribuição de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. É fornecido o registro de A. fulica naturalmente infestada por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae no município de Guaratinguetá. Foi encontrada A. fulica portando larvas de Metastrongylidae sem importância médica e veterinária conhecida nos municípios de Carapicuíba, Embu Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo e Taboão da Serra.

  18. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  19. 75 FR 47631 - Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Currently Known as Lexington Road Properties, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,430] Douglas Battery... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Douglas... and industrial batteries. New information shows that in January 2010, Douglas Battery Manufacturing...

  20. Visual communication with non-literates: a review of current knowledge including research in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, M; Mukherjee, U

    1981-01-01

    In this article previous research on the perception of visual aids by non-literates in Kenya, Zambia, Ghana, Papua New Guinea, Mexico, as well as among immigrant groups in London and Paris, in Nepal and, by the authors in northern India, is reviewed. Recognition of pictures is affected by the particular culture of each group. In Africa, photos are better understood and liked: in the Indian subcontinent, line drawings are well recognized and appreciated. Recognition can be reduced by inaccurate detail, stylization and perspective. The authors found that overall size could be kept small if the pictures were simple. Complicated pictures, or a group of interrelated pictures, are not usually well recognized. Familiarity, realism and simplicity seem the most important components for a successful picture. Ways of attaching value ("good" or "bad", for example) have not in the past been very successful, but the authors found that a "vocabulary" of fourteen signs were, once explained, well understood. The values of colours in the culture must be understood and utilized. To be successful, visual materials for non-literates must start from the local culture and not come untested from behind a desk in the capital city.

  1. Electromagnetic Flow Meter Having a Driver Circuit Including a Current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, David M. (Inventor); Cushing, Vincent (Inventor); Patel, Sandeep K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) accurately measures both the complete flow rate and the dynamically fluctuating flow rate of a fluid by applying a unipolar DC voltage to excitation coils for a predetermined period of time, measuring the electric potential at a pair of electrodes, determining a complete flow rate and independently measuring the dynamic flow rate during the "on" cycle of the DC excitation, and correcting the measurements for errors resulting from galvanic drift and other effects on the electric potential. The EMFM can also correct for effects from the excitation circuit induced during operation of the EMFM.

  2. 75 FR 70688 - Actel Corporation, Currently Known as Microsemi Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., Accountants, Inc. and Accountant Temps Mountain View, CA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... on-site leased workers from ATR International, Accountants, Inc., and Accountant Temps, Mountain View... a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Microsemi Corporation. Accordingly...

  3. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, W.H.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. Electric current - frequency converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Kinbana, Setsuro.

    1967-01-01

    Herein disclosed is an improved simple electric current-frequency converter, the input current and output frequency linearity of which is widened to a range of four to five figures while compensating, for temperature. The converter may be used for computor processing and for telemetering the output signals from a nuclear reactor. The converter is an astable multivibrator which includes charging circuits comprising emitter-voltage compensated NPN transistors, a charged voltage detecting circuit of temperature compensated field effect transistors, and a transistor switching circuit for generating switching pulses independent of temperature. The converter exhibited a 0.7% frequency change within a range of 5 - 45 0 C and less than a 0.1% frequency drift after six hours of operation when the input current was maintained constant. (Yamaguchi, T.)

  5. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    OpenAIRE

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mai...

  6. Combined RF current drive and bootstrap current in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, S. D.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    By calculating radio frequency current drive (RFCD) and the bootstrap current in a consistent kinetic manner, we find synergistic effects in the total noninductive current density in tokamaks [1]. We include quasilinear diffusion in the Drift Kinetic Equation (DKE) in order to generalize neoclassical theory to highly non-Maxwellian electron distributions due to RFCD. The parallel plasma current is evaluated numerically with the help of the FASTEP Fokker-Planck code [2]. Current drive efficiency is found to be significantly affected by neoclassical effects, even in cases where only circulating electrons interact with the waves. Predictions of the current drive efficiency are made for lower hybrid and electron cyclotron wave current drive scenarios in the presence of bootstrap current

  7. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  8. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  9. Current issues in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, E F; Amsden, G W

    1998-02-01

    To review the epidemiology, mycology, clinical features and diagnosis, current pharmacotherapy, and pharmacoeconomics of onychomycosis. We conducted a MEDLINE search from 1966 to May 1997. References from these articles, manufacturers of the discussed antimycotics, and relevant abstracts from recent dermatology conferences were used to collect pertinent data. Data were obtained from published controlled studies and case reports. In the pharmacotherapy section, the most weight was placed on fully reported, randomized, controlled comparative trials, but abstracts and case series were included when well-controlled studies were unavailable. Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder that has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. It is most commonly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and molds can also be involved. Diagnosis is made through clinical presentation, potassium hydroxide preparations, and culture of tissue/nail samples. Griseofulvin was the drug of choice for many years, but its low cure rates and the development of newer, more effective drugs made it fall out of favor. Current therapeutic alternatives include fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Data on the use of fluconazole are limited to case series and reports. Continuous dosing of itraconazole and terbinafine are well-proven therapies. New data are becoming available on the use of pulse itraconazole dosing, which has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for fingernail infections. These drugs are well tolerated, but attention to drug interactions is necessary with the azoles. Currently, continuous terbinafine appears to be the most cost-effective drug for dermatophyte onychomycosis.

  10. Stability analysis of direct current control in current source rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Current source rectifier with high switching frequency has a great potential for improving the power efficiency and power density in ac-dc power conversion. This paper analyzes the stability of direct current control based on the time delay effect. Small signal model including dynamic behaviors...

  11. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  12. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  13. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  14. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Moehlmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  15. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  16. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  17. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  18. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental numerical comparisons are discussed briefly. Included are realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  19. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service; however, maintenance therapy itself is not covered as part of these services. (c) Occupational... increase respiratory function, such as graded activity services; these services include physiologic... rehabilitation plan of treatment, including physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, speech...

  20. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  1. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  2. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  3. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  4. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  5. Uterine sarcoma - current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Charlotte; Miah, Aisha B

    2017-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas comprise a group of rare tumors with differing tumor biology, natural history and response to treatment. Diagnosis is often made following surgery for presumed benign disease. Currently, preoperative imaging does not reliably distinguish between benign leiomyomas and other malignant pathology. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma, but other subtypes include endometrial stromal sarcoma (low grade and high grade), undifferentiated uterine sarcoma and adenosarcoma. Clinical trials have shown no definite survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy and have been hampered by the rarity and heterogeneity of these disease types. There is a role of adjuvant treatment in carefully selected cases following multidisciplinary discussion at sarcoma reference centers. In patients with metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy can then be considered. There is activity of a number of agents, including doxorubicin, trabectedin, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, eribulin and pazopanib. Patients should be considered for clinical trial entry where possible. Close international collaboration is important to allow progress in this group of diseases.

  6. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  7. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  8. Relationships between the Birkeland currents, ionospheric currents, and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuler, E.; Li, C.H.; Nisbet, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations are made of the currents and electric fields in the ionosphere by using a global model of the electron densities including conjugate coupling along field lines. Incoherent scatter and rocket measurements of high-latitude electron densities have been used to derive realistic variations of the polar conductivities as a function of magnetic activity. The Birkeland currents have been specified in terms of three indices, the total current into and out of the hemisphere, the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in the AM and PM sectors, R/sub ap/ , and R 12 , the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in region 1 and 2. The relationship between these parameters of the Birkeland current systems and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU is examined as well as the polar cap potential and the electric field at lower latitudes. The cusp currents have been modeled in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and calculations are given of their effect on electric field and current patterns. One aim of this study is to produce a mathematical model of the currents, electric fields and energy inputs produced by field aligned currents that is consistent with, and specifiable in terms of, measured geophysical indices

  9. Holographic heat current as Noether current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    We employ the Noether procedure to derive a general formula for the radially conserved heat current in AdS planar black holes with certain transverse and traceless perturbations, for a general class of gravity theories. For Einstein gravity, the general higher-order Lovelock gravities and also a class of Horndeski gravities, we derive the boundary stress tensor and show that the resulting boundary heat current matches precisely the bulk Noether current.

  10. Simulations of tokamak disruptions including self-consistent temperature evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of tokamaks have been carried out, including self-consistent temperature evolution with a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. The simulations extend over the transport time-scale and address the question of how disruptive current profiles arise at low-q or high-density operation. Sharply defined disruptive events are triggered by the m/n=2/1 resistive tearing mode, which is mainly affected by local current gradients near the q=2 surface. If the global current gradient between q=2 and q=1 is sufficiently steep, the m=2 mode starts a shock which accelerates towards the q=1 surface, leaving stochastic fields, a flattened temperature profile and turbulent plasma behind it. For slightly weaker global current gradients, a shock may form, but it will dissipate before reaching q=1 and may lead to repetitive minidisruptions which flatten the temperature profile in a region inside the q=2 surface. (author)

  11. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features and other pertinent data including area, lease, and block designations; water depths; route...) submitted for a pipeline right-of-way shall bear a signed certificate upon its face by the engineer who made... additional design precautions you took to enable the pipeline to withstand the effects of water currents...

  12. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  13. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  14. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  15. Current lead thermal analysis code 'CURRENT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahito; Tada, Eisuke; Shimamoto, Susumu; Hata, Kenichiro.

    1985-08-01

    Large gas-cooled current lead with the capacity more than 30 kA and 22 kV is required for superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils for fusion application. The current lead is used to carry electrical current from the power supply system at room temperature to the superconducting coil at 4 K. Accordingly, the thermal performance of the current lead is significantly important to determine the heat load requirements of the coil system at 4 K. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has being developed the large gas-cooled current leads with the optimum condition in which the heat load is around 1 W per 1 kA at 4 K. In order to design the current lead with the optimum thermal performances, JAERI developed thermal analysis code named as ''CURRENT'' which can theoretically calculate the optimum geometric shape and cooling conditions of the current lead. The basic equations and the instruction manual of the analysis code are described in this report. (author)

  16. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  17. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  18. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  19. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Zhang Qiujing; Liu Haiguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  20. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  1. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  2. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  4. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  5. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  6. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  7. Current algebra and differential geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Anton; Strobl, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We show that symmetries and gauge symmetries of a large class of 2-dimensional sigma models are described by a new type of a current algebra. The currents are labeled by pairs of a vector field and a 1-form on the target space of the sigma model. We compute the current-current commutator and analyse the anomaly cancellation condition, which can be interpreted geometrically in terms of Dirac structures, previously studied in the mathematical literature. Generalized complex structures correspond to decompositions of the current algebra into pairs of anomaly free subalgebras. Sigma models that we can treat with our method include both physical and topological examples, with and without Wess-Zumino type terms. (author)

  8. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... vehicular manslaughter, driving under the influence of drugs or liquor, and hit and run), when unaccompanied by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records...

  9. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  10. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  11. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  12. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  13. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine K. Movsisyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the socioeconomic variations in smoking and quitting rates across the European region; however, data from Central and East European countries, where the tobacco burden is especially high, are sparse. This study aimed to assess the patterns in current and past smoking prevalence based on cross-sectional data from a Central European urban population sample. Methods Data from 2160 respondents aged 25–64 years in Brno, Czech Republic were collected in 2013–2014 using the Czech post-MONICA survey questionnaire to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking status. The age- and sex-stratified randomized sample was drawn using health insurance registries. Descriptive statistics and quit ratios were calculated, and chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses conducted to examine relationships between current and past smoking and demographic (age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupation. Results The prevalence of current and past smoking was 23.6 and 31.3 % among men and 20.5 and 23.2 % among women, respectively. Education reliably predicted smoking and quitting rates in both genders. Among men, being unemployed was associated with greater odds of smoking (OR 3.6; 1.6–8.1 and lower likelihood of quitting (OR 0.2: 0.1–0.6; the likelihood of quitting also increased with age (OR 1.8; 1.2–2.8. Among women, marital status (being married decreased the odds of current smoking (OR 0.6; 0.4–0.9 and increased the odds of quitting (OR 2.2; 1.2–3.9. Quit ratios were the lowest in the youngest age group (25–34 years where quitting was more strongly associated with middle income (OR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2–5.9 than with higher education (OR 2.9; 95 % CI 0.9–8.2. Conclusions Interventions to increase cessation rates and reduce smoking prevalence need to be gender-specific and carefully tailored to the needs of the disadvantaged groups

  14. Distal radioulnar joint: functional anatomy, including pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, J R; Langer, M F; Berger, R A

    2017-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint allows the human to rotate the forearm to place the hand in a desired position to perform different tasks, without interfering with the grasping function of the hand. The ulna is the stable part of the forearm around which the radius rotates; the stability of the distal radioulnar joint is provided by the interaction between ligaments, muscles and bones. The stabilizing structures are the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the ulnocarpal ligament complex, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and tendon sheath, the pronator quadratus, the interosseous membrane and ligament, the bone itself and the joint capsule. The purpose of this review article is to present and illustrate the current understanding of the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of this joint.

  15. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Including product features in process redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    do not take into account how the product features are applied throughout the process, which makes it difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the activities in the processes and to generate significant improvements. The suggested approach models the product family using the so......This article suggests a visual modelling method for integrating models of product features with business process models for redesigning the business processes involving specifications of customer-tailored products and services. The current methods for redesigning these types of business processes......-called product variant master and the business process modelling notation for modelling the process flow. The product model is combined with the process map by identifying features used in each step of the process flow. Additionally, based on the information absorbed from the integrated model, the value stream...

  17. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  18. Current collectors for improved safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Allu, Srikanth; Dudney, Nancy J.; Li, Jianlin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Wang, Hsin

    2017-12-19

    A battery electrode assembly includes a current collector with conduction barrier regions having a conductive state in which electrical conductivity through the conduction barrier region is permitted, and a safety state in which electrical conductivity through the conduction barrier regions is reduced. The conduction barrier regions change from the conductive state to the safety state when the current collector receives a short-threatening event. An electrode material can be connected to the current collector. The conduction barrier regions can define electrical isolation subregions. A battery is also disclosed, and methods for making the electrode assembly, methods for making a battery, and methods for operating a battery.

  19. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  20. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  1. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, C.A.; Simnad, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement is described for nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux. The reactor shielding includes means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron

  2. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository

  3. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  4. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  5. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  6. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  7. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  8. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  9. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  10. Experiments with eddy currents: the eddy current brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I

    2004-01-01

    A moderate-cost experimental setup is presented to help students to understand some qualitative and quantitative aspects of eddy currents. The setup operates like an eddy current brake, a device commonly used in heavy vehicles to dissipate kinetic energy by generating eddy currents. A set of simple experiments is proposed to measure eddy current losses and to relate them to various relevant parameters. Typical results for each of the experiments are presented, and comparisons with theoretical predictions are included. The experiments, which are devoted to first-year undergraduate students, deal also with other pedagogically relevant topics in electricity and magnetism, such as basic laws, electrical measurement techniques, the sources of the magnetic field and others

  11. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  12. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  13. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  14. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  15. PLUTINO DETECTION BIASES, INCLUDING THE KOZAI RESONANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, S. M.; Gladman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of their relative proximity within the trans-Neptunian region, the plutinos (objects in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune) are numerous in flux-limited catalogs, and well-studied theoretically. We perform detailed modeling of the on-sky detection biases for plutinos, with special attention to those that are simultaneously in the Kozai resonance. In addition to the normal 3:2 resonant argument libration, Kozai plutinos also show periodic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination, coupled to the argument of perihelion (ω) oscillation. Due to the mean-motion resonance, plutinos avoid coming to pericenter near Neptune's current position in the ecliptic plane. Because Kozai plutinos are restricted to certain values of ω, perihelion always occurs out of the ecliptic plane, biasing ecliptic surveys against finding these objects. The observed Kozai plutino fraction f koz obs has been measured by several surveys, finding values between 8% and 25%, while the true Kozai plutino fraction f koz true has been predicted to be between 10% and 30% by different giant planet migration simulations. We show that f koz obs varies widely depending on the ecliptic latitude and longitude of the survey, so debiasing to find the true ratio is complex. Even a survey that covers most or all of the sky will detect an apparent Kozai fraction that is different from f koz true . We present a map of the on-sky plutino Kozai fraction that would be detected by all-sky flux-limited surveys. This will be especially important for the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope projects, which may detect large numbers of plutinos as they sweep the sky. f koz true and the distribution of the orbital elements of Kozai plutinos may be a diagnostic of giant planet migration; future migration simulations should provide details on their resonant Kozai populations.

  16. Two-fluid turbulence including electron inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Carlos; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    We present a full two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure, and electron inertia. According to this description, each plasma species introduces a new spatial scale: the ion inertial length λ{sub i} and the electron inertial length λ{sub e}, which are not present in the traditional MHD description. In the present paper, we seek for possible changes in the energy power spectrum in fully developed turbulent regimes, using numerical simulations of the two-fluid equations in two-and-a-half dimensions. We have been able to reproduce different scaling laws in different spectral ranges, as it has been observed in the solar wind for the magnetic energy spectrum. At the smallest wavenumbers where plain MHD is valid, we obtain an inertial range following a Kolmogorov k{sup −5∕3} law. For intermediate wavenumbers such that λ{sub i}{sup −1}≪k≪λ{sub e}{sup −1}, the spectrum is modified to a k{sup −7∕3} power-law, as has also been obtained for Hall-MHD neglecting electron inertia terms. When electron inertia is retained, a new spectral region given by k>λ{sub e}{sup −1} arises. The power spectrum for magnetic energy in this region is given by a k{sup −11∕3} power law. Finally, when the terms of electron inertia are retained, we study the self-consistent electric field. Our results are discussed and compared with those obtained in the solar wind observations and previous simulations.

  17. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-05-17

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  18. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  19. Superconformal current multiplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1982-12-01

    We consider a derivation of a superconformal current multiplet based directly on superconformal algebra. This gives usual multiplet of currents without anomalies, directly in terms of ''improved'' quantities and without reference to a particular Lagrangian model. (author)

  20. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  1. Currents on Grassmann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, R.; Ragoucy, E.

    1993-09-01

    Currents are defined on a Grassmann algebra Gr(N) with N generators as distributions on its exterior algebra (using the symmetric wedge product). The currents are interpreted in terms of Z 2 -graded Hochschild cohomology and closed currents in terms of cyclic cocycles (they are particular multilinear forms on Gr(N)). An explicit construction of the vector space of closed currents of degree p on Gr(N) is given by using Berezin integration. (authors). 10 refs

  2. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  3. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Allan, G L; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S J; Day, J P [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  4. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  5. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  6. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  8. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  9. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  10. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  11. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  12. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  13. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  14. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  15. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddinghaus, Rudolf [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: rboeddinghaus@perthradclinic.com.au; Whyte, Andy [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: awhyte@perthradclinic.com.au

    2008-06-15

    A review of state-of-the-art maxillofacial imaging is presented. Current imaging techniques include intra-oral radiographs, dental panoramic tomography, multidetector helical computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The commonest conditions encountered in clinical radiological practice are reviewed, including maxillofacial deformities, complicated dental impactions, maxillofacial trauma, jaw lesions (cysts, neoplasms, fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) and infections), and temporomandibular joint pathology. Pre-operative assessment for dental implant placement is also briefly reviewed.

  16. PLUTINO DETECTION BIASES, INCLUDING THE KOZAI RESONANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, S. M.; Gladman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Because of their relative proximity within the trans-Neptunian region, the plutinos (objects in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune) are numerous in flux-limited catalogs, and well-studied theoretically. We perform detailed modeling of the on-sky detection biases for plutinos, with special attention to those that are simultaneously in the Kozai resonance. In addition to the normal 3:2 resonant argument libration, Kozai plutinos also show periodic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination, coupled to the argument of perihelion ({omega}) oscillation. Due to the mean-motion resonance, plutinos avoid coming to pericenter near Neptune's current position in the ecliptic plane. Because Kozai plutinos are restricted to certain values of {omega}, perihelion always occurs out of the ecliptic plane, biasing ecliptic surveys against finding these objects. The observed Kozai plutino fraction f{sub koz}{sup obs} has been measured by several surveys, finding values between 8% and 25%, while the true Kozai plutino fraction f{sub koz}{sup true} has been predicted to be between 10% and 30% by different giant planet migration simulations. We show that f{sub koz}{sup obs} varies widely depending on the ecliptic latitude and longitude of the survey, so debiasing to find the true ratio is complex. Even a survey that covers most or all of the sky will detect an apparent Kozai fraction that is different from f{sub koz}{sup true}. We present a map of the on-sky plutino Kozai fraction that would be detected by all-sky flux-limited surveys. This will be especially important for the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope projects, which may detect large numbers of plutinos as they sweep the sky. f{sub koz}{sup true} and the distribution of the orbital elements of Kozai plutinos may be a diagnostic of giant planet migration; future migration simulations should provide details on their resonant Kozai populations.

  17. X-ray tube current control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, W.A.; Resnick, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop feedback system for controlling the current output of an x-ray tube. The system has circuitry for improving the transient response and stability of the x-ray tube current over a substantial nonlinear portion of the tube current production characteristic. The system includes a reference generator for applying adjustable step function reference signals representing desired tube currents. The system also includes means for instantaneous sensing of actual tube current. An error detector compares the value of actual and reference tube current and produces an error signal as a function of their difference. The system feedback loop includes amplification circuitry for controlling x-ray tube filament dc voltage to regulate tube current as a function of the error signal value. The system also includes compensation circuitry, between the reference generator and the amplification circuitry, to vary the loop gain of the feedback control system as a function of the reference magnitude

  18. Remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M.

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included

  19. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  20. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  1. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-08-01

    In this review of baryon spectroscopy, the basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental data for their claims to success are discussed including realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  2. Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.

  3. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  4. Langevin simulations of QCD, including fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, A.S.

    1986-02-01

    We encounter critical slow down in updating when xi/a -> infinite and in matrix inversion (needed to include fermions) when msub(q)a -> 0. A simulation that purports to solve QCD numerically will encounter these limits, so to face the challenge in the title of this workshop, we must cure the disease of critical slow down. Physically, this critical slow down is due to the reluctance of changes at short distances to propagate to large distances. Numerically, the stability of an algorithm at short wavelengths requires a (moderately) small step size; critical slow down occurs when the effective long wavelength step size becomes tiny. The remedy for this disease is an algorithm that propagates signals quickly throughout the system; i.e. one whose effective step size is not reduced for the long wavelength conponents of the fields. (Here the effective ''step size'' is essentially an inverse decorrelation time.) To do so one must resolve various wavelengths of the system and modify the dynamics (in CPU time) of the simulation so that all modes evolve at roughly the same rate. This can be achieved by introducing Fourier transforms. I show how to implement Fourier acceleration for Langevin updating and for conjugate gradient matrix inversion. The crucial feature of these algorithms that lends them to Fourier acceleration is that they update the lattice globally; hence the Fourier transforms are computed once per sweep rather than once per hit. (orig./HSI)

  5. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...... the review we focus on the physics behind the various approximations, and some simple examples are given to illustrate the theoretical concepts. We also comment on the experimental situation. ©2005 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  7. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  8. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  9. TAFRO syndrome: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Kentaro; Murata, Kengo; Takamori, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), a distinct subtype of Castleman's disease, is a rare, nonneoplastic, lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients with MCD present with systemic symptoms and multiple lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of various histological MCD patterns including hyaline vascular, plasma cell, and mixed types. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection was identified as an important etiology of MCD among immunocompromised patients such as those positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Although HHV8-negative MCD was reported in immunocompetent patients, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Several experts speculate that MCD in immunocompetent patients might be due to proinflammatory hypercytokinemia because of infection by a virus other than HHV8, inflammation, or neoplastic disease. In 2010, a distinct variant of HHV8-negative MCD reported in Japan was characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO). Recent case reports and a systematic review suggest that TAFRO syndrome might have a unique pathogenesis among HHV8-negative MCD variants. This review introduces TAFRO syndrome as a subtype of HHV8-negative MCD and offers an overview of the current perspectives on this syndrome.

  10. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  11. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  12. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  13. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  14. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  15. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  16. Purely leptonic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, M.

    1976-01-01

    In most gauge theories weak neutral currents appear as a natural consequence of the models, but the specific properties are not predicted in a general way. In purely leptonic interactions the structure of these currents can be tested without making assumptions about the weak couplings of the hadrons. The influence of neutral currents appearing in the process e + e - → μ + μ - can be measured using the polarization of the outgoing myons. (BJ) [de

  17. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  18. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  19. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  20. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  1. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  3. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  4. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  5. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  6. Turbidity Current Bedforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, G.

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity currents in the submarine seascape are what river flows are in terrestrial landscapes. While rivers transport sediment from the mountains through valleys towards the sea, turbidity currents transport sediment from the shallow marine realms through canyons towards the deeper abyssal plains.

  7. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  8. Reducing leakage current in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2018-03-06

    A semiconductor device includes a first region having a first semiconductor material and a second region having a second semiconductor material. The second region is formed over the first region. The semiconductor device also includes a current blocking structure formed in the first region between first and second terminals of the semiconductor device. The current blocking structure is configured to reduce current flow in the first region between the first and second terminals.

  9. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    . One would hardly find a standards laboratory today without an instrument employing a current comparator. The NRC program, now nearing the end of its third decade, has resulted in a large number of papers in technical journals. The fact that the results of the current-comparator program are now documented in a well-written book is a most welcome development. The material in the book is well organized and divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 deals very briefly with the historical aspects of the development, including related work in other organizations. Chapter 2 is the longest, occupying one third of the book. It presents the background theory; the definitions and origins of the errors; and the related concepts and devices including two-stage current transformers, electronic methods for improving the performance of current transformers, and null detectors. The idea of the current comparator is developed starting from Ampere's law; and then progressing to the practical realization of measuring the line integral of the magnetic field surrounding an electric current. Such an approach, as opposed to the more common methods of analyzing transformers, has a tutorial value in explaining how the current balance is achieved. Such analysis is intuitive for air-core sensing coils with infinitesimal cross-sections and uniform winding densities. The intuitive understanding, however, becomes less obvious when high-permeability magnetic cores are used. The subject of errors is discussed thoroughly. For errors of magnetic origin, ample experimental data are provided to support the hypothesis for the cause of such errors. The cause is discussed in a macroscopic sense (non-uniform effective permeability along the torus) without going into design and processing details which could be responsible for the non-uniformities. For capacitive errors, equations have been developed to compute them from geometrical considerations. Techniques are presented to reduce both types of errors shielding

  11. Fluctuation current in superconducting loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A superconducting loop that encloses noninteger flux holds a permanent current. On the average, this current is also present above T c , and has been measured in recent years. We are able to evaluate the permanent current within the TDGL or the Kramer-Watts-Tobin models for loops of general configuration, i.e., we don't require uniform cross section, material or temperature. We can also consider situations in which the width is not negligible in comparison to the radius. Our results agree with experiments. The situations with which we deal at present include fluctuation superconductivity in two-band superconductors, equilibrium thermal fluctuations of supercurrent along a weak link, and ratchet effects.

  12. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  13. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  14. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  15. Nonlinear equilibrium in Tokamaks including convective terms and viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J.

    2003-01-01

    MHD equilibrium in tokamaks becomes very complex, when the non-linear convective term and viscosity are included in the momentum equation. In order to simplify the analysis, each new term has been separated in type gradient terms and vorticity depending terms. For the special case in which the vorticity vanishes, an extended Grad-Shafranov type equation can be obtained. However now the magnetic surface is not isobars or current surfaces as in the usual Grad-Shafranov treatment. The non-linear convective terms introduces gradient of Bernoulli type kinetic terms . Montgomery and other authors have shown the importance of the viscosity terms in tokamaks [1,2], here the treatment is carried out for the equilibrium condition, including generalized tokamaks coordinates recently described [3], which simplify the equilibrium analysis. Calculation of the new isobar surfaces is difficult and some computation have been carried out elsewhere for some particular cases [3]. Here, our analysis is extended discussing how the toroidal current density, plasma pressure and toroidal field are modified across the midplane because of the new terms (convective and viscous). New calculations and computations are also presented. (Author)

  16. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  17. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  19. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  20. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  1. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  2. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  3. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  4. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  5. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Young Kil

    2004-02-01

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  6. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  7. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  8. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  9. Superconducting current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  11. Direct current contamination of kilohertz frequency alternating current waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-07-30

    Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms are being evaluated in a variety of physiological settings because of their potential to modulate neural activity uniquely when compared to frequencies in the sub-kilohertz range. However, the use of waveforms in this frequency range presents some unique challenges regarding the generator output. In this study we explored the possibility of undesirable contamination of the KHFAC waveforms by direct current (DC). We evaluated current- and voltage-controlled KHFAC waveform generators in configurations that included a capacitive coupling between generator and electrode, a resistive coupling and combinations of capacitive with inductive coupling. Our results demonstrate that both voltage- and current-controlled signal generators can unintentionally add DC-contamination to a KHFAC signal, and that capacitive coupling is not always sufficient to eliminate this contamination. We furthermore demonstrated that high value inductors, placed in parallel with the electrode, can be effective in eliminating DC-contamination irrespective of the type of stimulator, reducing the DC contamination to less than 1 μA. This study highlights the importance of carefully designing the electronic setup used in KHFAC studies and suggests specific testing that should be performed and reported in all studies that assess the neural response to KHFAC waveforms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  13. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  14. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  15. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  16. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  17. Current algebra for parafields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, Ch.D.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of the Lagrangean QFT a generalization of canonical commutation and anticommutation relations in terms of three-linear commutation relations, corresponding to the parastatistics, s discussed. A detailed derivation of these three-linear relations for a set of parafermi fields is presented. Then for a Lagrangean, depending of a family of parabose fields and a family of paraferm fields, is shown that the fundamental hypothesis of current algebra is valid. In other words, the currents corresponding to the linear gauge transformations are found to meet the commutation relation: [Jsub(f)sup(0)(x), Jsub(g)sup(0)]sub(x 0 =y 0 ) = -idelta(x vector - y vector)Jsub([f,g])sup(0) (x), where Jsub(f)sup(0) is a time component of the current, corresponding to transformation f. (S.P.)

  18. 75 FR 45159 - Delphi Steering Currently Known as Nexteer Automotive Including On-Site Leased Workers From Acro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ..., Manpower, Inc., Rapid Global Business Solutions, Inc., TAC Worldwide, Trialon Corp., Trison Business... Services, Manpower, Inc., Rapid Global Business Solutions, Inc., TAC Worldwide, Trialon Corp., Trison...., Rapid Global Business Solutions, Inc., TAC Worldwide, Trialon Corp., Trison Business Solutions, Wright K...

  19. Modelling of a linear PM machine including magnetic saturation and end effects : maximum force to current ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.; Compter, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of their high force density, robustness and accuracy. These linear PM motors are often heavily loaded during short intervals of high acceleration, so that magnetic saturation occurs. This paper

  20. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  1. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  2. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  3. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  4. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  5. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  6. Magnetic Field of Conductive Objects as Superposition of Elementary Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. Ya.; Zav'yalova, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper represents induced currents in an electrically conductive object as a totality of elementary eddy currents. The proposed scanning method includes measurements of only one component of the secondary magnetic field. Reconstruction of the current distribution is performed by deconvolution with regularization. Numerical modeling supported by the field experiments show that this approach is of direct practical relevance.

  7. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  8. Current concepts of severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundhal, Mahesh; Oriss, Timothy B.; Ray, Prabir; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The term asthma encompasses a disease spectrum with mild to very severe disease phenotypes whose traditional common characteristic is reversible airflow limitation. Unlike milder disease, severe asthma is poorly controlled by the current standard of care. Ongoing studies using advanced molecular and immunological tools along with improved clinical classification show that severe asthma does not identify a specific patient phenotype, but rather includes patients with constant medical needs, whose pathobiologic and clinical characteristics vary widely. Accordingly, in recent clinical trials, therapies guided by specific patient characteristics have had better outcomes than previous therapies directed to any subject with a diagnosis of severe asthma. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the full scope of this disease that hinder the development of effective treatments for all severe asthmatics. In this Review, we discuss our current state of knowledge regarding severe asthma, highlighting different molecular and immunological pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic development. PMID:27367183

  9. Safety analysis - current and future regulatory challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, T., E-mail: Terry.Jamieson@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    'Full text:' The current and future regulatory challenges associated with deterministic safety analysis are reviewed, including: 1. The CNSC's and safety control areas. 2. Traditional safety analysis approach. 3. Experience gained and impact. 4. Current analysis and regulatory approaches. 5. Current status. 6. Complexity and challenges In particular, the technical, regulatory and strategic aspects of these challenges are discussed. (author)

  10. Safety analysis - current and future regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, T.

    2015-01-01

    'Full text:' The current and future regulatory challenges associated with deterministic safety analysis are reviewed, including: 1. The CNSC's and safety control areas. 2. Traditional safety analysis approach. 3. Experience gained and impact. 4. Current analysis and regulatory approaches. 5. Current status. 6. Complexity and challenges In particular, the technical, regulatory and strategic aspects of these challenges are discussed. (author)

  11. Fault current limiter with shield and adjacent cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony; Moriconi, Franco; Hodge, Eoin Patrick

    2013-10-22

    In a fault current limiter (FCL) of a saturated core type having at least one coil wound around a high permeability material, a method of suppressing the time derivative of the fault current at the zero current point includes the following step: utilizing an electromagnetic screen or shield around the AC coil to suppress the time derivative current levels during zero current conditions.

  12. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  13. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Praveen

    2015-06-16

    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  14. Current and Future Flight Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current real time operating system (RTOS) type in use with current flight systems. A new RTOS model is described, i.e. the process model. Included is a review of the challenges of migrating from the classic RTOS to the Process Model type.

  15. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jampsin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  16. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  17. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  18. Current driven wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournes, C.; Aucouturier, J.; Arnaud, B.; Brasile, J. P.; Convert, G.; Simon, M.

    1992-07-01

    A current-driven wiggler is the cornerstone of an innovative, compact, high-efficiency, transportable tunable free-electron laser (FEL), the feasibility of which is currently being evaluated by Thomson-CSF. The salient advantages are: compactness of the FEL, along with the possibility to accelerate the beam through several successive passes through the accelerating section (the number of passes being defined by the final wavelength of the radiation; i.e. visible, MWIR, LWIR); the wiggler can be turned off and be transparent to the beam until the last pass. Wiggler periodicities as small as 5 mm can be achieved, hence contributing to FEL compactness. To achieve overall efficiencies in the range of 10% at visible wavelengths, not only the wiggler periodicity must be variable, but the strength of the magnetic field of each period can be adjusted separately and fine-tuned versus time during the macropulse, so as to take into account the growing contribution of the wave energy in the cavity to the total ponderomotive force. The salient theoretical point of this design is the optimization of the parameters defining each period of the wiggler for each micropacket of the macropulse. The salient technology point is the mechanical and thermal design of the wiggler which allows the required high currents to achieve magnetic fields up to 2T.

  19. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  20. Dark currents for CEBAF linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunn, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Continuing on our numerical study of field emitted electrons from a superconducting CEBAF cavity we have identified all possible emission sites, magnitudes, and the energy profile of dark currents expected at CEBAF under nominal operating conditions. We find that most electrons do not survive beyond a single cryomodule which includes eight 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, some electrons can be accelerated through many cryomodules, ending up with an energy close to 100 MeV. However, no field emitted electrons can be recirculated along with an electron beam generated at the gun, due to the limited energy acceptance of CEBAF recirculation arcs. 4 refs., 4 figs