Sample records for include crustal deformation

  1. PIXEL: Japanese InSAR community for crustal deformation research (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Shimada, M.; Ozawa, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Miyagi, Y.; Kitagawa, S.


    In anticipation of the launch of ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) by JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), and in order to expand and bolster the InSAR community for crustal deformation research in Japan, a couple of scientists established a consortium, PIXEL, in November 2005 in a completely bottom-up fashion. PIXEL stands for Palsar Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land. Formally, it is a research contract between JAXA and Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo. As ERI is a shared institute of the Japanese universities and research institutes, every scientist at all Japanese universities and institutes can participate in this consortium. The activity of PIXEL includes information exchange by mailing list, tutorial workshop for InSAR software, research workshop, and PALSAR data sharing. After the launch of ALOS, we have already witnessed several earthquakes and volcanic activities using PALSAR interferometry. We will briefly show and digest some of those observation results.

  2. Magma Intrusion, Deformation: the Importance of Crustal Layering. (United States)

    Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.


    The Campi Flegrei caldera (CF) is a volcano-tectonic depression, between Naples and the volcanic islands of Ischia and Procida, and is a highly populated area (about 400000 people). Since the last eruption (Monte Nuovo, 1538 A.D.) the CF caldera suffered notable unrest episodes, including large ground deformations, seismic swarms and increases in the degassing activity. The caldera had been continuously subsiding (at about 1.5 cm per year) from 1538 till 1969. A substantial ground uplift, more than 1 m of deformation, occurred in the period 1969-1972 and, after a small subsidence of about 30 cm after 1972, a very strong uplift occurred in the period 1982-1984 (about 1.8 m), with subsequent partial recovery. Superposed on the still continuing subsidence are some short uplift phases (mini-uplifts during 1989, 1994, 2000, 2004-2006); ground level remains about 2.5 m above pre-1970 levels at the town of Pozzuoli. Early papers on the 1982-1984 CF unrest usually invoked magmatic intrusion to explain observed ground deformation and gravity changes. Later papers invoked fluid intrusions or hybrid sources (including both magmatic and hydrothermal components). Some authors suggested the key role of freely slipping ring faults on the deformation pattern. We show that crustal layering plays a key role in deformation (horizontal and vertical displacement) pattern as well as gravity changes. Using a layered model appropriate for the CF caldera (based on seismically derived estimates of the P wave speed for the crust) we are able to better fit all deformation (horizontal and vertical displacement) and gravity data for the 1982-1984 large uplift with a horizontal crack source intruded by silicate melts. The same source is shared by the most recent (2004-2006) mini-uplift. In the case of the 1982-1984 large uplift, we also investigate whether the presence of a deeper deflating supply reservoir (as suggested for Uzu volcano in Japan) is required by the data.

  3. Regional Crustal Deformation and Lithosphere Thickness Observed with Geodetic Techniques (United States)

    Vermeer, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kollo, K.; Koivula, H.; Ahola, J.


    The solid Earth, including the lithosphere, interacts in many ways with other components of the Earth system, oceans, atmosphere and climate. Geodesy is a key provider of data needed for global and environmental research. Geodesy provides methods and accurate measurements of contemporary deformation, sea level and gravity change. The importance of the decades-long stability and availability of reference frames must be stressed for such studies. In the future, the need to accurately monitor 3-D crustal motions will grow, both together with increasingly precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning, demands for better follow-up of global change, and local needs for crustal motions, especially in coastal areas. These demands cannot yet be satisfied. The project described here is a part of a larger entity: Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas, DynaQlim, an International Lithosphere Project (ILP) -sponsored initiative. The aims of DynaQlim are to understand the relations between upper mantle dynamics, mantle composition, physical properties, temperature and rheology, to study the postglacial uplift and ice thickness models, sea level change and isostatic response, Quaternary climate variations and Weichselian (Laurentian and other) glaciations during the late Quaternary. We aim at studying various aspects of lithospheric motion within the Finnish and Fennoscandian area, but within a global perspective, by the newest geodetic techniques in a multidisciplinary setting. The studies involve observations of three-dimensional motions and gravity change in a multidisciplinary context on a range of spatial scales: the whole of Fennoscandia, Finland, a regional test area of Satakunta, and the local test site Olkiluoto. Objectives of the research include improving our insight into the 3-D motion of a thick lithosphere, and into the gravity effect of the uplift, using novel approaches; improving the kinematic 3-D models in the

  4. Seafloor Crustal Deformation Close to the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuda, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Ando, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.


    \\ \\ \\ The Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. Major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, repeatedly occur with intervals of 100-150 years at the Nankai Trough. The last large earthquakes occurred in 1944 and 1946. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of next major earthquakes are 80- 90 %. It is necessary to monitor crustal deformation above the source regions for the sake of earthquake prediction and disaster prevention. The source regions of the earthquakes are located beneath the sea bottom, to the south of the Japan Islands. \\ \\ \\ One of the useful tools to monitor seafloor crustal deformation is the observation system composed of the acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. We have installed seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Nankai Trough region. We repeatedly observed at the two sites from 2004. The result of the repeated observation shows that the repeatability of the measurement is +/- 2-3 cm for the horizontal components. Also we detect crustal deformation related to plate convergence using our system. The velocity vectors derived from our repeated observation are (7.0 cm/yr, N78W) and (5.2 cm/yr, N87W), which is consistent to the on-land continuous observations. \\ \\ \\ This study is promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captains and crews of Research Vessels, "Asama"and "Hokuto."

  5. Crustal deformation caused by magma migration in the northern Izu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Murakami, Makoto; Sagiya, Takeshi; Tada, Takashi; Kaidzu, Masaru; Ukawa, Motoo

    Intense crustal activity including earthquake swarms, eruptions, and a caldera formation in the northern Izu Islands started on June 26, 2000, accompanied with large crustal deformation. Permanent GPS data reveals the spatial pattern and time evolution of ground deformation. The observations reveal shrinking and subsidence of Miyakejima and extension between Kouzushima and Niijima. We constructed a source model to explain the observed displacements during the period between June 26 and the end of August. The model consists of a deflation source (0.12km³) beneath Miyakejima, tensile faults (1.04km³) located between Miyakejima and Kouzushima, and several shear faults. Mass balance considerations suggest that a large amount of magma migrated 30km from Miyakejima toward Kouzushima.

  6. Application of SAR interferometry to low-rate crustal deformation fields (United States)

    Vincent, Paul

    Differential SAR interferometry is applied to the study of low-rate interseismic crustal deformation fields along three regions of the San Adreas fault system: Salton Sea (southernmost region), Pinto Mountain fault (south-central region), and San Francisco Bay (northern region). New techniques are developed to analyze and model these low-rate deformation fields including constrained horizontal-vertical component deconvolution, deformation phase pattern analysis and strain field evolution modeling. Several new active faults were discovered as well as unmeasured activity on existing faults in the process of this SAR interferometry study. The feasibility and limitations of InSAR as a tool to study low-rate deformation fields is also addressed.

  7. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.


    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  8. Seasonal Mass Changes and Crustal Vertical Deformations Constrained by GPS and GRACE in Northeastern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Pan


    Full Text Available Surface vertical deformation includes the Earth’s elastic response to mass loading on or near the surface. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS stations record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. We used 41 CGPS stations to construct a time series of coordinate changes, which are decomposed by empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs, in northeastern Tibet. The first common mode shows clear seasonal changes, indicating seasonal surface mass re-distribution around northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived result is then assessed in terms of the mass changes observed in northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived common mode vertical change and the stacked Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass change are consistent, suggesting that the seasonal surface mass variation is caused by changes in the hydrological, atmospheric and non-tidal ocean loads. The annual peak-to-peak surface mass changes derived from GPS and GRACE results show seasonal oscillations in mass loads, and the corresponding amplitudes are between 3 and 35 mm/year. There is an apparent gradually increasing gravity between 0.1 and 0.9 μGal/year in northeast Tibet. Crustal vertical deformation is determined after eliminating the surface load effects from GRACE, without considering Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA contribution. It reveals crustal uplift around northeastern Tibet from the corrected GPS vertical velocity. The unusual uplift of the Longmen Shan fault indicates tectonically sophisticated processes in northeastern Tibet.

  9. Seismic evidence for widespread western-US deep-crustal deformation caused by extension (United States)

    Moschetti, M.P.; Ritzwoller, M.H.; Lin, F.; Yang, Y.


    Laboratory experiments have established that many of the materials comprising the Earth are strongly anisotropic in terms of seismic-wave speeds. Observations of azimuthal and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle are attributed to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine caused by the shear strains associated with deformation, and provide some of the most direct evidence for deformation and flow within the Earths interior. Although observations of crustal radial anisotropy would improve our understanding of crustal deformation and flow patterns resulting from tectonic processes, large-scale observations have been limited to regions of particularly thick crust. Here we show that observations from ambient noise tomography in the western United States reveal strong deep (middle to lower)-crustal radial anisotropy that is confined mainly to the geological provinces that have undergone significant extension during the Cenozoic Era (since 65 Myr ago). The coincidence of crustal radial anisotropy with the extensional provinces of the western United States suggests that the radial anisotropy results from the lattice-preferred orientation of anisotropic crustal minerals caused by extensional deformation. These observations also provide support for the hypothesis that the deep crust within these regions has undergone widespread and relatively uniform strain in response to crustal thinning and extension. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated Observation of Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Margin, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Ando, M.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Aizawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Yasuda, J.; Muto, D.; Kuno, M.


    The Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries where the major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, repeatedly occur. The source regions of the earthquakes are located beneath the see bottom, and it is necessary to monitor the crustal activities, such as seismicity and crustal deformation, for the sake of earthquake prediction and disaster prevention. One of the useful tools to monitor seafloor crustal deformation is the observation system composed of the acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. We install seafloor benchmark composed of three sea bottom transponders for acoustic ranging. We have installed the seafloor benchmarks at three sites close to the Nankai Trough. We repeatedly observed at the two sites among them ten and six times from 2004. The result of the repeated observation shows that the repeatability of the measurement is +/-3 cm for each horizontal component. The coseismic crustal deformation due to M7 class earthquakes was also detected at the sea bottom benchmark. Our next target is continuous monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation associated with plate convergence. This study is promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captain and crews of Research Vessel, Asama, of Mie Prefectural Science and Technology Promotion Center, Japan.

  11. An experimental study of physical property changes in crustal rocks undergoing triaxial deformation


    Ayling, Mark Raymond


    A laboratory investigation has been undertaken to examine changes in a number of physical parameters of deforming brittle rocks. The experiments were carried out in a pressure-balanced. gas-medium triaxial cell. which is capable of simulating lower crustal conditions. During sample deformation. contemporaneous measurements were made of differential stress, axial strain, compressional wave velocity (Vp), shear wave velocity (Vs) and received elastic waveforms, which were stored for later...

  12. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürpinar, Aybars; Serva, Leonello; Livio, Franz; Rizzo, Paul C.


    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  13. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürpinar, Aybars, E-mail: [Nuclear & Risk Consultancy, Anisgasse 4, 1221 Vienna (Austria); Serva, Leonello, E-mail: [Independent Consultant, Via dei Dauni 1, 00185 Rome (Italy); Livio, Franz, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Velleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Rizzo, Paul C., E-mail: [RIZZO Associates, 500 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)


    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  14. Central and eastern Anatolian crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data (United States)

    Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.


    We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of Turkey. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of Turkey which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto fault, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı fault junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of Turkey is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part Turkey, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of Turkey. This

  15. Mechanism of crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region, southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling (United States)

    Li, Yujiang; Liu, Shaofeng; Chen, Lianwang; Du, Yi; Li, Hong; Liu, Dongying


    The characteristics of crustal deformation and its dynamical mechanisms in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are of interest to many researchers because they can help explain the deformation pattern of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we employ a precise three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model to simulate the crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We investigate the influence of lower crustal flow and rheological variations by comparing the modeled results with GPS observations. The results demonstrate that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Additionally, crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation. When the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa·s, respectively, the modeled results match observations well, especially for the magnitude of crustal motion within the South China block. Finally, our dynamic model shows that the maximum principal stress field of the Sichuan-Yunnan region exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  16. Crustal deformation of Iwojima volcano in Japan detected by SAR interferometry (United States)

    Yarai, H.; Ozawa, T.; Murakami, M.; Tobita, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Fujiwara, S.


    Iwojima volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. Large-scale crustal deformation is ongoing in the island. It is suggested that the island was uplifted about 40m during the recent 200 years (Kaizuka et al., 1985). The crustal deformations are believed to be of volcanic origin and are outstanding in terms of the magnitude and the complexity. It is important to understand the 3-dimensional evolution of the deformation field with time to understand the behavior of the volcanic sources. Although there are 2 permanent GPS sites in the island, they are not sufficient to monitor the extremely complex spatial and temporal patterns of the deformation. We here use JERS-1 SAR data to map the detailed surface displacement field associated with volcanic activity of the island. We processed up to 20 different pairs spanning 1992 to 1998. It is revealed that the rate of surface deformation was not constant but episodic. We also find that the displacements seem to consist of three different subsets of deformation pattern; i.e., Motoyama (north east of Iwojima), Chidorigahara (near an old crater), and Suribachi-yama mountain (south of Iwojima). The spatial pattern of the first subset is simpler than the others and explainable as an inflation and deflation of a spherical point-source. Source depth inferred from the pattern is smaller than 2 km. However, the rate of volume change is not constant and sometimes even changes the polarity, which suggests the complexity of the volcanic source structure and mechanism.

  17. Seismic anisotropy in central North Anatolian Fault Zone and its implications on crustal deformation (United States)

    Licciardi, A.; Eken, T.; Taymaz, T.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, S.


    We investigate the crustal seismic structure and anisotropy around the central portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, a major plate boundary, using receiver function analysis. The characterization of crustal seismic anisotropy plays a key role in our understanding of present and past deformation processes at plate boundaries. The development of seismic anisotropy in the crust arises from the response of the rocks to complicated deformation regimes induced by plate interaction. Through the analysis of azimuthally-varying signals of teleseismic receiver functions, we map the anisotropic properties of the crust as a function of depth, by employing the harmonic decomposition technique. Although the Moho is located at a depth of about 40 km, with no major offset across the area, our results show a clear asymmetric distribution of crustal properties between the northern and southern blocks, divided by the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Heterogeneous and strongly anisotropic crust is present in the southern block, where complex intra-crustal signals are the results of strong deformation. In the north, a simpler and weakly anisotropic crust is typically observed. The strongest anisotropic signal is located in the first 15 km of the crust and is widespread in the southern block. Stations located on top of the main active faults in the area indicate the highest amplitudes, together with fault-parallel strikes of the fast plane of anisotropy. We interpret the origin of this signal as due to structure-induced anisotropy, and roughly determine its depth extent up to 15-20 km for these stations. Away from the faults, we suggest the contribution of previously documented uplifted basement blocks to explain the observed anisotropy at upper and middle crustal depths. Finally, we interpret coherent NE-SW orientations below the Moho as a result of frozen-in anisotropy in the upper mantle, as suggested by previous studies.

  18. A Geodynamic Study of Active Crustal Deformation and Earthquakes in North China (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, M.


    North China is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, yet today it is a region of intense crustal deformation and earthquakes, including 21 M >=7.0 events since 512 AD. More than half of the large events occurred within the Fen-Wei rift system surrounding the stable Ordos plateau; the largest events (M >=7.3) show a sequential southward migration along the rift. However, since 1695 the Fen-Wei rift has became seismically dormant, while seismicity seems having shifted eastward to the North China plain, marked by the 1996 Tangshan earthquake (M=7.8). We have developed a 3D viscoelastic geodynamic model to study the cause of seismicity and its spatial-temporal pattern in North China. Constrained by crustal kinematics from GPS and neotectonic data, the model shows high deviatoric stress in the North China crust, resulting mainly from compression of the expanding Tibetan Plateau and resistance from the stable Siberian block. Within North China seismicity is largely controlled by lateral heterogeneity of lithospheric structures, which explains the concentration of seismicity in the Fen-Wei rift. Our results show that stress triggering may have contributed to the sequential migration of large events along the rift, and the release and migration of stress and strain energy from these large events may partially explain the intense seismicity in the North China plain in the past 300 years. Comparing the predicted long-term spatial pattern of strain energy with seismic energy release provides some insights of potential earthquake risks in North China.

  19. Monitoring of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Eto, S.; Yasuda, K.; Sakata, T.; Sayanagi, K.


    \\ \\ \\ The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, causing major subduction earthquakes. The subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government [2011] estimates the 30-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes at 60-70 %. It is necessary to monitor crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes. The source regions are located beneath the seafloor, and we developed a system for monitoring seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. The system is composed of the precise acoustic ranging with ultrasonic waves and kinematic GPS positioning techniques. \\ \\ \\ We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at five sites altogether along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, three in the Kumano region and two in the Suruga region, with the use of this system. We have repeatedly measured the coordinate of seafloor benchmark installed beforehand every about 2-3 months on the average. The monitoring results, the horizontal site velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate, as of 2010 are approximately 3-4 cm/yr in the direction of N70W at the three sites in the Kumano region, and approximately 2-4 cm/yr in the direction of N85-100W at the two sites in the Suruga region. The observed horizontal seafloor crustal deformations are consistent to the plate convergence along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, showing strain accumulation before the next major subduction earthquakes. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the captain and crews of R/Vs "Hokuto," Tokai University and "Asama," Mie Prefecture Fisheries Research Institute, Japan. This study has been promoted by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japanese Government.

  20. Locally distributed crustal deformation in potential areas of phreatic eruptions, detected by InSAR analyses (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu


    Phreatic eruptions may be related to transient pressure changes in subsurface regions of hydrothermal systems attributing a heating of shallow aquifers from magma. It means that crustal deformation presumably proceeds with the pressure increase under the ground, which can be a kind of precursor if it would be detected. One of the most difficult points is that as the eruption size becomes smaller, the precursor signal should be more local, suggesting that it is rather hard to identify the anomaly using conventional ground-based observation tools. To mitigate disaster on phreatic eruptions, an effective proactive monitoring method is desired. One of the tools to overcome the drawbacks is SAR observation. I here report several observation results in which locally distributed crustal deformation has been detected in geothermal areas where phreatic eruptions has occurred recently or historically. One of the most important studies is the case of Mt. Hakone where the crustal deformation has been successfully detected two months before small phreatic eruptions. Mt. Hakone holds an active geothermal area, called Owaku-dani, with active fumaroles although no eruption has been known since 12-13 centuries. However, the anomalous activity such as an increase of seismicity started in the end of April, 2015. With this anomalous activity, SAR (ALOS-2) observations have been conducted, and small but significant crustal deformation has been detected in a local area with a diameter of 200 m with a displacement of 5 cm. The amount of deformation has increased with time although the spatial size has not changed, and resultantly the amount reached up to 60 cm. Finally, in the end of June, eruptions occurred just at the local crustal deformation area. It should be noted that the eruption started from the InSAR-detected inflational area. This is an excellent case that we were able to identify the location of small phreatic eruption in advance by detecting anomalous ground inflation. It is

  1. Crustal deformation pattern of the Morocco-Iberian area: constraints from 14 years of GPS measurements (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo; Fernandez, Josè


    We present an improved rendition of crustal motion field of the Morocco-Iberian area, based on an extensive GPS dataset covering about 14 years of observations from 1999.00 up to 2013.79 in order to provide a detailed spatial resolution of geodetic velocity and strain-rate fields. In particular, we included all available data from public continuous GPS stations, considering also data coming from networks developed mainly for mapping, engineering and cadastre purposes. In addition to continuous GPS sites, we included data from 31 episodic GPS sites located in Morocco with surveys spanning the 1999-2006 time interval, whose data are available through the UNAVCO archive ( All GPS data were processed by using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, taking into account precise ephemerides from the IGS (International GNSS Service; and Earth orientation parameters from the International Earth Rotation Service ( To improve the overall configuration of the network and tie the regional measurements to an external global reference frame, data coming from more than 25 continuously operating global tracking stations, largely from the IGS and EUREF permanent networks, were introduced in the processing. All stations were organized (and processed) into seven sub-networks of about 40-50 sites each, on average, sharing a few common sites to provide ties between them. Finally, by using the GLORG module of GLOBK, the GAMIT-solutions and their full covariance matrices were combined to estimated a consistent set of positions and velocities in the ITRF2008 reference frame by minimizing the horizontal velocity of the continuously operating global tracking stations mentioned above. To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern over the study area, we aligned our estimated GPS velocities to an Eurasian and a Nubian fixed reference frames. In addition, by taking into account the observed GPS horizontal velocity field and

  2. The impact of model prediction error in designing geodetic networks for crustal deformation applications (United States)

    Murray, J. R.


    Earth surface displacements measured at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sites record crustal deformation due, for example, to slip on faults underground. A primary objective in designing geodetic networks to study crustal deformation is to maximize the ability to recover parameters of interest like fault slip. Given Green's functions (GFs) relating observed displacement to motion on buried dislocations representing a fault, one can use various methods to estimate spatially variable slip. However, assumptions embodied in the GFs, e.g., use of a simplified elastic structure, introduce spatially correlated model prediction errors (MPE) not reflected in measurement uncertainties (Duputel et al., 2014). In theory, selection algorithms should incorporate inter-site correlations to identify measurement locations that give unique information. I assess the impact of MPE on site selection by expanding existing methods (Klein et al., 2017; Reeves and Zhe, 1999) to incorporate this effect. Reeves and Zhe's algorithm sequentially adds or removes a predetermined number of data according to a criterion that minimizes the sum of squared errors (SSE) on parameter estimates. Adapting this method to GNSS network design, Klein et al. select new sites that maximize model resolution, using trade-off curves to determine when additional resolution gain is small. Their analysis uses uncorrelated data errors and GFs for a uniform elastic half space. I compare results using GFs for spatially variable strike slip on a discretized dislocation in a uniform elastic half space, a layered elastic half space, and a layered half space with inclusion of MPE. I define an objective criterion to terminate the algorithm once the next site removal would increase SSE more than the expected incremental SSE increase if all sites had equal impact. Using a grid of candidate sites with 8 km spacing, I find the relative value of the selected sites (defined by the percent increase in SSE that further

  3. Pointwise functions for flexible implementation of crustal deformation physics in PyLith (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Knepley, M.; Williams, C. A.


    The next stage of development for PyLith, a flexible, open-source finite-element code ( for modeling quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation with an emphasis earthquake faulting, focuses on refactoring the code to provide greater flexibility in support of a broader range of physics, discretizations, and optimizations for a variety of computer hardware. We separate the finite-element integration into a discretization-specific portion and discretization-independent pointwise functions associated with the governing equations. The discretization-specific portion is designed to accommodate arbitrary order finite elements and multiple implementations for optimization targeting specific hardware (e.g., CPU and GPU). The pointwise functions encapsulate the physics, including the governing equations and rheologies. Users can easily extend the code by adding new pointwise functions to implement different rheologies and/or governing equations. PyLith currently includes pointwise functions for quasi-static and dynamic elasticity for several elastic, viscoelastic, and elastoplastic rheologies. We plan to add pointwise functions for coupling of elasticity with fluid flow and incompressible elasticity. Tight integration with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) provides support for a wide range of linear and nonlinear solvers and time-stepping algorithms.

  4. Crustal deformation and volcanic earthquakes associated with the recent volcanic activity of Iwojima Volcano, Japan (United States)

    Ueda, H.; Fujita, E.; Tanada, T.


    Iwojima is an active volcanic island located within a 10 km wide submarine caldera about 1250 km to the south of Tokyo, Japan. The seismometer and GPS network of National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) in Iwojima has observed a repeating island wide uplift more than 1 m associated with large number of volcanic earthquakes every several years. During 2006-2012, we observed more than 20000 volcanic earthquakes and an uplift of about 3 m, and precursory volcanic earthquakes and rapid crustal deformation just before the small submarine eruption near the northern coast of Iwojima in April 2012. In a restless volcano such as Iwojima, it is important issue to distinguish whether rapid crustal deformation and intense earthquake activity lead to an eruption or not. According to a long period geodetic observation by Ukawa et al. (2006), the crustal deformation of Iwojima can be classify into 2 phases. The first is an island wide large uplift centering on Motoyama area (the eastern part of the island, the center of the caldera), and the second is contraction and subsidence at local area centering on Motoyama and uplift around that area. They are interpreted by superposition of crustal deformations by a shallow contraction source and a deep seated inflation source beneath Motoyama. The earthquake activity of Iwojima highly correlates with the island wide large uplift, suggesting the earthquakes are almost controlled by a magma accumulation into a deep seated magma chamber. In contrast to the activity, the precursory activity of the eruption in 2012 is deviated from the correlation. The rapid crustal deformation just before and after the eruption in 2012 can be interpreted by rapid inflation and deflation of a shallow sill source about 1km deep, respectively, suggesting that it was caused by a shallow hydrothermal activity. The result shows that we can probably distinguish an abnormal activity related with a volcanic eruption when we observe

  5. An experimental study of physical property changes in crustal rocks undergoing triaxial deformation (United States)

    Ayling, Mark Raymond

    A laboratory investigation has been undertaken to examine changes in a number of physical parameters of deforming brittle rocks. The experiments were carried out in a pressure-balanced, gas-medium triaxial cell, which is capable of simulating lower crustal conditions. During sample deformation, contemporaneous measurements were made of differential stress, axial strain, compressional wave velocity (Vp), shear wave velocity (Vs) and received elastic waveforms, which were stored for later analysis. In an alternative operational mode, simultaneous measurements were made of differential stress, axial strain, acoustic emission (AE) statistics and porosity changes through direct pore volumometry. Four different sedimentary rocks have been systematically examined: Darley Dale sandstone, Gosford sandstone, Solenhofen limestone and Tennessee sandstone, at confining pressures up to 200MPa and at ambient temperature. A number of major improvements have been made to the triaxial deformation system and to the electronic data acquisition and control equipment during this study. Specifically, the commissioning and performance evaluation of a newly-built servo-hydraulic actuator is described. The integration of a more powerful control and data-logging computer with new elastic wave velocity measurement and display equipment is also described. An important aspect of this developmental stage of the study was the enhancement of the acoustic signal transmission/reception system which allowed simultaneous measurements of both Vp and Vs to be made; therefore, transducer theory is considered in detail. Also during the course of this study, a new servo-controlled pore-fluid pressure intensifier and volumometer was commissioned. This device was interfaced with the triaxial cell so that direct measurements of changes in sample porosity could be made during deformation. Simultaneous compressional and shear wave velocity measurements were carried out on Darley Dale sandstone samples at

  6. Extraction of crustal deformations and oceanic fluctuations from ocean bottom pressures (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Nagano, Akira; Hasegawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kido, Motoyuki; Igarashi, Toshihiro; Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yusuke


    It has been well known that megathrust earthquakes such as the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (Mw 9.1) and the 2011 the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) had devastated the coastal areas in the western of Indonesia and in the north-eastern of Japan, respectively. To mitigate the disaster of those forthcoming megathrust earthquakes along Nankai Trough, the Japanese government has established seafloor networks of cable-linked observatories around Japan: DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Nankai Trough) and S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench). The advantage of the cable-linked network is to monitor the propagation process of tsunami and seismic waves as well as seismic activity in real time. DONET contains pressure gauges as well as seismometers, which are expected to detect crustal deformations driven by peeling off subduction plate coupling process. From our simulation results, leveling changes are different sense among the DONET points even in the same science node. On the other hand, oceanic fluctuations such as melting ice masses through the global warming have so large scale as to cause ocean bottom pressure change coherently for all of DONET points especially in the same node. This difference suggests the possibility of extracting crustal deformations component from ocean bottom pressure data by differential of stacking data. However, this operation cannot be applied to local-scale fluctuations related to ocean mesoscale eddies and current fluctuations, which affect ocean bottom pressure through water density changes in the water column (from the sea surface to the bottom). Therefore, we need integral analysis by combining seismology, ocean physics and tsunami engineering so as to decompose into crustal deformation, oceanic fluctuations and instrumental drift, which will bring about high precision data enough to find geophysical phenomena. In this study

  7. Flexible Implementation of Multiphysics and Discretizations in PyLith Crustal Deformation Modeling Software (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Knepley, M.; Williams, C. A.


    We are creating a flexible implementation of multiphysics and finite-element discretizations in PyLith, a community, open-source code ( for modeling quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation with an emphasis on earthquake faulting. The goals include expanding the current suite of elastic, viscoelastic, and elastoplastic bulk rheologies to include poroelasticity, thermoelasticity, and incompressible elasticity. We cast the governing equations in a form that involves the product of the finite-element basis function or its derivatives with pointwise functions that look very much like the strong form of the governing equation. This allows the finite-element integration to be decomposed into a routine for the numerical integration over cells and boundaries of the finite-element mesh and simple routines implementing the physics (pointwise functions). The finite-element integration routine works in any spatial dimension with an arbitrary number of physical fields (e.g., displacement, temperature, and fluid pressure). It also makes it much easier optimize the finite-element integrations for proper vectorization, tiling, and other traversal optimization on multiple architectures (e.g., CUDA and OpenCL) independent of the pointwise functions. Users can easily extend the code by adding new routines for the pointwise functions to implement different rheologies and/or governing equations. Tight integration with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) provides support for a wide range of linear and nonlinear solvers and time-stepping algorithms so that a wide variety of governing equations can be solved efficiently.

  8. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin


    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sycheva


    Full Text Available The Bishkek geodynamic polygon (BGP, 41.5–43.5° N – 73–77° E is located within the central segment of the North Tien Shan seismic zone, in the junction zone of the Tien Shanorogene and the Turan plate (Fig. 1. In the entire modern structure of Tien Shan lengthwise zones of shearing (with both right- and left-lateral strike-slip faults are observed, thus Tien Shancan be considered as a transpression zone. Our study aimed at comparing deformation values estimated for the BGP territory from the seismic and GPS data. The modern stress-strain state of the study area was determined from the focal mechanisms of 1287 earthquakes that occurred in the period from 1994 to 2015. The study area was divided into cells with a radius of 0.2° (~20 km. The cell centers were in the nodes of the grid with a spacing of 0.1° (~10 km. A tensor of a seismotectonic deformation (STD rate within a cell was calculated as a sum of seismic moment tensors normalized for time, volume and shear modulus, assuming that STD is similar at different scale levels. The STD field is shown in Figure 4 at the background given by the deformation intensity pattern. Figure 6 shows the scatter of the sums of the strain rate tensor’s horizontal components estimated from the seismic data. The modern crustal movements were estimated from the geodetic measurements performed on the Central Asian GPS Network. Using the crustal movement velocities for 90 sites in the study area, the deformation processes in the crust were modeled based on the linear part of the Taylorexpansion of the point's-velocity-versus-its-radius-vector function. Then the velocity gradient tensors were estimated for the grid nodes with a spacing of 8.3 km. To estimate tensor's value in every single grid node a system of linear algebraic equations was solved by the weighted least-squares method. The weight of an observation point decreased with an increasing distance to such point, so that the inhomogeneity of the

  10. Viscoelastic crustal deformation by magmatic intrusion: A case study in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Wright, Tim J.; Fukahata, Yukitoshi


    Geodetic signals observed at volcanoes, particularly their temporal patterns, have required us to make the correlation between the surface displacement and magmatic process at depth in terms of viscoelastic crustal rheology. Here we use a parallelized 3-D finite element model to examine the response of the linear Maxwell viscoelastic crust and mantle to the inflation of a sill in order to show the characteristics of a long-term volcano deformation. In the model, an oblate-spheroidal sill is instantaneously or gradually inflated in a two-layered medium that consists of an elastic layer underlain by a viscoelastic layer. Our numerical experiments show that syn-inflation surface uplift is followed by post-inflation surface subsidence as the viscoelastic substrate relaxes. For gradual inflation events, the magnitude of inflation-induced uplift is reduced by the relaxation, through which the volume of a magma inferred by matching the prediction of an elastic model with observed surface uplift could be underestimated. For a given crustal viscosity, sill depth is the principal factor controlling subsidence caused by viscoelastic relaxation. The subsidence rate is highest when the inflation occurs at the boundary between the elastic and the viscoelastic layers. The mantle viscosity has an insignificant impact unless the depth of the inflation is greater than a half the crustal thickness. We apply the viscoelastic model to the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, where the surface has slowly subsided over a period of approximately three years following about a two-year period of inflation. The emplacement of a magmatic sill is constrained to occur at a depth of 4.5 km, which is significantly shallower than the geophysically imaged large-scale magma chamber. The geodetically detected deformation in the caldera reflects the small-scale emplacement of a magma that ascended from the deeper chamber, but not the

  11. New GPS Constrains on Crustal Deformation within the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Microplate (United States)

    Solares, M. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.


    Over twenty years of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations along the northeastern region of the Caribbean plate boundary zone have been used to evaluate crustal deformation in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate, which generally translates westward relative to the Caribbean plate. New data from continuous GPS stations (cGPS) and re-occupied campaign GPS stations (eGPS) obtained between 2014 and 2015 allowed us to update the velocity field of the PRVI GPS Network and redefine the existing plate kinematics model of the PRVI microplate from previous measurements (Jansma et al., 2000; Jansma & Mattioli, 2005). Geodetic datasets for this epoch were processed with GIPSY/OASIS II (v.6.2) using an absolute point positioning strategy with final, precise orbits and clocks from JPL (IGS08). Results of sites velocity in the PRVI block are presented with respect to North America and Caribbean reference frames in ITRF08. The horizontal velocity components were used to calculate baseline lengths changes between selected GPS stations that span on-land faults and microplate boundaries, thus allowing quantification of internal deformation within the PRVI block. This enables us to locate zones of active deformation and faulting in order to understand how the relative motion between geological structures is accommodated. Our updated velocity field constrains intraplate deformation to 1-3 mm/yr across the PRVI microplate and active extension of 1-2 mm/yr in the Anegada passage eastern boundary. In addition, counterclockwise rotation has been observed and may be related to the deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico continuing offshore to the Muertos Trough along PRVI's southern boundary. Despite the PRVI microplate slow motion and small deformation, increasing velocities from east to west coincides with the most active microseismic zone and ongoing deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico suggesting independent motion along this segment of the PRVI block.

  12. A model for crustal deformations associated with the 1914 great eruption of Sakurajima volcano, Kagoshima, Japan (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tada, T.


    Sakurajima volcano, which is located on the southern rim of the Aira caldera, Kagoshima, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. The 1914 eruption of Sakurajima volcano was accompanied by an intensive fissure eruption and caused significant crustal deformations. The north side of the newly formed fissure craters, which are arranged in the WNW-ESE direction, moved toward the north by about 5 m, and the south side moved toward the south by 3 m. Furthermore, the ground surface around the Aira caldera was concentrically depressed by 80 cm. In order to explain these significant crustal deformations, a model consisting of a tensile fault and a deflation source is presented. By means of the least-squares fitting of the model to leveling data around the Aira caldera, we obtained the parameters of the deflation source as follows: depth 8.8 ± 1.2 km; subsidence just above the source 157 ± 27 cm. The source is located at the center of the Aira caldera. On the other hand, the tensile fault, which corresponds to the fissure craters, is estimated, on the basis of horizontal movements in Sakurajima, to be 7 km long, 1.5 km wide and 0.5 km deep at its upper margin, with an opening of 20 m. This model suggests that magma flowed out of the reservoir beneath the Aira caldera and broke the crust of Sakurajima, thus creating fissure.

  13. Seismic evidence for central Taiwan magnetic low and deep-crustal deformation caused by plate collision (United States)

    Cheng, Win-Bin


    Crustal seismic velocity structure was determined for the northern Taiwan using seismic travel-time data to investigate the northeastern extension of the northern South China Sea's high-magnetic belt. In order to increase the model resolution, a joint analysis of gravity anomaly and seismic travel-time data have been conducted. A total of 3385 events had been used in the inversion that was collected by the Central Weather Bureau Seismological Network from 1990 to 2015. The main features of the obtained three-dimensional velocity model are: (1) a relatively high Vp zone with velocity greater than 6.5 km/s is observed in the middle to lower crust, (2) the high Vp zone generally parallels to the north-south structural trending of the Chuchih fault and Hsuehshan Range, (3) at 25 km depth-slice, the high Vp zone shows structural trends change from northeastward to northward in central Taiwan, where the values of high-magnetic anomalies are rapidly decreasing to low values. A combination of seismic, GPS, and structural interpretations suggests that the entire crust has been deformed and demagnetized in consequence of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and the Asian continental margin. We suggest that the feature of sharp bending of the high Vp zone would migrate southwestward and cause further crustal deformation of the Peikang High in the future.

  14. Middle cretaceous crustal anatexis associated to contractional deformation on Eden's shear zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.; Herve, F; Godoy, E.; Suarez, M; Watters, W.A


    The Puerto Eden's igneous and metamorphic complex (PEIMC) is composed by amphibolite facies schists, melanocratic and leucocratic diatexites (with biotite in schlieren structure), and orthomylonites intruded by schlieren bearing porphyritic biotite monzogranite, tabular garnet - tourmaline and white mica - garnet leucogranites, pegmatitic felsic dikes, andesitic dikes, and biotite hornblende granodiorites belonging to the South Patagonian Batholith (SPB). This locality represent the westernmost outcrop of the Eastern Andean Metamorphic Complex (EAMC), situated at 49 o 8min. 20.seg S - 74 o 23min.20seg. W, on the eastern margin of the SPB. A common relationship exists in convergent orogenic belts between a shear zone system, high-grade metamorphic rocks, and granites, which suggests a feedback relationship between crustal anatexis and contractional deformation that helps granite extraction and focusses granite ascent (Solar et al, 1998). The aim of this study is to constraint the temporal relationship between the magmatic and deformational evolution in Puerto Eden, associated to one or more events of crustal anatexis recorded. This work is based on geochemistry and K-Ar radiometric age data set previously presented as part of first author's MSc thesis related to the petrogenesis of PEIMC (au)

  15. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed


    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  16. CrusDe: A plug-in based simulation framework for composable CRUStal DEformation simulations (United States)

    Grapenthin, R.


    Within geoscience, Green's method is an established mathematical tool to analyze the dynamics of the Earth's crust in response to the application of a mass force, e.g. a surface load. Different abstractions from the Earth's interior as well as the particular effects caused by such a force are expressed by means of a Green's function, G, which is a particular solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation with boundary conditions. Surface loads, L, are defined by real data or as analytical expressions. The response of the crust to a surface load is gained by a 2D-convolution (**) of the Green's function with this load. The crustal response can be thought of as an instantaneous displacement which is followed by a gradual transition towards the final relaxed state of displacement. A relaxation function, R, describing such a transition depends on the rheological model for the ductile layer of the crust. The 1D-convolution (*) of the relaxation function with a load history, H, allows to include the temporal evolution of the surface load into a model. The product of the two convolution results expresses the displacement (rate) of the crust, U, at a certain time t: Ut = (R * H)t · (G ** L) Rather than implementing a variety of specific models, approaching crustal deformation problems from the general formulation in equation~1 opens the opportunity to consider reuse of model building blocks within a more flexible simulation framework. Model elements (Green's function, load function, etc.), operators, pre- and postprocessing, and even input and output routines could be part of a framework that enables a user to freely compose software components to resemble equation~1. The simulation framework CrusDe implements equation~1 in the proposed way. CrusDe's architecture defines interfaces for generic communication between the simulation core and the model elements. Thus, exchangeability of the particular model element implementations is possible. In the presented plug

  17. Strain Accumulation Estimated from Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Kenji, Y.; Sakata, T.


    Our research has developed an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation composed of the kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging techniques [Tadokoro et al., 2006; Ikuta et al., 2008]. We monitored crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Amurian Plate. The convergence rate is predicted at 60 mm/y in the N59W direction by the Euler vector of REVEL [Sella et al., 2002]. We installed three monitoring sites (named KMN, KMS, and KME) on the seafloor at depths of about 1920-2030 m. The sites KMN and KMS are installed perpendicular to the trough axis with a spacing of 20 km; the site KME is 50 km from KMN and KMS in the direction parallel to the trough axis. The monitoring was started in 2004, 2005, and 2008 at KMS, KMN, and KME, respectively. The numbers of measurements are 16, 20, and 5 times at KMN, KMS, and KME, respectively. We obtained 3-7 years averaged horizontal site velocities within ITRF2000 adopting a robust estimation method with Tukey's biweight function to the time series of site position measured until the end of 2011. Substituting the synthetic rigid block motions of the Amurian Plate from the velocities within ITRF2000, we obtained the following site velocities with respect to the Amurian Plate [Tadokoro et al., 2012]: KMN 41±4 mm/y, N77±7W KMS 43±5 mm/y, N80±6W KME 42±5 mm/y, N80±7W In contrast, the on-land GPS horizontal velocities along the coast is 23-33 mm/y toward N74-80W. The present observational results show: (1) the velocity vectors are all the same length and direction, which indicates no internal deformation in this region; (2) the back-slip model predicts that the plate interface beneath the region is uniformly locked with coupling ratios of 60-80 %, indicating strain accumulation that will be released during the anticipated mega-thrust Tonankai earthquake; and (3) the directions of site velocities differ from that of convergence vector by 20 degrees, which is affected by

  18. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.


    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S

  19. Study on the fixed point in crustal deformation before strong earthquake (United States)

    Niu, A.; Li, Y.; Yan, W. Mr


    Usually, scholars believe that the fault pre-sliding or expansion phenomenon will be observed near epicenter area before strong earthquake, but more and more observations show that the crust deformation nearby epicenter area is smallest(Zhou, 1997; Niu,2009,2012;Bilham, 2005; Amoruso et al., 2010). The theory of Fixed point t is a branch of mathematics that arises from the theory of topological transformation and has important applications in obvious model analysis. An important precursory was observed by two tilt-meter sets, installed at Wenchuan Observatory in the epicenter area, that the tilt changes were the smallest compared with the other 8 stations around them in one year before the Wenchuan earthquake. To subscribe the phenomenon, we proposed the minimum annual variation range that used as a topological transformation. The window length is 1 year, and the sliding length is 1 day. The convergence of points with minimum annual change in the 3 years before the Wenchuan earthquake is studied. And the results show that the points with minimum deformation amplitude basically converge to the epicenter region before the earthquake. The possible mechanism of fixed point of crustal deformation was explored. Concerning the fixed point of crust deformation, the liquidity of lithospheric medium and the isostasy theory are accepted by many scholars (Bott &Dean, 1973; Merer et al.1988; Molnar et al., 1975,1978; Tapponnier et al., 1976; Wang et al., 2001). To explain the fixed point of crust deformation before earthquakes, we study the plate bending model (Bai, et al., 2003). According to plate bending model and real deformation data, we have found that the earthquake rupture occurred around the extreme point of plate bending, where the velocities of displacement, tilt, strain, gravity and so on are close to zero, and the fixed points are located around the epicenter.The phenomenon of fixed point of crust deformation is different from former understandings about the

  20. GPS-determined Crustal Deformation of South Korea after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake: Straining Heterogeneity and Seismicity (United States)

    Ree, J. H.; Kim, S.; Yoon, H. S.; Choi, B. K.; Park, P. H.


    The GPS-determined, pre-, co- and post-seismic crustal deformations of the Korean peninsula with respect to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Baek et al., 2012, Terra Nova; Kim et al., 2015, KSCE Jour. of Civil Engineering) are all stretching ones (extensional; horizontal stretching rate larger than horizontal shortening rate). However, focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes indicate that South Korea has been at compressional regime dominated by strike- and reverse-slip faultings. We reevaluated the velocity field of GPS data to see any effect of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the Korean crustal deformation and seismicity. To calculate the velocity gradient tensor of GPS sites, we used a gridding method based on least-square collocation (LSC). This LSC method can overcome shortcomings of the segmentation methods including the triangulation method. For example, an undesirable, abrupt change in components of velocity field occurs at segment boundaries in the segmentation methods. It is also known that LSC method is more useful in evaluating deformation patterns in intraplate areas with relatively small displacements. Velocity vectors of South Korea, pointing in general to 113° before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, instantly changed their direction toward the epicenter (82° on average) during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and then gradually returned to the original position about 2 years after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Our calculation of velocity gradient tensors after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake shows that the stretching and rotating fields are quite heterogeneous, and that both stretching and shortening areas exist in South Korea. In particular, after the post-seismic relaxation ceased (i.e., from two years after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake), regions with thicker and thinner crusts tend to be shortening and stretching, respectively, in South Korea. Furthermore, the straining rate is larger in the regions with thinner crust. Although there is no meaningful correlation between

  1. Analytical method of seafloor crustal deformation corresponding to the large scale ocean current region (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.


    We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at two observation points (south and north of Nankai Trough (TOA and TCA)) across the Nankai Trough, Japan, from 2013 to 2015. A ocean current flows frequently above our points called the Kuroshio current that has temperature difference perpendicular to the flow axis down to 1000 m in depths. Sound speed in the water depends on temperature (Del Grosso, 1974). Determination of seafloor benchmark position (SBP) has a bias when the sound speed structure includes a horizontal inhomogeneity (HI) in large-scale ocean current area. This bias is caused by trade-off between estimated spatial-temporal variation of sound speed structure and SBP. In this study, we propose a new observation system and analytical method, which directly observe the HI of sound speed derived from Underway CTD (UCTD) measurement and we introduce the HI to analytical method. We performed the observation in May 2015. We measured acoustic ranging during marine navigation on a circle with radius of 2 miles. At the same time, we observed six UCTD measurements down to 700 m in depths at both points. We use analytical method of Ikuta et al. (2008) for determination of SBP and adopt estimated HI of sound speed structure from UCTD measurements. We use the following equation to adopt the HI model: S(t,x,X)=S(t)+ΔS(R(X)+ar(x,X)), where S(t,x,X) is the spatial-temporal variation of slowness but spatial variation is the uniform during the observation period, S(t) is the estimated temporal variation of sound speed structure following Ikuta et al. (2008), ΔS is the horizontal gradient of slowness estimated from UCTD measurement, R(x) is the distance of a ship from center of three SBPs, r(x,X) is the distance between ship position and benchmark position, a is the ratio of layer of HI for the whole depth, x is the ship position, and X is the benchmark position. SBP adopted the HI model is determined 74.9 cm toward N17.4˚E at TCA and 90.0 cm toward N7.8˚E at TOA. The

  2. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure and deformation in east-central China (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, X.; Ouyang, L.; Li, J.


    We conduct a non-linear joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to obtain the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure in east-central China. In the meanwhile, the lithosphere and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China is also evaluated with teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. The resulting velocity model reveals that to the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament, the crust and the lithosphere are significantly thinned. Furthermore, three extensive crustal/lithospheric thinning sub-regions are clearly identified within the study area. This indicates that the modification of the crust and lithosphere in central-eastern China is non-uniform due to the heterogeneity of the lithospheric strength. Extensive crustal and lithospheric thinning could occur in some weak zones such as the basin-range junction belts and large faults. The structure beneath the Dabie orogenic belt is complex due to the collision between the North and South China Blocks during the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. The Dabie orogenic belt is generally delineated by a thick crust with a mid-crust low-velocity zone and a two-directional convergence in the lithospheric scale. Obvious velocity contrast exhibits in the crust and upper mantle at both sides of the Tanlu fault, which suggests the deep penetration of this lithospheric-scale fault. Most of our splitting measurements show nearly E-W trending fast polarization direction which is slightly deviating from the direction of plate motion. The similar present-day lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation may imply that the eastern NCC and the eastern SCB were dominated by a common dynamic process after late Mesozoic, i.e., the westward subduction of Pacific plate and the retreat of the subduction plate. The westward subduction of the Philippine plate and the long-range effects of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia plate during Cenozoic may have also contributed to the present

  3. Contrasted terrace systems of the lower Moulouya valley as indicator of crustal deformation in NE Morocco (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bartz, Melanie; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Szemkus, Nina; Brueckner, Helmut


    The Moulouya river has the largest catchment in Morocco and drains an area which is characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. As yet, its Pleistocene terrace sequence remains poorly documented. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, which drains the Triffa sedimentary basin directly upstream of the estuary. New field observations, measurements and sedimentological data reveal contrasted fluvial environments on either side of a newly identified thrust zone, which disrupts the whole sedimentary basin and is associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region (Barcos et al., 2014). Long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by ≥37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with (at least) three Pleistocene terrace levels, occur in the footwall and the hanging wall of the thrust, respectively. Same as for the Pleistocene terrace sediments of the middle Moulouya, a recurrent sedimentary pattern, characterized by fining-upward sequences was observed in the studied terrace profiles. Assessing the rates of crustal deformation along this main thrust zone requires age estimations for these Pleistocene terrace deposits of the lower Moulouya on each side of the thrust. Samples for luminescence (OSL/IRSL), electron spin resonance (ESR, on quartz) and cosmogenic nuclide dating (26Al/10Be, burial dating) were collected in terrace deposits located both in the foot- and hanging walls. Sample preparation and analysis as well as age determination are in progress. The preliminary data mentioned above, soon to be completed by chronological data, agree well with morphometric indicators stating that the whole Moulouya catchment is at disequilibrium state (Barcos et al., 2014). This is confirmed by several knickpoints in its longitudinal profile. Late Cenozoic uplift associated with crustal shortening, which

  4. Flicker Noise in GNSS Station Position Time Series: How much is due to Crustal Loading Deformations? (United States)

    Rebischung, P.; Chanard, K.; Metivier, L.; Altamimi, Z.


    The presence of colored noise in GNSS station position time series was detected 20 years ago. It has been shown since then that the background spectrum of non-linear GNSS station position residuals closely follows a power-law process (known as flicker noise, 1/f noise or pink noise), with some white noise taking over at the highest frequencies. However, the origin of the flicker noise present in GNSS station position time series is still unclear. Flicker noise is often described as intrinsic to the GNSS system, i.e. due to errors in the GNSS observations or in their modeling, but no such error source has been identified so far that could explain the level of observed flicker noise, nor its spatial correlation.We investigate another possible contributor to the observed flicker noise, namely real crustal displacements driven by surface mass transports, i.e. non-tidal loading deformations. This study is motivated by the presence of power-law noise in the time series of low-degree (≤ 40) and low-order (≤ 12) Stokes coefficients observed by GRACE - power-law noise might also exist at higher degrees and orders, but obscured by GRACE observational noise. By comparing GNSS station position time series with loading deformation time series derived from GRACE gravity fields, both with their periodic components removed, we therefore assess whether GNSS and GRACE both plausibly observe the same flicker behavior of surface mass transports / loading deformations. Taking into account GRACE observability limitations, we also quantify the amount of flicker noise in GNSS station position time series that could be explained by such flicker loading deformations.

  5. InSAR and GPS time series analysis: Crustal deformation in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region (United States)

    Li, Z.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Plag, H.


    Several previous studies have successfully demonstrated that long time series (e.g. >5 years) of GPS measurements can be employed to detect tectonic signals with a vertical rate greater than 0.3 mm/yr (e.g. Hill and Blewitt, 2006; Bennett et al. 2009). However, GPS stations are often sparse, with spacing from a few kilometres to a few hundred kilometres. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can complement GPS by providing high horizontal spatial resolution (e.g. meters to tens-of metres) over large regions (e.g. 100 km × 100 km). A major source of error for repeat-pass InSAR is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere. The portion of this attributable to tropospheric water vapour causes errors as large as 10-20 cm in deformation retrievals. InSAR Time Series analysis with Atmospheric Estimation Models (InSAR TS + AEM), developed at the University of Glasgow, is a robust time series analysis approach, which mainly uses interferograms with small geometric baselines to minimise the effects of decorrelation and inaccuracies in topographic data. In addition, InSAR TS + AEM can be used to separate deformation signals from atmospheric water vapour effects in order to map surface deformation as it evolves in time. The principal purposes of this study are to assess: (1) how consistent InSAR-derived deformation time series are with GPS; and (2) how precise InSAR-derived atmospheric path delays can be. The Yucca Mountain, Nevada region is chosen as the study site because of its excellent GPS network and extensive radar archives (>10 years of dense and high-quality GPS stations, and >17 years of ERS and ENVISAT radar acquisitions), and because of its arid environment. The latter results in coherence that is generally high, even for long periods that span the existing C-band radar archives of ERS and ENVISAT. Preliminary results show that our InSAR LOS deformation map agrees with GPS measurements to within 0.35 mm/yr RMS misfit at the stations which is the

  6. Recent Observational Results of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.


    The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the tough, and major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. The 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are the most recent significant earthquakes along the trough. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes are estimated at 80-90% by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government. It is, therefore, necessary to start monitoring crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes where in the ocean area. We developed a new system composed of the precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques for monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. We had installed seven seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Suruga-Nankai Trough region between 2002 and 2004. The water depths at the benchmarks are about 800 to 2000 m. We installed a new seafloor benchmark at the eastern margin of the Kumano Basin on June 23, 2008. Three seafloor benchmarks had been aligned perpendicular to the trough axis. In contrast, the new benchmark was installed eastward relative to the pre-installed benchmarks, and we can monitor lateral variations in crustal deformation at the region. We started the repeated measurements at four benchmarkes (two at the Kumano Basin named KMN and KMS, and the other two at the Suruga Bay named SNW and SNE) in 2005. The number of times we have measured are seven, eleven, three and nine times at KMN, KMS, SNW and SNE, respectively. Recent results of the repeated measurements show the following horizontal velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate: 6.4 cm/yr, N86W at KMN; 5.3 cm/yr, N71W at KMS; 3.3 cm/yr, N57W at SNE. The errors of the horizontal velocities are 1-3 cm/yr. Unfortunately

  7. Crustal Deformation Caused by Earthquake Detected by InSAR Technique Using ALOS/PALSAR Data (United States)

    Miyagi, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Shimada, M.


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), which is commonly called 'Daichi' in Japanese, on 24th January 2006. This satellite has the Phased Array type L- band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) following the mission of the Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1). The PALSAR is an advanced SAR sensor with up to 10 m of spatial resolution and variable off-nadir angle. The ALOS/PALSAR can determine the position and attitude with high accuracy by use of mounted dual frequency GPS system and high precision star trackers, and L-band SAR sensor is suitable to observe even heavily-vegetated area. Therefore it is expected much better coherent SAR images than the JERS-1 and the other previous C-band SAR satellites, and major step forward for InSAR (Interferometric SAR) technique. Actually, several outstanding results from InSAR measurements have been reported for the period after the launch. In 2007, two big earthquakes causing some damages on the periphery occurred in Japan. One is M6.7 Noto Peninsula earthquake on 25th March 2007, and the other is M6.8 off the Chuetsu region earthquake on 16th July 2007. Because both seismic faults inferred from these earthquakes are located at shallow depth beneath the bottom of the sea near the coast, obvious crustal deformation in a land area were detected by PALSAR data. In Japan, there is a dense nation-wide GPS network (GEONET) composed of more than 1200 GPS sites established and operated by Geographical Survey Institute and a lot of seismometers. Similarly GPS and seismometer could detect signals caused by the earthquakes, so these are noticeable cases from the standpoint of a comparison among various kinds of data. A remote sensing technique like the ALOS/PALSAR has advantage to observe and monitor a disaster occurred in a remote location where it is difficult to get and there has been little geophysical observation. In this presentation, we notice the case of

  8. Crustal Deformation Associated With the 2000 Eruption and Degassing Process of Miyakejima, Izu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Ozawa, S.; Murakami, M.; Sagiya, T.; Yarai, H.; Tada, T.; Kaidzu, M.


    Miyakejima is located in the northern part of the Izu Islands lying along the boundary between the Pacific plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Miyakejima volcano erupted on Miyakejima is located in the northern part of the Izu Islands which are a chain of volcanoes lying along the boundary between the Pacific plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Miyakejima volcano erupted on June 27, 2000 after the quiescence of 17 years. First eruption is a small submarine eruption 1.5km off the western coast of Miyakejima. Subsequently, several summit eruptions as tephra ejecta occurred in July and August 2000. The summit collapsed just after the first summit eruption and a caldera was formed for 40 days. Collapsed volume and erupted volume are estimated to be 0.6km3 and 0.02km3, respectively. In September 2000, the collapse caldera started emitting a large amount of volcanic gasses. A peak amount of degassing SO2 is ~70000 ton/day in the period from October to December 2000. Amount of volcanic gas is decreasing gradually and is 15000 ton/day (SO2 ) now. However, it is still larger than other active volcanoes. Permanent GPS data reveals the spatial pattern and time evolution of ground deformation. Inflation of Miyakejima was observed by continuous GPS and leveling before the 2000 eruption. The observed displacements associated with the 2000 eruption show radial pattern suggesting shrinking of the island and subsidence. This pattern continues for 14 months from July 2000. Though the rate of crustal deformation is almost constant from July to August 2000, it is decreasing exponentially with a time constant of ~150days from September 2000. We assumed a point deflation source and inverted the observed displacement to estimate parameters of the point source. Volume decrease and depth of the deflation source is 0.12km3 and 4.2km from July to August 2000. We interpret that it is the squeezing of magma from a magma chamber of Miyakejima volcano. The displacement observed in neighbor

  9. Crustal Deformation along San Andreas Fault System revealed by GPS and Sentinel-1 InSAR (United States)

    Xu, X.; Sandwell, D. T.


    We present a crustal deformation velocity map along the San Andreas Fault System by combining measurements from Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity models (CGM V1). We assembled 5 tracks of descending Sentinel-1 InSAR data spanning 2014.11-2017.02, and produced 545 interferograms, each of which covers roughly 250km x 420km area ( 60 bursts). These interferograms are unwrapped using SNAPHU [Chen & Zebker, 2002], with the 2Npi unwrapping ambiguity corrected with a sparse recovery method. We used coherence-based small baseline subset (SBAS) method [Tong & Schmidt, 2016] together with atmospheric correction by common-point stacking [Tymofyeyeva and Fialko, 2015] to construct deformation time series [Xu et. al., 2017]. Then we project the horizontal GPS model and vertical GPS data into satellite line-of-sight directions separately. We first remove the horizontal GPS model from InSAR measurements and perform elevation-dependent atmospheric phase correction. Then we compute the discrepancy between the remaining InSAR measurements and vertical GPS data. We interpolate this discrepancy and remove it from the residual InSAR measurements. Finally, we restore the horizontal GPS model. Preliminary results show that fault creep over the San Jacinto fault, the Elsinore fault, and the San Andreas creeping section is clearly resolved. During the period of drought, the Central Valley of California was subsiding at a high rate (up to 40 cm/yr), while the city of San Jose is uplifting due to recharge, with a quaternary fault acting as a ground water barrier. These findings will be reported during the meeting.

  10. Time-Dependent Crustal Deformation Associated With the 2004 Chuetsu and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquakes (United States)

    Meneses Gutierrez, A.; Sagiya, T.


    There is an ongoing concentrated deformation along the Japan Sea coast, which has been identified as Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (Sagiya et al., 2000). Large historical earthquakes have occurred in this area, and in recent years, Niigata has suffered the impact of two important events, known as the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake (M 6.8) and The 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake (M 6.6), which considerately affected the crustal deformation pattern. For this reason, we review temporal variation of crustal deformation pattern in the mid Niigata region based on daily coordinates of 28 GPS sites from the GEONET network for three time windows: before 2004, 2004-2007 and after 2007 until March 2011, to avoid effects of crustal deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We observed a migration of the deformation pattern in the East-West direction through the contraction belts for the above time windows. Before 2004, we recognize a clear shortening of 0.3ppm/yr in the area between the source regions of 2004 and 2007 quakes. After the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, this shortening rate decreased. On the other hand, an accelerated contraction occurred to the east of this region, around the source region of the 2004 earthquake. After the 2007 earthquake, another contraction zone appeared to the northwest, near the 2007 source region. These time-dependent behaviors suggest there exists strong interaction between parallel fault segments in this area. It is crucially important to reveal such interaction to understand crustal deformation and seismogenesis in this region. We construct kinematic deformation models to interpret the time-dependent deformation pattern for each time period and to investigate mechanical interaction of coseismic as well as probably aseismic fault slips. Optimal faults parameters were established using a grid search, and computing the 95% confidence interval for each model parameter using the normalized Chi-squared distribution to

  11. To crustal deformation modeling of the West Bohemia swarm area, Central Europe. Reply to the open letter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka


    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 41-45 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA MŠk 1P05ME781; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : satellite geodesy * crustal deformation * seismic cycle Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013

  12. Crustal deformation evidences for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere at the Nubia-Iberia plate boundary (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José


    A spatially dense crustal velocity field, based on up to 15 years of GNSS observations at more than 380 sites and extensively covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa, allow us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. We detected a slow large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to a local pole located closely to the northwestern sector of the Pyrenean mountain range (Palano et al., 2015). Although this crustal deformation pattern could suggest a rigid rotating lithosphere block, this model would predict significant shortening along the Western (off-shore Lisbon) and North Iberian margin which cannot totally ruled out but currently is not clearly observed. Conversely, we favour the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. Furthermore, the western Mediterranean basin appears fragmented into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures and trapped within the Nubia-Eurasia collision, are currently accommodating most of the plate convergence rate. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. Most of the observed crustal ground deformation can be attributed to processes driven by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary. Nevertheless, the observed deformation field infers a very low convergence rates as observed also at the eastern side of the western Mediterranean, along the Calabro Peloritan Arc, by space geodesy (e.g. Palano, 2015). References Palano M. (2015). On the present

  13. Modeling crustal deformation near active faults and volcanic centers: a catalog of deformation models and modeling approaches (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; ,; Peter, F.; Murray, Jessica R.


    This manual provides the physical and mathematical concepts for selected models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. The emphasis is on analytical models of deformation that can be compared with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), leveling surveys, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal, and horizontal penny-shaped geometries in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. Vertical dikes and faults are described following the mathematical notation for rectangular dislocations in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All the analytical expressions were verified against numerical models developed by use of COMSOL Multyphics, a Finite Element Analysis software ( In this way, typographical errors present were identified and corrected. Matlab scripts are also provided to facilitate the application of these models.

  14. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island. (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen


    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  15. Crustal deformations associated with the 1986 fissure eruption of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan, and their tectonic significance (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Tada, Takashi

    We have investigated crustal deformations associated with the 1986 eruption of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan, which was accompanied by an intensive fissure eruption. Two fissure crater chains, with NW-SE trend were created in the northern part of the caldera and on its northwestern flank. Their trend is consistent with the direction of compressive stress in this region. Depression of > 30 cm in the central zone including the caldera, and in the northwestern and southeastern parts in the island, was detected by precise leveling. On the other hand, uplifts up to 20 cm in the northeastern and southwestern parts were observed. Tide observations revealed that the Okada tide station, the leveling datum in Izu-Oshima, may have subsided by 5 cm after the eruption. An ˜1 m opening of fissure craters was detected by distance measurements of the baselines which cross fissure craters. Horizontal displacements obtained by reoccupation of control points showed a symmetrical pattern which was consistent with the opening of fissure craters. Anomalous strain changes were also observed in the surrounding regions—contractions were observed in the Boso and the Miura peninsula, northeast of Izu-Oshima, and extensions in the Izu peninsula. To interpret these crustal deformations, a model which consists of a nearly vertical tensile fault and a deflation source is presented. The tensile fault lies parallel to the fissures and is divided into two parts according to depth. The deeper part of the tensile fault is 12 km long, 10 km wide, and has 2 km burial depth and 2.7 m opening displacement. The shallower part, which may represent the fissure craters, is 4 km long, 2 km wide, and the amount of opening is estimated to be 1 m. However, the deflation source may be located at a depth of 10 km beneath the northwestern flank of the caldera and depression just above the source is estimated to be 30 cm. A deflation source is required to explain the subsidence at the Okada tide station and the

  16. PyLith: A Finite-Element Code for Modeling Quasi-Static and Dynamic Crustal Deformation (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Knepley, M. G.


    We have developed open-source finite-element software for 2-D and 3-D dynamic and quasi-static modeling of crustal deformation. This software, PyLith (current release is version 1.6) can be used for quasi-static viscoelastic modeling, dynamic spontaneous rupture and/or ground-motion modeling. Unstructured and structured finite-element discretizations allow for spatial scales ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers with temporal scales in dynamic problems ranging from milliseconds to minutes and temporal scales in quasi-static problems ranging from minutes to thousands of years. PyLith development is part of the NSF funded Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) and the software runs on a wide variety of platforms (laptops, workstations, and Beowulf clusters). Binaries (Linux, Darwin, and Windows systems) and source code are available from PyLith uses a suite of general, parallel, graph data structures called Sieve for storing and manipulating finite-element meshes. This permits use of a variety of 2-D and 3-D cell types including triangles, quadrilaterals, hexahedra, and tetrahedra. Current PyLith features include prescribed fault ruptures with multiple earthquakes and aseismic creep, spontaneous fault ruptures with a variety of fault constitutive models, time-dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, absorbing boundary conditions, time-dependent point forces, and gravitational body forces. PyLith supports infinitesimal and small strain formulations for linear elastic rheologies, linear and generalized Maxwell viscoelastic rheologies, power-law viscoelastic rheologies, and Drucker-Prager elastoplastic rheologies. Current software development focuses on coupling quasi-static and dynamic simulations to resolve multi-scale deformation across the entire seismic cycle and the coupling of elasticity to heat and/or fluid flow.

  17. The magma chamber associated with the eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, Japan, since 2000, inferred from crustal deformation data (1983-2004). (United States)

    Ueda, H.; Fujita, E.; Ukawa, M.; Nishimura, T.; Murakami, M.


    Miyakejima Island, an active basaltic stratovolcano lying 170 km to the south of Tokyo, Japan, resumed its volcanic activity in late June 2000 after a quiescence period for 17 years since the last eruption in 1983. The activity changes its eruptive style and still continues with a significant volcanic gas emission from the summit caldera, which has forced the inhabitants of Miyakejima to evacuate from the island. In order to understand the magmatic activity and the gas emission, it is crucial to reveal the magma supply system beneath the island. For this purpose we elucidated locations and geometries of a magma chamber, intruded dikes, and a source related with the gas emission by using the crustal deformation data including GPS, tilt changes and leveling through the period after the 1983 eruption up to now. Following dike intrusions beneath the island at the initial stage of the activity (June 26 - 27, 2000), the observed crustal deformation showed a rapid contraction of the island due to a subsurface magma migration from a magma chamber to the west off the coast. To estimate the location and configuration of the magma chamber, we compared the deformation with various source models. We found that a source model consisting of a spherical deflation source about 8 km deep in the southwestern part of the island and a vertical dike-shaped deflation source on the spherical source is most appropriate for the crustal deformation (June 28 - mid September, 2000). The total amount of the contraction is ~0.4 km3; if it is added to the amount of collapsed summit, which is considered to have penetrated into the chamber [Geshi et al., 2002], the amount of withdrew magma is estimated to be ~1.0 km3. The amount is consistent with the amount of intruded magma at the west off the coast of Miyakejima [Nishimura et al., 2001]. An inflated source model with a similar configuration can explain the crustal deformation observed from 1983 to before the activity of 2000, suggesting the

  18. Impact of acoustic velocity structure to measurement of ocean bottom crustal deformation (United States)

    Ikuta, R.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Eto, S.; Ando, M.


    We are developing a geodetic method of monitoring crustal deformation under the ocean using kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging. The goal of our research is to achieve sub-centimeter accuracy in measuring oceanic crustal deformation by a very short-time measurement like 10 hours. In this study, we focused on lateral variation of acoustic velocity structure in seawater and introduced an inclined acoustic velocity structure model to improve accuracy of the measurement. We have a few measurement sites along Nankai trough, Japan. In each sites, we deployed a trio of transponders on ocean floor (seafloor benchmark units) within distance comparable with the depth. An ultrasonic signal is generated from a surface vessel drifting over the benchmark unit, which is received and replied by the benchmark unit. In this system, both acoustic velocity structure and the benchmark unit positions were determined simultaneously for the each measurement using a tomographic technique. This tomographic technique was adopted on an assumption that the acoustic velocity structure is horizontally layered and changes only in time, not in space. Ikuta et al., (AGU fall meeting 2009) reported an approach to improve accuracy of benchmark positioning using a new additional assumption. The additional assumption was that the configuration of the transponders trio constituting one benchmark unit does not change. They determined the time evolution of weight center for the fixed transponder triangle between different measurements using all repetitively obtained data sets at once. This is contrasting to the previous method in which each data set for different measurement was solved independently. This assumption worked well in reducing number of unknown parameters. As a result, repeatability of benchmark positioning improved from 5 cm to 3 cm. We conducted numerical experiments synthesizing acoustic travel-time data to evaluate the robustness of this new approach. When acoustic travel-time data is

  19. Extraction of Crustal Deformation from Seafloor Hydraulic Pressure Gauges: A trial collaboration study (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Nagano, Akira; Hasegawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kido, Motoyuki; Igarashi, Toshihiro; Uchida, Naoki; Nakata, Ryoko; Yamashita, Yusuke


    , we propose a new interpretation of seismic plate coupling around the Tonankai region along the Nankai Trough, and discuss how to detect it by using the DONET data effectively. In the future, we have to extract the crustal deformation component by separating other components such as instrumental drift and oceanic changes as an integral study collaborated by seismology, geodesy, physical oceanography, and mechanical engineering.

  20. A Comparison of the Crustal Deformation Predicted by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to Seismicity in the Baffin Region of Northern Canada (United States)

    James, T. S.; Schamehorn, T.; Bent, A. L.; Allen, T. I.; Mulder, T.; Simon, K.


    The horizontal crustal strain-rates induced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in northern Canada and western Greenland region are compared to the spatial pattern of seismicity. For the comparison, an updated seismicity catalogue was created from the 2010 version of the NRCan Seismic Hazard Earthquake Epicentre File (SHEEF2010) catalogue and the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) catalogue of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Crustal motion rates were computed with the Innu/Laur16 ice-sheet history and the VM5a viscosity profile (Simon et al., 2015; 2016). This GIA model optimizes the fit to relative sea-level and vertical crustal motion measurements around Hudson Bay and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). A region in Baffin Bay with historically high seismicity, including the 1933 M 7.4 and the 1934 and 1945 M 6.5 earthquakes, features high predicted GIA strain-rates. Elsewhere, agreement is not strong, with zones of seismicity occurring where predicted horizontal crustal strain-rates are small and large crustal strain-rates predicted where earthquake occurrence is muted. For example, large compressional crustal strain-rates are predicted beneath seismically quiescent portions of the Greenland ice sheet. Similarly, large predicted extensional strain-rates occur around southern Hudson Bay and the Foxe Basin, which are also regions of relative seismic quiescence. Additional factors to be considered include the orientation of the background stress field, relative to the predicted stress changes, and potential pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness.

  1. Crustal deformation model of the Beppu-Shimabara graben area, central Kyushu, Japan, based on inversion of three-component GNSS data in 2000-2010 (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuma; Mitsui, Yuta


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, including an Mw-7 right-lateral earthquake on April 15 (UTC), occurred along faults within the Beppu-Shimabara graben in central Kyushu, Japan. Previous studies showed that the graben area was under heterogeneous stress conditions with north-south T-axes and spreading in a north-south direction. Here, we construct a detailed crustal deformation model using three-component Global Navigation Satellite System data in 2000-2010 and considering the distribution of geological fault traces in this area. Our inversion analysis suggests that the strain accumulation rate for the right-lateral seismic slip segment (corresponding to the Futagawa fault), where the largest of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes ruptured, was several times smaller than the other segments in the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Furthermore, we observe distinct subsidence along the Beppu-Shimabara graben. Our base model attributes the subsidence to deflation of magma reservoirs beneath volcanoes, but the observed vertical velocities are poorly fit. In order to improve the fitting results for the vertical deformation, we need more sophisticated volcano-deformation model (such as a sill-like deformation source for Mt. Aso) or graben model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Evolution of fault activity reflecting the crustal deformation: Insights from crustal stress and fault orientations in the northeast-southwest Japan (United States)

    Miyakawa, A.; Otsubo, M.


    We evaluated fault activity in northeast- southwest Japan based on the regional stress and the fault orientation field for both active faults and inactive faults (here, an inactive fault is a fault which activity has not been identified in Quaternary). The regional stress field was calculated using the stress inversion method [Hardebeck and Michael, 2006] applied to earthquake focal mechanisms in the northeast-southwest Japan. The locations and orientations (i.e., strike and dip, assuming a planar fault geometry) of active faults in the study area were obtained from the Active Fault Database of Japan and inactive faults from a database compiled by Kosaka et al. [2011]. We employed slip tendency analysis [Morris et al., 1996] to evaluate the likelihood of fault slip. The values of the slip tendency is generally higher along active faults than along inactive faults. The difference between the slip tendencies of active and inactive faults reflects the difference in their activities. Furthermore the high slip tendency observed for some inactive faults suggests their high activity. These high slip tendencies imply that they have potential to be active. We propose the temporal evolution from inactive to active faulting during long-term crustal deformation to explain the potential for fault activity along inactive faults. When a region undergoes the transition from inactive to active faulting, potential active faults are observed as inactive faults with a high Part of this findig have been submitted to Tectonics (AGU Journal) (2015-07-27). We will presentate some new findings.slip tendency. The average slip tendency of inactive faults gradually increases from northeast to southwest Japan, because a relatively large number of inactive faults in southwest Japan have a high slip tendency. The representative deformation zones in Japan shows a relationship with the observed spatial variations in the evolution from inactive to active faulting. This study was supported by MEXT

  3. First Observation of Coseismic Seafloor Crustal Deformation due to M7 Class Earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Ando, M.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Besana, G. M.; Kuno, M.


    The Mw7.3 and 7.5 earthquakes (Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes) occurred close to the source region of the anticipated Tonankai Trough in September 5, 2004. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate. We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world. We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1) acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2) kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel. We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation. We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1) July 12-16 and 21-22, 2004, 2) November 9-10, 3) January 19, 2005, 4) May 18-20, 5) July 19-20, and 6) August 18-19 and 29-30. The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period. The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3.5 times as large as the maximum displacement observed by on land GPS network in Japan, GEONET. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas. This study is promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captain and crews of Research Vessel, Asama, of Mie Prefectural

  4. Postseismic deformation following the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the distribution of brittle and ductile crustal processes beneath Nepal (United States)

    Moore, James; Yu, Hang; Tang, Chi-Hsien; Wang, Teng; Barbot, Sylvain; Peng, Dongju; Masuti, Sagar; Dauwels, Justin; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Lambert, Valere; Nanjundiah, Priyamvada; Wei, Shengji; Lindsey, Eric; Feng, Lujia; Qiang, Qiu


    Studies of geodetic data across the earthquake cycle indicate a wide range of mechanisms contribute to cycles of stress buildup and relaxation. Both on-fault rate and state friction and off-fault rheologies can contribute to the observed deformation; in particular, the postseismic transient phase of the earthquake cycle. One problem with many of these models is that there is a wide range of parameter space to be investigated, with each parameter pair possessing their own tradeoffs. This becomes especially problematic when trying to model both on-fault and off-fault deformation simultaneously. The computational time to simulate these processes simultaneously using finite element and spectral methods can restrict parametric investigations. We present a novel approach to simulate on-fault and off-fault deformation simultaneously using analytical Green's functions for distributed deformation at depth [Barbot, Moore and Lambert., 2016]. This allows us to jointly explore dynamic frictional properties on the fault, and the plastic properties of the bulk rocks (including grain size and water distribution) in the lower crust with low computational cost. These new displacement and stress Green's functions can be used for both forward and inverse modelling of distributed shear, where the calculated strain-rates can be converted to effective viscosities. Here, we draw insight from the postseismic geodetic observations following the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake. We forward model afterslip using rate and state friction on the megathrust geometry with the two ramp-décollement system presented by Hubbard et al., (pers. comm., 2015) and viscoelastic relaxation using recent experimentally derived flow laws with transient rheology and the thermal structure from [Cattin et al., 2001]. The calculated strain-rates can be converted to effective viscosities. The postseismic deformation brings new insights into the distribution of brittle and ductile crustal processes beneath Nepal

  5. Interplate locking derived from seafloor crustal deformation using GPS/acoustic technique at the Suruga trough, Japan (United States)

    Kenji, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Nagai, S.; Watanabe, T.; Okuda, T.; Sayanagi, K.


    Observation of seafloor crustal deformation using the GPS/acoustic technique started from the study by Spiess et al. (1998). In Japan, this type of observation has been carried out at the subduction margins, e.g., Japan trench, Suruga trough, and Nankai trough. At the present, the accuracy of seafloor positioning is 1 to several centimeters for each epoch. Velocity vectors at seafloor point are estimated through repeating observations. Sato et al. (2011) and Kido et al. (2011) observed clear crustal deformations during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, at the seafloor. Ito et al. (2011) and Iinuma et al. (2012) derived coseismic slip distributions using GPS/acoustic data and on-land GPS data. To observe seafloor crustal deformation is crucial because great subduction earthquakes, such as Tokai and Tonankai earthquakes, often have hypocenter under the seafloor. We observed seafloor crustal deformation at two observation points across the Suruga trough from 2005 to 2011 to investigate interplate locking condition at the source area of the anticipated great subduction, Tokai, earthquake. An east point of the Suruga trough (SNE) was observed 13 times, and an west point of the Suruga trough (SNW) was observed 14 times. We reanalyzed all previous observation data to improve the data quality through the following three processes: 1) Muting reflected waves from the sea surface or vessel body in the acoustic data. 2) Removing the acoustic data during the vessel's attitude data exceed a criteria. 3) Removing the acoustic data during the GPS satellite tracking condition was unstable. The travel-time residual RMS in one epoch improved by 0.27 ms through the improvement of data quality. We estimated the displacement velocity vectors with relative to the Amurian plate on the basis of the result of repeated observation. The estimated displacement velocity vectors at SNE and SNW are 42±8 mm/y to N94±3W direction and 54±17 mm/y to N94±4W direction, respectively. Taking the error

  6. Topographic growth around the Orange River valley, southern Africa: A Cenozoic record of crustal deformation and climatic change (United States)

    Dauteuil, Olivier; Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François


    We reconstruct the history of topographic growth in southern Africa on both sides of the Orange River valley from an integrated analysis of erosion surfaces, crustal deformation and climate change. First, we propose an inventory of erosion surfaces observed in the study area and classify them according to their most likely formative process, i.e. chemical weathering or mechanical erosion. Among the various land units observed we define a new class of landform: the pedivalley, which corresponds to a wide valley with a flat erosional floor. In the Orange River valley, we mapped three low-relief erosion surfaces, each bevelling a variety of lithologies. The oldest and most elevated is (1) a stripped etchplain evolving laterally into (2) a stepped pediplain bearing residual inselbergs; (3) a younger pediplain later formed in response to a more recent event of crustal deformation. These are all Cenozoic landforms: the etchplain is associated with a late Palaeocene to middle Eocene weathering event, and the two pediplains are older than the middle Miocene alluvial terraces of the Orange River. Landscape evolution was first driven by slow uplift (10 m/Ma), followed by a second interval of uplift involving a cumulative magnitude of at least 200 m. This event shaped the transition between the two pediplains and modified the drainage pattern. A final phase of uplift (magnitude: 60 m) occurred after the Middle Miocene and drove the incision of the lower terraces of the Orange River. Climate exerted a major control over the denudation process, and involved very humid conditions responsible for lateritic weathering, followed by more arid conditions, which promoted the formation of pedivalleys. Collectively, these produce pediplains.

  7. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.


    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  8. Evidence of Dynamic Crustal Deformation in Tohoku, Japan, From Time-Varying Receiver Functions (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Yoshioka, S.


    Temporal variation of crustal structure is key to our understanding of Earth processes on human timescales. Often, we expect that the most significant structural variations are caused by strong ground shaking associated with large earthquakes, and recent studies seem to confirm this. Here we test the possibility of using P receiver functions (PRF) to isolate structural variations over time. Synthetic receiver function tests indicate that structural variation could produce PRF changes on the same order of magnitude as random noise or contamination by local earthquakes. Nonetheless, we find significant variability in observed receiver functions over time at several stations located in northeastern Honshu. Immediately following the Tohoku-oki earthquake, we observe high PRF variation clustering spatially, especially in two regions near the beginning and end of the rupture plane. Due to the depth sensitivity of PRF and the timescales over which this variability is observed, we infer this effect is primarily due to fluid migration in volcanic regions and shear stress/strength reorganization. While the noise levels in PRF are high for this type of analysis, by sampling small data sets, the computational cost is lower than other methods, such as ambient noise, thereby making PRF a useful tool for estimating temporal variations in crustal structure.

  9. Study on crustal deformation of the Ms6. 6 Damxung earthquake in 2008 by InSAR measurements

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    Xuejun Qiao


    Full Text Available Three Envisat images from ESA were used to derive the pre – and co-seismic deformation interfereograms caused by the Damxung Ms6. 6 earthquake of Oct. 6, 2008, by using InSAR. The result shows no significant crustal motion more than 4 months before the earthquake, but a maximum co-seismic displacement of about 0.3 m in an epicentral area of 20 km × 20 km. The deformation field was symmetrically distributed about a NS axis, where the west side subsided and the east side uplifted. We used a linear elastic dislocation model in half space and a nonlinear constraint optimized algorithm to estimate the slip distribution along the fault. The results indicates that the epicenter is located at 90.374°E, 29.745°N with a moment magnitude of Mw6. 35. The earthquake is dominated by normal faulting with a maximum slip of 3 m on a 12 km × 11 km fault plane striking S189°W, dipping 60° to NW at a depth of 9.5 km, and is located at a sub-fault of the southeastern Piedmont of the Nyainqentanglha mountains. The relatively shallow depth of earthquake is related to relatively high heat flow in the area.

  10. U-Th age evidence from carbonate veins for episodic crustal deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin


    Central Anatolia represents one of the most outstanding examples of intraplate deformation related to both continental collision and back-arc extension generating non-uniformly distributed stress fields. In this study, we provide direct field evidence of various stress directions and investigate carbonate-filled fracture systems in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province using U/Th geochronology and isotope geochemistry for evaluating the episodes of latest volcanic activity under regional stress. Field data reveal two independent fracture systems in the region. Successive fracture development has been controlled by two different volcanic eruption centers (Hasandağ Composite Volcano and Acıgöl Caldera). Trace element, and stable (C and O) and radiogenic (Sr) isotope compositions of carbonate veins indicate different fluid migration pathways for two different fracture systems. The U/Th age data for carbonate veins of two independent fracture systems indicate that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 episodic periods in the last 150 ka. The NNE-trending first fracture system was formed as a result of strain cycles in a period from 149 ± 2.5, through 91 ± 1.5 to 83 ± 2.5 ka BP. Subsequent deformation events represented by the ENE-trending second fracture zone have been triggered during the period of 53 ± 3.5, 44 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1 ka BP before the first fracture zone resumed the activity at about 4.7 ± 0.15 ka BP. Although further studies are needed to evaluate statistical significance of age correlations, the periods of carbonate precipitation inferred from U-Th age distributions in this study are comparable with the previous dating results of surrounding volcanic eruption events.

  11. Global high-resolution crustal deformations from simulated terrestrial water storage estimates (United States)

    Dill, Robert


    Deformations of the continental crust due to non-tidal loading caused by variations in atmospheric pressure, ocean bottom pressure and terrestrially stored water frequently reach several mm at subdaily to seasonal periods. Space-geodetic receivers attached to the crust therefore experience positional changes that are large enough to affect epoch-wise parameters obtained from the analysis of global geodetic networks. In this contribution, we present predictions of loading deformations due to terrestrial water storage from the global hydrological model LSDM for the last two years. Load estimates are calculated daily in order to account together with the seasonal variations in terrestrial water storage also for rapid changes associated with major precipitation events. Additionally, we account for water mass anomalies stored within the river channels as they induce exceptionally high loading amplitudes at stations close to river banks, in many cases with distinct non-seasonal nature. We demonstrate the potential of using high spatial resolutions in particular at the GPS station in Manaus where loading calculations with lower resolutions fail so far to capture the observed amplitude of 0.5m in the vertical. In addition to the hydrological loading, global-scale deformations are also calculated for non-tidal atmospheric and oceanic loads to obtain a complete set of model-based global deformation fields that might be compared to GPS time series at specific stations of interest. Those atmospheric and oceanic fields are based on ECMWF and OMCT simulations which are also the background for the GRACE AOD1B products. This might principally allow to further homogenize the processing strategies among the geometric and the gravimetric techniques in Global Geodesy.

  12. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region Revealed by receiver Function Data (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Zheng, Y.


    Sichuan-Yunnan and its surrounding areas locates in the southeast side to the Tibetan Plateau, due to the intrusion of the Indian Plate under the Tibetan Plateau, materials escape from the Tibetan Plateau and flow southward to southeastward. Because of such tectonic environment, the Sichuan-Yunnan region is experiencing high tectonic movement, and is capable of highly diffused seismicity. Based on dynamic simulation and field survey investigations, tectonic and geological studies proposed a decoupling model in this region and lower crustal flow may inflate in the crust. However, this idea needs more evidences, especially anisotropic structures to support it, since the anisotropic structures are usually directly related to the movement of materials, or to the tectonic distributions. In the past several years, a number of works have been done on the anisotropic structures in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. In usually, previous studies were mainly carried out by two kinds of methods. First, the shear wave splitting of SKS, which mainly reflects the accumulation effect of the anisotropy of the crust to the mantle; the other way is use surface wave to investigate the anisotropic features at different azimuths and depths. In the recent years, receiver function is used to determine the inclination and anisotropy of the subsurface structure, comparing with the other two methods, receiver functions can provide higher resolution and reliable anisotropic features in the crust. Following the method of Liu and Niu(2012), we collected teleseismic data from the Himalayan first term network, and picked out high quality data based on the waveform SNR ratio, as well as the azimuthal distributions. Comparing with previous work (e.g., Sun et al.,2012), our work can provide more receiver functions results with higher reliability. We find that the crust beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan region has a thickness of 30-60 km and Vp/Vs ratio of 1.70-1.80. The Moho depth from northwest to

  13. Research on Recent GPS Crustal Deformation Characteristics in the Northeastern Edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Ma, Haiping; Wu, Yanqiang; Feng, Jian’gang; Xu, Rong; Wu, Shayi; Wang, Qian


    Based on the GPS data in the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the velocity field and the extension change rate of baseline between stations are analyzed. The crustal movement characteristics and their dynamic changes in this region are discussed. The result indicates that the baseline in the regions demonstrates an overall characteristic of shrinking in the NE direction and extending in the NW direction; The extrusion of Bayan Har Block in SE direction since 2009 has amplified obviously, which leads to the enhancement of correlated movement in SE direction in the NW side of Longmenshan Fault. In addition, Tianzhu empty regions and the area near the epicenter of Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake in 2016 are right in the boundary of this differentiated movement. Recently, a certain amount of strain energy might have been accumulated in the nearby area of the northern margin of Alkin Fault Zone, west boundary of Erdos Block and west to105°N on Northern Xiqinling Fault. The seismic risk in the west and east section of the intersecting area between Bayan Har Block and Qaidam Block is high. The west section of Northern Xiqinling Fault belongs to the inner ring of clockwise vortex and possesses medium-strong seismic risk.

  14. Recent crustal movements (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  15. Three-Dimensional Crustal Architecture Beneath the Sikkim Himalaya and Its Relationship to Active Deformation (United States)

    Paul, Himangshu; Mitra, Supriyo


    We study the 3-D variation of the crustal structure of the Sikkim Himalaya using broadband seismological data acquired from a focused network of seven stations spanning the Lesser, Higher, and Tethyan Himalaya. Common conversion point stacking of receiver functions recorded along an across-strike profile of the Himalaya reveals first-order northward dip on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), a midcrustal discontinuity and the Moho, along with higher-order lateral variations. Three-dimensional images generated from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersions show that the MHT has a ramp-flat-ramp geometry. The ramps are located beneath the Lesser Himalaya and the Tethyan Himalaya with dips of ˜7∘ and ˜15∘, respectively, connected by flat segments. The ramp beneath the Lesser Himalaya forms a dome structure, upwarping the thrust sheets associated with the Peling and Main Central Thrust. The erosional surface of this dome forms the arcuate geometry of thrusts observed in the Lesser Himalaya. The thickness of the underthrust Indian crust is 35-42 km and has an average VS of 3.63 km/s, similar to that of the Indian Shield crust. The Moho also has dome-like structures separated by elongated, deeper sections trending NW-SE. These are intersected by steeply dipping transverse low-velocity zones, oblique to the strike of the Himalaya. We conjecture that these low-velocity zones are the dextral-strike slip faults known to be active beneath the Sikkim Himalaya. The observed alternate shallow and deep segments of the Moho must be a consequence of several cycles of strike-slip displacement on these transverse faults.

  16. Kinematics of SW Anatolia implications on crustal deformation above slab tear (United States)

    Özkaptan, Murat; Koç, Ayten; Lefebvre, Côme; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özacar, Arda A.; Sözbilir, Hasan


    SW Anatolian tectonics are dominated mainly by emplacement of Lycian Nappes from north to south over the Beydaǧları platform during the early to middle Miocene, which followed by the development of the so called Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ). This fault zone is supposed to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone that accommodated more than 100 km displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. In addition, the FBFZ is collinear with the on-land NE continuation of the Pliny Trench along which the north subducting African slab is thought to be torn apart and retreated from somewhere around the apex of Isparta Angle to its present configuration as a STEP fault. In order to test already proposed evolutionary scenarios, and the feasibility of a STEP fault scenario and tectonic evolution of the region, we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic and kinematic study in the region containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia and more than 2000 fault slip data measured mainly along the FBFZ. According to our preliminary results, except for some local insignificant clockwise rotations - the region underwent counter-clockwise rotation during the early to Late Miocene. The rotation senses and amounts are almost the same everywhere implying that rotation took place uniformly everywhere, as a rigid body rotation or the region underwent no internal rotational deformation. Likewise, rotations in the west and the east of FBFZ are similar for the post-late Miocene implying no internal rotational deformation. In addition to paleomagnetic data, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations mainly along the FBFZ indicated that the faults within the FBFZ are mainly normal in character although minor lateral components are observed at the fault terminations or intersections. These fault slip

  17. Crustal deformation and AE monitoring: annual variation and stress-soliton propagation

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    M. Poscolieri


    Full Text Available The stress propagation through the crust can be effectively monitored by means of acoustic mission (AE techniques (ultrasounds. The extit{AE} intensity is indicative of the amount of stress that affects some lithospheric and/or crustal slab of some (ultimately unknown scale size. In principle, such scale size can be different in different areas, as it depends on their respective tectonic setting, by which a variety of prime causes ought to be considered: every cause can eventually prevail over others. Two basic phenomena are here reported. If the crust behaves like a comparatively ideal elastic body, an annual variation is observed, which appears in-phase and correlated, when comparing AE records collected at the Italian site and on the Cephallonia Island. It seems being astronomically modulated, hence it should display a planetary scale. One likely explanation is in terms of the loading tide. Such interpretation can be confirmed by some additional modelling and analysis upon considering the motion of the Sun and of the Moon. A second observed effect refers to the case in which the crust feels the effect of the fatigue that reduces its elastic performance. The phenomenon can be described in terms of stress solitons that cross the area being monitored. They can be unambiguously recognised, and the possibility is therefore envisaged of eventually using them for measuring the propagation speed of stress through the crust over continental or planetary scales. The residuals, with respect to such regularly recognisable effects, of the recorded AE signals are to be investigated in a few subsequent analyses (in progress, as they appear to contain additional relevant physical information, still being much different from any simple random noise. A final recommendation ought therefore to be stressed, for setting up some array of at least a few AE recording stations to be simultaneously operated over some continental scale area and for a few years at least

  18. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio


    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  19. Status of the TOUGH-FLAC simulator and recent applications related to coupled fluid flow and crustal deformations

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    Rutqvist, J.


    This paper presents recent advancement in and applications of TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for multiphase fluid flow and geomechanics. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator links the TOUGH family multiphase fluid and heat transport codes with the commercial FLAC{sup 3D} geomechanical simulator. The most significant new TOUGH-FLAC development in the past few years is a revised architecture, enabling a more rigorous and tight coupling procedure with improved computational efficiency. The applications presented in this paper are related to modeling of crustal deformations caused by deep underground fluid movements and pressure changes as a result of both industrial activities (the In Salah CO{sub 2} Storage Project and the Geysers Geothermal Field) and natural events (the 1960s Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm). Finally, the paper provides some perspectives on the future of TOUGH-FLAC in light of its applicability to practical problems and the need for high-performance computing capabilities for field-scale problems, such as industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced geothermal systems. It is concluded that despite some limitations to fully adapting a commercial code such as FLAC{sup 3D} for some specialized research and computational needs, TOUGH-FLAC is likely to remain a pragmatic simulation approach, with an increasing number of users in both academia and industry.

  20. Exploring Subduction, Slab Breakoff, and Upper-Plate Deformation in the Georgian Greater Caucasus: Shortening Estimates from Area- and Line-Balanced Crustal Scale Cross Sections (United States)

    Trexler, C. C.; Cowgill, E.; Niemi, N. A.; Godoladze, T.


    Between the Black and Caspian Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains (GC) delineate the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The role of subduction in formation of the GC is not widely recognized, despite patterns of subcrustal seismicity attesting to its importance at the E end of the range. The GC currently absorbs most orogen-perpendicular plate convergence (11 mm/yr, 70% of total), but its tectonic evolution relation to subduction remain unclear. Proposed models include 1) subduction of an ~400 km wide backarc ocean basin followed by slab breakoff under the W end of the range; 2) loss of a lithospheric root followed by buoyancy-driven uplift; and 3) closure of a small (~100 km?) basin with no/minimal subduction. Patterns of modern seismicity, exhumation, and shortening are most consistent with the subduction/slab breakoff model, suggesting the western GC may capture the surface expression of processes associated with recent slab breakoff. Each model of the GC makes specific predictions for the amount of shortening within the orogen, with the subduction/breakoff model predicting large magnitudes of convergence. Here we estimate orogenic shortening by balancing mass along several, orogen-perpendicular, crustal-scale cross sections across the GC. First we estimate the original length of undeformed crust by comparing the modern deformed volume (determined from modern topography and moho depth and assuming no net erosional loss) with hypothesized end-member original crustal thicknesses (based on seismic data in the Eastern Black Sea and Scythian platform). These end-member assumptions allow shortening magnitudes as great as ~700 km (12 km-thick oceanic crust), and as small as ~100 km (39 km-thick Scythian margin). Second, we use line-length balanced crustal-scale geologic cross sections to estimate shortening in the western and central GC. We generated these sections using previously published 1:200k geologic maps and our own focused field

  1. Distribution of contemporary crustal deformation and mechanisms for extension in the Woodlark Rift: insights from GPS (United States)

    Wallace, L. M.; Ellis, S. M.; Tregoning, P.; Little, T. A.; Palmer, N.


    The Woodlark Rift, southeastern Papua New Guinea, is a classic example of a rift transitioning from continental rifting to seafloor spreading, and is also the site of exhumation of the world's youngest Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) terranes. Prior to now, very little GPS data existed to constrain the kinematics of contemporary rifting, and the relationship of modern-day rifting to exhumation of the young UHP terranes. We present results from GPS campaign measurements at ~45 sites throughout the southeastern Papua New Guinea region, from GPS campaigns conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2012. Our results suggest that most of the modern-day extensional deformation has shifted southward towards the north coast of the PNG mainland, away from the locus of UHP exhumation in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, although a few mm/yr of active extension remains in the region of UHP rock exhumation. This is consistent with modelling studies that predict a shift in the locus of extension away from the locus of UHP exhumation during the final, waning stages of UHP exhumation. Rates of total extension in the Woodlark Rift increase from west to east from several mm/yr (in the far western Woodlark Rift) to >20 mm/yr further east, due to clockwise rotation of microplates in the region about nearby poles of rotation. We will discuss the implications that our kinematic modelling of the GPS data, earthquake slip vector data, and geological data have for the large-scale driving mechanisms behind rifting in southeast PNG. Our results favour a model where rapid microplate rotation (at 2-3 degrees/Myr) and rifting in the Woodlark Basin is a consequence of strong slab pull forces from extremely rapid subduction (6-13 cm/yr) at the New Britain and San Cristobal trenches further to the north.

  2. The Impacts of 3-D Earth Structure on GIA-Induced Crustal Deformation and Future Sea-Level Change in the Antarctic (United States)

    Powell, E. M.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Gomez, N. A.; Mitrovica, J. X.


    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models used to constrain the extent of past ice sheets and viscoelastic Earth structure, or to correct geodetic and geological observables for ice age effects, generally only consider depth-dependent variations in Earth viscosity and lithospheric structure. A et al. [2013] argued that 3-D Earth structure could impact GIA observables in Antarctica, but concluded that the presence of such structure contributes less to GIA uncertainty than do differences in Antarctic deglaciation histories. New seismic and geological evidence, however, indicates the Antarctic is underlain by complex, high amplitude variability in viscoelastic structure, including a low viscosity zone (LVZ) under West Antarctica. Hay et al. [2016] showed that sea-level fingerprints of modern melting calculated using such Earth models differ from those based on elastic or 1-D viscoelastic Earth models within decades of melting. Our investigation is motivated by two questions: (1) How does 3-D Earth structure, especially this LVZ, impact observations of GIA-induced crustal deformation associated with the last deglaciation? (2) How will 3-D Earth structure affect predictions of future sea-level rise in Antarctica? We compute the gravitationally self-consistent sea level, uplift, and gravity changes using the finite volume treatment of Latychev et al. [2005]. We consider four viscoelastic Earth models: a global 1-D model; a regional, West Antarctic-like 1-D model; a 3-D model where the lithospheric thickness varies laterally; and a 3-D model where both viscosity and lithospheric thickness vary laterally. For our Last Glacial Maximum to present investigations we employ ICE6g [Peltier et al., 2015]. For our present-future investigations we consider a melt scenario consistent with GRACE satellite gravity derived solutions [Harig et al., 2015]. Our calculations indicate that predictions of crustal deformations due to both GIA and ongoing melting are strongly influenced by 3-D

  3. Proterozoic Diabase Dyke Swarms of Northern Ontario: Paleomagnetic Indicators of Broad-Scale Crustal Deformation of the Archean Superior Province (United States)

    Halls, H. C.


    KZ (Halls and Davis, 2004). Lateral variations in clouding intensity and hydrous alteration levels in dyke feldspars reveal that the shield has been gently tilted towards the south, and that superimposed on this tilting is a series of fault-bounded, mostly uplifted, crustal blocks that constitute the KZ. In summary, results from more than 400 paleomagnetic sites in Ontario dykes show that the Superior province, despite being generally regarded as the epitome of a stable craton, has been regionally deformed, perhaps in several stages centred around 2.0 ± 0.2 Ga. If rotation across the KZ accompanied rifting beneath Hudson Bay, it may explain the overall butterfly - shaped outline of the Superior Province. References: Bates, M. and Halls, H. 1991, CJES 28: 1780; Ernst, R. and Halls, H. 1984, CJES 21:1499; Halls, H. and Palmer, H. 1990, CJES 27: 87; Halls, H., Palmer, H.,Bates, M. and Phinney, W. 1994, CJES 31:1182; Halls, H. and Zhang, B. 2003, Tectonophysics 362:123; Halls, H. and Stott, G. 2003, OGS Open File Rept. No. 6120, 7p; Halls, H. and Davis, D. CJES 41,(in press); Percival, J. and West, G. 1994, CJES 31:1256.

  4. Interpretation of Crustal Deformation following the 2011 Tohoku-oki Megathrust Earthquake by the Combined Effect of Afterslip and Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation (United States)

    Noda, A.; Takahama, T.; Ohba, M.; Ito, T.; Matsu'ura, M.


    Crustal deformation following the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake, occurred at the North American-Pacific plate interface, has been revealed by GPS measurement on land (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan) and GPS/Acoustic measurement on seafloor (Japan Coast Guard). The essential causes of the postseismic crustal deformation are considered to be slow afterslip at the downdip extension of the main rupture zone and viscoelastic relaxation of stress changes induced in the asthenosphere. Crustal responses to the afterslip and the viscoelastic relaxation are different in both space and time. So, given proper plate interface geometry and proper crust-mantle rheological structure, we can estimate unbiased spatiotemporal distribution of afterslip through the inversion analysis of observed geodetic data. In the present analysis, we used a 3-D realistic model developed by Hashimoto et al. (2004) for plate interface geometry and a standard elastic-viscoelastic layered model, consisting of a 60 km-thick elastic surface layer and a Maxwell-type viscoelastic substratum with the viscosity of 1019 Pa s, for crust-mantle rheological structure. First, following Noda et al. (2013), we transformed the GPS displacement data on land into the average strains of triangular elements composed of adjacent three GPS stations. Then, by applying a sequential method of stepwise (every two months) inversion to the strain data, we estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of afterslip together with coseismic slip distribution. The estimated results show that significant afterslip has proceeded for the first one and a half years at the downdip extension of the main rupture zone off Iwate and Miyagi with decaying its rate. Finally, based on the estimated results, we computed postseismic offshore crustal movements by using the same elastic-viscoelastic structure model and compared them with seafloor geodetic observations (Watanabe et al., 2014). The good agreement between the computed

  5. RNGCHN: a program to calculate displacement components from dislocations in an elastic half-space with applications for modeling geodetic measurements of crustal deformation (United States)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; Dupré, Emmeline


    The RNGCHN program calculates a single component of the displacement field due to a finite or point-source dislocation buried in an elastic half space. This formulation approximates the surface movements produced by earthquake faulting or volcanic intrusion. As such, it is appropriate for modeling crustal deformation measured by geodetic surveying techniques, such as spirit leveling, trilateration, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Positioning System (GPS), or especially interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Examples suggest that this model can fit simple coseismic earthquake signatures to within their measurement uncertainties. The program's input parameters include fault position, depth, length, width, strike, dip, and three components of slip. The output consists of displacement components in the form of an ASCII list or a rectangular array of binary integers. The same program also provides partial derivatives of the displacement component with respect to all 10 input parameters. The FORTRAN source code for the program is in the public domain and available as the compressed tar file rngchn.tar.Z in the directory/pub/GRGS via the Internet by anonymous ftp to spike.cst. This distribution includes worked examples and a MATLAB interface.

  6. Development of a GPS buoy system for monitoring tsunami, sea waves, ocean bottom crustal deformation and atmospheric water vapor (United States)

    Kato, Teruyuki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiko; Koshimura, Shun'ichi


    We have developed a GPS buoy system for monitoring tsunami for over 12 years. The idea was that a buoy equipped with a GPS antenna and placed offshore may be an effective way of monitoring tsunami before its arrival to the coast and to give warning to the coastal residents. The key technology for the system is real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. We have successfully developed the system; we have detected tsunamis of about 10cm in height for three large earthquakes, namely, the 23 June 2001 Peru earthquake (Mw8.4), the 26 September 2003 Tokachi earthquake (Mw8.3) and the 5 September 2004 earthquake (Mw7.4). The developed GPS buoy system is also capable of monitoring sea waves that are mainly caused by winds. Only the difference between tsunami and sea waves is their frequency range and can be segregated each other by a simple filtering technique. Given the success of GPS buoy experiments, the system has been adopted as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information system for Port and HArborS (NOWPHAS) by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. They have established more than eight GPS buoys along the Japanese coasts and the system has been operated by the Port and Airport Research Institute. As a future scope, we are now planning to implement some other additional facilities for the GPS buoy system. The first application is a so-called GPS/Acoustic system for monitoring ocean bottom crustal deformation. The system requires acoustic waves to detect ocean bottom reference position, which is the geometrical center of an array of transponders, by measuring distances between a position at the sea surface (vessel) and ocean bottom equipments to return the received sonic wave. The position of the vessel is measured using GPS. The system was first proposed by a research group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in early 1980's. The system was extensively developed by Japanese researchers and is now capable of detecting ocean

  7. Crustal Deformation and the Seismic Cycle Across the Kodiak Islands, Alaska (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Carver, Gary; Cohen, Steven; King, Robert


    The Kodiak Islands are located approximately 120 to 250 km from the Alaska-Aleutian Trench - and are within the southern extent of the 1964 Prince William Sound (M(sub w) = 9.2) earthquake rupture zone. Here we report new campaign GPS results (1993-2001) from northern Kodiak Island. The rate and orientation of the horizontal velocities, relative to a fixed North America, range from 25.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm/yr at N32.9 deg. W plus or minus 2.5 to 8.5 plus or minus 1.0 mm/yr at N59.7 deg. W plus or minus 6.5 deg. In addition to the northern Kodiak data, we analyzed data from three southern Kodiak Island stations. The inland stations from both the northern and southern networks indicate a counterclockwise rotation of the velocity vectors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the difference between the Pacific-North American plate motion and the orientation of the down going slab would lead to 4-8 mm/yr of left-lateral slip above the unlocked, down-dip portion of the main thrust zone. The northern and southern Kodiak geodetic data are consistent with a model that includes the viscoelastic response to (1) a downgoing Pacific plate interface that is locked at shallow depths, (2) local coseismic slip in the 1964 earthquake, and (3) interseismic creep down dip from the seismogenic zone. Based on the pre-1964 and post-1944 earthquake history, as well as the pattern of interseismic earthquakes across the plate boundary zone, we hypothesize that in southern Kodiak some strain is released in moderate to large earthquakes between the occurrences of great earthquakes like the 1964 event.

  8. Exploratory results from a new rotary shear designed to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions of crustal earthquakes (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S.; Violay, M. E.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Di Felice, F.; Di Stefano, G.; Romeo, G.; Scarlato, P.


    A challenging goal in experimental rock deformation is to reproduce the extreme deformation conditions typical of coseismic slip in crustal earthquakes: large slip (up to 50 m), slip rates (0.1-10 m/s), accelerations (> 10 m/s2) and normal stress (> 50 MPa). Moreover, fault zones usually contain non-cohesive rocks (gouges) and fluids. The integration of all these deformation conditions is such a technical challenge that there is currently no apparatus in the world that can reproduce seismic slip. Yet, the determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates remains one of the main unknowns in earthquake physics, as it cannot be determined (or very approximately) by seismic wave inversion analysis. In the last thirty years, rotary shear apparatus were designed that combine large normal stresses and slip but low slip rates (high-pressure rotary shears first designed by Tullis) or low normal stresses but large slip rates and slip (rotary shears first designed by Shimamoto). Here we present the results of experiments using a newly-constructed Slow to HIgh Velocity Apparatus (SHIVA), installed at INGV in Rome, which extends the combination of normal stress, slip and slip rate achieved by previous apparatus and reproduces the conditions likely to occur during an earthquake in the shallow crust. SHIVA uses two brushless engines (max power 300 kW, max torque 930 Nm) and an air actuator (thrust 5 tons) in a rotary shear configuration (nominally infinite displacement) to slide hollow rock cylinders (30/50 mm int./ext. diameter) at slip rates ranging from 10 micron/s up to 6.5 m/s, accelerations up to 80 m/s2 and normal stresses up to 50 MPa. SHIVA can also perform experiments in which the torque on the sample (rather than the slip rate) is progressively increased until spontaneous failure occurs: this experimental capability should better reproduce natural conditions. The apparatus is equipped with a sample chamber to carry out experiments in the presence of fluids (up to 15

  9. Microstructural and fabric characterization of brittle-ductile transitional deformation of middle crustal rocks along the Jinzhou detachment fault zone, Northeast China (United States)

    Zhang, Juyi; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Junlai


    Detachment fault zones (DFZs) of metamorphic core complexes generally root into the middle crust. Exhumed DFZs therefore generally demonstrate structural, microstructural and fabric features characteristic of middle to upper crustal deformation. The Jinzhou detachment fault zone from the Liaonan metamorphic core complex is characterized by the occurrence of a sequence of fault rocks due to progressive shearing along the fault zone during exhumation of the lower plate. From the exhumed fabric zonation, cataclastic rocks formed in the upper crust occur near the Jinzhou master detachment fault, and toward the lower plate gradually changed to mylonites, mylonitic gneisses and migmatitic gneisses. Correspondingly, these fault rocks have various structural, microstructural and fabric characteristics that were formed by different deformation and recrystallization mechanisms from middle to upper crustal levels. At the meanwhile, various structural styles for strain localization were formed in the DFZ. As strain localization occurs, rapid changes in deformation mechanisms are attributed to increases in strain rates or involvement of fluid phases during the brittle-ductile shearing. Optical microscopic studies reveal that deformed quartz aggregates in the lower part of the detachment fault zone are characterized by generation of dynamically recrystallized grains via SGR and BLG recrystallization. Quartz rocks from the upper part of the DFZ have quartz porphyroclasts in a matrix of very fine recrystallized grains. The porphyroclasts have mantles of sub-grains and margins grain boundary bulges. Electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD) quartz c-axis fabric analysis suggests that quartz grain aggregates from different parts of the DFZ possess distinct fabric complexities. The c-axis fabrics of deformed quartz aggregates from mylonitic rocks in the lower part of the detachment fault zone preserve Y-maxima which are ascribed to intermediate temperature deformation (500

  10. Active Fault Geometry and Crustal Deformation Along the San Andreas Fault System Through San Gorgonio Pass, California: The View in 3D From Seismicity (United States)

    Nicholson, C.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.


    Understanding the 3D geometry and deformation style of the San Andreas fault (SAF) is critical to accurate dynamic rupture and ground motion prediction models. We use 3D alignments of hypocenter and focal mechanism nodal planes within a relocated earthquake catalog (1981-2011) [Hauksson et al., 2012] to develop improved 3D fault models for active strands of the SAF and adjacent secondary structures. Through San Gorgonio Pass (SGP), earthquakes define a mechanically layered crust with predominantly high-angle strike-slip faults in the upper ~10 km, while at greater depth, intersecting sets of strike-slip, oblique slip and low-angle thrust faults define a wedge-shaped volume deformation of the lower crust. In some places, this interface between upper and lower crustal deformation may be an active detachment fault, and may have controlled the down-dip extent of recent fault rupture. Alignments of hypocenters and nodal planes define multiple principal slip surfaces through SGP, including a through-going steeply-dipping predominantly strike-slip Banning fault strand at depth that upward truncates a more moderately dipping (40°-50°) blind, oblique North Palm Springs fault. The North Palm Springs fault may be the active down-dip extension of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust offset at depth by the principal, through-going Banning strand. In the northern Coachella Valley, seismicity indicates that the Garnet Hill and Banning fault strands are most likely sub-parallel and steeply dipping (~70°NE) to depths of 8-10 km, where they intersect and merge with a stack of moderately dipping to low-angle oblique thrust faults. Gravity and water well data confirm that these faults are sub-parallel and near vertical in the upper 2-3 km. Although the dense wedge of deep seismicity below SGP and largely south of the SAF contains multiple secondary fault sets of different orientations, the predominant fault set appears to be a series of en echelon NW-striking oblique strike-slip faults

  11. Global Positioning System constraints on crustal deformation before and during the 21 February 2008 Wells, Nevada M6.0 earthquake (United States)

    Hammond, William C.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Murray-Moraleda, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.; dePolo, Craig M.; LaPointe, Daphne D.


    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) data from permanent sites and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) campaign data we have estimated co-seismic displacements and secular background crustal deformation patterns associated with the 21 February 2008 Wells Nevada earthquake. Estimated displacements at nearby permanent GPS sites ELKO (84 km distant) and GOSH (81 km distant) are 1.0±0.2 mm and 1.1±0.3 mm, respectively. The magnitude and direction are in agreement with those predicted from a rupture model based on InSAR measurements of the near-field co-seismic surface displacement. Analysis of long GPS time series (>10 years) from the permanent sites within 250 km of the epicenter indicate the eastern Nevada Basin and Range undergoes steady tectonic transtension with rates on the order of 1 mm/year over approximately 250 km. The azimuth of maximum horizontal crustal extension is consistent with the azimuth of the Wells earthquake co-seismic slip vector. The orientation of crustal shear is consistent with deformation associated with Pacific/North America plate boundary relative motion seen elsewhere in the Basin and Range. In response to the event, we deployed a new GPS site with the capability to telemeter high rate, low latency data that will in the future allow for rapid estimation of surface displacement should aftershocks or postseismic deformations occur. We estimated co-seismic displacements using campaign GPS data collected before and after the event, however in most cases their uncertainties were larger than the offsets. Better precision in co-seismic displacement could have been achieved for the campaign sites if they had been surveyed more times or over a longer interval to better estimate their pre-event velocity.

  12. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.


    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  13. Plate convergence, crustal delamination, extrusion tectonics and minimization of shortening work as main controlling factors of the recent Mediterranean deformation pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babbucci


    Full Text Available It is argued that the time-space distribution of major post middle Miocene deformation events in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean region, deduced from the relevant literature, can be coherently explained as a consequence of the convergence between the Africa/Arabia and Eurasia blocks. This plate convergence has mainly been accommodated by the consumption of the thinnest parts of the Northern African (Ionian and Levantine basins and peri-Adriatic margins. During each evolutionary phase the space distribution of trench zones is controlled by the basic physical requirement of minimizing the work of horizontal forces, induced by plate convergence, against the resisting forces, i.e., the cohesion of the upper brittle crustal layer and the buoyancy forces at the consuming boundaries. The significant changes of tectonic styles which determined the transition from one phase to the next, like those which occurred around the Messinian and the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, were determined by the suture of consuming boundaries. When such an event occurs, the system must activate alternative consuming processes to accommodate the convergence of the major confining blocks. The observed deformations in the study area suggest that this tectonic reorganization mostly developed by the lateral extrusion of crustal wedges away from the sutured borders. This mechanism allowed the translation of maximum horizontal stresses from the locked collisional fronts to the zones where consumable lithosphere was still present, in order to activate the next consuming processes. The extensional episodes which led to the formation of basins and troughs in the Tyrrhenian and Aegean zones are interpreted as secondary effects of the outward escape of crustal wedges, like those which occurred in response to longitudinal compressional regimes in the Apennines and Aegean regions.

  14. Crustal deformation characteristics of Sichuan-Yunnan region in China on the constraint of multi-periods of GPS velocity fields (United States)

    Yue, Caiya; Dang, Yamin; Dai, Huayang; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Xiankai


    In order to obtain deformation parameters in each block of Sichuan-Yunnan Region (SYG) in China by stages and establish a dynamic model about the variation of the strain rate fields and the surface expansion in this area, we taken the Global Positioning System (GPS) sites velocity in the region as constrained condition and taken advantage of the block strain calculation model based on spherical surface. We also analyzed the deformation of the active blocks in the whole SYG before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, and analyzed the deformation of active blocks near the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake in detail. The results show that, (1) Under the effects of the carving from India plate and the crimping from the potential energy of Tibetan Plateau for a long time, there is a certain periodicity in crustal deformation in SYG. And the period change and the earthquake occurrence have a good agreement. (2) The differences in GPS velocity fields relative Eurasian reference frame shows that the Wenchuan earthquake and the Ya'an earthquake mainly affect the crustal movement in the central and southern part of SYG, and the average velocity difference is about 4-8 mm/a for the Wenchuan earthquake and 2-4 mm/a for the Ya'an earthquake. (3) For the Wenchuan earthquake, the average strain changed from 10 to 20 nanostrian/a before earthquake to 40-50 nanostrian/a after the earthquake, but before and after the Ya'an earthquake, the strain value increased from about 15 nanostrian/a to about 30 nanostrian/a. (4) The Wenchuan earthquake has changed the strain parameter of each active block more or less. Especially, the Longmen block and Chengdu block near the epicenter. The research provides fundamental material for the study of the dynamic mechanism of the push extrusion from the north-east of the India plate and the crimp from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and it also provides support for the study of crustal stress variation and earthquake prediction in Sichuan Yunnan region.

  15. Broadscale postseismic deformation and lower crustal relaxation in the central Bayankala Block (central Tibetan Plateau) observed using InSAR data (United States)

    Zhao, Dezheng; Qu, Chunyan; Shan, Xinjian; Zuo, Ronghu; Liu, Yunhua; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Guohong


    We have generated a more than 500 km long postseismic deformation rate map and cumulative displacement time series in the central Bayankala Block of the Tibetan Plateau using ENVISAT/ASAR data from 2003 to 2010 by the π-RATE stacking algorithm. This rate map spans a period of ∼7.2 years and reveals that postseismic motion of 2001 Kokoxili earthquake exhibits a striking signal, dominating crustal deformation of the central Bayankala Block with a cross-fault magnitude ∼9-11 mm/yr in line of sight (LOS) (∼93.1°E). The southern and northern parts of the postseismic deformation field exhibit different patterns and variable magnitudes, reflecting asymmetry of the displacement distribution. Postseismic motion affects eastward extrusion of the central Bayankala Block, which reaches ∼15 km north of the Ganzi-Yushu fault. To further investigate viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust in this area after approximately two years, E-M, E-M-M and E-S models are constructed. The result shows that the best fit viscosity for the lower crust is about 1 × 1019 Pa·s. Comparison between cumulative displacements resolved by these three models shows that viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust makes the most significant contribution to postseismic stress relaxation after 2001 event.

  16. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied


    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  17. GPS measurements of present day crustal deformation within the Lebanese restraining bend along the Dead Sea Fault System (United States)

    Jaafar, R.; Gomez, F.; Abdallah, C.; Karam, G.; Reilinger, R.; Alchalbi, A.; Yassminh, R.; Daoud, M.


    The Lebanese restraining bend is a 200 km long bend with a left lateral sense of slip located along the Dead Sea fault system (DSFS) between 33.2 and 34.6 degrees north latitude. The DSFS is a transform plate boundary fault system accommodating the differential northward movement of Arabian and Sinai plates relative to the Eurasian plate. Within the Lebanese Restraining bend, The DSFS splays into several major left-lateral strike-slip faults, forming a positive flower structure. This study combines GPS measurements from Lebanon where surveys span for about 5.5 years with sites from the Anti Lebanon Mountains in SW Syria for a more complete view of crystal deformation in the Restraining bend. The GPS network includes Continuous GPS sites and 27 campaign sites: 14 sites in Lebanon installed in 2002, 8 sites in Lebanon installed in 2005, and 5 sites in southwestern Syria. Preliminary velocities for older campaign sites have uncertainties less than 1 mm/yr, whereas newer sites have around 1.5 mm/yr uncertainties. The improved spatial coverage and reduced uncertainties allow constructing elastic fault models that explore strain partitioning between two strike slip faults (representing the Yammouneh and Serghaya faults) and a generalized thrust fault to accommodate convergence in the Restraining bend. Preliminary velocities suggest around 4 - 4.5 mm/yr along the Yammouneh fault. This study provides an essential tool for assessing tool for assessing the seismic hazard in the vicinity of the Lebanese restraining bend.

  18. Modeling crustal deformation and rupture processes related to upwelling of deep CO2-rich fluids during the 1965-1967 Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm in Japan

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    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Yamamoto, K.


    In Matsushiro, central Japan, a series of more than 700,000 earthquakes occurred over a 2-year period (1965-1967) associated with a strike-slip faulting sequence. This swarm of earthquakes resulted in ground surface deformations, cracking of the topsoil, and enhanced spring-outflows with changes in chemical compositions as well as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) degassing. Previous investigations of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm have suggested that migration of underground water and/or magma may have had a strong influence on the swarm activity. In this study, employing coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modelling, we show that observed crustal deformations and seismicity can have been driven by upwelling of deep CO{sub 2}-rich fluids around the intersection of two fault zones - the regional East Nagano earthquake fault and the conjugate Matsushiro fault. We show that the observed spatial evolution of seismicity along the two faults and magnitudes surface uplift, are convincingly explained by a few MPa of pressurization from the upwelling fluid within the critically stressed crust - a crust under a strike-slip stress regime near the frictional strength limit. Our analysis indicates that the most important cause for triggering of seismicity during the Matsushiro swarm was the fluid pressurization with the associated reduction in effective stress and strength in fault segments that were initially near critically stressed for shear failure. Moreover, our analysis indicates that a two order of magnitude permeability enhancement in ruptured fault segments may be necessary to match the observed time evolution of surface uplift. We conclude that our hydromechanical modelling study of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm shows a clear connection between earthquake rupture, deformation, stress, and permeability changes, as well as large-scale fluid flow related to degassing of CO{sub 2} in the shallow seismogenic crust. Thus, our study provides further evidence of the

  19. Crustal deformation around the Kamishiro fault, northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line and its relation to the 2014 Northern Nagano earthquake (Mw6.3) (United States)

    Sagiya, T.; Teratani, N.; Matsuhiro, K.; Okuda, T.; Horikawa, S.; Matsuta, N.; Nishimura, T.; Yarai, H.; Suito, H.


    The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is a major geologic boundary intersecting the Japanese mainland into the northeastern and the southwestern parts. It is also an active fault system that is supposed to have a high seismic potential. We have conducted dense GPS observation and identified a highly localized E-W contraction around the Kamishiro fault at the northern ISTL. Kinematic modeling of this deformation pattern suggests that the fault is shallowly dipping to the east and accommodating the E-W contraction by aseismic faulting below the depth of 2-4 km. This aseismic fault is consistent with the base of the Neogene basin fill, which has accommodated E-W shortening over 10km. On November 22, 2014, a Mw 6.3 earthquake occurred at the Kamishiro fault. The hypocenter is located at the 5km depth and a 9km long surface rupture appeared along the fault trace. GPS observation and InSAR analysis with ALOS-2 data revealed northwestward displacement and uplift (max. 90cm) on the east, and southeastward displacement with subsidence (max. 30cm) on the west, indicating a rupture of the Kamishiro fault. The coseismic crustal deformation pattern is modeled by a faulting on a high-angle reverse fault from the surface to 7km depth, extending ~20km along the fault trace. A large fault slip is estimated at the shallowest (depthcycle at a thrust fault system.

  20. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro


    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  1. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro


    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  2. Deformed Neogene basins, active faulting and topography in Westland: Distributed crustal mobility west of the Alpine Fault transpressive plate boundary (South Island, New Zealand) (United States)

    Ghisetti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.; Hamling, Ian


    Tectonic activity in the South Island of New Zealand is dominated by the Alpine Fault component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. West of the Alpine Fault deformation is recorded by Paleogene-Neogene basins coeval with the evolution of the right-lateral/transpressive plate margin. Initial tectonic setting was controlled by N-S normal faults developed during Late Cretaceous and Eocene-early Miocene rifting. Following inception of the Alpine Fault (c. 25 Ma) reverse reactivation of the normal faults controlled tectonic segmentation that became apparent in the cover sequences at c. 22 Ma. Based on restored transects tied to stratigraphic sections, seismic lines and wells, we reconstruct the vertical mobility of the Top Basement Unconformity west of Alpine Fault. From c. 37-35 Ma to 22 Ma subsidence was controlled by extensional faulting. After 22 Ma the region was affected by differential subsidence, resulting from eastward crustal flexure towards the Alpine Fault boundary and/or components of transtension. Transition from subsidence to uplift started at c. 17 Ma within a belt of basement pop-ups, separated by subsiding basins localised in the common footwall of oppositely-dipping reverse faults. From 17 to 7-3 Ma reverse fault reactivation and uplift migrated to the WSW. Persistent reverse reactivation of the inherited faults in the present stress field is reflected by the close match between tectonic block segmentation and topography filtered at a wavelength of 25 km, i.e. at a scale comparable to crustal thickness in the region. However, topography filtered at wavelength of 75 km shows marked contrasts between the elevated Tasman Ranges region relative to regions to the south. Variations in thickness and rigidity of the Australian lithosphere possibly control N-S longitudinal changes, consistent with our estimates of increase in linear shortening from the Tasman Ranges to the regions located west of the Alpine Fault bend.

  3. Application of the global positioning system to crustal deformation measurements: 3. Result from the southern California borderlands (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.


    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6°W, 34.6°N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between OVRO and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in the western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 ± 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 ± 1 mm/yr at N16 ± 3°E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 ± 1.8 mm/yr at a direction of N38 ± 20°W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 ± 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  4. Current crustal deformation of the Taiwan orogen reassessed by cGPS strain-rate estimation and focal mechanism stress inversion (United States)

    Chen, Sean Kuanhsiang; Wu, Yih-Min; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Chan, Yu-Chang


    -clockwise at the depths of 20-40 km, coinciding with transition of styles of faulting from reverse to strike-slip faulting along the depths as revealed by variation of the Aϕ values. The features indicate that internal deformation of the upper crust is primarily driven by the same compressional mechanism. It implies that geodetic strains could detect the deformation from surface down to a maximal depth of 20 km in most regimes of Taiwan. We find that heterogeneity in orientations of compressive axes and styles of faulting is strong in two regimes at the northern and southern Central Range, coinciding to areas of the orogenic thinned/thickened crust. Conversely, the heterogeneity is weak in the central Western Foothills at surrounding area of root of the overthickened crust. This observation, coupled with regional seismological observations, may imply that vertical deformation from crustal thickening and thinning and thinning-related dynamics from mantle flows may have joint influence on degree of stress heterogeneity.

  5. Analytical modeling of gravity changes and crustal deformation at volcanoes: The Long Valley caldera, California, case study (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Hill, D.P.


    Joint measurements of ground deformation and micro-gravity changes are an indispensable component for any volcano monitoring strategy. A number of analytical mathematical models are available in the literature that can be used to fit geodetic data and infer source location, depth and density. Bootstrap statistical methods allow estimations of the range of the inferred parameters. Although analytical models often assume that the crust is elastic, homogenous and isotropic, they can take into account different source geometries, the influence of topography, and gravity background noise. The careful use of analytical models, together with high quality data sets, can produce valuable insights into the nature of the deformation/gravity source. Here we present a review of various modeling methods, and use the historical unrest at Long Valley caldera (California) from 1982 to 1999 to illustrate the practical application of analytical modeling and bootstrap to constrain the source of unrest. A key question is whether the unrest at Long Valley since the late 1970s can be explained without calling upon an intrusion of magma. The answer, apparently, is no. Our modeling indicates that the inflation source is a slightly tilted prolate ellipsoid (dip angle between 91?? and 105??) at a depth of 6.5 to 7.9??km beneath the caldera resurgent dome with an aspect ratio between 0.44 and 0.60, a volume change from 0.161 to 0.173??km3 and a density of 1241 to 2093??kg/m3. The larger uncertainty of the density estimate reflects the higher noise of gravity measurements. These results are consistent with the intrusion of silicic magma with a significant amount of volatiles beneath the caldera resurgent dome. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Microseismicity in Southern South Island, New Zealand: Implications for the Mechanism of Crustal Deformation Adjacent to a Major Continental Transform (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Emily; Lamb, Simon; Stern, Tim A.; Smith, Euan


    Shallow (New Zealand, as a consequence of distributed shear and thickening in the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone. It has recently been proposed that continental convergence here is accommodated by oblique slip on a low-angle detachment that underlies the region, and as such, forms a previously unrecognized mode of oblique continental convergence. We test this model using microseismicity, presenting a new, 15 month high-resolution microearthquake catalog for the Southern Lakes and northern Fiordland regions adjacent to the Alpine Fault. We determine the spatial distribution, moment release, and style of microearthquakes and show that seismicity in the continental lithosphere is predominantly shallower than 20 km, in a zone up to 150 km wide, but less frequent deeper microseismicity extending into the mantle, at depths of up to 100 km is also observed. The geometry of the subducted oceanic Australian plate is well imaged, with a well-defined Benioff zone to depths of 150 km. In detail, the depth of continental microseismicity shows considerable variation, with no clear link with major active surface faults, but rather represents diffuse cracking in response to the ambient stress release. The moment release rate is 0.1% of that required to accommodate relative plate convergence, and the azimuth of the principal horizontal axis of contraction accommodated by microseismicity is 120°, 15-20° clockwise of the horizontal axis of contractional strain rate observed geodetically. Thus, short-term microseismicity, independent of knowledge of intermittent large-magnitude earthquakes, may not be a good guide to the rate and orientation of long-term deformation but is an indicator of the instantaneous state of stress and potential distribution of finite deformation. We show that both the horizontal and vertical spatial distribution of microseismicity can be explained in terms of a low-angle detachment model.

  7. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault and implications to regional seismic hazard assessment (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Masson, Frederic; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov


    Detailed analysis of crustal deformation along the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is presented. Using dense GPS measurements we obtain the velocities of new near- and far-field campaign stations across the fault. We find that this section is locked with a locking depth of 19.9 ± 7.7 km and a slip rate of 5.0 ± 0.8 mm/yr. The geodetically determined locking depth is found to be highly consistent with the thickness of the seismogenic zone in this region. Analysis of instrumental seismic record suggests that only 1% of the total seismic moment accumulated since the last large event occurred about 800 years ago, was released by small to moderate earthquakes. Historical and paleo-seismic catalogs of this region together with instrumental seismic data and calculations of Coulomb stress changes induced by the 1995 Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake suggest that the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is in the late stage of the current interseismic period.

  8. Coupling codes including deformation exchange suitable for non conforming and unstructured large meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex, B.; Grandotto, M.; Perdu, F.; Daniel, M.; Gesquière, G.


    Highlights: ► A function of deformation transfer on meshes is proposed. ► Large meshes sharing a common geometry or common borders are treated. ► We show the deformation transfer impact on simulation results. - Abstract: The paper proposes a method to couple computation codes and focuses on the transfer of mesh deformations between these codes. The deformations can concern a single object or different objects in contact along common boundaries. The method is designed to allow a wide range of mesh types and to manage large volumes of data. To reach these objectives, a mesh simplification step is first achieved and is followed by the deformation characterisation through a continuous function defined by a network of compact support radial basis functions (RBFs). A test case featuring adjacent geometries in a material testing reactor (MTR) is presented to assess the method. Two solids close together are subject to a deformation by a thermal dilatation, and are cooled by a liquid flowing between them. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and show how the deformation transfer modifies the thermalhydraulic solution.

  9. A multiple dating approach (luminescence and electron spin resonance) to assess rates of crustal deformation using Quaternary fluvial terraces of the lower Moulouya River (NE Morocco) (United States)

    Bartz, Melanie; Rixhon, Gilles; Duval, Mathieu; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut


    The Moulouya River, the largest catchment in Morocco, drains an area characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, where a thrust zone associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region was identified (Barcos et al., 2014; Rixhon et al., 2017). New geomorphological results demonstrate contrasting fluvial environments on each side of the thrust: long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by >37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with three Pleistocene terrace levels, occurred in the footwall and the hanging wall, respectively (Rixhon et al., 2017). Here, we present a preliminary geochronological background for these contrasting terrace systems based on a multiple dating approach. Samples for (i) luminescence (pIRIR225 and pIRIR290 dating of coarse-grained K-feldspars) and (ii) electron spin resonance (ESR dating of coarse-grained quartz) from four different profiles were collected. (i) Due to the application of the athermal detrapping model by Huntley (2006) (modified after Kars et al., 2008), it appears that the feldspar signals are in sample specific field saturation. Our results yielded minimum ages of 0.9 Ma and 0.7 Ma for the footwall and hanging wall, respectively. (ii) Using the multiple centre approach with ESR dating (Duval et al., 2015), we measured both the aluminium (Al) and the titanium (Ti) centres in order to evaluate whether they would provide consistent results. Results indicate that De values of the Al centre are either slightly higher compared to those of the Ti centre or they agree within a 1σ-error range, which may simply be due to the slower bleaching kinetics of the Al centre. Thus, the ESR ages were inferred from the Ti centre. Ages between 1.35±0.10 and 1.17±0.10 Ma in the footwall show sediment aggradation between MIS

  10. Kinematics and significance of a poly-deformed crustal-scale shear zone in central to south-eastern Madagascar: the Itremo-Ikalamavony thrust (United States)

    Giese, Jörg; Schreurs, Guido; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco


    Across the crystalline basement of Madagascar, late Archaean rocks of the Antananarivo Block are tectonically overlain by Proterozoic, predominantly metasedimentary units of the Ikalamavony and Itremo Groups of the Southwest Madagascar Block. The generally west-dipping tectonic contact can be traced for more than 750 km from NW to SE and is referred to here as the Itremo-Ikalamavony thrust. The basal units of the SW Madagascar Block comprise metasedimentary quartzites with the potential to preserve a multistage deformation history in their microstructures. Previous studies suggest contrasting structural evolutions for this contact, including eastward thrusting, top-to-the-west directed extension and right-lateral strike-slip deformation during the late Neoproterozoic/Ediacaran. In this study, we integrate remote sensing analyses, structural and petrological fieldwork, as well as microstructural investigations of predominantly quartz mylonites from the central southern segment of the contact between Ankaramena and Maropaika. In this area, two major phases of ductile deformation under high-grade metamorphic conditions occurred in latest Neoproterozoic/early Phanerozoic times. A first (Andreaba) phase produces a penetrative foliation, which is parallel to the contact between the two blocks and contemporaneous with widespread magmatism. A second (Ihosy) phase of deformation folds Andreaba-related structures. The investigated (micro-)structures indicate that (a) juxtaposition of both blocks possibly already occurred prior to the Andreaba phase, (b) (re-)activation with top-to-the-east thrusting took place during the latest stages of the Andreaba phase, (c) the Ihosy phase resulted in regional-scale open folding of the tectonic contact and (d) reactivation of parts of the contact took place at distinctively lower temperatures post-dating the major ductile deformations.

  11. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008. (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul


    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an

  12. Crustal Deformation Analysis Using a 3D FE High-fidelity Model with a Fast Computation Method and Its Application to Inversion Analysis of Fault Slip in the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (United States)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hori, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, M.


    Crustal deformation analysis is important in order to understand the interplate coupling and coseismic fault slips. To perform it more accurately, we need a high-fidelity crustal structure model. However, in spite of accumulated crustal data, models with simplified flat shapes or relatively low resolution have been used, because the computation cost using high-fidelity models with a large degree-of-freedom (DOF) could be significantly high. Especially, estimation of the interplate coupling and coseismic fault slip requires the calculation of Green's function (the response displacement due to unit fault slip). To execute this computation in a realistic time, we need to reduce the computation cost. The objectives of our research is following: (1)To develop a method to generate 3D Finite Element (FE) models which represent heterogeneous crustal layers with the complex shape of crustal structure; (2)To develop a fast FE analysis method to perform crustal deformation analysis many times using single computation node, supposing the use of a small-scale computation environment. We developed an automatic FE model generation method using background grids with high quality meshes in a large area by extending the method of (Ichimura et al, 2009). We used Finite Element Method (FEM) because it has an advantage in representing the shape. Hybrid meshes consisting of tetrahedral and voxel elements are generated; the former is used when the interface surfaces and the grids intersect so that the shape of the crust is represented well, while the latter is used in the homogeneous areas. Also, we developed a method for crustal deformation analysis due to fault slip, which solves the FEM equation Ku=f assuming that the crust is an elastic body. To compute it fast, firstly we solved the problem by CG method with a simple preconditioning, parallelizing it by OpenMP. However, this computation took a long time, so we improved the method by introducing Multigrid Method (Saam, 2003) to the

  13. A fault‐based model for crustal deformation in the western United States based on a combined inversion of GPS and geologic inputs (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang


    We develop a crustal deformation model to determine fault‐slip rates for the western United States (WUS) using the Zeng and Shen (2014) method that is based on a combined inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and geological slip‐rate constraints. The model consists of six blocks with boundaries aligned along major faults in California and the Cascadia subduction zone, which are represented as buried dislocations in the Earth. Faults distributed within blocks have their geometrical structure and locking depths specified by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3) and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Map Project model. Faults slip beneath a predefined locking depth, except for a few segments where shallow creep is allowed. The slip rates are estimated using a least‐squares inversion. The model resolution analysis shows that the resulting model is influenced heavily by geologic input, which fits the UCERF3 geologic bounds on California B faults and ±one‐half of the geologic slip rates for most other WUS faults. The modeled slip rates for the WUS faults are consistent with the observed GPS velocity field. Our fit to these velocities is measured in terms of a normalized chi‐square, which is 6.5. This updated model fits the data better than most other geodetic‐based inversion models. Major discrepancies between well‐resolved GPS inversion rates and geologic‐consensus rates occur along some of the northern California A faults, the Mojave to San Bernardino segments of the San Andreas fault, the western Garlock fault, the southern segment of the Wasatch fault, and other faults. Off‐fault strain‐rate distributions are consistent with regional tectonics, with a total off‐fault moment rate of 7.2×1018">7.2×1018 and 8.5×1018  N·m/year">8.5×1018  N⋅m/year for California and the WUS outside California, respectively.

  14. Precursory slow crustal deformation before short-term slow slip event in January 2006, recorded at Shingu borehole station southern Kii Peninsula (United States)

    Fukuda, M.; Sagiya, T.


    In January 2006, a deep low frequency tremor activity and an associated short-term slow slip event occurred in the eastern Kii Peninsula and this coupled activity migrated to the northeast at a rate of 10km/day. We are monitoring crustal deformation at Shingu borehole station in the southeastern Kii peninsula. The Shingu borehole site is located about 100km landward from the Nankai Trough axis, and close to the epicenter of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. The borehole is 500 m deep and is equipped with an integrated multi-component borehole monitoring system developed by Ishii et al. (2002), consisting of 6 strain sensors (4 in horizontal, 2 in vertical), 2 pendulum tilt sensors, a magnetic direction finder, and a quartz thermometer. Each signal is originally recorded with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. We decimated the original data into hourly data, which we decomposed into tidal response, barometric response, smoothed trend and random noise component by applying BAYTAP-G software [Tamura et al., 1991]. In the trend component from November 2005 to March 2006, we did not found deformation signal at the time of the Jan. 2006 tremor event. However, we found three significant slow strain changes from the processed records. Two of them coincide with the occurrence of the tremor activities in the southern Kii Peninsula, and are characterized by N-S contraction (0.019-0.031 ppm) and E-W extension (0.025-0.038 ppm). These are the first evidence of the short-term slow slip event in this area. The third change is characterized by NW-SE extension (0.026 ppm), N-S contraction (0.012 ppm), E-W extension (0.022 ppm), and southwestward tilting (0.23 micro rad). It occurred from December 29, 2005 to January 2, 2006, just before the tremor and slip event in January 2006, but was not accompanied by any tremor activity. We conducted a series of inversion analysis to infer the source of this possible slow slip event. We assumed that the slow slip event was caused by a reverse fault

  15. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei


    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  16. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies (United States)


    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  17. Ocean contribution to co-seismic crustal deformation and geoid anomalies : Application to the 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Riva, R.E.M.; Van der Wal, W.


    Large earthquakes do not only heavily deform the crust in the vicinity of the fault, they also change the gravity field of the area affected by the earthquake due to mass redistribution in the upper layers of the Earth. Besides that, for sub-oceanic earthquakes deformation of the ocean floor causes

  18. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.


    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  19. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data (United States)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.


    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  20. Crustal Structure, Seismic Anisotropy and Deformations of the Ediacaran/Cambrian of the Małopolska Block in SE Poland Based on Data from Two Seismic Wide-Angle Experiments (United States)

    Środa, Piotr


    The area of SE Poland represents a complex contact of tectonic units of different consolidation age—from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform (including Małopolska Block) to Cenozoic Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. In order to investigate the anisotropic properties of the upper crust of the Małopolska Block and their relation to tectonic evolution of the area, two seismic datasets were used: seismic wide-angle off-line recordings from POLCRUST-01 deep seismic reflection profile and recordings from active deep seismic experiment CELEBRATION 2000. During acquisition of deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01 in 2010, a 35-km-long line of 14 recorders (PA-14), oriented perpendicularly to the profile, was deployed to record the refractions from the upper crust (Pg) at wide range of azimuths. These data were used for an analysis of the azimuthal anisotropy of the MB with the modified delay-time inversion method. The results of modelling of the off-line refractions from the MB suggest 6% HTI anisotropy of the Cambrian/Ediacaran basement, with 130º azimuth of the fast velocity axis and mean Vp of 4.9 km/s. To compare this result with previous, independent information about anisotropy at larger depth, a subset of previously modelled data from CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, recorded in the MB area, was also analysed by inversion. The recordings of Pg phase at up to 120 km offsets were analysed using anisotropic delay-time inversion, providing information down to 12 km depth. The CELEBRATION 2000 model shows 9% HTI anisotropy with 126º orientation of the fast axis. Thus, local-scale anisotropy of this part of MB confirms the large-scale anisotropy suggested by previous studies based on data from a broader area and larger depth interval. The azimuthal anisotropy (i.e. HTI symmetry of the medium) is interpreted as a result of strong compressional deformation during the accretion of terranes to the EEC margin, leading to

  1. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.


    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  2. The role of creep cavitation and ductile failure in mid-crustal deformation - a critical one in the formation of shear instabilities and the nucleation of deep slow slip events? (United States)

    Fusseis, Florian; Gilgannon, James; Burns, Thomas; Menegon, Luca


    Mid-crustal shear zones host deep slow slip events and play a critical role in transferring stress from viscously deforming lower-crustal domains to the frictional, seismogenic upper crust. At the same time, these shear zones act as conduits for trans-crustal fluid transfer. Deformation in shear zones at the frictional-viscous transition is accommodated by a complex combination of deformation mechanisms that is dominated by grain-size sensitive creep in fine-grained ultramylonites. Over the past years, the significance of synkinematic creep cavitation in the deformation of these ultramylonites has been established, and Fusseis et al. (2009) have formulated the dynamic granular fluid pump model to consider this form of porosity in models of fluid transfer through the middle crust. In this presentation we analyse amphibolite-facies ultramylonitic samples from the Redbank Shear Zone (Australia) that have been exhumed from the frictional-viscous transition without any significant retrograde overprint. The ultramylonites, which were derived from a granitic protolith, appear compositionally layered, with alternating layers of extremely fine-grained ( 1-2 um) polymineralic mixtures of feldspar, quartz, mica, epidote and ilmenite and mono-mineralic quartz layers. The latter exhibit abundant creep cavities, which are the focus of this contribution. A hierarchy of creep cavities are found to exists in the quartz domains. This porosity can be considered to have formed synkinematically by two distinct mechanisms: Zener-Stroh cracking and superplastic void growth. The porosity is shown to have evolved with the disaggregation of the dynamically recrystallising quartz ribbons during ultramylonitisation. In initially thick and coherent quartz ribbons, pores generated by Zener-Stroh cracking emerge on grain-boundaries aligned with the YZ plane of finite strain. With decreasing quartz domain thickness and increasing quartz dispersion into the fine-grained ( 1-2 μm) polyphase

  3. Analogue experiment of the crustal deformation by X-ray CT; X sen CT wo mochiita chikaku no henkei no analogue jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Shi, B; Murakami, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper reports a predictive result on a deformation experiment on sand beds using an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) equipment. The X-ray CT is a method to perform the following processes: X-rays are irradiated on a sample; decayed intensity data are measured along ray paths of the permeated X-rays; the data are inverted by using the Fourier transform; and spatial distribution of the coefficient of X-ray absorption inside the sample is acquired as a gray scale image. The deformation experiment was carried by putting sand into an acrylic container to a depth of 2 cm and manually pressing a plate in the horizontal direction. Sand blocks make a relative motion along a specific plane when they are deformed, but it was not possible to recognize faults clearly by naked eyes. Upon completion of the deformation, the experimental device was placed on the CT equipment to acquire images of the two-dimensional cross section. The higher the X-ray absorption coefficient, the brighter the picture elements. It can be seen that three inversed faults have been imaged clearly. Therefore, this equipment was verified usable as an effective observation equipment for an analogue deformation experiment. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation (United States)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.


    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  5. The topography of a continental indenter: The interplay between crustal deformation, erosion, and base level changes in the eastern Southern Alps (United States)

    Heberer, B.; Prasicek, G.; Neubauer, F.; Hergarten, S.


    Abstract The topography of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) reflects indenter tectonics causing crustal shortening, surface uplift, and erosional response. Fluvial drainages were perturbed by Pleistocene glaciations that locally excavated alpine valleys. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA‐EA drainage divide have not been identified. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a one‐dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. We find that the normalized steepness index increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and amplitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease toward the east. Changes in slope of χ‐transformed channel profiles coincide spatially with the Valsugana‐Fella fault linking crustal stacking and uplift induced by indenter tectonics with topographic evolution. Gradients in χ across the ESA‐EA drainage divide imply an ongoing, north directed shift of the Danube‐ESA watershed that is most likely driven by a base level rise in the northern Molasse basin. We conclude that the regional uplift pattern controls the geometry of ESA‐EA channels, while base level changes in the far field control the overall architecture of the orogen by drainage divide migration. PMID:28344912

  6. Precambrian crustal history of the Nimrod Group, central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.; Fanning, C.M.


    High-grade metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Nimrod Group represent crystalline basement to the central Transantarctic Mountains. Despite metamorphism and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny, they preserve a deep record of Precambrian geologic history in this sector of the East Antarctic shield. A review of available U-Pb geochronometric data reveals multiple geologic events spanning 2.5 b.y. of Archean to Early Paleozoic time, including: (1) juvenile Archean crust production by magmatism between 3150 and 3000 Ma; (2) crustal stabilisation and metamorphism between 2955 and 2900 Ma; (3) ultra-metamorphism or anatexis at c. 2500 Ma; (4) deep-crustal metamorphism and magmatism between 1720 and 1730 Ma, redefining the Nimrod Orogeny; (5) post-1700 Ma sedimentation; and (6) basement reactivation involving high-grade metamorphism, magmatism, and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny between 540 and 515 Ma. A strong regional metamorphic and deformational Ross overprint, dated by U-Pb and Ar thermochronology, had pronounced thermomechanical effects on the basement assemblage, yet rocks of the Nimrod Group retain robust evidence of their Precambrian ancestry. The zircon U-Pb record therefore demonstrates that primary crustal lithosphere of the East Antarctic shield extends to the central Transantarctic Mountains, and that it has undergone multiple episodes of reactivation culminating in the Ross Orogeny. (author). 48 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Intra-Continental Deformation by Mid-Crustal Shearing and Doming in a Cenozoic Compressive Setting Along the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone (United States)

    Zhang, B.


    Large-scale lateral strike-slip shear zones have been a key point in the debate about the deformation mechanisms of Asia in response to the India-Asia collision. The exhumed gneiss has been attributed to lateral strike-slip shear zone. This hypothesis has been challenged by recent discoveries indicating that a contractional doming deformation prior to the initiation of lateral strike-slip shearing. The Cenozoic Xuelong Shan antiformal dome is located at the northern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. Subhorizontal foliation in the gneiss core are recognized, representing a broad top-to-NE shear initiated under amphibolite facies conditions and propagated into greenschist facies in the mantling schist and strike-slip shear zone. Quartz CPOs and opening angles of crossed girdle fabrics in quartz suggest that the deformation temperatures increased with increasing structural depth from 300-500 °C in the mantling schist to ≥650 °C in the gneissic core. This trend is mirrored by variations in the metamorphic grade of the syn-kinematic mineral assemblages and microstructures, which ranges from garnet + amphibole + biotite + sillimanite + rutite + feldspar in the core to garnet + staurolite + biotite + epidote + muscovite within the limb units. Five-stage deformation is identified: (1) a broad top-to-NE shear in the subhorizontal level (D1); (2) opposing reverse-sense shear along the two schist limbs of the dome during contraction-related doming (D2-D3); (3) sinistral strike-slip shearing within the eastern limb (D4); and (4) extensional deformation (D5). The antiformal dome formation had been roughly coeval with top-to-NE ductile shearing in the mid-crust at 32 Ma or earlier. The geometries of the antiformal dome in the Xuelong Shan dome are similar to those associated with the antiform in the Dai Nui Con Voi, Diancang Shan and Ailao Shan zones. It is likely that the complex massifs, which define a regional linear gneiss dome zone in Cenozoic intra

  8. Crustal permeability (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.


    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  9. First indications of high slip rates on active reverse faults NW of Damascus, Syria, from observations of deformed Quaternary sediments: Implications for the partitioning of crustal deformation in the Middle Eastern region (United States)

    Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob; Daoud, Mohamad; Bridgland, David R.


    Recent research on rates of crustal shortening within the Palmyra Fold Belt (PFB) in Syria has drawn attention to the possibility that reverse faults near the city of Damascus, which adjoins the SW PFB, have significant slip rates. We infer that the Damascus Fault, directly adjacent to the city, has developed a throw of ~ 2500 m and report the discovery of the en echelon Bassimeh Fault, with a throw of ~ 1000 m, this fault being revealed by warping of the local bedrock and of a terrace, of inferred Late Pleistocene age, of the River Barada. We estimate that this set of faults became active circa 0.9 Ma, synchronous with changes to the pattern of faulting previously reported farther southwest in the northern Jordan Valley. Vertical slip rates on the Bassimeh and Damascus faults of ~ 1.1 and ~ 2.8 mm a- 1, respectively, are thus estimated. We also infer that large historical earthquakes, previously attributed to left-lateral faulting farther west on the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), probably occurred on this set of reverse faults; these faults thus represent a significant hazard to the city of Damascus. Our observations indicate that as much as half of the northward motion of the Arabian plate, relative to the African plate, may be 'absorbed' by crustal shortening within the PFB, potentially explaining the low slip rate recently measured geodetically on the northern DSFZ in western Syria.

  10. Rapid crustal deformation of large earthquakes through re-analyses of high-rate GPS data with HR-PPP technique (United States)

    Sato, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Hirahara, K.; Hashizume, M.; Saito, S.; Otsuka, Y.


    Recently, seismic signals have been successfully detected with kinematic GPS analyses. Most kinematic GPS techniques cannot, however, be applied, when a baseline becomes long, because positions of a rover site relative to those of the reference one are determined epoch by epoch. Takasu (2006) have developed a novel GPS software, the GPS-Tools. which enables HR-PPP (High-Rate Precise Point Positioning). We applied this technique to high-rate GPS data of recent large earthquakes and evaluated by comparing results obtained with those by another software. We re-analyzed the GPS data of the following recent large earthquakes; the Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw 8.3) on September 26, 2003, the SE off Kii peninsula earthquakes (Mw 7.2, Mw 7.4) on September 5, 2004, and the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.2) on December 26, 2004. We used 30-second and 1-second sampling data with 10 degree elevation mask provided by IGS, GSI, the Chulalongkorn University, and NICT. We used GPS-Tools ver.0.6.3 and compared the results with those by GIPSY-OASIS II ver.2.6. The satellite orbit is provided by IGS precise ephemeredes. However, the satellite clock delay at every 1-second was estimated with the GPS-Tools from the satellite clock delay at every 30-seconds of AIUB/CODE whose precision seems to be higher than IGS final clock. When we compared both results, some displacements due to seismic wave motions or postseismic deformations which were not seen with the GIPSY/OASIS-II could be detected remarkably with the GPS-Tools. Thus, we think that the accuracy is largely improved by the calibration of the satellite clock. We must re- evaluate the deformation model, because the GPS-Tools can detect the deformation which can not resolved due to errors using GIPSY/OASIS-II.

  11. GPS crustal deformation of the Eastern Betics and its relationship with the Lorca earthquake; Deformacion cortical de las Beticas Orientales observada mediante GPS y su relacion con el terremoto de Lorca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria, A.; Khazaradze, G.; Asensio, E.; Garate, J.; Surinach, E.


    On May 11{sup t}h of 2011, a seismic series occurred near the city of Lorca (Murcia). The main earthquake of magnitude Mw 5.2 has been attributed to the Alhama de Murcia Fault, one of the most active faults in the SE Iberian Peninsula. We analyzed data from 5 GPS campaigns of the CuaTeNeo network conducted between 1997 and 2011. The velocities of the stations closest to the Alhama de Murcia Fault show the reverse and strike-slip direction of motion. Stations located on the southeastern side of the fault have the maximum velocities in the area (between 1.4 and 1.8 mm/yr), oriented towards NNW direction, obliquely to the trace of the fault. The kinematics of the fault and the strain rate directions obtained from the CuaTeNeo network GPS measurements matches the calculated focal mechanism of Lorca earthquake. Detailed analysis of the time-series from the continuous GPS station at the Lorca city allows the detection of co-seismic offset of {approx}6 mm to the North. Keywords: crustal deformation, GPS, Betics, Lorca earthquake. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. Crustal structure in high deformation zones: Insights from gravimetric and magnetometric studies in the Guacha Corral shear zone (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) (United States)

    Radice, Stefania; Lince Klinger, Federico; Maffini, M. Natalia; Pinotti, Lucio P.; Demartis, Manuel; D´Eramo, Fernando J.; Giménez, Mario; Coniglio, Jorge E.


    The Guacha Corral shear zone (GCSZ) is represented by mylonites that were developed under amphibolites facies conditions from migmatitic protoliths. In this contribution, geophysical, petrological and structural data were combined to determine the 3D geometry of the GCSZ. New gravimetric, magnetometric and structural studies, along an E-W profile, were integrated with existing magnetotelluric and seismological data from a representative regional database of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The zonation of different fabrics across the GCSZ suggests that the pre-existing heterogeneities of the protoliths played a key role in governing the degree of metamorphism of different regions. The low gravity anomalies observed in the GCSZ suggest a transitional boundary zone between the migmatitic and mylonitic domains, where highly deformed shear bands are interspersed with undeformed rocks, presenting gradual contacts. The mylonites in this shear zone show a considerably reduced density when compared to the migmatite protoliths. The density of the rocks gradually increases with depth until it reaches that of the protolith. These changes in the gravity values in response to density changes allowed us to infer a listric geometry at depth of the GCSZ. Low gravity anomalies in the profiles, in regions where high density rocks (migmatites) outcrop at the surface, modeled as buried granitic plutons.

  13. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.


    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  14. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.


    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  15. Crustal Plateaus as Ancient Large Impact Features: A Hypothesis (United States)

    Hansen, V. L.


    An alternate hypothesis of crustal plateau formation through deformation and progressive crystallization of a huge lava pond, that results from massive melting of the mantle due to bolide impact with ancient thin Venus lithosphere is presented.

  16. Plate boundary deformation of the Pacific plate. Two case studies. (1) Crustal structure of the northwestern Vizcaino block and Gorda escarpment, offshore northern California, and implications for postsubduction deformation of a paleoaccretionary margin. (2) A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress observations (United States)

    Leitner, Beate

    Two examples of Pacific rim plate boundary deformation are presented. In the first part of the thesis crustal models are derived for the northwestern part of the Vizcaino block in California using marine seismic and gravity data collected by the Mendocino Triple Junction Seismic Experiment. A northwest-southeast trending kink in the Moho is imaged and interpreted to have formed under compression by reactivation of preexisting thrust faults in the paleoaccretionary prism at the seaward margin of the Vizcaino block. The study suggests that the deformation resulted from mainly north-south compression between the Pacific-Juan de Fuca plates across the Mendocino transform fault and predates late Pliocene Pacific-North America plate convergence. In the second part, 195 earthquakes recorded during the duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) are analysed. Precise earthquake locations and focal mechanisms provide unprecedented detail of the seismotectonics in the central South Island. The short term (6 month) SAPSE seismicity is compared with long term (8 years) seismicity recorded by the New Zealand National Seismic network and the Lake Pukaki network. The seismicity rate of the Alpine fault is low, but comparable to locked sections of the San Andreas fault, with large earthquakes expected. Changes of the depth of the seismogenic zone, generally uniform at about 10--12 km, occur only localised over distances smaller than 30 km, suggesting that thermal perturbations must be of similar scale. This implies that the thermal effects of the uplift of the Southern Alps do not change the seismogenic depth significantly and are not in accordance with most of the present thermal models. Both the Hope and Porters Pass fault zones are seismically active and deformation is accommodated near the fault zones and in the adjacent crust. North of Mt Cook, a triangular shaped region along the Alpine fault is characterised by absence of earthquakes. We interpret this

  17. Cyprus Crustal Study Project (United States)

    Hall, James M.

    The Cyprus Crustal Study Project is a joint venture of the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) and the Government of Cyprus through its Geological Survey Department. The aim of the project is to carry out a detailed reexamination of the Troodos, Cyprus, ophiolite, using high speed diamond drilling combined with extensive surface geological and geophysical studies. The ICRDG group, comprising about 100 geoscientists from eight countries, includes many participants familiar with ophiolites and with in situ ocean crust through work from Glomar Challenger, thus allowing the ophiolite to be viewed from a new perspective.Studies are being concentrated on a section through the north flank of the ophiolite between the villages of Agrokipia and Palekhori. Research drilling and associated mapping in this segment are aimed at providing a continuous sample through the upper 4 km of the ophiolite and at sampling the stockworks beneath the sulfide deposits located within the extrusive section. The Troodos massive sulfide deposits are considered to be close analogs of the deposited being formed by active hydrothermal circulation on the crest of the East Pacific Rise.

  18. Revised crustal architecture of the southeastern Carpathian foreland from active and passive seismic data (United States)

    Enciu, Dana M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.


    Integration of active and passive source seismic data is employed in order to study the nature of the relationships between crustal seismicity and geologic structures in the southeastern (SE) Carpathian foreland of Romania and the possible connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of intermediate-depth seismicity, one of the most active earthquake-prone areas in Europe. Crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics (DACIA PLAN) profile and the Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity II and III (DRACULA) profiles in order to understand the link between neotectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identifies several active crustal faults in the SE Carpathian foreland and suggests a mechanical coupling between the mantle located VSZ and the overlying foreland crust. The coupled associated deformation appears to take place on the Trotus Fault, the Sinaia Fault, and the newly detected Ialomita Fault. Seismic reflection imaging reveals the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crystalline crust and a slightly east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against previously purported mechanisms to generate mantle seismicity in the VSZ including oceanic lithosphere subduction in place and oceanic slab break off, furthermore suggesting that the Vrancea seismogenic body is undetached from the overlying crust in the foreland.

  19. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.


    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  20. Preparatory mechanism of Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake evidenced by crust-deformation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wanju


    Full Text Available Some crustal-deformation data related to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan in 2008, was described and a model that is capable of explaining the observed deformation features is presented. The data include: pre-earthquake uplift in an area south of the epicenter obtained by repeated-leveling measurements; pre-earthquake horizontal deformation by GPS observation during two periods in Sichuan-Yunnan area; vertical deformation along a short cross-fault leveling line in the epicenter area; and co-seismic near-field vertical and horizontal crustal-movement data by GPS. The model is basically “elastic-rebound”, but involves a zone between two local faults that was squeezed out at the time of earthquake.

  1. Crustal structure of Central Sicily (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo


    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  2. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy


    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  3. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian


    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  4. Crustal thickness variations in northern Morocco (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Julià, Jordi; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco


    During the TopoIberia experiment, a total of 26 seismic broadband stations were recording in northern Morocco, providing for the first time extended regional coverage for investigating structure and seismotectonics of the southern branch of the Betic-Rif arc, its foreland, and the Atlas domain. Here, we analyze P-to-S converted waves in teleseismic receiver functions to infer gross crustal properties as thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between 22 and 44 km and display a simple geographic pattern that divides the study area into three domains: entire northwestern Morocco underlain by a thickened crust with crustal thicknesses between 35 and 44 km; northeastern Morocco affected by significant crustal thinning, with crustal thicknesses ranging from 22 to 30 km, with the shallowest Moho along the Mediterranean coast; and an extended domain of 27-34 km thick crust, farther south which includes the Atlas domain and its foreland regions. Vp/Vs ratios show normal values of ˜1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations give low Vp/Vs ratios of around 1.71. The very sharp transition from thick crust in northwestern Morocco to thin crust in northeastern Morocco is attributed to regional geodynamics, possibly the realm of present-day subcrustal dynamics in the final stage of western Mediterranean subduction. Crustal thicknesses just slightly above 30 km in the southern domain are intriguing, showing that high topography in this region is not isostatically compensated at crustal level.

  5. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.


    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  6. Anomalous crustal movements with low seismic efficiency - Campi Flegrei, Italy and some examples in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazzaro


    Full Text Available Campi Flegrei is a unique volcanic region located near Naples, Italy. Anomalous crustal movements at Pozzuoli in Campi Flegrei have been documented since the Roman period. The movements were gradual and have continued to the present, occasionally accompanying swarms of local earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Generally the movements proceed with low seismicity. After the 1538 eruption of Monte Nuovo, Pozzuoli had subsided monotonously, but it changed to uplift abruptly in 1969. The uplift accelerated in 1983 and 1984 reaching more than 2 m, and thereafter began to subside. Many discussions of this event have been published. In Japan, we have examples of deformations similar to those at Campi Flegrei, mainly in volcanic areas, and rarely in non-volcanic areas. The former includes Iwojima, Miyakejima and Aira caldera while the latter is represented by Cape Omaezaki. Iwojima is a volcano island, and its secular uplifts since the 18th century are recognized as an unusual event. Miyakejima volcano and Aira caldera exhibited anomalous movements with low seismicity after their eruptions. Cape Omaezaki is not situated in volcanic zone but near a subduction zone, and gradually and continuously subsides as a precursor to a large earthquake. In such cases as Campi Flegrei and the Japanese localities, we would question whether the deformations are accompanied by normal seismicity or low seismicity. To examine quantitatively the relationship between seismicity and related deformation, seismic efficiency is generally useful. The crustal deformations in all the regions cited above are characterized by exceptionally low seismic efficiencies. In the present paper, the deformations at Pozzuoli and Iwojima are mainly described and a comparative discussion among these and other localities in Japan is supplemented. It is concluded that such anomalous phenomena in volcanic areas are attributable to peculiar rheological aspects of the material composing the local

  7. A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Paterson, Scott R.; Jellinek, A. Mark


    Direct constraints on the ascent, storage and eruption of mantle melts come primarily from exhumed, long-frozen intrusions. These structures, relics of a dynamic magma transport network, encode how Earth's crust grows and differentiates over time. Furthermore, they connect mantle melting to an evolving distribution of surface volcanism. Disentangling magma transport processes from the plutonic record is consequently a seminal but unsolved problem. Here we use field data analyses, scaling theory and numerical simulations to show that the size distribution of intrusions preserved as plutonic complexes in the North American Cordillera suggests a transition in the mechanical response of crustal rocks to protracted episodes of magmatism. Intrusion sizes larger than about 100 m follow a power-law scaling expected if energy delivered from the mantle to open very thin dykes and sills is transferred to intrusions of increasing size. Merging, assimilation and mixing of small intrusions into larger ones occurs until irreversible deformation and solidification dissipate available energy. Mantle magma supply over tens to hundreds of thousands of years will trigger this regime, a type of reverse energy cascade, depending on the influx rate and efficiency of crustal heating by intrusions. Identifying regimes of magma transport provides a framework for inferring subsurface magmatic processes from surface patterns of volcanism, information preservation in the plutonic record, and related effects including climate.

  8. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.


    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  9. Characterizing a middle to upper crustal shear zone: Microstructures, quartz c-axis fabrics, deformation temperatures and flow vorticity analysis of the northern Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, China (United States)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Zhang, Lisheng; Qi, Yinchuan; Ling, Chengyang


    Structural and microstructural characteristics, deformation temperatures and flow vorticities of the northern Ailao Shan (ALS) high-grade metamorphic belt provide significant information regarding the nature and tectonic evolution of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone. Mineral deformation mechanisms, quartz lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) patterns and the opening angles of quartz c-axis fabrics of samples from the Gasa section indicate that the northern ALS high-grade metamorphic belt has experienced progressive shear deformation. The early stage shearing is characterized by a gradual decrease of deformation temperatures from >650 °C at the northeastern unit to ca. 300 °C at the southwestern unit, that results in the formation of migmatites, mylonitic gneisses, thin bedded mylonites, mylonitic schists and phyllonites from the NE to SW across the strike of the shear zone. The late stage low-temperature (300-400 °C) shearing is superimposed on the early deformation throughout the belt with the formation of discrete, small-scale shear zones, especially in the thin-banded mylonitic rocks along both margins. The kinematic vorticity values estimated by rotated rigid porphyroclast method and oblique grain-shaped/quartz c-axis-fabric method imply that the general shear-dominated flow (0.49-0.77) progressively changed to a simple shear-dominated flow (0.77-1) toward the late stage of ductile deformation. The two stages of shearing are consistent with early shortening-dominated and late extrusion-controlled regional tectonic processes. The transition between them occurred at ca. 27 Ma in the ALS high-grade metamorphic belt along the ASRR shear zone. The large amount of strike-slip displacement along the ASRR shear zone is predominantly attributed to accelerated flow along the shear zone during the late extrusion-controlled tectonic process.

  10. 3-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor computers - Part II: direct data-space inverse solution (United States)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.


    Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.

  11. Seismic studies of crustal structure and tectonic evolution across the central California margin and the Colorado Plateau margin (United States)

    Howie, John Mark

    This thesis presents results from two integrated deep-crustal seismic-reflection and wide-angle-reflection/refraction studies that improve our understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution in two tectonically active areas of the western United States. A multi-faceted approach to the study of crustal structure includes the use of compressional and shear wave seismic data. Supplementing the controlled source seismic observations with seismicity, gravity, heat flow, laboratory measurements and available geologic information allows a much improved understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution than would be available from the seismic data alone. Chapter 1 introduces the data integration strategy applied to the studies completed. In Chapter 2, an integrated crustal-velocity model across the south-central California margin west of the San Adreas fault is presented. The crustal structure defines tectonostratigraphic terranes 15 to 20 km thick underlain by a 6-km-thick high-velocity layer (6.8-7.0 km/s) interpreted as tectonically underplated oceanic crust. Structures defined in the oceanic crust indicate significant compressional and strike-slip deformation within the oceanic crust that probably formed during the final stages of subduction from 24-16 Ma. In Chapter 3, the crustal model from Chapter 2 is used as a constraint for models of the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American transform plate boundary. By combining the crustal structure with thermal models for asthenospheric upwelling associated with a slab-free window, I find that the mantle lithosphere east of the coast beneath south-central California probably delaminated from the oceanic crust, stranding the oceanic crust beneath the margin. In Chapter 4, results from a high-resolution reflection experiment in central Arizona across the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau address the relationship between strength of the crust and localization of extensional tectonism. A low

  12. Numerical models of caldera deformation: Effects of multiphase and multicomponent hydrothermal fluid flow (United States)

    Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.


    Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.

  13. Associative Flow Rule Used to Include Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Analysis of Strain-Rate-Dependent Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.


    designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and the strain-rate dependence of the composite response are due primarily to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. By applying micromechanics techniques along with given fiber properties, one can also determine the effects of the hydrostatic stresses in the polymer on the overall composite deformation response. First efforts to account for the hydrostatic stress effects in the composite deformation applied purely empirical methods that relied on composite-level data. In later efforts, to allow polymer properties to be characterized solely on the basis of polymer data, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed equations to model the polymers that were based on a non-associative flow rule, and efforts to use these equations to simulate the deformation of representative polymer materials were reasonably successful. However, these equations were found to have difficulty in correctly analyzing the multiaxial stress states found in the polymer matrix constituent of a composite material. To correct these difficulties, and to allow for the accurate simulation of the nonlinear strain-rate-dependent deformation analysis of polymer matrix composites, in the efforts reported here Glenn researchers reformulated the polymer constitutive equations from basic principles using the concept of an associative flow rule. These revised equations were characterized and validated in an

  14. Oblique reactivation of lithosphere-scale lineaments controls rift physiography - the upper-crustal expression of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, offshore southern Norway (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.


    Pre-existing structures within sub-crustal lithosphere may localise stresses during subsequent tectonic events, resulting in complex fault systems at upper-crustal levels. As these sub-crustal structures are difficult to resolve at great depths, the evolution of kinematically and perhaps geometrically linked upper-crustal fault populations can offer insights into their deformation history, including when and how they reactivate and accommodate stresses during later tectonic events. In this study, we use borehole-constrained 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data to investigate the structural development of the Farsund Basin, offshore southern Norway. We use throw-length (T-x) analysis and fault displacement backstripping techniques to determine the geometric and kinematic evolution of N-S- and E-W-striking upper-crustal fault populations during the multiphase evolution of the Farsund Basin. N-S-striking faults were active during the Triassic, prior to a period of sinistral strike-slip activity along E-W-striking faults during the Early Jurassic, which represented a hitherto undocumented phase of activity in this area. These E-W-striking upper-crustal faults are later obliquely reactivated under a dextral stress regime during the Early Cretaceous, with new faults also propagating away from pre-existing ones, representing a switch to a predominantly dextral sense of motion. The E-W faults within the Farsund Basin are interpreted to extend through the crust to the Moho and link with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, a lithosphere-scale lineament, identified within the sub-crustal lithosphere, that extends > 1000 km across central Europe. Based on this geometric linkage, we infer that the E-W-striking faults represent the upper-crustal component of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone and that the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone represents a long-lived lithosphere-scale lineament that is periodically reactivated throughout its protracted geological history. The upper-crustal component of

  15. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements, direct solvers and data space Gauss-Newton, parallelized on SMP computers (United States)

    Kordy, M. A.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G. J.


    We have developed an algorithm for 3D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permits incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used for the forward solution, parameter jacobians, and model update. The forward simulator, jacobians calculations, as well as synthetic and real data inversion are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequency or small material admittivity, the E-field requires divergence correction. Using Hodge decomposition, correction may be applied after the forward solution is calculated. It allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization is computed using the MUMPS library, which shows moderately good scalability through 12 processor cores but limited gains beyond that. The factored matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the jacobians of field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure and several topographic models. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of electromagnetic waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run time tests indicate that for meshes as large as 150x150x60 elements, MT forward response and jacobians can be calculated in ~2.5 hours per frequency. For inversion, we implemented data space Gauss-Newton method, which offers reduction in memory requirement and a significant speedup of the parameter step versus model space approach. For dense matrix operations we use tiling approach of PLASMA library, which shows very good scalability. In synthetic

  16. Erosion of the French Alpine foreland controlled by crustal thickening (United States)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence; Nomade, Jérôme; Dumont, Thierry; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; van der Beek, Peter


    In alpine-type collision belts, deformation of the foreland may occur as a result of forward propagation of thrusting and is generally associated with thin-skinned deformation mobilizing the sedimentary cover in fold-and-thrust belts. Locally, foreland deformation can involve crustal-scale thrusting and produce large-scale exhumation of crystalline basement resulting in significant relief generation. In this study, we investigate the burial and exhumation history of Tertiary flexural basins located in the western Alpine foreland, at the front of the Digne thrust-sheet (SE France), using low-temperature apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Based on the occurrence of partially to totally reset apatite grain ages, we document 3.3 to 4.0 km burial of these basins remnants between 12-6 Ma, related to thin-skinned thrust-sheet emplacement without major relief generation. The onset of exhumation is dated at 6 Ma and is linked to erosion associated with subsequent relief development. This evolution does not appear controlled by major climate changes (Messinian crisis) or by European slab breakoff. Rather, we propose that the erosional history of the Digne thrust-sheet corresponds to basement involvement in foreland deformation, leading to crustal thickening and the incipient formation of a new external crystalline massif. Our study highlights the control of deep-crustal tectonic processes on foreland relief development and its erosional response at mountain fronts.

  17. Active deformation processes across a megathrust-segment boundary, south-central Chile


    M. Moreno; Juergen Klotz; D. Melnick; J. Bolte; Helmut Echtler; K. Bataille


    The south-central Chile margin is an active plate boundary where a variety of tectonic processes, including postseismic mantle relaxation, interseismic strain accumulation, sliver motions and crustal faulting are documented. GPS data and finite-element models with complex geometries are presented to gain insight into the active deformation in the vicinity of two megathrust-earthquake segments: the Valdivia and Concepción rupture zones. GPS vectors are heterogeneously distributed in two domain...

  18. Regional Gravity and Magnetic Studies of Crustal Structure in Northeastern Mexico and Their Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Sanchez-Alvarez, R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    Detailed modeling of regional Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in northeastern Mexico permits documentation of the crustal structure and tectonic relationships of major structural features at the southern margin of the North American craton. This region has experienced a complex evolution with major events that include Paleozoic subduction and consumption of an ocean, subsequent collision of continental plates to form the supercontinent Pangaea, major faulting and deformation, middle Mesozoic fragmentation and rifting between North and South America, formation of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, strike-slip lateral faulting, Laramide compression and Cenozoic extension. The Marathon-Ouachita system in northern Mexico shows the effects of strike-slip faulting and deformation, which can be traced from its potential field anomalies and oil- exploration borehole logs and data. Major tectonic elements from west to east are the foreland, frontal zone, interior zone, the Coahuila terrane, and a large elongated intrusive province. Remnants of the Permo-Triassic magmatic arc and exotic continental crust are present in the Coahuila and Gulf coast terranes. They are all affected by lateral faulting along roughly east-west regional faults, and, if the characterization of tectonic elements is correct, the proposed paleoreconstruction sets limits on the amount of lateral translation and regional crustal deformation in northern Mexico. Younger deformational episodes during the Cenozoic need to be accounted for in the tectonic reconstruction. The apparent displacement of the intrusive belt is of the order of 600-700 km. The intrusive belt and the Ouachita frontal and interior zones appear also fragmented and displaced in the Coahuila area by lateral faults such as San Marcos, China-Sierra Mojada, Barroteran, San Carlos and Sabinas. Displacement is less than that observed for the Mojave-Sonora megashear south of Monterrey area, as documented from the gravity and

  19. Why Wet Kaolin can be used as a Crustal Analog and its Application to Fault Evolution at Restraining Bends (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; van der Elst, N.; Schottenfeld, M. T.


    To simulate geologic deformation on observable time and length scales within the lab, a subset of analog modelers have used wet kaolin. Unlike the more often used sand, wet kaolin beautifully exhibits detailed fault structures. Furthermore, faults within the kaolin are more readily reactivated than those in sand. The low plasticity of kaolin (compared to other clays) gives it low shear strength. Consequently, the clay is a suitable analog material if we assume that the wet kaolin deforms by coulomb frictional failure. Koalin generally deforms as a Bingham solid and exhibits more complex deformation than the perfectly plastic behavior assumed with Coulomb failure. We performed fall cone and rheometric tests on wet kaolin to refine our quantitative understanding of its rheology. We use North American wet kaolin with density 1.65-1.7 g/cm3 and water content of 37.5-38.5%. The fall cone tests reveal that the undrained shear strength (100-160 Pa) is greater than previously measured with a viscometer. The rheometer tests show that the wet koalin exhibits many of the same properties of crustal materials including: 1) elastic behavior at low strains, 2) stress relaxation at near-failure strains, 3) creep under static load, 4) yield strength sensitive to strain rate and 5) rate and state dependent failure. Armed with quantitative values for this complex deformation, we can better scale the length and strain rate of the wet koalin experiments to specific crustal settings. Experiments of deformation around restraining bends show features very similar to those found in natural examples. The detailed fault structures produced in the wet kaolin can be analyzed to understand the evolution of active faulting at restraining bends.

  20. Deformation mechanisms in the San Andreas Fault zone - a comparison between natural and experimentally deformed microstructures (United States)

    van Diggelen, Esther; Holdsworth, Robert; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris


    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California marks the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is located 9 km northwest of the town of Parkfield, CA and provide an extensive set of samples through the SAF. The SAFOD drill hole encountered different lithologies, including arkosic sediments from the Salinian block (Pacific plate) and claystones and siltstones from the Great Valley block (North American plate). Fault deformation in the area is mainly by a combination of micro-earthquakes and fault creep. Deformation of the borehole casing indicated that the SAFOD drill hole cross cuts two actively deforming strands of the SAF. In order to determine the deformation mechanisms in the actively creeping fault segments, we have studied thin sections obtained from SAFOD phase 3 core material using optical and electron microscopy, and we have compared these natural SAFOD microstructures with microstructures developed in simulated fault gouges deformed in laboratory shear experiments. The phase 3 core material is divided in three different core intervals consisting of different lithologies. Core interval 1 consists of mildly deformed Salinian rocks that show evidence of cataclasis, pressure solution and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates, all common processes in upper crustal rocks. Most of Core interval 3 (Great Valley) is also only mildly deformed and very similar to Core interval 1. Bedding and some sedimentary features are still visible, together with limited evidence for cataclasis and pressure solution, and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates. However, in between the relatively undeformed rocks, Core interval 3 encountered a zone of foliated fault gouge, consisting mostly of phyllosilicates. This zone is correlated with one of the zones of localized deformation of the borehole casing, i.e. with an actively deforming strand of the SAF. The fault gouge zone shows a strong, chaotic

  1. Real-time noble gas release signaling rock deformation (United States)

    Bauer, S. J.; Gardner, W. P.; Lee, H.


    We present empirical results/relationships of rock strain, microfracture density, acoustic emissions, and noble gas release from laboratory triaxial experiments for a granite and basalt. Noble gases are contained in most crustal rock at inter/intra granular sites, their release during natural and manmade stress and strain changes represents a signal of brittle/semi brittle deformation. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history and age, fluids present, and uranium, thorium and potassium-40 concentrations in the rocks that affect radiogenic noble gases (helium, argon) production. Noble gas emission and its relationship to crustal processes have been studied, including correlations to tectonic velocities and qualitative estimates of deep permeability from surface measurements, finger prints of nuclear weapon detonation, and as potential precursory signals to earthquakes attributed to gas release due to pre-seismic stress, dilatancy and/or rock fracturing. Helium emission has been shown as a precursor of volcanic activity. Real-time noble gas release is observed using an experimental system utilizing mass spectrometers to measure gases released during triaxial rock deformation. Noble gas release is shown to represent a sensitive precursor signal of rock deformation by relating real-time noble gas release to stress-strain state changes and acoustic emissions. We propose using noble gas release to also signal rock deformation in boreholes, mines and nuclear waste repositories. We postulate each rock exhibits a gas release signature which is microstructure, stress/strain state, and or permanent deformation dependent. Such relationships, when calibrated, may be used to sense rock deformation and then develop predictive models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the US Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  2. crustal shear zone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    significant mass transfer of rock-forming elements. (Fyfe et al. 1978 ... flow of these elements may control the metamor- phic reactions which in ..... Planet. Sci. Lett. 236 524–541. Etheridge M A, Wall V J and Vernon R H 1983 The role of the fluid phase during regional metamorphism and deformation; J. Metamorph. Geol.

  3. Active deformation processes across a megathrust-segment boundary, south-central Chile (United States)

    Moreno, M. S.; Klotz, J.; Melnick, D.; Bolte, J.; Echtler, H.; Bataille, K.


    The south-central Chile margin is an active plate boundary where a variety of tectonic processes, including postseismic mantle relaxation, interseismic strain accumulation, sliver motions and crustal faulting are documented. GPS data and finite-element models with complex geometries are presented to gain insight into the active deformation in the vicinity of two megathrust-earthquake segments: the Valdivia and Concepción rupture zones. GPS vectors are heterogeneously distributed in two domains that follow the megathrust segments. Models which simulate only interseismic locking on the plate interface and postseismic relaxation after an uniform coseismic slip during the 1960 Valdivia earthquake (Mw=9.5) not fully reproduce the observed surface deformation. In order to distinguish between the main processes producing the regional-scale heterogeneity of surface velocities, we model: (1) the postseismic viscoelastic deformation induced by a non-uniform coseismic slip distribution, (2) the interseismic kinematic coupling, and (3) the interseismic effect of a crustal fault rooted in the plate interface. We find that interseismic locked asperities are spatially coincident with the historic earthquake rupture zones, which are separated by a sharp boundary of low (~ 50%) kinematic coupling. A regional pattern of clockwise rotations arise from postseismic mantle rebound at the overlap area of the rupture zones and extend over a broad segment between the forearc and the back-arc. Locally, counterclockwise block rotation is observed in a limited area south of the Lanalhue fault, and may be related to transpression at the northern leading edge of a forearc sliver. In the Concepción domain, models that include a dextral-reverse crustal fault better reproduce the GPS observations. Our study suggests that upper-plate crustal faults in addition to earthquake-cycle transients exert an important control on deformation processes at megathrust-segment boundaries.

  4. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.


    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  5. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  6. Shallow crustal fault rocks from the Black Mountain detachments, Death Valley, CA (United States)

    Hayman, Nicholas W.


    The Black Mountain detachments denuded crystalline footwalls and extended sedimentary hanging walls from late Pliocene to Recent time. Fault rocks include gouges that crosscut breccias, and are in turn cut by compositionally and texturally distinct shear bands. Breccias have cataclastic textures, noteworthy for abundant transgranular fracture and power-law particle size distributions ( D) of 2.77-2.79. Gouges have granular textures, noteworthy for grains with abraded boundaries surrounded by a clay-rich matrix and D = 2.86-3.31. Matrix minerals include phyllosilicates, clay minerals, and oxide aggregates that serve as crude strain indicators. Geochemical data indicate that there was abundant water within the fault zone, but that the water was not plumbed from deeper crustal sources. There are systematic geochemical variations between fault-rock samples, but the inferred mass changes were minor, history of the fault rocks involved multiple deformation mechanisms and authigenic mineral assemblages that hypothetically influenced the frictional properties of the detachment shear zones.

  7. Deep Crustal Anisotropy and its Distortion Through the Seismological Lens (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Mahan, K. H.


    Seismic interpretations of crustal anisotropy often appear to be at odds with expectations based on structural geology. We provide a solution to the apparent discrepancy based on petrological data and synthetic seismograms and present results across the continental US. Seismic investigations of crustal anisotropy offer one of the best chances to observe lower crustal flow in situ, and receiver function (converted wave) studies have good horizontal and depth resolution and are less expensive than active source studies, and suffer from less tradeoff than tomographic studies. A puzzling observation in receiver function studies of the continental crust has been a prevalence of observed plunging axis anisotropy in subhorizontal layers interpreted to have accommodated a significant component of simple shear. In contrast, geological field observations and deformation experiments suggest that shear zones develop a significant boundary-parallel foliation (C-planes in S-C mylonite) after only modest amounts of strain accumulation (~gamma A2), while plunging P anisotropy shows a much higher amplitude single peak and trough (termed A1). Published crustal sample P versus S anisotropies range within a factor of 2 of each other, with the majority of samples showing comparable P and S anisotropy. While the A2 signal theoretically provides a robust detector for anisotropy, we suggest that a search for the larger A1 signal is more likely to be successful. We present seismic forward modeling results for petrological crustal deformation fabrics with aligned mica, amphibole, and quartz for different geometries. We also show results from the EarthScope Transportable Array across areas with presumed past or present lower crustal flow. When observed receiver function signal amplitudes are decomposed into A0 (isotropic, 1-D), A1, and A2 components, the A1 component dominates A2 by a factor of ~3 averaged across the entire network. The A1 component also contains information on isotropic

  8. Constraining ice mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbræ (Greenland) using InSAR-measured crustal uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lin; Wahr, John; Howat, Ian


    Jakobshavn Isbræ in west Greenland has been undergoing dramatic thinning since 1997. Applying the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique to Radarsat-1 SAR data, we measure crustal uplift near Jakobshavn Isbræ caused by recent ice mass loss. The crustal uplift is predominantly......SAR-estimated deformation rates during 2004–2008 and the corresponding short-scale components of a deformation model that is based on changes in ice elevation measured by NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). We are also able to use the InSAR-measured deformation to invert for the spatial pattern of ice thinning....... Overall, our results suggest that despite the inherent difficulties of working with a signal that has significant large-scale components, InSAR-measured crustal deformation can be used to study the ice mass loss of a rapidly thinning glacier and its surrounding catchment, providing both a constraint...

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of fault slip and distributed off-fault deformation, Santa Cruz Mountains, central California (United States)

    Horsman, E. M.; Graymer, R. W.


    The Santa Cruz Mountains of central California record a lengthy history of deformation, including slip on the dextral San Andreas Fault (SAF) system and off-fault deformation manifested by both slip on secondary faults as well as distributed strain. This complex history provides insight into regional deformation processes operating both before and after initiation of the SAF. We focus here on deformation SW of the SAF, where several distinct, fault-bounded crustal blocks record different histories. We evaluate the magnitude and significance of off-fault deformation SW of the SAF by considering spatial and temporal relationships between slip on secondary faults and distributed deformation. To conduct the analysis we combine a synthesis of the slip histories of five important regional faults with a new dataset constraining spatial and temporal variation of regional deformation magnitude. This new dataset is based on shortening measurements of several major unconformities compiled from more than 60 cross sections from the region. To estimate strain magnitude recorded by older surfaces, we progressively subtract shortening magnitude of young markers from older markers. Because uncertainties grow for older surfaces, this method is most reliable for younger surfaces. Results of the analysis demonstrate that strain magnitude recorded by several unconformity-bound sedimentary packages of different ages is largest within about 5 km of the SAF, providing evidence of long-term deformation partitioning near this major structure. This pattern of distributed deformation partitioning near faults is also apparent but less pronounced near the secondary faults SW of the SAF. When considering spatial and temporal ties between regional deformation and slip on secondary faults, no simple pattern emerges. Fault activity is highly variable in both space and time. Additionally, fault activity at any one time is highly localized; one fault may be active while a nearby structure is inactive

  10. Crustal deformations at permanent GPS sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Knudsen, Per; Tscherning, Carl Christian


    The National Survey and Cadastre (KMS) is responsible for the geodetic definition of the reference network in Denmark. Permanent GPS stations play an important role in the monitoring and maintenance of the geodetic network. During 1998 and 1999 KMS established three permanent GPS station in Denma...

  11. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.


    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  12. Spatial Relationship Between Crustal Structure and Mantle Seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania (United States)

    Knapp, C. C.; Enciu, D. M.; Knapp, J. H.


    Active crustal deformation and subsidence in the Southeast Carpathian foreland has previously been attributed to active foundering of thickened continental lithosphere beneath the Carpathian bend region (Knapp et al, 2005). The present study involves integration of active and passive-source seismic data in order to place constraints on the duration, timing, and scale of crustal deformation in the Carpathian foreland, and in particular to assess the genetic relationship with the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismogenic zone (VSZ). Relocated crustal earthquakes and focal mechanisms were correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN deep seismic profile, and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles. Projection of foreland crustal hypocenters onto the deep seismic lines correlates well with previously identified crustal faults such as the Trotus and Sinaia, as well as the newly identified Ialomita Fault. Specifically, results of this study (1) image the full crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the Focsani Basin in the close proximity of the VSZ, (2) show evidence for a sub-horizontal, slightly east-dipping Moho in the vicinity of the VSZ and thinning of the crust towards the Carpathian orogen, (3) illustrate the conspicuous absence of west-dipping fabrics or structures in the crust and across the Moho, (4) present evidence that the Trotus Fault is a crustal-scale active fault with a dextral sense of motion, (5) suggest that the Paleozoic age Peceneaga-Camena and Capidava-Ovidiu Faults have not been active in post-Paleozoic time, and (6) show evidence for a new active crustal scale sinistral fault, named the Ialomita fault. Both the seismogenic Vrancea body and deformation in the Focsani Basin appear to be concentrically bound by the Trotus Fault in the north and east and the Sinaia-Ialomita Fault in the south, suggesting a coupled deformation between the VSZ and the

  13. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.


    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  14. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    Isstrøm and Jakobshavn Isbræ. GIA is an important correction in gravity-based mass balance estimates. It is therefore important to obtain reliable GIA predictions. Observed rates of crustal displacement can be used to constrain the GIA response, assuming that the presentday response, can be accurately....... Gradients of crustal displacement rates near Upernavik Isstrøm and Jakobshavn Isbræ are modeled and compared to observed rates, to assess the mass balance of these glaciers. By considering displacement gradients, contributions from the mass loss of the rest of the ice sheet and GIA are reduced. Hence......The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust...

  15. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  16. Crustal structure along Gakkel Ridge (United States)

    Schmidt-Aursch, M. C.; Jokat, W.


    Relationships between melt generation, crustal thicknesses and spreading rates are well-known for fast- and intermediate- to slow-spreading midoceanic ridges. But for very-slow-spreading ridges with full spreading rates smaller than 20 mm/yr only few data have been available yet. Therefore, the 1800 km long ultra-slow-spreading Gakkel Ridge with full spreading rates between 13 mm/yr near Greenland and 6 mm/yr in the Laptev Sea was investigated by the joint AMORE expedition in summer 2001. The two research icebreakers RV Polarstern and USCGC Healy conducted several petrological and geophysical programs. Seismic refraction experiments with receivers deployed on ice floes and a 24 l airgun array towed behind one ship were performed along the rift valley during the cruise. Gravity measurements onboard revealed additional information on the crustal structure. A helicopter-based magnetic survery gave evidence for long term focused magmatism along the ridge. Forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data with raytracing yields an exceptional thin crust with thicknesses well below 3 km. Crustal seismic velocities not higher than 6.4 km/s indicate a missing or not resolvable oceanic layer 3. Refracted mantle waves with seismic velocities up to 7.8 km/s give constraints on the crustal thickness. First results of a 3D forward gravity modelling based on the 5-minute-grid of the Arctic Gravity Project and shipboard data will also be shown. They extend the knowledge of crustal thickness and upper mantle structure to areas off-axis Gakkel Ridge and the parts along the rift valley not covered by deep seismic data.

  17. Afar-wide Crustal Strain Field from Multiple InSAR Tracks (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Wright, T. J.; Wang, H.; Calais, E.; Bennati Rassion, L. S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lewi, E.


    Onset of a rifting episode in the Dabbahu volcanic segment, Afar (Ethiopia), in 2005 renewed interest in crustal deformation studies in the area. As a consequence, an extensive geodetic data set, including InSAR and GPS measurements have been acquired over Afar and hold great potential towards improving our understanding of the extensional processes that operate during the final stages of continental rupture. The current geodetic observational and modelling strategy has focused on detailed, localised studies of dyke intrusions and eruptions mainly in the Dabbahu segment. However, an eruption in the Erta ‘Ale volcanic segment in 2008, and cluster of earthquakes observed in the Tat Ale segment, are testament to activity elsewhere in Afar. Here we make use of the vast geodetic dataset available to obtain strain information over the whole Afar depression. A systematic analysis of all the volcanic segments, including Dabbahu, Manda-Hararo, Alayta, Tat ‘Ale Erta Ale and the Djibouti deformation zone, is undertaken. We use InSAR data from multiple tracks together with available GPS measurements to obtain a velocity field model for Afar. We use over 300 radar images acquired by the Envisat satellite in both descending and ascending orbits, from 12 distinct tracks in image and wide swath modes, spanning the time period from October 2005 to present time. We obtain the line-of-sight deformation rates from each InSAR track using a network approach and then combine the InSAR velocities with the GPS observations, as suggested by Wright and Wang (2010) following the method of England and Molnar (1997). A mesh is constructed over the Afar area and then we solve for the horizontal and vertical velocities on each node. The resultant full 3D Afar-wide velocity field shows where current strains are being accumulated within the various volcanic segments of Afar, the width of the plate boundary deformation zone and possible connections between distinct volcanic segments on a

  18. Lower crustal earthquakes in the North China Basin and implications for crustal rheology (United States)

    Yuen, D. A.; Dong, Y.; Ni, S.; LI, Z.


    The North China Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rift basin on the eastern North China Craton. It is the central region of craton destruction, also a very seismically active area suffering severely from devastating earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai M7.2 earthquake, the 1967 Hejian M6.3 earthquake, and the 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake. We found remarkable discrepancies of depth distribution among the three earthquakes, for instance, the Xingtai and Tangshan earthquakes are both upper-crustal earthquakes occurring between 9 and 15 km on depth, but the depth of the Hejian earthquake was reported of about 30 72 km, ranging from lowermost crust to upper mantle. In order to investigate the focal depth of earthquakes near Hejian area, we developed a method to resolve focal depth for local earthquakes occurring beneath sedimentary regions by P and S converted waves. With this method, we obtained well-resolved depths of 44 local events with magnitudes between M1.0 and M3.0 during 2008 to 2016 at the Hejian seismic zone, with a mean depth uncertainty of about 2 km. The depth distribution shows abundant earthquakes at depth of 20 km, with some events in the lower crust, but absence of seismicity deeper than 25 km. In particular, we aimed at deducing some constraints on the local crustal rheology from depth-frequency distribution. Therefore, we performed a comparison between the depth-frequency distribution and the crustal strength envelop, and found a good fit between the depth profile in the Hejian seismic zone and the yield strength envelop in the Baikal Rift Systems. As a conclusion, we infer that the seismogenic thickness is 25 km and the main deformation mechanism is brittle fracture in the North China Basin . And we made two hypotheses: (1) the rheological layering of dominant rheology in the North China Basin is similar to that of the Baikal Rift Systems, which can be explained with a quartz rheology at 0 10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10 35 km

  19. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua


    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  20. Deformations of superconformal theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth


    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  1. Crustal scale detachment in the Himalayas: a reappraisal (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sharma, J.


    According to the most popular tectonic model of the Himalayas proposed by a number of scientists the Indian crustal material underthrusts the Himalayas at a low angle and is relatively free of deformation compared to the overlying accreted material that makes up the Himalayan mountain chain. In this work we have carried out local earthquake tomography for the Garwhal-Kumaun Himalayas to estimate P- and S-wave velocity variations (Vp and Vs, respectively) and variation in their ratio (Vp/Vs) that would indicate the structure of the Himalayas and the underlying Indian crust in this part of the Himalayas. The results indicate that there is crustal level folding and faulting in this region indicating that the underlying Indian crustal material has also undergone deformation unlike what was postulated for the entire Himalayas by some workers before. By comparing our tomographic result with that for the eastern Nepal-southern Tibet region, it is concluded that there is variation in mode of deformation along the trend of the Himalayas. This observation matches well with the observed velocity variation in the upper mantle of these two regions reported by others. The area under investigation falls within a region where there is more oblique convergence between India and Eurasia compared to the Nepal Himalayas region. This may explain why such variation in mode of deformation is observed. The ratio Vp/Vs gets affected by strength of material. Presence or absence of fluid filled fractures or molten material affects it most strongly in the crustal region. The variation in Vp/Vs in the study area shows that almost the entire crust here have enough rheological strength such that it can store strain energy that can be released through earthquakes. A zone of low Vp/Vs beginning at the higher Himalayas and dipping towards SW is observed. This zone also has high Vp and Vs and is observed even when inversion is carried out with very high damping value. These observations do not

  2. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation (United States)

    Haddad, David Elias


    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that…

  3. Post-collisional deformation of the Anatolides and motion of the Arabian indenter: A paleomagnetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B


    refuted. Instead, deformation has been distributed and differential as the collage has adapted to changing tectonic regimes. Crustal extrusion to the west and south has expanded the curvature of the Tauride Arc and combined with retreat of the Hellenic Arc to produce the extensional horst and graben province in western Turkey. A challenge of present work is to resolve the temporal framework of tectonic rotation. Evidence from the Cappadocian volcanic province and Sivas Basin in central Anatolia indicates that rotation has been concentrated within the last 2-3 million years of the neotectonic era and therefore correlates with establishment of the intracontinental transform framework. Thus we recognise two phases to the evolution of this sector of the orogen: the first embraces crustal thickening and uplift with initiation defined specifically by transition from marine to terrestrial deposition in the Serravallian at ∼12 Ma, and the second embraces crustal extrusion to the west motivated by continuing northward movement of Arabia and roll back on the Hellenic Arc since late Pliocene times. Latitudinal motions detected by paleomagnetism are close to confidence limits and consistent with small northward motion of the Anatolides since Eocene times including up to a few hundred km of closure linked to crustal thickening since the demise of NeoTethys. The driving motion from the Arabian indenter can be partially resolved from the widespread basaltic volcanism that occurred along the periphery of the Arabian Shield at 12-18 Ma during final stages of collision along the Bitlis Suture. This defines CCW rotation of 13-21 0 with respect to Eurasia. An average CCW rotation of 0.9 0 /Myr since closure of the Bitlis Suture in mid-Miocene times is unlikely to have been uniform because it has been linked to three adjoining interactions namely episodic opening of the Red Sea, a transition from crustal thickening to tectonic escape in the Anatolian collage and variable rates of strike

  4. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from MESSENGER Data (United States)

    Plattner, A.; Johnson, C.


    We present a regional spherical-harmonic based crustal magnetic field model for Mercury between latitudes 45° and 70° N, derived from MESSENGER magnetic field data. In addition to contributions from the core dynamo, the bow shock, and the magnetotail, Mercury's magnetic field is also influenced by interactions with the solar wind. The resulting field-aligned currents generate magnetic fields that are typically an order of magnitude stronger at spacecraft altitude than the field from sources within Mercury's crust. These current sources lie within the satellite path and so the resulting magnetic field can not be modeled using potential-field approaches. However, these fields are organized in the local-time frame and their spatial structure differs from that of the smaller-scale crustal field. We account for large-scale magnetic fields in the local-time reference frame by subtracting from the data a low-degree localized vector spherical-harmonic model including curl components fitted at satellite altitude. The residual data exhibit consistent signals across individual satellite tracks in the body fixed reference frame, similar to those obtained via more rudimentary along-track filtering approaches. We fit a regional internal-source spherical-harmonic model to the night-time radial component of the residual data, allowing a maximum spherical-harmonic degree of L = 150. Due to the cross-track spacing of the satellite tracks, spherical-harmonic degrees beyond L = 90 are damped. The strongest signals in the resulting model are in the region around the Caloris Basin and over Suisei Planitia, as observed previously. Regularization imposed in the modeling allows the field to be downward continued to the surface. The strongest surface fields are 30 nT. Furthermore, the regional power spectrum of the model shows a downward dipping slope between spherical-harmonic degrees 40 and 80, hinting that the main component of the crustal field lies deep within the crust.

  5. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.


    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  6. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    , or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention...... is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable....... Archean terranes have a large (39-44 km) thickness of consolidated crust (excluding sediments), which decreases in Paleo-Mesoproterozoic terranes to 34-42 km. Thickness of consolidated crust in Mesozoic and Cenozoic regions is 32-34 km only. The total crustal thickness (including the sedimentary layer...

  7. Crustal seismicity in central Chile (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Vera, E.; Alvarado, P.; Monfret, T.


    Both the genesis and rates of activity of shallow intraplate seismic activity in central Chile are poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of association of seismicity with recognizable fault features at the surface and a poor record of seismic activity. The goal of this work is to detail the characteristics of seismicity that takes place in the western flank of the Andes in central Chile. This region, located less than 100 km from Santiago, has been the site of earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.9, including several 5+ magnitude shocks in recent years. Because most of the events lie outside the Central Chile Seismic Network, at distances up to 60 km to the east, it is essential to have adequate knowledge of the velocity structure in the Andean region to produce the highest possible quality of epicentral locations. For this, a N-S refraction line, using mining blasts of the Disputada de Las Condes open pit mine, has been acquired. These blasts were detected and recorded as far as 180 km south of the mine. Interpretation of the travel times indicates an upper crustal model consisting of three layers: 2.2-, 6.7-, and 6.1-km thick, overlying a half space; their associated P wave velocities are 4.75-5.0 (gradient), 5.8-6.0 (gradient), 6.2, and 6.6 km/s, respectively. Hypocentral relocation of earthquakes in 1986-2001, using the newly developed velocity model, reveals several regions of concentrated seismicity. One clearly delineates the fault zone and extensions of the strike-slip earthquake that took place in September 1987 at the source of the Cachapoal River. Other regions of activity are near the San José volcano, the source of the Maipo River, and two previously recognized lineaments that correspond to the southern extension of the Pocuro fault and Olivares River. A temporary array of seismographs, installed in the high Maipo River (1996) and San José volcano (1997) regions, established the hypocentral location of events with errors of less than 1 km

  8. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom


    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  9. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  10. Crustal Structure of Khövsgöl, Mongolia (United States)

    Scott, A. M.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J.; Russo, R.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.


    Mongolia is part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, an accretionary event that spanned 800 million years from the mid-Proterozoic to mid-Phanerozoic. As a result of the past collisional and rifting events, the modern Khövsgöl rift system of northern Mongolia contains a heterogeneous lithospheric structure. The current rift system has three parallel N-S trending basins that roughly align with terrane boundaries. Structures inherited during the accretionary events may be a factor influencing regional deformation. The forces that drive local deformation are not well understood, but varying processes have been proposed: far-field effects of India-Eurasian plate convergence, westward subduction of the Pacific plate, magmatic underplating at the base of the crust, mantle plume activity, and asthenospheric mantle convection. Determining the nature of crustal features within this poorly understood region may illuminate processes that control rifting within intracontinental settings. A network of 26 broadband seismic stations encompassing 200 square kilometers of the Khövsgöl rift system were deployed from August 2014 to June 2016. More than 2100 events were detected, and most earthquakes were concentrated near rift structures. Events between Busiin-Gol and Darkhad, the westernmost and central basins of the Khövsgöl rift system, are distributed within the crust. An active fault is outlined along the eastern border of the Darkhad basin. Khövsgöl earthquakes bound both sides of the rift. Along the northern border of Lake Khövsgöl, seismic events define a shallow active fault orthogonal to the basin. The largest event recorded within the network was a magnitude ml=5.2 located near the northeastern border of Lake Khövsgöl on 12-05-2014. The focal mechanism of this earthquake is predominantly strike-slip, but also includes an extensional component. This work focuses on earthquake relocation and calculating moment tensors and focal mechanisms of larger regional

  11. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.


    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice......The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below...

  12. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia


    with a thicker crust in some Archean terranes than in adjacent Proterozoic blocks. However, the thickest Precambrian crust often appears to be related to ancient sutures within or at the edges of the Archean terranes. We discuss the factors that control the maximum thickness of the crust, given that 60+ km thick...... in the Baltic shield, and the Viluy rift in Siberia. Despite clear similarities, there are also significant differences in the crustal structure of these rifts. Phanerozoic crust also shows strong heterogeneity and its major structural characteristics are clearly linked to lithosphere-scale modification...

  13. Subduction zone locking, strain partitioning, intraplate deformation and their implications to Seismic Hazards in South America (United States)

    Galgana, G. A.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Pontbriand, C. W.; Klein, E.; Wang, F.; Shabestari, K.; Yang, W.


    We analyze active crustal deformation in South America (SA) using published GPS observations and historic seismicity along the Nazca Trench and the active Ecuador-Colombia-Venezuela Plate boundary Zone. GPS-constrained kinematisc models that incorporate block and continuum techniques are used to assess patterns of regional tectonic deformation and its implications to seismic potential. We determine interplate coupling distributions, fault slip-rates, and intraplate crustal strain rates in combination with historic earthquakes within 40 seismic zones crust to provide moment rate constraints. Along the Nazca subduction zone, we resolve a series of highly coupled patches, interpreted as high-friction producing "asperities" beneath the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These include areas responsible for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Predicted tectonic block motions and fault slip rates reveal that the northern part of South America deforms rapidly, with crustal fault slip rates as much as ~20 mm/a. Fault slip and locking patterns reveal that the Oca Ancón-Pilar-Boconó fault system plays a key role in absorbing most of the complex eastward and southward convergence patterns in northeastern Colombia and Venezuela, while the near-parallel system of faults in eastern Colombia and Ecuador absorb part of the transpressional motion due to the ~55 mm/a Nazca-SA plate convergence. These kinematic models, in combination with historic seismicity rates, provide moment deficit rates that reveal regions with high seismic potential, such as coastal Ecuador, Bucaramanga, Arica and Antofagasta. We eventually use the combined information from moment rates and fault coupling patterns to further constrain stochastic seismic hazard models of the region by implementing realistic trench rupture scenarios (see Mahdyiar et al., this volume).

  14. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.


    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  15. Modeling of periodic great earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: Effects of nonlinear crustal rheology (United States)

    Reches, Ze'ev; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, Charles


    We analyze the cycle of great earthquakes along the San Andreas fault with a finite element numerical model of deformation in a crust with a nonlinear viscoelastic rheology. The viscous component of deformation has an effective viscosity that depends exponentially on the inverse absolute temperature and nonlinearity on the shear stress; the elastic deformation is linear. Crustal thickness and temperature are constrained by seismic and heat flow data for California. The models are for anti plane strain in a 25-km-thick crustal layer having a very long, vertical strike-slip fault; the crustal block extends 250 km to either side of the fault. During the earthquake cycle that lasts 160 years, a constant plate velocity v(sub p)/2 = 17.5 mm yr is applied to the base of the crust and to the vertical end of the crustal block 250 km away from the fault. The upper half of the fault is locked during the interseismic period, while its lower half slips at the constant plate velocity. The locked part of the fault is moved abruptly 2.8 m every 160 years to simulate great earthquakes. The results are sensitive to crustal rheology. Models with quartzite-like rheology display profound transient stages in the velocity, displacement, and stress fields. The predicted transient zone extends about 3-4 times the crustal thickness on each side of the fault, significantly wider than the zone of deformation in elastic models. Models with diabase-like rheology behave similarly to elastic models and exhibit no transient stages. The model predictions are compared with geodetic observations of fault-parallel velocities in northern and central California and local rates of shear strain along the San Andreas fault. The observations are best fit by models which are 10-100 times less viscous than a quartzite-like rheology. Since the lower crust in California is composed of intermediate to mafic rocks, the present result suggests that the in situ viscosity of the crustal rock is orders of magnitude

  16. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.


    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...

  17. Crustal architecture beneath the Tibet-Ordos transition zone, NE Tibet, and the implications for plateau expansion (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui; Keller, G. R.; Xu, Xiao; Li, Hongqiang; Encarnacion, John


    Most previous studies of the Tibetan Plateau have focused on the processes of crustal thickening and subsequent outward growth. However, lithospheric structure across the tectonic boundaries of the plateau has not yet been fully imaged, and therefore, how geological structures evolved in association with the lateral expansion of the margins remains unclear. Here together with interpretation of regional aeromagnetic anomalies, we employ a recently acquired 165 km long deep seismic reflection image that crosses the northeastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau. The resulting crustal "architecture" suggests that crustal shortening is a primary driver for plateau uplift of northeastern Tibet and that the Xiaoguan Shan to the east of the Liupan Shan belt marks the easternmost edge of the strata that has been affected by the northeastward growth of the plateau. In addition, decoupled crustal deformation owing to differential structural integrity has been accommodated during the subsequent northeastward growth of the plateau.

  18. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen. (United States)

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N


    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E.


    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics

  20. Soft-sediment deformation structures in NW Germany caused by Late Pleistocene seismicity (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta


    New data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne area link this soft-sediment deformation directly to earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. Soft-sediment deformation structures include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. The style of soft-sediment deformation will be discussed with respect to brittle failure, liquefaction and fluidization processes, and was controlled by (1) the magnitude of the earthquake and (2) the permeability, tensile strength and flexural resistance of the alluvial and aeolian sediments. It is the first time in northern Germany that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleistocene and in the seventeenth century indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. The Late Pleistocene earthquake probably occurred between 15.9 ± 1.6 and 13.1 ± 1.5 ka; the association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that it had a magnitude of at least 5.5.

  1. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    of the North Atlantic passive margins, including the gravitational collapse, extension, rifting and a possible influence by volcanism related to the Iceland hot spot. The landscape and topography were finally shaped by extensive erosion, finding its peak in the quaternary glaciations. Seismological data were...... present selected results from on-going detailed studies of the crustal and upper mantle, including a Receiver Function inversion, seismic P-wave travel time tomography and gravity modelling....

  2. Stress-wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals (United States)

    Grady, D. E.


    Large amplitude compressive stress wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals was performed. The materials studied included Vermont marble, Blair dolomite, Oakhall limestone, z-cut calcite and oil shale. In each case specific constitutive features were studied. Features include interrelation of plastic yielding and phase transformation, rate dependent plastic flow, dilatency under dynamic loading conditions, and energy dissipation at stress amplitudes below measured Hugoniot elastic limits. A new experimental method using inmaterial mutual inductance magnetic gauges is also described.

  3. Seismic velocity and crustal thickness inversions: Moon and Mars (United States)

    Drilleau, Melanie; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-François; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Wieczorek, Mark


    We present results from new inversions of seismic data arrival times acquired by the Apollo active and passive experiments. Markov chain Monte Carlo inversions are used to constrain (i) 1-D lunar crustal and upper mantle velocity models and (ii) 3-D lateral crustal thickness models under the Apollo stations and the artificial and natural impact sites. A full 3-D model of the lunar crustal thickness is then obtained using the GRAIL gravimetric data, anchored by the crustal thicknesses under each Apollo station and impact site. To avoid the use of any seismic reference model, a Bayesian inversion technique is implemented. The advantage of such an approach is to obtain robust probability density functions of interior structure parameters governed by uncertainties on the seismic data arrival times. 1-D seismic velocities are parameterized using C1-Bézier curves, which allow the exploration of both smoothly varying models and first-order discontinuities. The parameters of the inversion include the seismic velocities of P and S waves as a function of depth, the thickness of the crust under each Apollo station and impact epicentre. The forward problem consists in a ray tracing method enabling both the relocation of the natural impact epicenters, and the computation of time corrections associated to the surface topography and the crustal thickness variations under the stations and impact sites. The results show geology-related differences between the different sites, which are due to contrasts in megaregolith thickness and to shallow subsurface composition and structure. Some of the finer structural elements might be difficult to constrain and might fall within the uncertainties of the dataset. However, we use the more precise LROC-located epicentral locations for the lunar modules and Saturn-IV upper stage artificial impacts, reducing some of the uncertainties observed in past studies. In the framework of the NASA InSight/SEIS mission to Mars, the method developed in

  4. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server


    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  5. Investigation of Deformation Sources for the Miyakejima, Japan Intrusive Event (United States)

    Hughes, G. R.; Segall, P.


    On June 26, 2000, a large seismic swarm began beneath the west coast of Miyakejima, Japan, an active volcanic island in the Izu arc. After a week-long propagation of seismicity to the northwest, seismic activity continued for approximately two months in the region. The swarm was accompanied by eruptions and caldera collapse on Miyakejima, as well as continuing crustal deformation measured by GEONET, the continuous GPS network of the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan. Based on observed deformation and locations of hypocenters, it has generally been assumed that dike propagation from a magma chamber beneath Miyakejima was responsible for the swarm. Although several models of varying complexity have been proposed to explain the deformation, there is little consensus on a geologically motivated model that explains both the long-lived deformation and seismicity. In addition, this event provides an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between dike propagation and earthquake nucleation, which, though long recognized, is not well understood. We tested several models of deformation based on observed displacements, hypocenter locations, overall tectonic setting, and pre-event data. Sources of deformation considered include various modes of dike propagation, magma chamber deflation, and faulting to the northwest of Miyakejima in a zone that was seismically active before the 2000 event. In order to test the viability of these mechanisms, we utilized both inverse and forward modeling of displacements during various stages of the event. Initial results show that a model consisting of only dike opening and Mogi deflation beneath Miyakejima can fit the total deformation well, but the best-fitting model does not coincide with the seismic swarm. In addition, there are substantial differences between the orientations and magnitudes of displacements observed during the first week (maximum 4.8 cm) and those for the entire event (maximum 48.4 cm). These preliminary

  6. Evolution of a passive crustal-scale detachment (Syros, Aegean region): Insights from structural and petrofabric analyses in the hanging-wall (United States)

    Aravadinou, E.; Xypolias, P.


    New detailed (micro-)structural investigations, quartz petrofabric analyses and geological/structural mapping in southeast Syros (Cycladic massif, Aegean region) allow us to place new constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Uppermost unit, which occupies the immediate hanging-wall of the crustal-scale Vari Detachment. We show that the Eocene ‒ Oligocene deformation history in the hanging-wall of this detachment is associated with SW-directed ductile shearing. This history includes an early distributed constrictional deformation expressed by transport-parallel upright folds, L-tectonites and cleft-girdles quartz c-axis fabrics that were formed at temperatures ∼500 °C. Ductile deformation progressively localized at the bottom of the Uppermost unit leading to the formation of a greenschist-facies mylonitic zone under plane strain conditions inferred from Type-I cross-girdles quartz c-axis fabrics. The ongoing mylonitization was also associated with temporally increasing pure shear component of deformation coupled with cooling from ∼500 °C to ∼400 °C. We suggest that the Vari Detachment represents a passive normal-sense roof fault resulted from the NE-directed ductile extrusion of the Blueschist unit (footwall) at middle Eocene ‒ Oligocene times. In the middle Miocene, the activation of the brittle SSW-directed Late Vari Detachment enhanced the brittle exhumation of both the Blueschist unit and the Vari Detachment.

  7. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (United States)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea


    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  8. Rheological responses to plate boundary deformation at the Eastern Volcanic Zone in Iceland (United States)

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Sturkell, Erik


    Located on the mid-Atlantic ridge, Iceland allows for direct measurement of crustal deformation. Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ), Iceland, and crustal deformation of the rift near its southern end at 64°N show a spreading rate of 13.8 ± 1.8 mm yr- 1. About 90% of the deformation occurs in an 80 to 90-km wide zone. To understand how the rheology of the lithosphere influences rifting, we applied a thermo-mechanical stretching model that includes thermal states in Iceland using temperature- and stress-dependent wet and dry olivine rheology. We attempt to reproduce the thermal structure of a rift by defining 700 °C from 5- to 15-km depth at the rift axis that leads to variation in rheological structure, and to estimate the layer (from surface to a depth of 700 °C) where the elastic deformation of the lithosphere is the greatest. At a fixed spreading rate, the deformation field is controlled by the sub-surface thermal state. The vertical subsidence rate at the ridge axis increases almost linearly as the half-velocity increases. The best fitted model suggests a thermal gradient of 54 °C km- 1 at depth below where 700 °C occurs at the ridge axis. The models have little sensitivity to the wet or dry olivine rheology. Estimated viscosity is 1 × 1019 Pa s at 20-km depth at the ridge axis and 1 × 1018 Pa s up to 100-km depth in the model. The spreading rate influences the tangential (non-linearity) shape of the deformation field, and a change in spreading rate affects the deformation field the most. After spreading velocity, the model's second most sensitive parameter is the location of the 700 °C at the rift axis. The thermomechanical model confirms that the rheological responses at the central part of the rift zone in the EVZ, Iceland caused of plate spreading is nonlinear, comparable with surface deformation observed by GPS measurement.

  9. Limit of crustal drilling depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. Zhao


    Full Text Available Deep drilling is becoming the direct and the most efficient means in exploiting deep mineral resources, facilitating to understanding the earthquake mechanism and performing other scientific researches on the Earth's crust. In order to understand the limit of drilling depth in the Earth's crust, we first conducted tests on granite samples with respect to the borehole deformation and stability under high temperature and high pressure using the triaxial servo-controlled rock testing system. Then the critical temperature-pressure coupling conditions that result in borehole instability are derived. Finally, based on the testing results obtained and the requirements for the threshold values of borehole deformations during deep drilling, the limit of drilling depth in the Earth's crust is formulated with ground temperature.

  10. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  11. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength Rheology and Seismicity (CSRS-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 328-328 ...

  12. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan


    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  13. Transient radon signals driven by fluid pressure pulse, micro-crack closure, and failure during granite deformation experiments (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Schubnel, Alexandre; Pili, Éric


    In seismically active fault zones, various crustal fluids including gases are released at the surface. Radon-222, a radioactive gas naturally produced in rocks, is used in volcanic and tectonic contexts to illuminate crustal deformation or earthquake mechanisms. At some locations, intriguing radon signals have been recorded before, during, or after tectonic events, but such observations remain controversial, mainly because physical characterization of potential radon anomalies from the upper crust is lacking. Here we conducted several month-long deformation experiments under controlled dry upper crustal conditions with a triaxial cell to continuously monitor radon emission from crustal rocks affected by three main effects: a fluid pressure pulse, micro-crack closure, and differential stress increase to macroscopic failure. We found that these effects are systematically associated with a variety of radon signals that can be explained using a first-order advective model of radon transport. First, connection to a source of deep fluid pressure (a fluid pressure pulse) is associated with a large transient radon emission increase (factor of 3-7) compared with the background level. We reason that peak amplitude is governed by the accumulation time and the radon source term, and that peak duration is controlled by radioactive decay, permeability, and advective losses of radon. Second, increasing isostatic compression is first accompanied by an increase in radon emission followed by a decrease beyond a critical pressure representing the depth below which crack closure hampers radon emission (150-250 MPa, ca. 5.5-9.5 km depth in our experiments). Third, the increase of differential stress, and associated shear and volumetric deformation, systematically triggers significant radon peaks (ca. 25-350% above background level) before macroscopic failure, by connecting isolated cracks, which dramatically enhances permeability. The detection of transient radon signals before rupture

  14. Crustal Thickness Along the Central American Volcanic Front (United States)

    MacKenzie, L. S.; Abers, G. A.; Rondenay, S.; Fischer, K. M.; Syracuse, E. M.; Protti, J. M.; Gonzalez, V.; Strauch, W.


    Subduction zone processes alter the upper plate in a number of ways, including accretion, magmatic addition, serpentinization of the mantle wedge and formation of mafic cumulates in the lower crust. All of these changes affect seismic velocities, and characterizing the structure of underlying terranes in Central America establishes a baseline for composition and continental growth. Tomography Under Costa Rica and Nicaragua (TUCAN) is a PASSCAL deployment of broadband seismometers over an 18-month period. The network has two dense cross arc lines and two along arc lines that cross terrane boundaries. Teleseismic P and PP arrivals recorded on the TUCAN network have been used to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs, and to develop receiver function images. Surface reflected mode conversions (Ppms and Psms) enhance resolution. Crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 44 km with formal errors ranging 1.6-9.2 km. The thinnest crust (24.6 +/- 3.5 km) lies directly beneath the arc in Nicaragua, whereas the thickest crust (43.5 +/- 2.5 km) lies in the backarc in Nicaragua and beneath the Costa Rican arc (37.9 +/- 5.2). Changes in crustal thickness and Vp/Vs show two distinct terrane boundaries crossing the arc. Vp/Vs indicate continental crust (Vp/Vs=1.71-1.77) in Nicaragua, with a transition to gabbroic crust (Vp/Vs=1.82-1.88) in Costa Rica where fragments of the Caribbean large Igneous Province have been found. Crustal thickness beneath the arc in Costa Rica yields a crustal growth rate of 16-36 km3/km/Ma, assuming a base crustal thickness of 30-32 km with 6-14 Ma of magmatism. The Moho shows strong velocity contrasts throughout the study area, and is the only interface seen in the backarc, but it is complicated by interferences caused by shallow structure beneath the arc and forearc. Forward modeling indicates that reverberations in sediment layers interfere with the Ps arrival, however surface reflected arrivals (Ppms) require a velocity contrast on the order of 0.5-1.0 km

  15. Variscan Collisional Magmatism and Deformation In The Viseu Area (northern Central Portugal) - Constraints From U-pb Geochronology of Granitoids (United States)

    Azevedo, M. R.; Aguado, B. V.; Scaltegger, U.; Nolan, J.; Martins, M. R.; Medina, J.

    The Viseu area is located in the innermost zone of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt (the Central Iberian Zone). It consists of abundant post-thickening, collision related grani- toids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D2) and is coeval with D3 dextral and sinis- tral crustal-scale transcurrent shear zones. In the northern part of the area, the presence of a well preserved Upper Carboniferous tectonic basin filled with deformed conti- nental clastic sediments, bounded by contemporaneously exhumed deep crustal rocks and intruded by late-tectonic granites documents an episode of extension involving basin subsidence, uplift and erosion of the basement and granite magmatism in a post- thickening, but syn-convergent scenario. Convergence is manifested by strike-slip tec- tonics and basin inversion. According to structural criteria, the Variscan granitoids can be subdivided into two major groups: (1) syn-D3 granitoids including two dif- ferent petrological associations, highly peraluminous leucogranite and granodiorite- monzogranite intrusions and (2) late-D3 granitoids comprising slightly metaluminous to peraluminous granodiorites and monzogranites. Four plutons representing the syn- D3 leucogranites (Junqueira) and monzogranites (Maceira and Casal Vasco) and the late-D3 biotite granites (Cota) yielded U-Pb zircon + monazite or monazite ages of 310 Ma, 311 Ma, 311 Ma and 306 Ma, respectively. This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-D3 plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-D3 granites and suggests that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 5 myr. Stratigraphic markers show that the oldest continental sediments in the Carboniferous basin are Westphalian whilst field relationships in- dicate that the deformation occurred prior to the intrusion of the late-D3 granitoids. Precise U-Pb geochronology proves that basin

  16. Global Mapping of Oceanic and Continental Shelf Crustal Thickness and Ocean-Continent Transition Structure (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy; Roberts, Alan


    The 3D mapping of crustal thickness for continental shelves and oceanic crust, and the determination of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure and continent-ocean boundary (COB) location, represents a substantial challenge. Geophysical inversion of satellite derived free-air gravity anomaly data incorporating a lithosphere thermal anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008) now provides a useful and reliable methodology for mapping crustal thickness in the marine domain. Using this we have produced the first comprehensive maps of global crustal thickness for oceanic and continental shelf regions. Maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor from gravity inversion may be used to determine the distribution of oceanic lithosphere, micro-continents and oceanic plateaux including for the inaccessible polar regions (e.g. Arctic Ocean, Alvey et al.,2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean magnetic anomaly and isochron interpretation. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we can improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and sea-floor spreading trajectory during ocean basin formation. By restoring crustal thickness & continental lithosphere thinning to their initial post-breakup configuration we show the geometry and segmentation of the rifted continental margins at their time of breakup, together with the location of highly-stretched failed breakup basins and rifted micro-continents. For detailed analysis to constrain OCT structure, margin type (i.e. magma poor, "normal" or magma rich) and COB location, a suite of quantitative analytical methods may be used which include: (i) Crustal cross-sections showing Moho depth and crustal basement thickness from gravity inversion. (ii) Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis which is used to investigate OCT

  17. Investigating Microbial Biofilm Formations on Crustal Rock Substrates (United States)

    Weiser, M.; D'Angelo, T.; Carr, S. A.; Orcutt, B.


    Ocean crust hosts microbial life that, in some cases, alter the component rocks as a means of obtaining energy. Variations in crust lithology, included trace metal and mineral content, as well as the chemistry of the fluids circulating through them, provide substrates for some microbes to metabolize, leading to formation of biofilm community structures. Microbes have different parameters for the situations in which they will form biofilms, but they must have some source of energy in excess at the site of biofilm formation for them to become stationary and form the carbohydrate-rich structures connecting the cells to one another and the substrate. Generally, the requirements for microbes to form biofilms on crustal minerals are unclear. We designed two experiments to test (1) mineral preference and biofilm formation rates by natural seawater microbial communities, and (2) biofilm development as a function of phosphate availability for an organism isolated from subseafloor ocean crust. In Experiment 1, we observed that phyric basalt groundmass is preferentially colonized over aphyric basalt or metal sulfides in a shallow water and oxic seawater environment. In experiment 2, tests of the anaerobic heterotroph Thalassospira bacteria isolated from oceanic crustal fluids showed that they preferentially form biofilms, lose motility, and increase exponentially in number over time in higher-PO4 treatments (50 micromolar), including with phosphate-doped basalts, than in treatments with low phosphate concentrations (0.5 micromolar) often found in crustal fluids. These observations suggest phosphate as a main driver of biofilm formation in subsurface crust. Overall, these data suggest that the drivers of microbial biofilm formation on crustal substrates are selective to the substrate conditions, which has important implications for estimating the global biomass of life harbored in oceanic crust.

  18. Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.


    In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated

  19. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

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    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  20. History of crustal recycling recorded in transition zone diamonds (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Stachel, T.; Palot, M.; Ickert, R. B.


    The Earth's transition zone (TZ) is a key region within the Earth that, from seismology, may be composed of a mixture of relatively primitive material together with the products of crustal recycling throughout the history of plate tectonics. The only samples of the TZ come in the form of inclusions in diamonds, that, for the most-part are retrogressed lower pressure equivalents of their precursor phases that formed at depth. Recent work by our group and others [1] on transition zone diamonds indicate that both peridotite and eclogitic paragenesis diamonds may record the products of crustal recycling. In-situ ion probe nitrogen and carbon isotopic measurements indicate the crystallisation of TZ diamonds from fluids bearing crustal signatures, of both oxidised and reduced forms. At the same time, majoritic garnets record extreme oxygen isotope compositions that track the interaction of oceanic crust with seawater at low temperature [2]. Such an origin is consistent with the few measured Sr-Nd isotope compositions of majorite garnet inclusions which resemble depleted MORB [3]. We have found considerably more enriched Sr isotope compositions (87Sr/86S ranging to > 0.8) in CaSiO3 inclusions that are from deep asthenosphere to TZ depths, supporting an origin that includes incorporation of recycled crustal sediment, in addition to the basaltic oceanic crust required to explain the phase equilibria [4]. Lastly, the discovery of hydrous ringwoodite in a diamond [5] containing more water than is soluble at the lower TZ adiabat indicates the possible role of recycling in transporting water as well as carbon into the TZ via a cool thermally unequilibrated slab. [1] Thomson et al (2014) CMP, 168, 1081. [2] Ickert et al (2015) Geochemical perspectives Letters, 1, 65-74. [3] Harte & Richardson (2011) Gondwana Research, 21, 236-235. [4] Walter et al. (2011) Science, 334, 54-57.[Pearson et al. (2014) Nature, 507, 221-224.

  1. Crustal structure of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Nwafor, Emeka

    The Gulf of Mexico initiated in the Late Triassic as South America and Africa separated from North America during the break up of Pangea. Previous studies indicate three models for the opening of the GOM. These include counter clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Block, rotation of the Yucatan Block about the same pole of rotation as those describing seafloor spreading in the central North Atlantic, and clockwise rotation of the Yucatan Block. There is much debate about the margin type and the crustal structure of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico (EGOM), especially below the depth of 6 km where crustal structure is poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. Two 2.5-D forward gravity and magnetic models across the margin are presented. These are constrained by basement picks from sparse seismic reflection and refraction data, spectral analysis of gravity data to determine the depth to source, magnetic susceptibility derived from results from other margins, the empirical relationship between P-wave velocity and density, and crustal scale isostatic modeling. The models, combined with a kinematic reconstruction of the GOM, show that: 1) it is a rifted margin; 2) the point where the Moho deepens downward from ˜17 km to ˜32 km is approximately 50 km outboard of the topographic shelf edge; 3) the carbonate bank retreated by several kilometers from its original termination due to the action of contourite currents; 4) extension and subsidence was accommodated with little shallow brittle faulting; 5) oceanic lithosphere is possibly outboard of the EGOM continental slope.

  2. A crustal model for Zealandia and Fiji (United States)

    Segev, Amit; Rybakov, Michael; Mortimer, Nick


    Existing maps of satellite (free-air) gravity and bathymetry, and the CRUST 2.0 global crustal structure model have been used to make new Bouguer gravity anomaly and crustal thickness maps of the SW Pacific region to analyse the region's crustal structure. The new maps clearly outline the limits of the rifted, largely submerged continent of Zealandia. The Bouguer gravity anomalies of ocean crust, large igneous provinces and backarc basins vary simply and predictably with age. The bathymetric Fiji Platform lies in a water depth of 19 km for the entire Fiji Platform, comparable to stretched and submerged parts of Zealandia. The question whether the continental crustal thickness of Fiji is due to its actually being a rifted part of Gondwana-Zealandia or due to enhanced Eocene-Pliocene magmatism remains open, but testable, with the latter more likely. Using the new accurate 3-D crustal thickness and published radiometric dating of lavas, we estimate that the magmatic portions of Southwest Pacific Cenozoic subduction-related arcs (three Kings, Tonga and Vanuatu) have grown at net volumes which vary from 263 to ˜1400 km3 km-1 with net addition rates of 17-31 km3 km-1 Ma-1.

  3. Crustal Thickness in the Ibero-Maghrebian region I: Northern Morocco (United States)

    Mancilla, F.; Stich, D.; Morales, J.; Julià, J.; Diaz, J.; Pazos, A.; Córdoba, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Ibarra, P.; Harnafi, M.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.


    During the TopoIberia experiment, a total of 26 seismic broadband stations were recording in northern Morocco, providing for the first time extended regional coverage for investigating structure and seismotectonics of the southern branch of the Betic-Rif arc, its foreland and the Atlas domain. Here, we analyze P-to-S converted waves in teleseismic receiver functions to infer gross crustal properties as thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between 22 km and 44 km and display a simple geographic pattern that divides the study area into three domains: entire northwestern Morocco underlain by a thickened crust with crustal thicknesses between 35 km and 44 km; northeastern Morocco affected by significant crustal thinning, with crustal thicknesses ranging from 22 km to 30 km, with the shallowest Moho along the Mediterranean coast; and an extended domain of 27-34 km thick crust, further south which includes the Atlas domain and its foreland regions. Vp/Vs ratios show normal values of ~ 1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations give low Vp/Vs ratios around 1.71. The very sharp transition from thick crust in northwestern Morocco to thin crust in northeastern Morocco is attributed to regional geodynamics possibly the realm of present-day subcrustal dynamics in the final stage of western Mediterranean subduction. Crustal thicknesses just slightly above 30km in the southern domain are intriguing, showing that high topography in this region is not isostatically compensated at crustal level.

  4. Crustal structure of western Hispaniola (Haiti) from a teleseismic receiver function study (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Guerrier, K.; Keir, D.; Stuart, G.; Clouard, V.; Gallacher, R.; Ulysse, S.; Boisson, D.; Bien-aimé Momplaisir, R.; Saint Preux, F.; Prépetit, C.; Saurel, J.-M.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.


    Haiti, located at the northern Caribbean plate boundary, records a geological history of terrane accretion from Cretaceous island arc formations to the Eocene to Recent oblique collision with the Bahamas platform. Little is presently known about the underlying crustal structure of the island. We analyze P-waveforms arriving at 27 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed over a distance of 200 km across the major terrane boundaries in Haiti to determine the crustal structure of western Hispaniola. We compute teleseismic receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multi-Taper method and determine crustal thickness and bulk composition (Vp/Vs) using the H-k stacking method. Three distinctive and fault-bounded crustal domains, defined by their characteristic Moho depth distributions and bulk crustal Vp/Vs, are imaged across Haiti. We relate these domains to three crustal terranes that have been accreted along the plate boundary during the northeastwards displacement of the Caribbean plate and are presently being deformed in a localized fold and thrust belt. In the northern domain, made up of volcanic arc facies, the crust has a thickness of 23 km and Vp/Vs of 1.75 ± 0.1 typical of average continental crust. The crust in the southern domain is part of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (Caribbean LIP), and is 22 km thick with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.03 consistent with plume-related rocks of late Cretaceous age. Significantly thicker, the crust in central Haiti has values of Moho depths averaging 41 km and with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.05. We propose that the central domain is likely constructed of an island arc upper crust with fragments of dense material originating from mafic lavas or LIP material. We produce a crustal profile along a N-S transect across Haiti accounting for the surface geology, shallow structural history, and new seismological constraints provided by variations of crustal thickness and bulk composition.

  5. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.


    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  6. Inherited weaknesses control deformation in the flat slab region of Central Argentina (United States)

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.


    The Sierras Pampeanas region of west-central Argentina has long been considered a geologic type-area for flat-slab induced thick-skinned deformation. Frictional coupling between the horizontal subducting plate and South American lithosphere from ~12 Ma to the present provides an obvious causal mechanism for the basement block uplifts that characterize this region. New low temperature thermochronometry data show basement rocks from the central Sierras Pampeanas (~ longitude 66 ̊ W) including Sierras Cadena de Paiman, Velasco and Mazan retain a cooling history of Paleozoic - Mesozoic tectonics events. Results from this study indicate that less than 2 km of basement has been exhumed since at least the Mesozoic. These trends recorded by both apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometry suggest that recent Mio-Pliocene thick-skinned deformation associated with flat-slab subduction follow inherited zones of weakness from Paleozoic terrane sutures and shear zones and Mesozoic rifting. If a Cenozoic foreland basin exisited in this region, its thickness was minimal and was controlled by paleotopography. Pre-Cenozoic cooling ages in these ranges that now reach as high as 4 km imply significant exhumation of basement rocks before the advent of flat slab subduction in the mid-late Miocene. It also suggests that thick-skinned deformation associated with flat slab subduction may at least be facilitated by inherited crustal-scale weaknesses. At the most, pre-existing zones of weakness may be required in regions of thick-skinned deformation. Although flat-slab subduction plays an important role in the exhumation of the Sierras Pampeanas, it is likely not the sole mechanism responsible for thick-skinned deformation in this region. This insight sheds light on the interpretation of modern and ancient regions of thick-skinned deformation in Cordilleran systems.

  7. Recent crustal movement and great earthquakes in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate

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    Guo Liangqian


    Full Text Available Crustal movement and incremental-movement data observed repeatedly at GPS stations during 1999–2009 were analyzed to study the effect of two earthquakes of Ms8.1 and Ms8.0 that occurred in 2001 and 2008, respectively, in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate and its eastern margin. The result revealed certain anomalous pre-earthquake deformation and some large co-seismic changes. Prior to the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the seismogenic Kunlunshan fault zone became a geographic boundary between different regional movements. At the time of the earthquake, there was an average cross-fault crustal shortening of −1.04 m and an average right-lateral strike slip of 0.76 m along the ruptured segment, as well as a strain-energy release of −62. 66 × 10.7.

  8. Age, distribution and style of deformation in Alaska north of 60°N: Implications for assembly of Alaska (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Box, Stephen E.


    The structural architecture of Alaska is the product of a complex history of deformation along both the Cordilleran and Arctic margins of North America involving oceanic plates, subduction zones and strike-slip faults and with continental elements of Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia. We use geological constraints to assign regions of deformation to 14 time intervals and to map their distributions in Alaska. Alaska can be divided into three domains with differing deformational histories. Each domain includes a crustal fragment that originated near Early Paleozoic Baltica. The Northern domain experienced the Early Cretaceous Brookian orogeny, an oceanic arc-continent collision, followed by mid-Cretaceous extension. Early Cretaceous opening of the oceanic Canada Basin rifted the orogen from the Canadian Arctic margin, producing the bent trends of the orogen. The second (Southern) domain consists of Neoproterozoic and younger crust of the amalgamated Peninsular-Wrangellia-Alexander arc terrane and its paired Mesozoic accretionary prism facing the Pacific Ocean basin. The third (Interior) domain, situated between the first two domains and roughly bounded by the Cenozoic dextral Denali and Tintina faults, includes the large continental Yukon Composite and Farewell terranes having different Permian deformational episodes. Although a shared deformation that might mark their juxtaposition by collisional processes is unrecognized, sedimentary linkage between the two terranes and depositional overlap of the boundary with the Northern domain occurred by early Late Cretaceous. Late Late Cretaceous deformation is the first deformation shared by all three domains and correlates temporally with emplacement of the Southern domain against the remainder of Alaska. Early Cenozoic shortening is mild across interior Alaska but is significant in the Brooks Range, and correlates in time with dextral faulting, ridge subduction and counter-clockwise rotation of southern Alaska. Late Cenozoic

  9. Subducting continental lower crust and crustal thickness variations in the intermediate seismic zone of Pamir-Hindu Kush inferred from Moho underside reflection pmP (United States)

    He, Hangqi; Pan, Fa-Bin; Chen, Hanlin; Zhang, Yujia; Zheng, Xin; He, Xiaobo


    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is an orogenic belt which formed as a result of recent continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. A comprehensive understanding of the tectonic history of this region has been hampered due to limited seismological investigations. In this study, we use the Moho underside reflection pmP phase to constrain crustal thickness variations in the intermediate-depth seismic zone (36-37°N, 69-72°E). The seismic events characterized by focal depth deeper than 100 km and magnitude > 5.8 (Mw) were used. The crustal thickness was determined by identifying the depth phase pP and the Moho underside reflection pmP. The measured thickness varies spatially from 58.1 to 76.2 km, with uncertainties most likely resulting from deviation of the average P-wave velocities ( 6.21 km/s with a deviation of 0.22 km/s) in the crust. The strong Moho depth variations imply a large structural deformation of the crust, which reflects a complex collision-related mountain building history. We also detected two strong reflections from deep interfaces down to 97 km underneath the southernmost Pamir. Based on our direct observations and waveform modeling, we interpret that the two reflections are possibly the manifestations of the underplating subducted Eurasian lower crust in this region. Our observations complement those of other seismic results, including receiver functions from previous studies.

  10. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.


    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  11. Crustal structure of the Gulf of Aden southern margin: Evidence from receiver functions on Socotra Island (Yemen) (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Korostelev, Félicie; Khanbari, Khaled; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham; Obrebski, Mathias


    Breakup of continents in magma-poor setting occurs primarily by faulting and plate thinning. Spatial and temporal variations in these processes can be influenced by the pre-rift basement structure as well as by early syn-rift segmentation of the rift. In order to better understand crustal deformation and influence of pre-rift architecture on breakup we use receiver functions from teleseismic recordings from Socotra which is part of the subaerial Oligo-Miocene age southern margin of the Gulf of Aden. We determine variations in crustal thickness and elastic properties, from which we interpret the degree of extension related thinning and crustal composition. Our computed receiver functions show an average crustal thickness of ~ 28 km for central Socotra, which decreases westward along the margin to an average of ~ 21 km. In addition, the crust thins with proximity to the continent-ocean transition to ~ 16 km in the northwest. Assuming an initial pre-rift crustal thickness of 35 km (undeformed Arabian plate), we estimate a stretching factor in the range of ~ 2.1-2.4 beneath Socotra. Our results show considerable differences between the crustal structure of Socotra's eastern and western sides on either side of the Hadibo transfer zone; the east displays a clear intracrustal conversion phase and thick crust when compared with the western part. The majority of measurements across Socotra show Vp/Vs ratios of between 1.70 and 1.77 and are broadly consistent with the Vp/Vs values expected from the granitic and carbonate rock type exposed at the surface. Our results strongly suggest that intrusion of mafic rock is absent or minimal, providing evidence that mechanical thinning accommodated the majority of crustal extension. From our observations we interpret that the western part of Socotra corresponds to the necking zone of a classic magma-poor continental margin, while the eastern part corresponds to the proximal domain.

  12. Crustal dynamics project site selection criteria (United States)

    Allenby, R.


    The criteria for selecting site locations and constructing observing pads and monuments for the Mobile VLB1 and the satellite laser ranging systems used in the NASA/GSFC Crustal Dynamics Project are discussed. Gross system characteristics (size, shape, weight, power requirement, foot prints, etc.) are given for the Moblas, MV-1 through 3, TLRS-1 through 4 and Series instruments.

  13. Spatial relationships between crustal structures and mantle seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania: Implications for geodynamic evolution (United States)

    Enciu, Dana-Mihaela

    Integration of active and passive-source seismic data is employed to study the relationships between crustal structures and seismicity in the SE Carpathian foreland of Romania, and the connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone. Relocated crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with industry seismic profiles Comanesti, Ramnicu Sarat, Braila and Buzau, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN profile and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles in order to understand the link between neo-tectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identified active crustal faults suggesting a mechanical coupling between sedimentary, crustal and upper mantle structures on the Trotus, Sinaia and newly observed Ialomita Faults. Seismic reflection imaging revealed the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crust and an east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against both 'subduction-in-place' and 'slab break-off' as viable mechanisms for generating Vrancea mantle seismicity.

  14. New Observations of Crustal Plateau Surface Histories, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Hypotheses (United States)

    Hansen, V. L.


    Geohistories documented for four crustal plateaus surface presents challenges to both downwelling and plume hypotheses of plateau formation, and lead to a third hypothesis, plateau formation involving crystallization of a huge lava pond.

  15. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake: Implications for fault strength (United States)

    Luttrell, K.M.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D.T.; Brooks, B.A.; Bevis, M.G.


    The great 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake off the coast of southern Chile ruptured a ???600 km length of subduction zone. In this paper, we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip model constrained by geodetic observations from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault. Second, we use a static force balance model to constrain the crustal shear stress required to simultaneously support observed fore-arc topography and the stress orientation indicated by the earthquake focal mechanism. This includes the derivation of a semianalytic solution for the stress field exerted by surface and Moho topography loading the crust. We find that the deviatoric stress exerted by topography is minimized in the limit when the crust is considered an incompressible elastic solid, with a Poisson ratio of 0.5, and is independent of Young's modulus. This places a strict lower bound on the critical stress state maintained by the crust supporting plastically deformed accretionary wedge topography. We estimate the coseismic shear stress change from the Maule event ranged from-6 MPa (stress increase) to 17 MPa (stress drop), with a maximum depth-averaged crustal shear-stress drop of 4 MPa. We separately estimate that the plate-driving forces acting in the region, regardless of their exact mechanism, must contribute at least 27 MPa trench-perpendicular compression and 15 MPa trench-parallel compression. This corresponds to a depth-averaged shear stress of at least 7 MPa. The comparable magnitude of these two independent shear stress estimates is consistent with the interpretation that the section of the megathrust fault ruptured in the Maule earthquake is weak, with the seismic cycle relieving much of the total sustained shear stress in the crust. Copyright 2011 by the American

  16. Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism (United States)

    Citron, Robert I.; Zhong, Shijie


    The Martian crustal dichotomy characterizing the topographic difference between the northern and southern hemispheres is one of the most important features on Mars. However, the formation mechanism for the dichotomy remains controversial with two competing proposals: exogenic (e.g., a giant impact) and endogenic (e.g., degree-1 mantle convection) mechanisms. Another important observation is the Martian crustal remnant magnetism, which shows a much stronger field in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere and also magnetic lineations. In this study, we examine how exogenic and endogenic mechanisms for the crustal dichotomy are constrained by the crustal remnant magnetism. Assuming that the dichotomy is caused by a giant impact in the northern hemisphere, we estimate that the average thickness of ejecta in the southern hemisphere is 20-25 km. While such a giant impact may cause crustal demagnetization in the northern hemisphere, we suggest that the impact could also demagnetize the southern hemisphere via ejecta thermal blanketing, impact demagnetization, and heat transfer from the hot layer of ejecta, thus posing a challenge for the giant impact model. We explore how the pattern of magnetic lineations relates to endogenic theories of dichotomy formation, specifically crustal production via degree-1 mantle convection. We observe that the pattern of lineations roughly corresponds to concentric circles about a single pole, and determine the pole for the concentric circles at 76.5° E and 84.5° S, which nearly overlaps with the centroid of the thickened crust in the southern hemisphere. We suggest that the crustal magnetization pattern, magnetic lineations, and crustal dichotomy (i.e., thickened crust in the highlands) can be explained by a simple endogenic process; one-plume convection causes melting and crustal production above the plume in the southern hemisphere, and strong crustal magnetization and magnetic lineations are formed in the southern

  17. Crustal and deep seismicity in Italy (30 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaggi


    Full Text Available The first modern studies of seismicity in Italy date back to the late 60's and early 70's. Although with a sparse seismic network available and only a few telemetered short-period stations, significant studies were carried out that outlined the main features of Italian seismicity (see, e.g., Boschi et al., 1969. Among these studies, one of the most important achievements was the reconnaissance of a Wadati-Benioff zone in Southern Tyrrhenian, described for the first time in detail in the papers of Caputo et al.(1970, 1973. Today, after three decades of more and more detailed seismological monitoring of the Italian region and tens of thousands earthquakes located since then, the knowledge of the earthquake generation processes in our country is much improved, although some of the conclusions reached in these early papers still hold. These improvements were made possible by the efforts of many institutions and seismologists who have been working hard to bring seismological research in Italy to standards of absolute quality, under the pivoting role of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING. From the relocation of about 30000 crustal earthquakes and detailed studies on intermediate and deep shocks carried out in the last few years, we show that seismic release in peninsular Italy is only weakly related to the Africa-Eurasia convergence, but rather is best explained by the existence of two separate subduction/collision arcs (Northern Apennines and Southern Apennines-Calabria-Sicily. The width of the deforming belt running along peninsular Italy is 30 to 60 km, it is broader in the north than in the south, and the two arcs are separated by a region of more distributed deformation and stress rotations in the Central Apennines. Along the belt, the reconnaissance of regions of continuous and weak release of seismic energy, adjacent to fault areas which are currently «locked» (and therefore are the best candidates for future earthquakes is another

  18. Analysis of crustal thickness and off-axis low-velocity zones at the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Wells, A. E.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Wilcock, W. S.; Weekly, R. T.


    Construction of the oceanic crust is often thought to occur by delivery of melt from the mantle to the ridge axis that is both segment-centered and rise-centered. However, recent seismic studies at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise show that mantle melt delivery can be skewed relative to the rise leading to off-axis delivery of melt. Furthermore foci of mantle melt delivery occur on a length-scale shorter than that of a ridge segment and the region of greater melt supply, as measured by crustal thickness, does not correspond to the segment center. We use seismic data from the intermediate-spreading Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of melt supply in this setting and whether off-axis delivery and transport of melt is a common occurrence. The Juan de Fuca Ridge has a transitional morphology characterized by fault-bounded ridges that parallel the spreading center. Previous models of the Endeavour segment inferred that the off-axis ridges are constructed during periods of enhanced magmatism and that these are separated by the remains of rift valleys generated during periods of reduced magmatism. This model may imply that crustal thickness should vary rapidly, with thicker crust beneath the off-axis ridges and thinner crust in between. Alternatively, on the basis of recent seismic reflection images of crustal magma bodies along the Juan de Fuca ridge this topography is thought to reflect magma-induced deformation resulting from feedbacks between the rheology of the crust above the magma sill and dike intrusion. In this case, short wavelength crustal thickness variations may not be present. The melting anomalies associated with various nearby seamount chains also influence processes along the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The seismic reflection work indicates that there is a ~40-km-wide plateau of greater crustal thickness (~0.5-1.0 km) at the center of the Endeavour segment that began forming about 0.7 Ma. The plateau

  19. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin: An appraisal of existing seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans


    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50 km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... on acquisition and interpretation method and completeness of crustal model. The database represents major improvement in coverage and resolution and includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity...

  20. Assessing the Crustal Stratigraphy of Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Orbital Observations (United States)

    Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.


    Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby images revealed subtle color variations across Mercury's surface, many of which are associated with impact craters and basins. Impact craters that excavated material spectrally distinct from the surrounding pre-impact surface serve as windows into the subsurface, allowing observations of material at depth that would otherwise remain hidden to remote observations. Previous localized studies of spectrally distinct, excavated material suggested the presence of buried volcanic plains and a heterogeneous crustal stratigraphy and support the important role of volcanism in the evolution of the crust. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has since acquired global color (1 km/pixel) and high-resolution monochrome (250 m/pixel) base maps of the innermost planet, taken under illumination and observation geometries optimized for observing both color and morphology. These base maps, along with detailed targeted observations (up to 80 m/pixel color and 10 m/pixel monochrome), allow detailed co-mapping of geologic and spectral features across Mercury's surface. Such mapping, along with the use of scaling laws and melt-volume calculations to bound the depth of origin of crater ejecta and central peak structures, allows us to investigate many aspects of Mercury's crustal stratigraphy, including, but not limited to, the following topics: (1) The stratigraphy of four of Mercury's younger large basins: Caloris (1550 km in diameter), Rembrandt (720 km), Beethoven (630 km), and Tolstoj (360 km), which have all been flooded by spectrally distinct volcanic plains. Post-flooding craters of varying sizes enable an estimation of the thickness of the volcanic fill and the nature of the pre-flooding basin floor. These measurements will help to constrain models for subsequent compensation, uplift, and deformation; and incorporation of topography and gravity data link basin fill with the broader lithospheric evolution of Mercury. (2) The depth of origin

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.


    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  2. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.


    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  3. Deformation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas, Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, 1993-2015 (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Verhagen, Sandra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún


    The Krafla volcanic system has geothermal areas within the Krafla caldera and at Bjarnarflag in the Krafla fissure swarm, 9-km south of the Krafla caldera. Arrays of boreholes extract geothermal fluids for power plants in both areas. We collected and analyzed InSAR, GPS, and leveling data spanning 1993-2015 in order to investigate crustal deformation in these areas. The volcanic zone hosting the geothermal areas is also subject to large scale regional deformation processes, including plate spreading and deflation of the Krafla volcanic system. These deformation processes have to be taken into account in order to isolate the geothermal deformation signal. Plate spreading produces the largest horizontal displacements, but the regional deformation pattern also suggests readjustment of the Krafla system at depth after the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode. Observed deformation can be fit by an inflation source at about 20 km depth north of Krafla and a deflation source at similar depth directly below the Krafla caldera. Deflation signal along the fissure swarm can be reproduced by a 1-km wide sill at 4 km depth closing by 2-4 cm per year. These sources are considered to approximate the combined effects of vertical deformation associated with plate spreading and post-rifting response. Local deformation at the geothermal areas is well resolved in addition to these signals. InSAR shows that deformation at Bjarnarflag is elongated along the direction of the Krafla fissure swarm (∼ 4 km by ∼ 2 km) while it is circular at Krafla (∼ 5 km diameter). Rates of deflation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas have been relatively steady. Average volume decrease of about 6.6 × 105 m3/yr for Krafla and 3.9 × 105 m3/yr for Bjanarflag are found at sources located at ∼ 1.5 km depth, when interpreted by a spherical point source of pressure. This volume change represents about 8 × 10-3 m3/ton of the mass of geothermal fluid extracted per year, indicating important renewal

  4. Aspects of collision tectonics and intraplate deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P.


    Alpine collisional tectonics occurred episodically over the past 100 m.y., closing various small Tethyan basins and causing ripples of basin contraction and tectonic inversion across western Europe. Both at the Tethyan margin and in the smaller basins, deformation styles were controlled by existing fault geometries, in particular, (1) the position, dip, and detachment levels of the important bounding normal faults, (2) the locations of northwest-southwest trending lateral ramps/tear faults, which compartmentalize and tram-line the deformation, and (3) the distribution and thickness of Mesozoic postrift sediments. Collision began in the middle Cretaceous, with the closure of Ligurian and Valais basins and the associated reactivation of northwest-southeast strike-slip faults and small basins as far away as the Atlantic margin. This movement was associated with the earliest orogenic flysch deposits, the subduction of Tethyan ophiolites, and local A-type subduction and high-pressure metamorphism close to the Tethyan continental margins. Major crustal shortening occurred in southern Europe (Spain and southern France) in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene associated with closure of Pyrenean basins, but in the Alps, the major shortening continued throughout the Neogene. Section restorations based on regional studies, linked to commercial and deep seismic data, indicate well over 100 km of crustal shortening in the western and central Alps, with subduction of lower European crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Alps and the Po plain.

  5. Animated tectonic reconstruction of the Lower Colorado River region: Implications for Late Miocene to Present deformation (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Darin, Michael H.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Skinner, Lisa A.; Umhoefer, Paul J.; Oskin, Michael E.


    Although the majority of late Miocene to present Pacific-North America plate boundary strain has been accommodated by faults of the San Andreas and Gulf of California systems, growing evidence of dextral shear east of the San Andreas Fault indicates that a component of plate boundary deformation occurred in the lower Colorado River (LoCR) region. Large-scale tectonic reconstructions across the Gulf of California and Salton Trough (GCAST) region (Fig. 1), a ~500 km-wide zone of deformation that affected the western margin of North America, provide important constraints on the location, timing, style, and magnitude of crustal deformation in the LoCR region (Fig. 2). Characterizing Miocene to present deformation in the LoCR region is important to resolve the presence and kinematics of upper crustal structures that accommodated intracontinental strain and improves our understanding of the processes that promoted localized or diffuse strain during reorganization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary.

  6. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák


    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  7. [Babies with cranial deformity]. (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  8. 6. International FIG-symposium on deformation measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.; Heer, R. [eds.


    Due to the diversified fields of specialization of the authors, the papers span a very wide spectrum of theories, applications and case studies, concerning various problems of deformation studies in structural, geotechnical and mining engineering, in rock mechanics and earth crustal movements, covering such topics as: Design and analysis of deformations surveys; Integration of terrestrial, and space measurement techniques; New instrumental developements for automatic, continuous and telemetric data-acquisition with respect to geotechnical and geodetic applications; Monitoring and prediction of ground subsidence in mining areas, land slides and tectonic movements; Modeling and computation of deformations by Kalman-filtering techniques, finite element analysis and a special view to continuum mechanics; Application of expert systems and artificial intelligence; Description and analysis of dynamical deformation problems; special views in rock- and groundmechanics; Demonstration of mechanical engineering problems with respect to the supervision of industrial production and quality control. (orig.)

  9. Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hertzberg, Richard W; Vinci, Richard Paul; Hertzberg, Jason L


    "Hertzberg's 5th edition of Deformation & Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials offers several new features including a greater number and variety of homework problems using more computational software...

  10. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union (United States)

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.


    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  11. Influence of crustal stress on gob-side roadway supported by rock bolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Hou,C.; Wang, P.; Zhang, M.; Yuan, Q.; Pang, J.; Li, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    On the basis of numerical simulation, the influence of crustal stress on roof-bolted gob-side roadway is discussed. The discussion includes the perimeter convergence and deep displacement of roadway, the arrangement of rock bolt for gob-side roadway, and the width of support pillar. The research proves the feasibility of supporting gob-side roadway by rock bolt from the angle of crustal stress. The results can provide a reliable foundation for designing the scientific and reasonable parameters of bolt supporting. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes in gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.

  13. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J


    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  14. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Scheme to SJS and the University Grants Com- mission through the Teacher Fellowship to MS. The authors thank an anonymous reviewer for use- ful comments which led to improvements in the paper. References. Ben-Menahem A and Gillon A 1970 Crustal deformation by earthquakes and explosions; Bull. Seism. Soc.

  15. Lithospheric-scale analogue modelling of collision zones with a pre-existing weak zone, in "Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics: from Minerals to the Lithosphere"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Burg, J.P.


    Lithospheric-scale analogue experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of strength heterogeneities on the distribution and mode of crustal-scale deformation, on the resulting geometry of the deformed area, and on its topographic expression. Strength heterogeneities were

  16. Short-wavelength contractional structures in crustal plateau fold belts on Venus: constraints on early thermal state (United States)

    Ghent, R. R.; Phillips, R. J.; Hansen, V. L.; Nunes, D. C.


    Marginal fold belts within Venusian crustal plateaus are characterized by contractional tectonic features showing a range of spatial wavelengths from 30 km. Previous studies have proposed that these features are folds formed by layer-normal compression during crustal plateau formation [e.g., 1] and that the characteristic deformation wavelength(s) expressed by these features reflect the thickness of a competent surface layer during deformation [1, 2]. We investigate the conditions under which the shortest wavelength features represented in these fold belts may have formed. Specifically, we report on finite element simulations of concurrent shortening and cooling in models with uniform composition and elasto-visco-plastic (EVP) rheology. The models are constrained by observations of crustal plateau marginal fold belts using Magellan SAR imagery and are motivated by the current plume tectonic hypothesis for crustal plateau formation [2, 3]. The models are unique because a) the EVP rheology more accurately represents the actual crust than viscous or viscoelastic models; and b) our models incorporate spatially uniform material properties but temperature-dependent rheology [4], so that the strength profile through the crust evolves with cooling. This allows local thermal and stress conditions to determine the instantaneous effective surface layer thickness and strength, which in turn determines surface topographic wavelengths. We find that short-wavelength contractional features can form under hot conditions consistent with the plume scenario but do not form under cooler conditions. The final model topography results from simultaneous brittle faulting and viscous folding. We conclude that the shortest-wavelength features preserved in marginal fold belts record an early stage of crustal plateau evolution and require an elevated thermal gradient and surface temperature. [1] Ghent, R.R., and V.L. Hansen 1999. Structural and kinematic analysis of eastern Ovda Regio

  17. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion (United States)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.


    across the basin. In particular, we observe (1) a zone of extreme thinning, where the crust is thinner than 7 km; (2) basement highs and lows highlighting the blocks that accommodate the crustal thinning; (3) a central block that is thicker compared to the rest of the basin; (4) lower crustal thinning that is highly variable, which suggests a ductile deformation in the lower crust and an extensional discrepancy between the upper and lower crust (DDS); and (5) no evidence for upper-mantle serpentinization under the ultra-thinned crust. Furthermore, we show the importance of structural inheritance in rifting of the Avalon crust. Thus, we suggest that Orphan Basin is the result of rifting of a non-homogeneous Avalon terrane where the lower crust is primarily ductile.

  18. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  19. Sub-crustal earthquakes within the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone beneath the Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Bourguignon, S.; Sheehan, A.; Smith, E. G. C.


    Sub-crustal earthquakes have been observed sporadically for ∼40 years in the central South Island of New Zealand. We report on 20 events recorded between December 2008 and February 2012 near the Alpine Fault in the continental collision zone between the Australian and Pacific plates. A subset of 18 events at depths of 47-74 km occurs south of Mt. Cook and together with recently reported tremor locations indicates along-strike variations in deformation behaviour along the plate boundary. The sub-crustal earthquakes south of Mt. Cook increase in depth, frequency and size southwards towards the Puysegur subduction zone. Focal mechanisms could be determined for 14 earthquakes and exhibit predominantly strike-slip and reverse faulting solutions. Stress inversion analysis of the focal mechanisms yields a stress field favouring oblique-reverse faulting. We interpret the geographic and vertical distributions of these sub-crustal events in relation to a previously proposed tectonic model of a remnant passive margin that formed south of New Zealand in the Eocene and was overridden when dextral strike-slip motion initiated on the Alpine Fault. We infer that sub-crustal earthquakes occur along the leading edge of this structure, which is attached to the continental Australian crust.

  20. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited) (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  1. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion. (United States)

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine


    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks.

  2. Crustal Growth: In Defense of the Dogma (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Guitreau, M.


    Plate tectonics was not even in its teens when Armstrong suggested that mantle and crust have interacted at steady-state over Earth's history. With the help of new geochemical tools and large-scale compilations, the concept of steady-state crust (as opposed to continuous crustal growth) is being revived with the implications that the equivalent of several volumes of present-day crust (PDCV) may have been subducted through geological times. Here we argue --or recall-- that four different lines of evidence invalidate this model. (i) The subduction filter must be particularly efficient for argon, even more so than for LILE and most other volatile elements. Atmosphere collects 40Ar degassed from both the extant crust and the crust dragged down at subduction zones over geological time. Regardless of the residence time of the crust at the surface, the amount of atmospheric 40Ar limits subduction of continental crust into the mantle to < 30% of the PDCV [1]. (ii) EM II, the only component that undoubtedly represents subducted continental crust in oceanic basalts, is extremely uncommon. (iii) Crustal age histograms are irrepressibly episodic. It has been argued that erosion selectively removes the crust with the elusive ages [2]. Ages of detrital zircons, which in the selective erosion conjecture should fill the voids, do not support this view [3]. Episodicity is difficult to reconcile with a continental protolith isolated by the common geological processes working either at mid-ocean ridges or subduction zones. A role may be recognized for Wilson cycles, if they can be shown to have prevailed for the entire history of the Earth. Geochemistry demonstrates that superplume material makes up the crustal protolith of all the major juvenile provinces. (iv) The residence time in the mantle of the elements distinctive of the crust is similar to the age of the Earth or even longer [4]. Continental crust finds its source in the instabilities of the lower mantle and the irreversible

  3. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety


    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  4. Transient deformation from daily GPS displacement time series: postseismic deformation, ETS and evolving strain rates (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Fang, P.; Moore, A. W.; Kedar, S.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Glasscoe, M. T.


    Detection of time-dependent crustal deformation relies on the availability of accurate surface displacements, proper time series analysis to correct for secular motion, coseismic and non-tectonic instrument offsets, periodic signatures at different frequencies, and a realistic estimate of uncertainties for the parameters of interest. As part of the NASA Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES) project, daily displacement time series are estimated for about 2500 stations, focused on tectonic plate boundaries and having a global distribution for accessing the terrestrial reference frame. The "combined" time series are optimally estimated from independent JPL GIPSY and SIO GAMIT solutions, using a consistent set of input epoch-date coordinates and metadata. The longest time series began in 1992; more than 30% of the stations have experienced one or more of 35 major earthquakes with significant postseismic deformation. Here we present three examples of time-dependent deformation that have been detected in the SESES displacement time series. (1) Postseismic deformation is a fundamental time-dependent signal that indicates a viscoelastic response of the crust/mantle lithosphere, afterslip, or poroelastic effects at different spatial and temporal scales. It is critical to identify and estimate the extent of postseismic deformation in both space and time not only for insight into the crustal deformation and earthquake cycles and their underlying physical processes, but also to reveal other time-dependent signals. We report on our database of characterized postseismic motions using a principal component analysis to isolate different postseismic processes. (2) Starting with the SESES combined time series and applying a time-dependent Kalman filter, we examine episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) in the Cascadia subduction zone. We report on subtle slip details, allowing investigation of the spatiotemporal relationship between slow slip transients and tremor and their

  5. Controls on Transition Metal Concentrations in Crustal Brines (United States)

    Yardley, B. W.


    Experimental studies of mineral solubilities have systematically explored the effects of pH and other parameters on metal concentrations over relatively narrow temperature ranges. This study has compiled a data base of brine analyses, ranging from low temperature shield and formation brines to magmatic brines, including geothermal and metamorphic brine analyses. The data includes both analyses of samples from drilling, and fluid inclusion analyses, and there is a span of over an order of magnitude in chloride concentration. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb vary systematically across the entire data set, and the principal controls on their concentrations are salinity and temperature. In each suite of analyses in the data set, metal concentrations increase linearly with Cl over the entire salinity range, with a slope of between 1 and 1.5 in log mol units. For Fe and Mn in all the data sets, Me/Cl remains nearly constant over a wide range of salinities at constant temperature, but there is almost 6 orders of magnitude variation in Me/Cl between low-T formation brines and magmatic brines. Larger scatter in the Fe data may be attributed to variations in redox, and correlates with Mn/Fe. The slope of the data array on a Zn-Cl plot may be somewhat higher for formation waters than for magmatic fluids, indicating a possible change in complexing with temperature, but at no temperature is there evidence for a change in complexing with Cl concentration. Pb data is sparse but shows similar trends, though with less dependence on temperature. The continuity in crustal brine chemistry from sedimentary to metamorphic and magmatic fluids demonstrates the importance of wall rock buffering for the control of crustal fluid composition, and shows that the variation in pH, fS2 and redox environment between different lithologies is not sufficiently large for variation in these parameters to dominate the variation in metal contents of fluids. In contrast, temperature and salinity emerge

  6. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deta, U. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, the State University of Surabaya (Unesa), Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia); Suparmi [Departmet of Physics, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Kentingan, Surakarta 57126 (Indonesia)


    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  7. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al


    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  8. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.


    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  9. Determining relative bulk viscosity of kilometre-scale crustal units using field observations and numerical modelling (United States)

    Gardner, Robyn L.; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R.


    Though the rheology of kilometre-scale polymineralic rock units is crucial for reliable large-scale, geotectonic models, this information is difficult to obtain. In geotectonic models, a layer is defined as an entity at the kilometre scale, even though it is heterogeneous at the millimetre to metre scale. Here, we use the shape characteristics of the boundaries between rock units to derive the relative bulk viscosity of those units at the kilometre scale. We examine the shape of a vertically oriented ultramafic, harzburgitic-lherzolitic unit, which developed a kilometre-scale pinch and swell structure at mid-crustal conditions ( 600 °C, 8.5 kbar), in the Anita Shear Zone, New Zealand. The ultramafic layer is embedded between a typical polymineralic paragneiss to the west, and a feldspar-quartz-hornblende orthogneiss, to the east. Notably, the boundaries on either side of the ultramafic layer give the ultramafics an asymmetric shape. Microstructural analysis shows that deformation was dominated by dislocation creep (n = 3). Based on the inferred rheological behaviour from the field, a series of numerical simulations are performed. Relative and absolute values are derived for bulk viscosity of the rock units by comparing boundary tortuosity difference measured on the field example and the numerical series. Our analysis shows that during deformation at mid-crustal conditions, paragneisses can be 30 times less viscous than an ultramafic unit, whereas orthogneisses have intermediate viscosity, 3 times greater than the paragneisses. If we assume a strain rate of 10- 14 s- 1 the ultramafic, orthogneiss and paragneiss have syn-deformational viscosities of 3 × 1022, 2.3 × 1021 and 9.4 × 1020 Pa s, respectively. Our study shows pinch and swell structures are useful as a gauge to assess relative bulk viscosity of rock units based on shape characteristics at the kilometre scale and in non-Newtonian flow regimes, even where heterogeneity occurs within the units at the

  10. A relook into the crustal architecture of Laxmi Ridge, northeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derived free-air gravity (FAG) data to derive the crustal structure of Laxmi Ridge and adjacent areas. 2D and 3D crustal modelling suggests that the high resolution FAG low associated with the ridge is due to underplating and that it is of ...

  11. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    dyke swarm). It is suggested that the ~2.8 Ga A-type granites in the Singbhum craton mark a significant crustal reworking event attendant to mantle-derived mafic magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting. Key words: Granite; A-type; Geochemistry; Archaean; Crustal reworking; Singhbhum craton. Abstract. Click here to ...

  12. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats


    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower than those presented in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), which is in line with findings in Finland (Satakunta, Olkiluoto, Kivetty, Romuvaara) as well as with many of the baselines in the measurements at Oskarshamn (Aespoe/Laxemar). We recommend that the GPS measurements proceed for a number of years, preferably as continuous measurements rather than intermittent campaigns. The advantages with continuous measurements are that they enable identification of slow as well as rapid periodical changes, and also counteract the aliasing effect

  13. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)


    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower than those presented in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), which is in line with findings in Finland (Satakunta, Olkiluoto, Kivetty, Romuvaara) as well as with many of the baselines in the measurements at Oskarshamn (Aespoe/Laxemar). We recommend that the GPS measurements proceed for a number of years, preferably as continuous measurements rather than intermittent campaigns. The advantages with continuous measurements are that they enable identification of slow as well as rapid periodical changes, and also counteract the aliasing effect.

  14. Solitary Waves of Ice Loss Detected in Greenland Crustal Motion (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.


    The annual cycle and secular trend of Greenland mass loading are well recorded in measurements of solid Earth deformation. While bedrock vertical displacements are in phase with loading as inferred from space observations, horizontal motions have received almost no attention. The horizontal bedrock displacements can potentially track the spatiotemporal detail of mass changes with great fidelity. Our analysis of Greenland crustal motion data reveals that a significant excitation of horizontal amplitudes occurs during the intense Greenland melting. A suite of space geodetic observations and climate reanalysis data cannot explain these large horizontal displacements. We discover that solitary seasonal waves of substantial mass transport traveled through Rink Glacier in 2010 and 2012. We deduce that intense summer melting enhanced either basal lubrication or shear softening, or both, causing the glacier to thin dynamically. The newly routed upstream sublglacial water was likely to be both retarded and inefficient, thus providing a causal mechanism for the prolonged ice transport to continue well into the winter months. As the climate continues to produce increasingly warmer spring and summer, amplified seasonal waves of mass transport may become ever more present in years of future observations. Increased frequency of amplified seasonal mass transport may ultimately strengthen the Greenland's dynamic ice mass loss, a component of the balance that will have important ramifications for sea level rise. This animation shows a solitary wave passing through Rink Glacier, Greenland, in 2012, recorded by the motion of a GPS station (circle with arrow). Darker blue colors within the flow indicate mass loss, red colors show mass gain. The star marks the center of the wave. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

  15. Variations of the crustal thickness in the Betic-Rif domain and their foreland regions, by P-Receiver Functions (United States)

    Stich, D.; Mancilla, F.; Morales, J.; Martin, R.; Diaz, J.; Pazos, A.; Cordoba, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Ibarra, P.; Harnafi, M.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.


    To image the crustal structure of the Betic-Rif Range and the surrounding area we perform a P-receiver function study (PRF). We calculate PRFs at 110 broadband stations located in South Iberia Peninsula and North Morocco to obtain thickness and average Vp/Vs ratio for the Crust. The Crustal thickness values show strong lateral variations throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between ~19 km and ~46 km. The Betic and Rif ranges are underlined by a thickened crust with crustal thicknesses between ~35 km and ~46 km, reaching the highest values in the contact between the Alboran Domain and External Zones. Southeast Iberia and Northeast Morocco are affected by significant crustal thinning, with crustal thicknesses ranging from ~19 km to ~30 km, with the shallowest Moho along the Mediterranean coast. The transition from thick to thin crust is coincident with the faults system of the Trans-Alboran Shear Zone. Toward the North, the Iberian Massif is an homogeneous domain of average 30-31 km crustal thickness and flat Moho discontinuity with low average Vp/Vs ratios ~1.72. Further south an extended domain, which includes the Atlas domain and its foreland regions, presents crustal thickness of 27-34km. Vp/Vs ratios in north Morocco show normal values of ~1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations present low Vp/Vs ratios around 1.71. The obtained PRFs are migrated to depth building cross-section images to delineate the crustal mantle discontinuity (Moho) along the study area. In the migrated images, we include altogether ~11.200 PFRs to follow the Moho discontinuity from the Iberian Massif, in the North, along the Gribraltar arc towards the Moroccan Massif in the South. These images show how, in the North, the Iberian crust underthrust the Alboran domain along their contact with the observation of a slab, from the western limit until the 3°W longitude, reaching the maximum depth of ~70 km under the coast coincide with the

  16. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An


    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  17. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier


    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  18. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.


    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  19. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I


    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  20. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO (United States)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus


    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  1. Viscoelastic-cycle model of interseismic deformation in the northwestern United States (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; McCrory, Patricia; Wilson, Doug; Svarc, Jerry; Puskas, Christine; Smith, Robert B.


    We apply a viscoelastic cycle model to a compilation of GPS velocity fields in order to address the kinematics of deformation in the northwestern United States. A viscoelastic cycle model accounts for time-dependent deformation following large crustal earthquakes and is an alternative to block models for explaining the interseismic crustal velocity field. Building on the approach taken in Pollitz et al., we construct a deformation model for the entire western United States-based on combined fault slip and distributed deformation-and focus on the implications for the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), Cascadia megathrust, and western Washington. We find significant partitioning between strike-slip and dip-slip motion near the MTJ as the tectonic environment shifts from northwest-directed shear along the San Andreas fault system to east-west convergence along the Juan de Fuca Plate. By better accounting for the budget of aseismic and seismic slip along the Cascadia subduction interface in conjunction with an assumed rheology, we revise a previous model of slip for the M~ 9 1700 Cascadia earthquake. In western Washington, we infer slip rates on a number of strike-slip and dip-slip faults that accommodate northward convergence of the Oregon Coast block and northwestward convergence of the Juan de Fuca Plate. Lateral variations in first order mechanical properties (e.g. mantle viscosity, vertically averaged rigidity) explain, to a large extent, crustal strain that cannot be rationalized with cyclic deformation on a laterally homogeneous viscoelastic structure. Our analysis also shows that present crustal deformation measurements, particularly with the addition of the Plate Boundary Observatory, can constrain such lateral variations.

  2. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei


    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block

  3. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian


    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  4. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han


    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  5. New insights on regional tectonics and crustal composition of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas in the Andean back arc region, Argentina (31-32ºS) (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Venerdini, A. L.; Alvarado, P. M.; Gilbert, H. J.


    Within the flat slab region of the south central Andes, the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (ESP) are the easternmost expression of a series of foreland uplifts affecting the Argentine back arc region ( 31-32ºS). This important crustal deformation has been related to the subduction of the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) under the South American plate. Geological observations suggest that the regional crustal structure is inherited from the accretion of different terranes during the Ordovician and later reactivated since the Miocene during the Andean compression. Geophysical experiments allowed to image how the structure observed at the surface behave in depth as décollement levels that accommodate regional crustal shortening. In order to get new insights on the mechanisms that control crustal regional tectonics, we computed teleseismic receiver functions (RF) and jointly invert them with Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curves. RFs allow resolving crustal thickness and intra crustal velocity variations with a good vertical resolution whereas surface wave information helps to constrain absolute seismic wave velocities. Our results show how the crustal thickness is increasing to the west with an important step in Moho depth. We observe that this step presents a NW-SE orientation, parallel to the trace at the surface of the Valle Fértil - La Huerta (SVF-LH) fault which suggest that this Moho step marks the transition in depth between the Pampia terrane (east) and the Cuyania terrane (west). Our images also reveal the presence of a high wave velocity lower crust west of this Moho step, beneath the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. This observation suggests that the SVF-LH fault is underthrusting the Cuyania lower crust under the Pampia terrane. Finally, our seismic images show very localized low velocity zones located at 10 km beneath late Cenozoic volcanic fields. We believe that these low velocity zones correspond to old magma chambers associated to the recent flat slab

  6. Moroccan crustal response to continental drift. (United States)

    Kanes, W H; Saadi, M; Ehrlich, E; Alem, A


    The formation and development of a zone of spreading beneath the continental crust resulted in the breakup of Pangea and formation of the Atlantic Ocean. The crust of Morocco bears an extremely complete record of the crustal response to this episode of mantle dynamics. Structural and related depositional patterns indicate that the African margin had stabilized by the Middle Jurassic as a marine carbonate environment; that it was dominated by tensile stresses in the early Mesozoic, resulting in two fault systems paralleling the Atlantic and Mediterranean margins and a basin and range structural-depositional style; and that it was affected by late Paleozoic metamorphism and intrusion. Mesozoic events record the latter portion of African involvement in the spreading episode; late Paleozoic thermal orogenesis might reflect the earlier events in the initiation of the spreading center and its development beneath significant continental crust. In that case, more than 100 million years were required for mantle dynamics to break up Pangea.

  7. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production (United States)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.


    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  8. Variations and controls on crustal thermal regimes in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mather, Ben; McLaren, Sandra; Taylor, David; Roy, Sukanta; Moresi, Louis


    The surface heat flow field in Australia has for many years been poorly constrained compared to continental regions elsewhere. 182 recent heat flow determinations and 66 new heat production measurements for Southeastern Australia significantly increase our understanding of local and regional lithospheric thermal regimes and allow for detailed thermal modelling. The new data give a mean surface heat flow for Victoria of 71 ± 15 mW m- 2 which fits within the 61-77 mW m- 2 range reported for Phanerozoic-aged crust globally. These data reveal three new thermally and compositionally distinct heat flow sub-provinces within the previously defined Eastern Heat Flow Province: the Delamerian heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 60 ± 9 mW m- 2); the Lachlan heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 74 ± 13 mW m- 2); and the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 72 ± 16 mW m- 2) which includes extreme values that locally exceed 100 mW m- 2. Inversions of reduced heat flow and crustal differentiation find that the Delamerian sub-province has experienced significant crustal reworking compared to the Lachlan and Newer Volcanics sub-provinces. The latter has experienced volcanism within the last 8 Ma and the degree of variability observed in surface heat flow points (up to 8 mW m- 2 per kilometre laterally) cannot be replicated with steady-state thermal models through this sub-province. In the absence of a strong palaeoclimate signal, aquifer disturbances, or highly enriched granites, we suggest that this high variability arises from localised transient perturbations to the upper crust associated with recent intraplate volcanism. This is supported by a strong spatial correlation of high surface heat flow and known eruption points within the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province.

  9. Crustal structure of Australia from ambient seismic noise tomography (United States)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Kennett, B. L. N.


    Surface wave tomography for Australian crustal structure has been carried out using group velocity measurements in the period range 1-32 s extracted from stacked correlations of ambient noise between station pairs. Both Rayleigh wave and Love wave group velocity maps are constructed for each period using the vertical and transverse component of the Green's function estimates from the ambient noise. The full suite of portable broadband deployments and permanent stations on the continent have been used with over 250 stations in all and up to 7500 paths. The permanent stations provide a useful link between the various shorter-term portable deployments. At each period the group velocity maps are constructed with a fully nonlinear tomographic inversion exploiting a subspace technique and the Fast Marching Method for wavefront tracking. For Rayleigh waves the continental coverage is good enough to allow the construction of a 3D shear wavespeed model in a two stage approach. Local group dispersion information is collated for a distribution of points across the continent and inverted for a 1D SV wavespeed profile using a Neighbourhood Algorithm method. The resulting set of 1D models are then interpolated to produce the final 3D wavespeed model. The group velocity maps show the strong influence of thick sediments at shorter periods, and distinct fast zones associated with cratonic regions. Below the sediments the 3D shear wavespeed model displays significant heterogeneity with only moderate correlation with surface tectonic features. For example, there is no evident expression of the Tasman Line marking the eastern edge of Precambrian outcrop. The large number of available inter-station paths extracted from the ambient noise analysis provide detailed shear wavespeed information for crustal structure across the Australian continent for the first time, including regions where there was no prior sampling because of difficult logistics.

  10. A new software for deformation source optimization, the Bayesian Earthquake Analysis Tool (BEAT) (United States)

    Vasyura-Bathke, H.; Dutta, R.; Jonsson, S.; Mai, P. M.


    Modern studies of crustal deformation and the related source estimation, including magmatic and tectonic sources, increasingly use non-linear optimization strategies to estimate geometric and/or kinematic source parameters and often consider both jointly, geodetic and seismic data. Bayesian inference is increasingly being used for estimating posterior distributions of deformation source model parameters, given measured/estimated/assumed data and model uncertainties. For instance, some studies consider uncertainties of a layered medium and propagate these into source parameter uncertainties, while others use informative priors to reduce the model parameter space. In addition, innovative sampling algorithms have been developed to efficiently explore the high-dimensional parameter spaces. Compared to earlier studies, these improvements have resulted in overall more robust source model parameter estimates that include uncertainties. However, the computational burden of these methods is high and estimation codes are rarely made available along with the published results. Even if the codes are accessible, it is usually challenging to assemble them into a single optimization framework as they are typically coded in different programing languages. Therefore, further progress and future applications of these methods/codes are hampered, while reproducibility and validation of results has become essentially impossible. In the spirit of providing open-access and modular codes to facilitate progress and reproducible research in deformation source estimations, we undertook the effort of developing BEAT, a python package that comprises all the above-mentioned features in one single programing environment. The package builds on the pyrocko seismological toolbox (, and uses the pymc3 module for Bayesian statistical model fitting. BEAT is an open-source package (, and we encourage and solicit contributions to the project. Here, we

  11. The Glacial BuzzSaw, Isostasy, and Global Crustal Models (United States)

    Levander, A.; Oncken, O.; Niu, F.


    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis predicts that maximum elevations in orogens at high latitudes are depressed relative to temperate latitudes, as maximum elevation and hypsography of glaciated orogens are functions of the glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and the modern and last glacial maximum (LGM) snowlines. As a consequence crustal thickness, density, or both must change with increasing latitude to maintain isostatic balance. For Airy compensation crustal thickness should decrease toward polar latitudes, whereas for Pratt compensation crustal densities should increase. For similar convergence rates, higher latitude orogens should have higher grade, and presumably higher density rocks in the crustal column due to more efficient glacial erosion. We have examined a number of global and regional crustal models to see if these predictions appear in the models. Crustal thickness is straightforward to examine, crustal density less so. The different crustal models generally agree with one another, but do show some major differences. We used a standard tectonic classification scheme of the crust for data selection. The globally averaged orogens show crustal thicknesses that decrease toward high latitudes, almost reflecting topography, in both the individual crustal models and the models averaged together. The most convincing is the western hemisphere cordillera, where elevations and crustal thicknesses decrease toward the poles, and also toward lower latitudes (the equatorial minimum is at ~12oN). The elevation differences and Airy prediction of crustal thickness changes are in reasonable agreement in the North American Cordillera, but in South America the observed crustal thickness change is larger than the Airy prediction. The Alpine-Himalayan chain shows similar trends, however the strike of the chain makes interpretation ambiguous. We also examined cratons with ice sheets during the last glacial period to see if continental glaciation also thins the crust toward

  12. Imaging the Seismic Crustal Structure of the Western Mexican Margin between 19°N and 21°N (United States)

    Bartolomé, Rafael; Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Michaud, François; Córdoba, Diego; Delgado-Argote, Luis A.


    Three thousand kilometres of multichannel (MCS) and wide-angle seismic profiles, gravity and magnetic, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data were recorded in the offshore area of the west coast of Mexico and the Gulf of California during the spring 1996 (CORTES survey). The seismic images obtained off Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, in the Jalisco subduction zone extend from the oceanic domain up to the continental shelf, and significantly improve the knowledge of the internal crustal structure of the subduction zone between the Rivera and North American (NA) Plates. Analyzing the crustal images, we differentiate: (1) An oceanic domain with an important variation in sediment thickness ranging from 2.5 to 1 km southwards; (2) an accretionary prism comprised of highly deformed sediments, extending for a maximum width of 15 km; (3) a deformed forearc basin domain which is 25 km wide in the northern section, and is not seen towards the south where the continental slope connects directly with the accretionary prism and trench, thus suggesting a different deformational process; and (4) a continental domain consisting of a continental slope and a mid slope terrace, with a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) identified in the first second of the MCS profiles. The existence of a developed accretionary prism suggests a subduction-accretion type tectonic regime. Detailed analysis of the seismic reflection data in the oceanic domain reveals high amplitude reflections at around 6 s [two way travel time (twtt)] that clearly define the subduction plane. At 2 s (twtt) depth we identify a strong reflection which we interpret as the Moho discontinuity. We have measured a mean dip angle of 7° ± 1° at the subduction zone where the Rivera Plate begins to subduct, with the dip angle gently increasing towards the south. The oceanic crust has a mean crustal thickness of 6.0-6.5 km. We also find evidence indicating that the Rivera Plate possibly subducts at very low angles beneath the Tres

  13. Estimates of stress changes from the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: the influence on crustal faults and volcanos (United States)

    Keiding, M.; Heidbach, O.; Moreno, M.; Baez, J. C.; Melnick, D.; Kukowski, N.


    The south-central Chile margin is an active plate boundary where the accumulated stress in the subduction interface is released frequently by megathrust earthquakes (Mw>8.5). The Maule earthquake of February 27 2010 affected about 500 km of the plate boundary producing spectacular tectonic deformation and a devastating tsunami. A compilation of pre-, co-, and post-earthquake geologic and geodetic data offers the opportunity of gain insight into the processes that control strain accumulation and stress changes associated to megathrust events. The fore-arc deformation is primarily controlled by the stresses that are transferred through the locked parts of the plate interface and the release of stresses during megathrust events. During a great interplate faulting event, upper plate faults, rooted in the plate interface, can play a key role in controlling fluid pressurization. Hence, the hydraulic behavior of splay faults may induce variations of shear strength and may promote dynamic slip weakening along a crustal fault. Furthermore, the co-seismic stress transfer from megathrust earthquakes can severely affect nearby volcanos promoting eruptions and local deformation. InSAR and time-series of continuous GPS in the aftermath of the Maule earthquake show evidences of activation of the NW-striking Lanalhue fault system as well as pressure increase at the Antuco volcano. We build a 3D geomechanical-numerical model that consists of 1.8 million finite elements and incorporates realistic geometries adapted from geophysical data sets as well as the major crustal faults in the region. An updated co-seismic slip model is obtained based on a joint inversion of InSAR and GPS data. The model is used to compute stress changes in the upper plate in order to investigate how the Maule earthquake may have affected the crustal faults and volcanoes in the region.

  14. Effect of infiltrated water on rheology of plagioclase feldspar under lower crustal condition (United States)

    Kido, M.; Muto, J.; Koizumi, S.; Nagahama, H.


    Fluids in the deep crust have an important role in deformation of lithosphere and seismicity. In this study, we performed deformation experiments to reveal rheological properties of plagioclase feldspars as a main constituent of crustal materials with infilitrated water. Axial compression tests on synthetic polycrystalline anorthite (An) were performed in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus at temparature of 900 °C, strain rates of roughly about 10-5 s-1 and various confining pressures of 0.8-1.4 GPa. Distilled water was added on samples before tests. Times for infiltration of water into samples were changed to investigate the variation of strength associated with diffusion of water. Strengths of wet An tended to decrease with infiltration time or strain magnitude. If other conditions such as temperature, time and strain being the same, strengths increase with confining pressures. Recovered samples show that deformation was concentrated in the lower part of samples. Differential stresses were significantly lower than predicted values by a previous flow law for wet An obtained by low pressure gas apparatus ( 0.4 GPa, Rybacki et al., 2006). This implies that the effect of water on mechanical behavior in higher pressure might be larger than those predicted by lower pressure experiments. Ideal water concentration and strength profile of internal of samples were estimated by one-dimensional model of grain boundary diffusion. Estimated strength of internal part of samples was significant higher than measured stresses. There is possibility that cataclastic flow partially occurred in samples. In addition, deformation-enhanced fluid flow probably occurred. In conclusion, strength of wet An depends on water infiltration time, strain magnitude and confining pressure. The results suggest that the strength of fluid-rich regions in the lower crust becomes lower than that predicted by previous studies.

  15. Combined effects of tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment on intraplate deformation in central and northern Europe: Applications to geodetic baseline analyses (United States)

    Marotta, A. M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Sabadini, R.; Milne, G.


    We use a suite of spherical, thin sheet, finite element model calculations to investigate the pattern of horizontal tectonic deformation within Europe. The calculations incorporate the effects of Africa-Eurasia convergence, Atlantic Ridge push forces, and changes in the lithospheric strength of the East European and Mediterranean subdomains. These predictions are compared to the deformation computed for the same region using a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic Earth model of glacial isostatic adjustment. The radial viscosity profile and ice history input into the GIA model are taken from a model that "best fits" three-dimensional crustal velocities estimated from the BIFROST Fennoscandian GPS network. The comparison of the tectonic and GIA signals includes predictions of both crustal velocity maps and baseline length changes associated with sites within the permanent ITRF2000 and BIFROST GPS networks. Our baseline analysis includes reference sites in northern and central Europe that are representative of sites at the center, edge, and periphery of the GIA-induced deformation. Baseline length change predictions associated with all three reference sites are significantly impacted by both tectonic and GIA effects, albeit with distinct geometric sensitivities. In this regard, several of our tectonic models yield baseline rates from Vaas, Onsala, and Potsdam to sites below 55°N which are consistent with observed trends. We find that a best fit to the ITRF2000 data set is obtained by simultaneously considering the effects of GIA plus tectonics, where the latter is modeled with a relatively weak Mediterranean subdomain. In this case, the tectonic model contributes to the observed shortening between Onsala/Potsdam and sites to the south, without corrupting the extension observed for baselines extending from these reference sites and sites to the north; this extension is well reconciled by the GIA process alone.

  16. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme


    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  17. Shear wave splitting and crustal anisotropy in the Eastern Ladakh-Karakoram zone, northwest Himalaya (United States)

    Paul, Arpita; Hazarika, Devajit; Wadhawan, Monika


    Seismic anisotropy of the crust beneath the eastern Ladakh-Karakoram zone has been studied by shear wave splitting analysis of S-waves of local earthquakes and P-to-S or Ps converted phases originated at the crust-mantle boundary. The splitting parameters (Φ and δt), derived from S-wave of local earthquakes with shallow focal depths, reveal complex nature of anisotropy with NW-SE and NE oriented Fast Polarization directions (FPD) in the upper ∼22 km of the crust. The observed anisotropy in the upper crust may be attributed to combined effects of existing tectonic features as well as regional tectonic stress. The maximum delay time of fast and slow waves in the upper crust is ∼0.3 s. The Ps splitting analysis shows more consistent FPDs compared to S-wave splitting. The FPDs are parallel or sub parallel to the Karakoram fault (KF) and other NW-SE trending tectonic features existing in the region. The strength of anisotropy estimated for the whole crust is higher (maximum delay time δt: 0.75 s) in comparison to the upper crust. This indicates that the dominant source of anisotropy in the trans-Himalayan crust is confined within the middle and lower crustal depths. The predominant NW-SE trending FPDs consistently observed in the upper crust as well as in the middle and lower crust near the KF zone support the fact that the KF is a crustal-scale fault which extends at least up to the lower crust. Dextral shearing of the KF creates shear fabric and preferential alignment of mineral grains along the strike of the fault, resulting in the observed FPDs. A Similar observation in the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) also suggests crustal scale deformation owing to the India-Asia collision.

  18. Paleomagnetic Constraints From the Baoshan Area on the Deformation of the Qiangtang-Sibumasu Terrane Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296248; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Deng, Chenglong; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Zhu, Rixiang

    The Sibumasu Block in SE Asia represents the eastward continuation of the Qiangtang Block. Here we report a detailed rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study on the Middle Jurassic and Paleocene rocks from northern Sibumasu, to document the crustal deformation during the India-Asia collision since the

  19. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm


    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  20. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)


    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  1. Crustal Deformation in the Northern Andes - New GPS Velocity Field and "Broken Indentor" Model (United States)

    Kellogg, J. N.; Mora-Páez, H.; Freymueller, J. T.


    We present a new precise velocity field for northwestern South America and the southwest Caribbean based on GPS CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) in Panama (ACP and COCONet) and Colombia (GeoRED) with a minimum of 2.5 years of observations. This paper presents the first comprehensive model of North Andean block (NAB) motion. We estimate that the NAB is moving to the northeast at a rate of 8.6 mm/yr. The NAB vector can be resolved into a margin-parallel (035°) component of 8.1 mm/yr rigid "escape" and a margin-normal (125°) component of 4.3 mm/yr. The margin-normal shortening of only 4.3 mm/yr in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is surprising in view of paleobotanical, fission-track, and seismic reflection data that suggest rapid uplift (7 km) and shortening (120 km) in the last 10 Ma. We present a "broken indenter" model for the Panama-Choco arc, in which the Choco arc has been recently accreted to the NAB, resulting in a rapid decrease in shortening in the Eastern Cordillera. The Panama arc is colliding eastward with the NAB at approximately 16-17 mm/yr, and the Panama-Choco collision may have been responsible for much of the uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The present on-going collision poses a major earthquake hazard from the Panama-Colombia border to Medellin, Colombia. Since the northeastward margin-parallel "escape" rate is now greater than the rate of shortening in the Eastern Cordillera, northeast trending right-lateral strike-slip faulting is the primary seismic hazard for the 8 million inhabitants of the city of Bogota. There continues to be a high risk of a great mega-subduction zone earthquake in southern Colombia from the Ecuador-Colombia trench. Trench earthquakes have only released a fraction of the energy accumulated in the trench since the great 1906 earthquake, and interseismic strain is accumulating rapidly as far north as Tumaco.

  2. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ze


    Full Text Available On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008 by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS, a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate acceleration is also introduced to characterize the differences of the two velocity fields which obtained from ITRF2008 -plate and NNR-NUVEL1A models for major individual plates. The results show that the Africa, South America and Eurasia plates are undergoing acceleration, while the North America and Australia plates are in the state of deceleration motion.

  3. Crustal deformations in the epicentral area of the West Bohemia 2008 earthquake swarm in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Pichl, R.


    Roč. 117, B7 (2012), B07408 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA205/05/2287; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551; GA MŠk 1P05ME781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : geodynamics * geophysics * geology * geodesy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012

  4. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis


    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location, time and magnitude, it is as yet difficult to assert a prediction for reasons discussed in the text. However, our results, as well as similar independent observations by another research team, indicate that a strong earthquake may occur at the SW Hellenic Arc, in the next few years.

  5. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus


    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...

  6. Deformed Open Quantum Systems (United States)

    Isar, A.


    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is obtained in the microscopic model, using perturbation theory. The coefficients of the master equation depend on the deformation function. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is derived and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  7. Crustal history of Margarita Island (Venezuela) in detail: Constraint on the Caribbean plate-tectonic scenario (United States)

    Stöckhert, Bernhard; Maresch, Walter V.; Brix, Manfred; Kaiser, Claudia; Toetz, Andreas; Kluge, Rolf; Krückhans-Lueder, Gabriela


    The pressure-temperature-time-deformation evolution for the crust of Margarita Island (Venezuela) has been established to allow comparison with current plate-tectonic models for the Caribbean region. On Margarita, the 12 recognizable stages of development can be summarized in terms of the following evolving tectonic settings: Protolith evolution as Aptian-Albian or older oceanic crust, as well as continental crust with Paleozoic basement (stages 1 and 2); accretion and high-pressure metamorphism (500 600 °C, 10 14 kbar) as the Margarita Complex in the deep level of a fore arc at 100 90 Ma (stage 3); ascent, cooling, and emplacement into the intermediate crustal level of a volcanic arc at 90 80 Ma (stage 4); transform plate-margin setting at a comparable level at 80 50 Ma (stage 5); second episode of rapid uplift and cooling (stages 6 and 7); and shallow crustal level close to transform plate margin from 50 Ma to present (stages 8 to 12). This complex sequence is in excellent agreement with plate-tectonic scenarios that require a Pacific origin for the Caribbean plate and eastward migration of the Margarita Complex and its correlatives along northern South America since the Cretaceous.

  8. Accuracy Analysis of Precise Point Positioning of Compass Navigation System Applied to Crustal Motion Monitoring (United States)

    Wang, Yuebing


    Based on the observation data of Compass/GPSobserved at five stations, time span from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016. UsingPPP positioning model of the PANDA software developed by Wuhan University,Analyzedthe positioning accuracy of single system and Compass/GPS integrated resolving, and discussed the capability of Compass navigation system in crustal motion monitoring. The results showed that the positioning accuracy in the east-west directionof the Compass navigation system is lower than the north-south direction (the positioning accuracy de 3 times RMS), in general, the positioning accuracyin the horizontal direction is about 1 2cm and the vertical direction is about 5 6cm. The GPS positioning accuracy in the horizontal direction is better than 1cm and the vertical direction is about 1 2cm. The accuracy of Compass/GPS integrated resolving is quite to GPS. It is worth mentioning that although Compass navigation system precision point positioning accuracy is lower than GPS, two sets of velocity fields obtained by using the Nikolaidis (2002) model to analyze the Compass and GPS time series results respectively, the results showed that the maximum difference of the two sets of velocity field in horizontal directions is 1.8mm/a. The Compass navigation system can now be used to monitor the crustal movement of the large deformation area, based on the velocity field in horizontal direction.

  9. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Burgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred


    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1–4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989–1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼6 × 1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 × 1018 and 2 × 1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  10. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de


    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  11. Provenance and depositional age at the Dom Feliciano Belt supra crustal units, Brazil-Uruguay: correlations with S W Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.; Nutman, A.; Preciozzi, F.


    The meta volcano sedimentary units that integrate the central Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) represent supra crustal rocks distributed between the Granite Domain in the southeast and fore arc basins in the northwest. In this central segment, meta volcanic sedimentary sequences predominate, occurring discontinuously along 1,200 km, in a narrow NESW belt of average widths around 40 km (fig. 1). Three distinct metamorphic complexes can be distinguished. These are from north to south the Brusque, Porongos and Lavalleja Complexes. They consist of poly deformed sequences in which at least three fold phases can be distinguished associated with a mass transport to NW. The dominant foliation in most of the rocks is a peak metamorphic transposition surface S2. The regional metamorphism reached green schist facies and locally low amphibolite facies. The continuity of the individual supra crustal sequences is likely, because of strong similarities in their geotectonic setting, metamorphic history, post-depositional granitic magmatism, and geochronology. However, more evidences is required to prove such continuity and detailed comparative studies of the lithostratigraphic columns of each belt have not been carried out. Basement inliers within these belts are Paleoproterozoic (2.3 - 2.0 Ga), affected by Neoproterozoic metamorphism and granite genesis (ca. 610 +/- 10 Ma). This work presents some results of U-Pb dating of detrital zircon from the Brusque, Porongos and Lavalleja supra crustal units that make up the Dom Feliciano Belt

  12. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos


    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  13. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев


    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  14. Structural setting and magnetic properties of pseudotachylyte in a deep crustal shear zone, western Canadian shield (United States)

    Orlandini, O. F.; Mahan, K. H.; Brown, L. L.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.


    Seismic slip commonly produces pseudotachylytes, a glassy vein-filling substance that is typically interpreted as either a frictional melt or an ultra-triturated cataclasite. In either form, pseudotachylytes are commonly magnetite enriched, even in magnetite-free host rocks, and therefore are potentially useful as high fidelity recorders of natural magnetic fields at the time of slip in a wide array of lithologies. Pseudotachylytes generally have high magnetic susceptibility and thus should preserve the dominant field present as the material passes the Curie temperatures of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite. Two potential sources have been proposed for the dominant magnetic field recorded: the earth's magnetic field at the time of slip or the temporary and orders of magnitude more intense field created by the presence of coseismic currents along the failure plane. Pseudotachylytes of the Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) in the Athabasca Granulite Terrain, western Canadian shield, are consistently hosted in high strain ultramylonitic orthogneiss. Sinistral and extensional oblique-slip in the CLsz occurred at high-pressure granulite-grade conditions of ~1.0 GPa and >800°C and may have persisted to somewhat lower P-T conditions (~0.8 GPa, 700 °C) during ductile deformation. Pseudotachylyte-bearing slip surfaces have sinistral offset, matching the larger shear zone, and clasts of wall rock in the more brecciated veins display field evidence for ductile shear along the same plane prior to brittle failure. The presence of undeformed pseudotachylyte in kinematically compatible fracture arrays localized in ultramylonite indicates that brittle failure may have occurred in the waning stages of shear zone activity and at similar deep crustal conditions. Field-documented occurrences of pseudotachylyte include 2 cm-thick veins that run subparallel to mylonitic foliation and contain small flow-aligned clasts and large, heavily brecciated foliation-crosscutting zones up to

  15. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong


    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  17. Present-day intra-plate deformation of the Eurasian plate (United States)

    Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Tesauro, Magdala


    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. The aim of our work is to predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate and to compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test and a possibility to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. Based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth allows us to estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each point. We include major active faults in our mechanical model. We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  18. Deformation data modeling through numerical models: an efficient method for tracking magma transport (United States)

    Charco, M.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.


    Nowadays, multivariate collected data and robust physical models at volcano observatories are becoming crucial for providing effective volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, the forecast of volcanic eruption is notoriously difficult. Wthin this frame one of the most promising methods to evaluate the volcano hazard is the use of surface ground deformation and in the last decades many developments in the field of deformation modeling has been achieved. In particular, numerical modeling allows realistic media features such as topography and crustal heterogeneities to be included, although it is still very time cosuming to solve the inverse problem for near-real time interpretations. Here, we present a method that can be efficiently used to estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources base on real-time surface deformation data and Finite Element (FE) models. Generally, the search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region and the Green functions for all the array components have to be precomputed. We propose a FE model for the pre-computation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain which eventually will lead to a better description of the status of the volcanic area. The number of Green functions is reduced here to the number of observational points by using their reciprocity relationship. We present and test this methodology with an optimization method base on a Genetic Algorithm. Following synthetic and sensitivity test to estimate the uncertainty of the model parameters, we apply the tool for magma tracking during 2007 Kilauea volcano intrusion and eruption. We show how data inversion with numerical models can speed up the source parameters estimations for a given volcano showing signs of unrest.

  19. Craniofacial neurofibromatosis: treatment of the midface deformity. (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Chung-Chih; Chen, Hung Chang; Chen, Yu-Ray; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting


    Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis is a benign but devastating disease. While the most common location of facial involvement is the orbito-temporal region, patients often present with significant mid-face deformities. We reviewed our experience with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis from June 1981 to June 2011 and included patients with midface soft tissue deformities defined as gross alteration of nasal or upper lip symmetry. Data reviewed included the medical records and photobank. Over 30 years, 52 patients presented to and underwent surgical management for Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis at the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center. 23 patients (43%) demonstrated gross mid-facial deformities at initial evaluation. 55% of patients with lip deformities and 28% of patients with nasal deformities demonstrated no direct tumour involvement. The respective deformity was solely due to secondary gravitational effects from neurofibromas of the cheek subunit. Primary tumour infiltration of the nasal and/or labial subunits was treated with excision followed by various methods of reconstruction including lower lateral cartilage repositioning, forehead flaps, free flaps, and/or oral commissure suspension. Soft tissue deformities of the midface are very common in patients with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis and profoundly affect overall aesthetic outcomes. Distinguishing primary from secondary involvement of the midface assists in surgical decision making. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kei


    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga (∼ 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga (∼16%), 2.7 - 2.6 (∼ 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining ∼ 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas

  1. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.


    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  2. Magnetotelluric evidence for a deep-crustal mineralizing system beneath the Olympic Dam iron oxide copper-gold deposit, southern Australia (United States)

    Heinson, Graham S.; Direen, Nicholas G.; Gill, Rob M.


    The iron oxide copper-gold Olympic Dam deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit and sixth-largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver, and rare earth elements. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic liberalization is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses Olympic Dam and the major crustal boundaries. In this paper we present results from 58 long-period (10 104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 10 km. A two-dimensional inversion of MT data from 33 sites to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (1) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (1000 Ω·m) Archean crustal core from a more conductive crust and mantle to the north (typically Olympic Dam, the upper-middle crust to ˜20 km is quite resistive (˜1000 Ω·m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (Olympic Dam, we image a low-resistivity region (Olympic Dam may be due to the upward movement of CO2-bearing volatiles near the time of deposit formation that precipitated conductive graphite liberalization along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic crustal deformation.

  3. Plume-driven plumbing and crustal formation in Iceland (United States)

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.


    Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a three-dimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add additional observations. Love waves from six local events recorded on the HOTSPOT-SIL networks are fitted, Sn travel times from the same events measured, previous observations of crustal thickness are added, and all three sets of constraints simultaneously inverted for our 3-D model. In the upper crust (0-15 km) an elongated low-velocity region extends along the length of the Northern, Eastern and Western Neovolcanic Zones. The lowest velocities (-7%) are found at 5-10 km below the two most active volcanic complexes: Hekla and Bardarbunga-Grimsvotn. In the lower crust (>15 km) the low-velocity region can be represented as a vertical cylinder beneath central Iceland. The low-velocity structure is interpreted as the thermal halo of pipe work which connects the region of melt generation in the uppermost mantle beneath central Iceland to active volcanoes along the neovolcanic zones. Crustal thickness in Iceland varies from 15-20 km beneath the Reykjanes Peninsula, Krafla and the extinct Snfellsnes rift zone, to 46 km beneath central Iceland. The average crustal thickness is 29 km. The variations in thickness can be explained in terms of the temporal variation in plume productivity over the last ~20 Myr, the Snfellsnes rift zone being active during a minimum in plume productivity. Variations in crustal thickness do not depart significantly from an isostatically predicted crustal thickness. The best fit linear isostatic relation implies an average density jump of 4% across the Moho. Rare earth element inversions of basalt compositions on Iceland suggest a melt thickness (i.e., crustal thickness) of 15-20 km, given passive

  4. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias


    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.

  5. Recent advances in understanding the characteristics of seismogenic intraplate deformation in Australia, and the potential for using global analogues (United States)

    Clark, Dan; McPherson, Andrew


    Continental intraplate Australia can be divided according to crustal type in terms of seismogenic potential and fault characteristics. Three 'superdomains' are recognized, representing cratonic, non-cratonic and extended crust. In the Australian context, cratonic crust is Archaean to Proterozoic in age and has not been significantly tectonically reactivated during the Phanerozoic Eon. Non-cratonic crust includes Phanerozoic accretionary terranes and older crust significantly deformed during Phanerozoic tectonic events. Extended crust includes any crustal type that has been significantly extended during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and often to a lesser degree in the Paleozoic. Aulacogens and passive margins fit into this category. Cratonic crust is characterized by the thickest lithosphere and has the lowest seismogenic potential, despite all eight documented historic surface ruptures in Australia having occurred within this category. Little strain accumulation is observed on individual faults and isolated single-rupture scarps are common. Where recurrence has been demonstrated, average slip rates of only a few metres per million years are indicated. In contrast, extended crust is associated with thinner lithosphere, better connection between faults, and strain localization on faults which can result in regional relief-building. The most active faults have accumulated several hundred metres of slip under the current crustal stress regime at rates of several tens of metres per million years. Non-cratonic crust is typically intermediate in lithospheric thickness and seismogenic character. The more active faults have accumulated tens to a couple of hundreds of metres of slip, at rates of a few to a few tens of metres per million years. Across all superdomains paleoseismological data suggest that the largest credible earthquakes are likely to exceed those experienced in historic times. In general, the concept of large earthquake recurrence might only be meaningful in

  6. Granite ascent and emplacement during contractional deformation in convergent orogens (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.


    Based on a case study in the Central Maine Belt of west-central Maine, U.S.A., it is proposed that crustal-scale shear zone systems provide an effective focussing mechanism for transfer of granite melt through the crust in convergent orogens. During contractional deformation, flow of melt in crustal materials at depths below the brittle-plastic transition is coupled with plastic deformation of these materials. The flow is driven by pressure gradients generated by buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. Within the oblique-reverse Central Maine Belt shear zone system, stromatic migmatite and concordant to weakly discordant irregular granite sheets occur in zones of higher strain, which suggests percolative flow of melt to form the migmatite leucosomes and viscous flow of melt channelized in sheet-like bodies, possibly along fractures. Cyclic fluctuations of melt pressure may cause instantaneous changes in the effective permeability of the flow network if self-propagating melt-filled tensile and/or dilatant shear fractures are produced due to melt-enhanced embrittlement. Inhomogeneous migmatite and schlieric granite occur in zones of lower strain, which suggests migration of partially-molten material through these zones en masse by granular flow, and channelized flow of melt carrying entrained residue. Founded on the Central Maine Belt case study, we develop a model of melt extraction and ascent using the driving forces, stress conditions and crustal rheologies in convergent, especially transpressive orogens. Ascent of melt becomes inhibited with decreasing depth as the solidus is approached. For intermediate a(H 2O) muscovite-dehydration melting, the water-saturated solidus occurs between 400 and 200 MPa, near the brittle-plastic transition during high- T-low- P metamorphism, where the balance of forces favors (sub-) horizontal fracture propagation. Emplacement of melt may be accommodated by ductile flow and/or stoping of wall rock, and inflation may be accommodated

  7. Calcaneo-valgus deformity. (United States)

    Evans, D


    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  8. Crustal shear wave velocity structure in the northeastern Tibet based on the Neighbourhood algorithm inversion of receiver functions (United States)

    Wu, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Liang, Chuntao; Wu, Chenglong; Liu, Zhiqiang


    The northeastern (NE) Tibet records and represents the far-field deformation response of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic time. Over the past two decades, studies have revealed the existence of thickened crust in the NE Tibet, but the thickening mechanism is still in debate. We deployed a passive-source seismic profile with 22 temporary broad-band seismic stations in the NE Tibet to investigate the crustal shear wave velocity structure in this region. We selected 288 teleseismic events located in the west Pacific subduction zone near Japan with similar ray path to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Neighbourhood algorithm method is applied to invert the shear wave velocity beneath stations. The inversion result shows a low-velocity zone (LVZ) is roughly confined to the Songpan-Ganzi block and Kunlun mountains and extends to the southern margin of Gonghe basin. Considering the low P-wave velocity revealed by the wide-angle reflection-refraction seismic experiment and high ratio of Vp/Vs based on H-κ grid searching of the receiver functions in this profile, LVZ may be attributed to partial melting induced by temperature change. This observation appears to be consistent with the crustal ductile deformation in this region derived from other geophysical investigations.

  9. Crustal evolution at mantle depths constrained from Pamir xenoliths (United States)

    Kooijman, E.; Hacker, B. R.; Smit, M. A.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Ratschbacher, L.


    Lower crustal xenoliths erupted in the Pamir at ~11 Ma provide an exclusive opportunity to study the evolution of crust at mantle depths during a continent-continent collision. To investigate, and constrain the timing of, the petrologic processes that occurred during burial to the peak conditions (2.5-2.8 GPa, 1000-1100 °C; [1]), we performed chemical- and isotope analyses of accessory minerals in 10 xenoliths, ranging from eclogites to grt-ky-qtz granulites. In situ laser ablation split-stream ICPMS yielded 1) U-Pb ages, Ti concentrations and REE in zircon, 2) U/Th-Pb ages and REE in monazite, and 3) U-Pb ages and trace elements in rutile. In addition, garnet, and biotite and K-feldspar were dated using Lu-Hf and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, respectively. Zircon and monazite U-(Th-)Pb ages are 101.9±1.8, 53.7±1.0, 39.1±0.8, 21.7±0.4, 18.2±0.5, 16.9±0.8, 15.1±0.3 (2σ) and 12.5-11.1 Ma; most samples showed several or all of these populations. The 53.7 Ma and older ages are xenocrystic or detrital. For younger ages, zircon and monazite in individual samples recorded different ages-although zircon in one rock and monazite in another can be the same age. The 39.1 Ma zircon and monazite mostly occur as inclusions in minerals of the garnet-bearing assemblage that represents the early, low-P stages of burial. Garnet Lu-Hf ages of 37.8±0.3 Ma support garnet growth at this time. Spinifex-like textures containing 21.7-11.1 Ma zircon and monazite record short-lived partial melting events during burial. Aligned kyanite near these patches indicates associated deformation. Zircons yielding ≤12.5 Ma exhibit increased Eu/Eu* and markedly decreased HREE concentrations, interpreted to record feldspar breakdown and omphacite growth during increasing pressure. Rutile U-Pb cooling ages are 10.8±0.3 Ma in all samples. This agrees with the weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of eight biotite, K-feldspar and whole rock separates of 11.00+0.16/-0.09 Ma. Rutile in eclogites provides Zr

  10. Crustal architecture, thermal evolution and energy resources of compressional basins (André Dumont medallist lecture 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roure, F.


    Our understanding of sedimentary basins, orogens and links between deep and surface processes has greatly benefited from recent improvement of imagery techniques, including crustal scale reflection seismic and mantle tomography. ECORS profiles across the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Paris Basin for

  11. Earthquake cycle deformation and the Moho: Implications for the rheology of continental lithosphere


    Wright, TJ; Elliott, JR; Wang, H; Ryder, I


    The last 20. years has seen a dramatic improvement in the quantity and quality of geodetic measurements of the earthquake loading cycle. In this paper we compile and review these observations and test whether crustal thickness exerts any control. We found 78 earthquake source mechanisms for continental earthquakes derived from satellite geodesy, 187 estimates of interseismic "locking depth", and 23 earthquakes (or sequences) for which postseismic deformation has been observed. Globally we est...

  12. Evaluation of the deformation parameters of the northern part of Eg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The northern part of Egypt is a rapidly growing development accompanied by the increased levels of standard living particularly in its urban areas. From tectonic and seismic point of views, the northern part of Egypt is one of the interested regions. It shows an active geologic structure attributed to the tectonic movements of the African and Eurasian plates from one side and the Arabian plate from the other side. From historical point of view and recent instrumental records, the northern part of Egypt is one of the seismo-active regions in Egypt. The investigations of the seismic events and their interpretations had led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster mitigation, for the safety of the densely populated regions and the vital projects. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS will be used in determining crustal deformation where a geodetic network covers the northern part of Egypt. Joining the GPS Permanent stations of the northern part of Egypt with the Southern part of Europe will give a clear picture about the recent crustal deformation and the African plate velocity. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. Final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions. This work will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime and to delineate the crustal stress and strain fields in the study region. This also enables to evaluate the active tectonics and surface deformation with their directions from repeated geodetic observations. The results show that the area under study suffers from continuous seismic activity related to the crustal movements taken place along trends of major faults

  13. Evaluation of the deformation parameters of the northern part of Eg (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Radwan, Ali M.; Sharf, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria; Hegazy, Esraa E.; Abou Aly, Nadia; Gomaa, Mahmoud


    The northern part of Egypt is a rapidly growing development accompanied by the increased levels of standard living particularly in its urban areas. From tectonic and seismic point of views, the northern part of Egypt is one of the interested regions. It shows an active geologic structure attributed to the tectonic movements of the African and Eurasian plates from one side and the Arabian plate from the other side. From historical point of view and recent instrumental records, the northern part of Egypt is one of the seismo-active regions in Egypt. The investigations of the seismic events and their interpretations had led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster mitigation, for the safety of the densely populated regions and the vital projects. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) will be used in determining crustal deformation where a geodetic network covers the northern part of Egypt. Joining the GPS Permanent stations of the northern part of Egypt with the Southern part of Europe will give a clear picture about the recent crustal deformation and the African plate velocity. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. Final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions. This work will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime and to delineate the crustal stress and strain fields in the study region. This also enables to evaluate the active tectonics and surface deformation with their directions from repeated geodetic observations. The results show that the area under study suffers from continuous seismic activity related to the crustal movements taken place along trends of major faults

  14. Crustal shortening and thickening in Neoarchean granite-greenstone belts: A case study from the link between the ∼2.7 Ga Elu and Hope Bay belts, northeast Slave craton, Canada (United States)

    Mvondo, Hubert; Lentz, Dave; Bardoux, Marc


    The Elu Link between the ∼2.7 Ga Hope Bay and Elu belts in the northeast Bathurst Block of the Slave craton comprises supracrustal and intrusive rocks variably deformed by three tectono-metamorphic events (D1-D3). The geometry of D1 structures formed during prograde metamorphism is uncertain, because of subsequent overprint. D2 occurred in two stages predating (D2a) and postdating (D2b) peak metamorphism. D1 and D2a were thrusting events inferred from peak metamorphic pressures of ∼6.7 kbar (670 MPa) retained by a garnet orthogneiss. The latter is diagnostic of thrust tectonism in Archean granite-greenstone belts with no characteristic thrust faults. Unlike D2a, D2b was a vertical general flattening event prevailing during the formation of magmatic domes and interdomal folds that form the main strain patterns of the belts. This was followed by the formation of buckled F3 folds associated with D3 vertical constriction. The switch from thrust to vertical tectonics during peak metamorphism and subsequent deformation resulted in intense recrystallization that explains the poor preservation and scarcity of early-formed shears, including thrust zones. A tectonic process, combining D1+D2a thrust stacking, sagduction, and vertical stretching during D2b and D3, is suggested to explain crustal thickening in the Elu Link and terrains of similar ages.

  15. Vibrations in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprahamian, A.


    Quadrupole oscillations around a deformed shape give rise to vibrations in deformed nuclei. Single phonon vibrations of K = 0 (β) and K = 2 (γ) are a systematic feature in deformed nuclei, but the existence of multi-phonon vibrations had remained an open question until the recently reported results in 168 Er. In this nucleus, a two-phonon K = 4(γγ) band was observed at approximately 2.5 times the energy of the single γ vibration. The authors have studied several deformed rare-earth nuclei using the ( 4 He,2n) reaction in order to map out the systematic behavior of these multi-phonon vibrations. Recently, they have identified a similar K = 4 band in 154 Gd

  16. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar


    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  17. Phreatic eruptions and deformation of Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), Japan, triggered by deep magma injection (United States)

    Ueda, Hideki; Nagai, Masashi; Tanada, Toshikazu


    On Ioto Island (Iwo-jima), 44 phreatic eruptions have been recorded since 1889, when people began to settle there. Four of these eruptions, after the beginning of continuous observation by seismometers in 1976, were accompanied by intense seismic activity and rapid crustal deformation beforehand. Other eruptions on Ioto were without obvious crustal activities. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of phreatic eruptions on Ioto. Regular geodetic surveys and continuous GNSS observations show that Ioto intermittently uplifts at an abnormally high rate. All of the four eruptions accompanied by the precursors took place during intermittent uplifts. The crustal deformation before and after one of these eruptions revealed that a sill-like deformation source in the shallow part of Motoyama rapidly inflated before and deflated after the beginning of the eruption. From the results of a seismic array and a borehole survey, it is estimated that there is a layer of lava at a depth of about 100-200 m, and there is a tuff layer about 200-500 m beneath it. The eruptions accompanied by the precursors probably occurred due to abrupt boiling of hot water in hydrothermal reservoirs in the tuff layer, sealed by the lava layer and triggered by intermittent uplift. For the eruptions without precursors, the hydrothermal systems are weakly sealed by clay or probably occurred on the same principle as a geyser because phreatic eruptions had occurred beforehand and hydrostatic pressure is applied to the hydrothermal reservoirs.

  18. Effect of viscoelastic postseismic relaxation on estimates of interseismic crustal strain accumulation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Plag, Hans-Peter


    We estimate the long-term crustal strain rate at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada from GPS velocities taking into account viscoelastic relaxation following recent earthquakes to remove bias associated with transient deformation. The YM data reveal postseismic relaxation in time series non-linearity and geographic variation of the transient signal. From the data we estimate best-fitting lower crust and upper mantle viscosities of 1019.5 Pa s and 1018.5 Pa s, respectively. Once the relaxation model predictions are subtracted from the data, the long-term shear strain accumulation rate is between 16.3 and 25.1 nanostrains/year (ns/yr) to 99% confidence, a range much larger than the formal uncertainties from GPS measurement. We conclude that 1) a Maxwell viscoelastic model cannot explain all the deformation observed at YM, 2) uncertainty in viscosities dominates uncertainty in YM strain rates, and 3) the effects of large, recent earthquakes must be accounted for in seismic hazard studies using GPS.

  19. Rheological and physical characteristics of crustal-scaled materials for centrifuge analogue modelling (United States)

    Waffle, Lindsay; Godin, Laurent; Harris, Lyal B.; Kontopoulou, M.


    We characterize a set of analogue materials used for centrifuge analogue modelling simulating deformation at different levels in the crust simultaneously. Specifically, we improve the rheological characterization in the linear viscoelastic region of materials for the lower and middle crust, and cohesive synthetic sands without petroleum-binding agents for the upper crust. Viscoelastic materials used in centrifuge analogue modelling demonstrate complex dynamic behaviour, so viscosity alone is insufficient to determine if a material will be an effective analogue. Two series of experiments were conducted using an oscillating bi-conical plate rheometer to measure the storage and loss moduli and complex viscosities of several modelling clays and silicone putties. Tested materials exhibited viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. The silicone putties and some modelling clays demonstrated viscous-dominant behaviour and reached Newtonian plateaus at strain rates centrifuge test models. These synthetic sands are recommended as analogues for the brittle upper crust. These new results increase the accuracy of scaling analogue models to prototype. Additionally, with the characterization of three new materials, we propose a complete lithospheric profile of analogue materials for centrifuge modelling, allowing future studies to replicate a broader range of crustal deformation behaviours.

  20. Analysis of regional deformation and strain accumulation data adjacent to the San Andreas fault (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.


    A new approach to the understanding of crustal deformation was developed under this grant. This approach combined aspects of fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality to provide a comprehensive theory for deformation on distributed faults. It is hypothesized that crustal deformation is an example of comminution: Deformation takes place on a fractal distribution of faults resulting in a fractal distribution of seismicity. Our primary effort under this grant was devoted to developing an understanding of distributed deformation in the continental crust. An initial effort was carried out on the fractal clustering of earthquakes in time. It was shown that earthquakes do not obey random Poisson statistics, but can be approximated in many cases by coupled, scale-invariant fractal statistics. We applied our approach to the statistics of earthquakes in the New Hebrides region of the southwest Pacific because of the very high level of seismicity there. This work was written up and published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. This approach was also applied to the statistics of the seismicity on the San Andreas fault system.

  1. Relativistic description of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.E.


    The author has shown that relativistic Hartree calculations using parameters that have been fit to the properties of nuclear matter can provide a good description of both spherical and axially deformed nuclei. The quantitative agreement with experiment is equivalent to that which was obtained in non-relativistic calculations using Skyrme interactions. The equilibrium deformation is strongly correlated with the size of the spin-orbit splitting, and that parameter sets which give roughly the correct value for this splitting provide the best agreement with the quadrupole moments in the s-d shell. Finally, for closed shell +/- 1 nuclei, it was shown that the self-consistent calculations are able to reproduce the experimental magnetic moments. This was not possible in relativistic calculations which include only the effects of the valence orbital

  2. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1986. Volume 1: Fixed station VLBI geodetic results (United States)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.


    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 361 Mark III VLBI data sets from fixed observatories through the end of 1985 which are available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. All POLARIS/IRIS full-day data sets are included. The mobile VLBI sites at Platteville, Colorado; Penticton, British Columbia; and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories are also included since these occupations bear on the study of plate stability. Two large solutions, GLB027 and GLB028, were used to obtain site/baseline evolutions and earth rotation parameters, respectively. Source positions and nutation offsets were also adjusted in each solution. The results include 23 sites and 101 baselines.

  3. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1987. Volume 1: Fixed station VLBI geodetic results, 1979-1986 (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.


    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing Mark III data sets from fixed observatories through the end of 1986 and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. All full-day data from POLARIS/IRIS are included. The mobile VLBI sites at Platteville (Colorado), Penticton (British Columbia), and Yellowknife (Northwest Territories) are also included since these occupations bear on the study of plate stability. Two large solutions, GLB121 and GLB122, were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters and baseline evolutions, respectively. Radio source positions were estimated globally while nutation offsets were estimated from each data set. The results include 25 sites and 108 baselines.

  4. Seismic imaging of deep low-velocity zone beneath the Dead Sea basin and transform fault: Implications for strain localization and crustal rigidity (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Flores, C.H.; Rotstein, Y.; Qabbani, I.; Harder, S.H.; Keller, Gordon R.


    New seismic observations from the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST) plate boundary, show a low velocity zone extending to a depth of 18 km under the basin. The lower crust and Moho are not perturbed. These observations are incompatible with the current view of mid-crustal strength at low temperatures and with support of the basin's negative load by a rigid elastic plate. Strain softening in the middle crust is invoked to explain the isostatic compensation and the rapid subsidence of the basin during the Pleistocene. Whether the deformation is influenced by the presence of fluids and by a long history of seismic activity on the DST, and what the exact softening mechanism is, remain open questions. The uplift surrounding the DST also appears to be an upper crustal phenomenon but its relationship to a mid-crustal strength minimum is less clear. The shear deformation associated with the transform plate boundary motion appears, on the other hand, to cut throughout the entire crust. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Pollybeak Deformity in Middle Eastern Rhinoplasty: Prevention and Treatment. (United States)

    Hussein, Wael K A; Foda, Hossam M T


    The pollybeak deformity is one of the commonest causes of revision rhinoplasty. The Middle Eastern nose has certain criteria that predispose to the development of pollybeak deformity. The aim of this study is to detect the factors contributing to the development of pollybeak deformity in the Middle Eastern nose and methods used to prevent as well as to treat such deformity. Out of the 1,160 revision patients included in this study, 720 (62%) patients had a pollybeak deformity. The commonest contributing factors included underprojected tip with poor support in 490 (68%) patients, excessive supratip scarring in 259 (36%) patients, overresected bony dorsum in 202 (28%) patients, and high anterior septal angle in 173 (24%) patients. The methods used by the authors to treat the pollybeak deformity are described, along with the local steroid injection protocol used to guard against the recurrence of pollybeak deformity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. A q-deformed nonlinear map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Sinha, Sudeshna


    A scheme of q-deformation of nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a q-deformation procedure related to the Tsallis q-exponential function is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of q-logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors-a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps

  7. Crustal Seismicity and Geomorphic Observations of the Chiripa-Haciendas Fault System: The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Western Costa Rica (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Araya, M. C.


    It has recently been shown that contemporary northwest motion of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica reflects a tectonic sliver that includes much of the upper-plate arc, referred to as the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver (GVAS). Here we characterize historical seismicity and geomorphic expressions of faults that define the northeastern margin of the GVAS. Several crustal earthquakes and their aftershocks provide constraints on the geometry and/or kinematics of the fault system. These include the Armenia earthquake of July 12, 2011, the Bijagua earthquake of January 27, 2002, the Tilarán earthquake of April 13, 1973 and two much older events. We summarize these earthquakes in the context of recent fault mapping and focal mechanism solutions, and suggest that most of the deformation can be explained by slip on steeply dipping NW-striking fault planes accommodating dextral slip. Streams that cross the major fault traces we have mapped also show deflections consistent with dextral slip. These include map-view apparent offsets of 6.5 km for the Haciendas River, 1.0 km for the Orosi River and 0.6 km for the Pizote River. Although preservation is poor, we document stream terrace risers that reveal truncations and/or offsets consistent with dextral slip. Additional constraints on the fault system are apparent as it is traced into Lake Nicaragua. Previous workers have shown that earthquake clusters accommodate a combination of dextral slip on NW-strike faults and sinistral slip NE-strike faults, the latter described as part of a system of bookshelf fault blocks. Whether the northeastern margin of the GVAS under Lake Nicaragua is a single fault strand or an array of bookshelf blocks remains an open question. An equally important gap in our understanding is the kinematic link of the fault system to the east where the GVAS originates. Our results set the stage for expanded studies that will be essential to understanding the relative contributions of Cocos Ridge collision and

  8. Different Kinematics of Knees with Varus and Valgus Deformities. (United States)

    Baier, C; Benditz, A; Koeck, F; Keshmiri, A; Grifka, J; Maderbacher, G


    Few data exist of kinematics of knees with varus and valgus deformities combined with osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to reveal different (1) tibiofemoral kinematics, (2) medial and lateral gaps, and (3) condylar liftoff of osteoarthritic knees with either varus or valgus deformity before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). For this purpose, 40 patients for TKA were included in this study, 23 knees with varus deformity and 17 knees with valgus deformity. All patients underwent computer navigation, and kinematics was assessed before making any cuts or releases and after implantation. Osteoarthritic knees with valgus deformity showed a significant difference in tibia rotation relative to the femur with flexion before and after TKA, whereas knees with varus deformity did not. Knees with a valgus deformity showed femoral external rotation in extension and femoral internal rotation in flexion, whereas knees with a varus deformity revealed femoral internal rotation in extension and femoral external rotation in flexion. In both groups, gaps increased after TKA. Condylar liftoff was not observed in the varus deformity group after TKA. In the valgus deformity group, condylar liftoff was detected after TKA at knee flexion of 50 degrees and more. This study revealed significant differences in tibiofemoral kinematics between osteoarthritic knees with a varus or valgus deformity before and after TKA. Valgus deformities showed a paradoxic movement pattern. These in vivo intraoperative results need to be confirmed using fluoroscopic or radiographic three-dimensional matching before and after TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Ocean bottom pressure modeling for detection of seafloor vertical deformation (United States)

    Inazu, D.; Hino, R.; Fujimoto, H.


    Detection of seafloor crustal deformation is a difficult problem in marine geodesy. Horizontal displacement of the ocean bottom has been detected with accuracy of several centimeters per year by the GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points (Spiess et al. 1998). Meanwhile, bottom pressure observations can record the vertical deformation of seafloor and there have been many challenges to detect vertical seafloor displacement. However, ocean bottom pressure variations are highly dominated by oceanic signals such as tidal and subinertial motions. The tidal and other oceanic variations in bottom pressure records are mostly equivalent to several tens and several centimeters water height anomalies, respectively. Generally, the ocean tide is efficiently corrected. Non-tidal components are required to be accurately removed from the bottom pressure records so that the vertical displacement of less than ten centimeters, the expected amount of displacement caused by slow slip events often observed in several subduction zones, is detected by continuous bottom pressure monitoring. We examine the bottom pressure estimations derived from the Kalman filter and smoother runs of the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean) product to compare in-situ bottom pressure records. The assimilated bottom pressure moderately represents the seasonal variation, and hardly represents the variation with periods less than a few months. This high frequency variation is mainly explained by the barotropic phenomena induced by meteorological disturbances. Hirose et al. (2001) and Carrère and Lyard (2003) modeled the barotropic ocean motion with the forcing of atmospheric pressure loading and wind over global oceans for the sake of the correction of satellite observations. This study addresses the accurate bottom pressure modeling, which enables us to detect vertical displacement of several centimeters from the in-situ bottom pressure observations. We develop accurate

  10. Shell structure of octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xizhen; Dong Baoguo


    A convenient definition of intrinsic frame of an octupole deformed shape was proposed recently. The octupole deformation potential was expanded on the bases of irreducible representations of group O h . Based on the parameterization given in previous paper, the shell structures of octupole deformation which cover all possible octupole deformed shapes were studied

  11. Complex, multilayered azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet: evidence for co-existing channel flow and pure-shear crustal thickening (United States)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei


    Of the two debated, end-member models for the late-Cenozoic thickening of Tibetan crust, one invokes 'channel flow' (rapid viscous flow of the mid-lower crust, driven by topography-induced pressure gradients and transporting crustal rocks eastward) and the other 'pure shear' (faulting and folding in the upper crust, with viscous shortening in the mid-lower crust). Deep-crustal deformation implied by each model is different and would produce different anisotropic rock fabric. Observations of seismic anisotropy can thus offer a discriminant. We use broad-band phase-velocity curves-each a robust average of tens to hundreds of measurements-to determine azimuthal anisotropy in the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range and constrain its amplitude. Inversions of the differential dispersion from path pairs, region-average inversions and phase-velocity tomography yield mutually consistent results, defining two highly anisotropic layers with different fast-propagation directions within each: the middle crust and the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere beneath central and eastern Tibet, anisotropy is 2-4 per cent and has an NNE-SSW fast-propagation azimuth, indicating flow probably driven by the NNE-ward, shallow-angle subduction of India. The distribution and complexity of published shear wave splitting measurements can be accounted for by the different anisotropy in the mid-lower crust and asthenosphere. The estimated splitting times that would be accumulated in the crust alone are 0.25-0.8 s; in the upper mantle-0.5-1.2 s, depending on location. In the middle crust (20-45 km depth) beneath southern and central Tibet, azimuthal anisotropy is 3-5 and 4-6 per cent, respectively, and its E-W fast-propagation directions are parallel to the current extension at the surface. The rate of the extension is relatively low, however, whereas the large radial anisotropy observed in the middle crust requires strong alignment of mica crystals, implying large finite strain and

  12. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature deformation microstructures but lack a high-temperature, subsolidus deformation fabric, although the relict magmatic fabric is preserved. The Proterozoic Vellaturu granite emplaced at the east- ern margin of the northern Nallamalai ...

  13. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature deformation microstructures but lack a high-temperature, subsolidus deformation fabric,although the relict magmatic fabric is preserved. The Proterozoic Vellaturu granite emplaced at the eastern margin of the northern Nallamalai ...

  14. Crustal structure and composition of the Oslo Graben, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans


    Although more than 250 my old, the Oslo Graben has retained a distinctive distribution of P-wave velocities associated with rifting, intrusion and underplating of the thinned crustal section. We calculate Poisson's ratio values from crustal P and S-wave velocities along an ~400 km long profile...... across the southern Scandinavian Peninsula, with a focus on the Oslo Graben. Plutonic rocks are now exposed at the surface in the graben due to post rifting erosion and the corresponding low (5.5 km/s) P-wave velocities extend to depths of ~3 km. The Pwave velocity and Poisson's ratio between depths of 6...

  15. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.


    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  16. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin


    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  17. Modulation of Crustal Faulting in the Crescent Terrane by the Volume of Underthrust Accretionary Complex Along the Washington Cascadia Forearc (United States)

    Brocher, T. M.


    Amphibious seismic experiments reveal widespread underthrusting of Cascadia accretionary rocks beneath basalts of the Crescent terrane, a large igneous province in the Washington forearc. Along margin variations in the volumes of the underthrust accretionary rocks appear to modulate the faulting within the overlying Crescent terrane, which hosts nearly all of the seismicity in the Washington forearc: the underlying accretionary rocks appear to deform aseismically. The underthrusting and underplating of large volumes of accretionary rocks on the Olympic Peninsula have uplifted and completely eroded a significant volume of the Crescent terrane, affecting the load-bearing strength of the forearc. I propose that as a consequence, the remnant Crescent terrane is actively deforming, as evidenced by the concentrated seismicity within it beneath Puget Lowland. This seismicity, focal mechanisms, fault geometries, and seismic tomography indicate that clockwise rotation and north-south compression of the forearc crust inferred from GPS data are accommodated by numerous thrust and strike slip faults in the remnant Crescent terrane. In addition to the spatial association between the erosion of the Crescent terrane on the Olympic Peninsula and the crustal faulting beneath Puget Lowland, support for the interpretation that the two are related also derives from the temporal coincidence between the mid to late Miocene uplift of the Crescent terrane on the peninsula and the mid-Miocene initiation of the thrust faulting in the lowland. In contrast, the underthrusting and underplating of lower volumes of accretionary rocks in the Washington forearc south of the Olympic Peninsula correlate with lower rates of crustal seismicity. These lower volumes of accretionary rocks have not caused the removal of a significant fraction of the Crescent terrane, resulting in a stronger, more structurally coherent Crescent terrane that deforms at lower rate than to the north.

  18. Recrystallization of deformed copper - kinetics and microstructural evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang

    The objective of this study is to investigate the recrystallization kinetics and microstructural evolution in copper deformed to high strains, including copper deformed by cold-rolling and copper deformed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). Various characterization techniques were used, including...... electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), Vickers hardness test, 3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the cold-rolled samples, a series of initial parameters was investigated for their effects on the recrystallization kinetics and textures, including initial grain...

  19. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  20. Packings of deformable spheres (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Peixinho, Jorge


    We present an experimental study of disordered packings of deformable spheres. Fluorescent hydrogel spheres immersed in water together with a tomography technique enabled the imaging of the three-dimensional arrangement. The mechanical behavior of single spheres subjected to compression is first examined. Then the properties of packings of a randomized collection of deformable spheres in a box with a moving lid are tested. The transition to a state where the packing withstands finite stresses before yielding is observed. Starting from random packed states, the power law dependence of the normal force versus packing fraction or strain at different velocities is quantified. Furthermore, a compression-decompression sequence at low velocities resulted in rearrangements of the spheres. At larger packing fractions, a saturation of the mean coordination number took place, indicating the deformation and faceting of the spheres.

  1. Surface deformation of Taipei basin detected by Differential SAR Interferometry (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Lin, M.


    Taiwan island is located between the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The two converging plates produced very active tectonics, and can be seen by the high seismicity and deformation rate. Taipei, the highest populated area, center of politics, and economics in Taiwan, is in Taipei basin at the northern part of the island. There are several faults in and surrounding the basin, and the city is threatened with a high geological hazard potential that we should keep monitoring the crustal deformation to prevent and mitigate the disaster effect. The aims of our study is to apply the DInSAR technique to determine the surface deformation of Taipei basin area, and discussing the relation between the manifestation of deformation and the tectonically active region, Shanjiao fault. In the past few years, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has been proved to be a powerful technique for monitoring the neotectonic activities and natural hazards. High spatial sampling rate of DInSAR technique allows studies of surface deformations with centimeter accuracy. In this area, we used ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired from 1993 to 2005 to generate 10 differential interferograms and processed the data using DIAPASON developed by CNES and SRTM global DEM.From our results, the deformation rate in Taipei is generally high in the western end of the basin along the Shanjiao fault and decrease eastward, while the subsidence center often appeared in the center of the Taipei basin. The neotectonic activity of the Shanjiao fault appeared to be insignificant by itself but it seemed to separate the subsiding basin from the surrounding areas. Further comparison between our DInSAR results and isopach of the Taipei basin revealed that the subsidence centers appeared in the interferograms did not coincide with the location where the sediments are thickest. Our results from differential interferometry will be compared to other geodetic measurements such as the

  2. Seismicity and crustal structure at the Mendocino triple junction, Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, M.


    A high level of seismicity at the Mendocino triple junction in Northern California reflects the complex active tectonics associated with the junction of the Pacific, North America, and Gorda plates. To investigate seismicity patterns and crustal structure, 6193 earthquakes recorded by the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) are relocated using a one-dimensional crustal velocity model. A near vertical truncation of the intense seismic activity offshore Cape Mendocino follows the strike of the Mattole Canyon fault and is interpreted to define the Pacific plate boundary. Seismicity along this boundary displays a double seismogenic layer that is attributed to interplate activity with the North America plate and Gorda plate. The interpretation of the shallow seismogenic zone as the North America - Pacific plate boundary implies that the Mendocino triple junction is situated offshore at present. Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms for events located within the subducting Gorda pl ate are consistent with internal deformation on NE-SW and NW-SE trending rupture planes in response to north-south compression. Seismic sections indicate that the top of the Gorda plate locates at a depth of about 18 Km beneath Cape Mendocino and dips gently east-and southward. Earthquakes that are located in the Wadati-Benioff zone east of 236{sup o}E show a change to an extensional stress regime indicative of a slab pull force. This slab pull force and scattered seismicity within the contractional forearc region of the Cascadia subduction zone suggest that the subducting Gorda plate and the overriding North America plate are strongly coupled. The 1992 Cape Mendocino thrust earthquake is believed to have ruptured a blind thrust fault in the forearc region, suggesting that strain is accumulating that must ultimately be released in a potential M 8+ subduction earthquake.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction and its error propagation to upper mantle residual gravity and density anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    We investigate the effect of the crustal structure heterogeneity and uncertainty in its determination on stripped gravity field. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect of the crust...... a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies......) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions...... from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. The residual...

  4. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  5. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.


    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  6. Crustal structure and inferred extension mode in the northern margin of the South China Sea (United States)

    Gao, J.; Wu, S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Mi, L.; Spence, G.


    rift, broad hyper-extended continental crust, locally distributed HVL, and hotter mantle materials indicate that continental crust underwent stretching phase (pure-shear deformation), thinning phase and breakup followed by onset of seafloor spreading and the mantle-lithosphere may break up before crustal-necking in the northern South China Sea margin.

  7. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  8. Mechanical behaviour of the Oman metamorphic sole: rheology of amphibolites at lower crustal conditions during subduction initiation (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Dubacq, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile; Yamato, Philippe


    Amphibolites are commonly found in the middle to lower continental crust and along oceanic transform faults and detachments. Amphibolites are also the main component of metamorphic soles beneath highly strained peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are crustal slivers stripped from the slab during early subduction and underplated below the upper plate (future ophiolite) mantle when the subduction interface is still young and warm (i.e. during the first million years -My- of intra-oceanic subduction). Understanding the rheological behaviour of amphibolitic rocks is therefore of major interest to model and quantify deformation and strain localisation in varied geodynamical environments. This contribution focuses on the deformation mechanisms of amphibole through a microstructural and petrological study of garnet-bearing and garnet-free clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolites, using EBSD analysis. The first aim is to test the influence of progres- sive changes in PT conditions during deformation and of the appearance/disappearance of anhydrous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and garnet) on the mechanical behaviour of mafic amphibolites. The second aim is to track deformation mechanisms during early subduction, through the study of these metamorphosed oceanic rocks, commonly 10-100 m thick, which range from high- to low-grade away from the contact with the peridotites (i.e. from 800 ± 100˚C - 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa to 500 ± 100˚C - 0.5 ± 0.1 GPa) and are essentially mafic at the top). Our study points out the existence of two major steps of deformation in the high-temperature amphibolite slices of the metamorphic soles during the early subdduction dynamics. These two steps witness important mechanical coupling and progressive strain localization at plate interface under cooling and hydrated conditions after subduction initiation. During the accretion of the first slice of metamorphic sole at 850 ± 50˚C (the garnet

  9. Numerical modeling of oceanic crustal hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Latychev, Konstantin

    The oceanic crust is a complex rock-mineral formation which extends up to several kilometers below the sea floor and covers laterally about two thirds of the planet. Hydrothermal circulation within the crust is driven by magmatic sources and carried by the fluid residing in pores and cracks. Hydrothermal advection transfers about one quarter of the Earth's total heat power from the interior. Marine sediments are believed to be the largest repositories of solid ice-like methane clathrate hydrates. The compliance technique is an important tool for assessment of this resource. It makes use of the oceanic surface gravity waves to induce pressure variations on the sea floor and measure the corresponding vertical deformation. This thesis deals with the convective heat and mass transfer within the oceanic crust, as a fractured porous medium, and the elastic, quasi-static response of hydrated marine sediments to gravity wave loading. Both generic and site-specific applications are considered. Most applications are tackled numerically in three spatial dimensions. The major results are as follows. Fractures can trigger and maintain hydrothermal circulation. The permeability-thickness product in the direction of flow is an adequate parameter to represent the fracture if convection is not vigorous. A new temperature homogenization mechanism for the off-axial convection is proposed which is due to quasi-lateral circulation within a permeable zone between sediment cover and basalt. It explains both the observed correlation between surface heat flux and sediment thickness, as well as regular heat flux variations when no buried topography is present. A hydrothermal model for the CoAxial Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge predicts ridge-parallel convection with the low-temperature vents spaced 1 km apart. The compliance approach is feasible for a non-layered medium. The average compliance response depends on the bulk hydrate content, but not on a particular connectivity pattern

  10. Important Crustal Growth in the Phanerozoic: Isotopic Evidence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Important Crustal Growth in the Phanerozoic: Isotopic Evidence of Granitoids from East-Central Asia ... based on Nd isotopic data, the mass of new crust formed in the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt (ECAOB), eastern part of the Altaid Tectonic Collage, appears to be much greater than the above terranes combined.

  11. Seismically constrained two-dimentional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to delineate the crustal thermal structure along a 230 km long Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile in the north Cambay basin. In this work P-wave velocities obtained from the DSS studies have been converted into heat generation values for the computation of ...

  12. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  13. A proposed concept for a crustal dynamics information management network (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.; Renfrow, J. T.


    The findings of a requirements and feasibility analysis of the present and potential producers, users, and repositories of space-derived geodetic information are summarized. A proposed concept is presented for a crustal dynamics information management network that would apply state of the art concepts of information management technology to meet the expanding needs of the producers, users, and archivists of this geodetic information.

  14. An Approach to the Crustal Thickness Inversion Problem (United States)

    De Marchi, F.; Di Achille, G.


    We describe a method to estimate the crustal thickness of a planet and we apply it to Venus. As in the method of (Parker, 1972), modified by (Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998), the gravity field anomalies of a planet are assumed to be due to the combined effect of topography and relief on the crust-mantle interface. No assumptions on isostasy are necessary. In our case, rather than using the expansion of the powers of the relief in Taylor series, we model the gravitational field of topography/relief by means of a large number of prism-shaped masses covering the whole surface of the planet. Under the hypothesis that crustal and mantle densities are the same everywhere, we solve for the relief depths on the crust-mantle interface by imposing that observed and modeled gravity field at a certain reference spherical surface (external to the planet) must be equal. This method can be extended to the case of non-uniform densities. Finally, we calculate a map of the crustal thickness of Venus and compare our results with those predicted by previous work and with the global distribution of main geological features (e.g. rift zones, tesserae, coronae). We discuss the agremeent between our results and the main geodynamical and crustal models put forth to explain the origin of such features and the applicability of this method in the context of the mission VOX (Venus Origins Explore), proposed for NASA's NF4 call.

  15. Geodynamic evolution and crustal growth of the central Indian Shield

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    significant in this evolution (Martin 1986, 1993). In this paper we report the geochemical data of gneisses and granitoids from Bastar and Bundelk- hand craton (together called central Indian Shield) and look for evidences to discern the geodynamic evolution and crustal growth of the central Indian. Shield from Archaean to ...

  16. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Topno


    Apr 11, 2018 ... crustal melting of tonalitic/granodioritic source similar to the ~3.3 Ga Singhbhum Granite. Intrusion of the Pala Lahara granites was coeval with prominent mafic magmatism in the Singhbhum craton (e.g., the Dhanjori mafic volcanic rocks and NNE–SSW trending mafic dyke swarm). It is suggested that the.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon

    Atlantic region. The intraplate Eurekan orogeny in the Cenozoic caused additional crustal shortening in the area, related to the opening of Baffin Bay, the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean basins and the complex plate tectonic responses to these plate boundary reconfigurations. Geophysically Ellesmere...

  18. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore


    The aim of this talk is to provide an overview about the most recent outcomes in Earth Sciences, describe the role of satellite remote sensing, together with GPS, ground measurement and further data, for geophysical parameter retrieval in well known case studies where the combined approach dealing with the use of two or more techniques/datasets have demonstrated their effectiveness. The Earth Sciences have today a wide availability of instruments and sensors able to provide scientists with an unprecedented capability to study the physical processes driving earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and other dynamic Earth systems. Indeed measurements from satellites allow systematic observation of the Earth surface covering large areas, over a long time period and characterized by growing sample intervals. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique has demonstrated its effectiveness to investigate processes responsible for crustal faulting stemming from the detection of surface deformation patterns. Indeed using satellite data along ascending and descending orbits, as well as different incident angles, it is possible in principle to retrieve the full 3D character of the ground motion. To such aim the use of GPS stations providing 3D displacement components is a reliable complementary instrument. Finally, offset tracking techniques and Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) may provide a contribution to the analysis of horizontal and NS deformation vectors. The estimation of geophysical parameters using InSAR has been widely discussed in seismology and volcanology, and also applied to deformation associated with groundwater and other subsurface fluids. These applications often involve the solution of an inverse problem, which means the retrieval of optimal source parameters at depth for volcanoes and earthquakes, from the knowledge of surface deformation from InSAR. In recent years, InSAR measurements combined with traditional seismological and

  19. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco


    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  20. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado


    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  1. Thinning Mechanism of the South China Sea Crust: New Insight from the Deep Crustal Images (United States)

    Chang, S. P.; Pubellier, M. F.; Delescluse, M.; Qiu, Y.; Liang, Y.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Nie, X.; Wang, J.


    The passive margin in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced a long-lived extension period from Paleocene to late Miocene, as well as an extreme stretching which implies an unusual fault system to accommodate the whole amount of extension. Previous interpretations of the fault system need to be revised to explain the amount of strain. We study a long multichannel seismic profile crossing the whole rifted margin in the southwest of SCS, using 6 km- and 8 km-long streamers. After de-multiple processing by SRME, Radon and F-K filtering, an enhanced image of the crustal geometry, especially on the deep crust, allows us to illustrate two levels of detachment at depth. The deeper detachment is around 7-8 sec TWT in the profile. The faults rooting at this detachment are characterized by large offset and are responsible for thicker synrift sediment. A few of these faults appear to reach the Moho. The geometry of the acoustic basement between these boundary faults suggests gentle tilting with a long wavelength ( 200km), and implies some internal deformation. The shallower detachment is located around 4-5 sec TWT. The faults rooting at this detachment represent smaller offset, a shorter wavelength of the basement and thinner packages of synrift sediment. Two detachments separate the crust into upper, middle and lower crust. If the lower crust shows ductile behavior, the upper and middle crust is mostly brittle and form large wavelength boudinage structure, and the internal deformation of the boudins might imply low friction detachments at shallower levels. The faults rooting to deep detachment have activated during the whole rifting period until the breakup. Within the upper and middle crust, the faults resulted in important tilting of the basement at shallow depth, and connect to the deep detachment at some places. The crustal geometry illustrates how the two detachments are important for the thinning process, and also constitute a pathway for the following magmatic

  2. The role of detrital zircons in Hadean crustal research (United States)

    Nebel, Oliver; Rapp, Robert P.; Yaxley, Gregory M.


    Meso-Archean sedimentary sequences at Mt. Narryer and the Jack Hills of the Narryer Terrane in Western Australia's Yilgarn Craton contain detrital zircon grains with ages as old as 4.37 Ga, the oldest preserved terrestrial matter. These grains are rare remnants of Hadean (4.5-4.0 Ga) terrestrial crust and their survival stems from the crystallographic properties of zircon during crustal reworking: they are resistant to physical and chemical weathering. Zircons are further suitable for single grain, precise age determinations making them a unique archive of the crustal past. Only a small proportion of all detrital zircons from the Narryer Terrane show Hadean age spectra and younger overgrowth rims on all 'Hadean' grains indicate multiple recycling events. Numerous studies that applied a spectacular range of analytical tools and proxies have been undertaken to decipher the geochemical nature of these zircons' host rocks, in order to place constraints on Hadean geodynamics and the processes responsible for creating the earliest terrestrial crust. Their elemental and isotope budget and mineral inclusions have helped to develop an emerging picture of a water-rich, evolved Hadean crust. However, subsequent studies have challenged this view and it seems that each piece of new evidence indicative of an early, evolved continental crust has non-unique interpretations also permissive of mafic to ultra-mafic crust. In this review we examine these disparate interpretations and their possible implications and conclude that at least parts of the earliest terrestrial crust were hydrated. However, to date there is no conclusive evidence for preserved granitic, continental crust. The protoliths of the Hadean detrital zircons were likely acidic in nature, yet the composition of the greater terrane from which these melts were derived was probably mafic. It remains unclear if the zircons formed in a geodynamic environment that includes Hadean subduction. We suspect that the Hadean

  3. Inside a Crustal Earthquake - the Rock Evidence (United States)

    Sibson, R. H.


    Exhumed fault rock assemblages provide insights into fault zone structure, rupture processes and physical conditions of seismogenesis which can be melded with high-resolution geophysical information on modern earthquakes. The transition from dominantly cataclasite-series to mylonite-series fault rocks at greenschist and greater grades of metamorphism is the basis of fault zone models and rheological strength profiles defining the FR-VS (frictional-viscous) transition which governs the base of the microseismically defined seismogenic zone, within which larger ruptures are mostly contained. In areas of crust deforming under moderate-to-high heat flow (e.g. Japan, California) there is good correlation between geothermal gradient and the base of microseismic activity in the crust. However, compositional variations (e.g. quartz- vs. feldspar-dominant rheology) plus other factors such as water content locally perturb the base of the seismogenic zone, creating strength asperities which may affect the nucleation of large ruptures (e.g.1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake). The level of shear stress driving rupturing within the seismogenic zone remains problematic. While some estimates (e.g. those inferred from pseudotachylyte friction-melts) are broadly consistent with expectations for the frictional strength of optimally oriented faults with 'Byerlee friction' (τ ~ 80-240 MPa at 10 km depth, depending on faulting mode), others (e.g. faults with associated hydrothermal extension veins) appear to slip at much lower levels of shear stress (max. τ 90% of global seismic moment release) and areas of active compressional inversion (e.g. NE Honshu). However, while fault overpressuring is more easily generated and sustained in compressional regimes, it may be more widespread than once thought. The presence of incrementally deposited hydrothermal veins along fault slip surfaces (often associated with subsidiary extension vein arrays) is not uncommon in fault assemblages exhumed from

  4. DigitalCrust – a 4D data system of material properties for transforming research on crustal fluid flow (United States)

    Fan, Yin; Richard, Steve; Bristol, R. Sky; Peters, Shanan; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Moosdorf, Nils; Packman, Aaron I.; Gleeson, Tom; Zazlavsky, Ilya; Peckham, Scott; Murdoch, Larry; Cardiff, Michael; Tarboton, David; Jones, Norm; Hooper, Richard; Arrigo, Jennifer; Gochis, David; Olson, John


    Fluid circulation in the Earth's crust plays an essential role in surface, near surface, and deep crustal processes. Flow pathways are driven by hydraulic gradients but controlled by material permeability, which varies over many orders of magnitude and changes over time. Although millions of measurements of crustal properties have been made, including geophysical imaging and borehole tests, this vast amount of data and information has not been integrated into a comprehensive knowledge system. A community data infrastructure is needed to improve data access, enable large-scale synthetic analyses, and support representations of the subsurface in Earth system models. Here, we describe the motivation, vision, challenges, and an action plan for a community-governed, four-dimensional data system of the Earth's crustal structure, composition, and material properties from the surface down to the brittle–ductile transition. Such a system must not only be sufficiently flexible to support inquiries in many different domains of Earth science, but it must also be focused on characterizing the physical crustal properties of permeability and porosity, which have not yet been synthesized at a large scale. The DigitalCrust is envisioned as an interactive virtual exploration laboratory where models can be calibrated with empirical data and alternative hypotheses can be tested at a range of spatial scales. It must also support a community process for compiling and harmonizing models into regional syntheses of crustal properties. Sustained peer review from multiple disciplines will allow constant refinement in the ability of the system to inform science questions and societal challenges and to function as a dynamic library of our knowledge of Earth's crust.

  5. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.


    of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....

  6. Crystal-plastic deformation of zircon : effects on microstructures, textures, microchemistry and the retention of radiogenic isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleva, E.


    Dating of deep-crustal deformation events potentially can be achieved by using plastically-deformed accessory minerals found in high-temperature shear zones. Deformation microstructures, such as dislocations and low-angle boundaries, form due to plastic deformation in the crystal lattice and act as fluid migration pathways and trace element (e.g. Pb, Ti, U, Th, REE) diffusion pathways through so-called “pipe diffusion”. Deformation microstructures can alter the chemical and isotopic composition of certain grain parts and may lead to complete or partial isotopic resetting of certain geochronometers (e.g. U/Th/Pb, K/Ar, Rb/Sr) in the mineral domains. This work aims to better understand the processes of crystal-plastic deformation and associated trace element redistribution and the resetting of isotopic systems in zircon. This study finds that: a) there are three general finite deformation patterns in deformed zircons; b) suggests that it is possible to reconstruct the macroscopic kinematic framework of the shear zone based on the orientation of deformed zircon grains and the operating misorientation axes; c) and demonstrates the effect of deformation microstructures on trace elements and Pb isotopes in zircon. The final goal of this project is to develop a tool for isotopic dating of high-temperature deformation events in the deep crust. In addition to these results, zircon grains with planar deformation bands have been discovered in paleo-seismic zones; these deformation features have been described in detail and a possible mechanism of their origin and formation is suggested. The effect of planar deformation bands on trace element and isotopic behavior has also been investigated. (author) [de

  7. BOLIVAR: Crustal structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 70W from wide-angle seismic data (United States)

    Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Magnani, M. B.; Clark, S. A.; Guedez, M. C.; Bezada, M.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.


    We present the results from five wide-angle seismic profiles collected onshore and offshore Venezuela in 2004 as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The study area is the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR) covering roughly 1000 km by 500 km. Over the past 55 My the Leeward Antilles island arc that borders the CAR plate has been colliding obliquely with the SA continent resulting in a collision front that has migrated from west to east. The five wide-angle profiles sample different stages of the time-transgressive margin from west to east, each crossing the margin roughly perpendicularly. The main purpose of this presentation is to contrast and compare the crustal velocity structure along these profiles to better understand the tectonic processes that are responsible for the evolution and present-day configuration of the plate boundary. Each of the wide-angle profiles is about 500 km in length and includes both onshore and offshore shots and receivers, except the easternmost profile, which is entirely offshore. The dense wide-angle data were modeled in the same way along each profile using a two-step, layer-stripping approach: (1) the first-arrival times were tomographically inverted for a smooth velocity model, and (2) the lower crust, Moho, and uppermost mantle were determined by simultaneous inversion of the PmP refection and Pn refraction phases while keeping the upper and middle crust from the first step fixed. The five models show tremendous lateral heterogeneity, as they cross features such as normal oceanic crust, oceanic plateau crust, an accretionary wedge, active and remnant island arcs, forearc and foreland basins, a major strike-slip system, a fold and thrust belt, and the edge of cratonic continental crust. Two of the main contributions of the wide-angle models to the BOLIVAR project, and the focus of this presentation, are the Moho

  8. An improved evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust collisional belt (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; Imprescia, Paola; Agnon, Amotz; Gresta, Stefano


    We present an improved picture of the ongoing crustal deformation field for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt continental collision zone by using an extensive combination of both novel and published GPS observations. The main results define the significant amount of oblique Arabia-Eurasia convergence currently being absorbed within the Zagros: right-lateral shear along the NW trending Main Recent fault in NW Zagros and accommodated between fold-and-thrust structures and NS right-lateral strike-slip faults on Southern Zagros. In addition, taking into account the 1909-2016 instrumental seismic catalogue, we provide a statistical evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the area. On Northern Zagros and on the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, a moderate to large fraction (˜49 and >60 per cent, respectively) of the crustal deformation occurs seismically. On the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio suggests that a small to moderate fraction (seismically; locally, the occurrence of large historic earthquakes (M ≥ 6) coupled with the high geodetic deformation, could indicate overdue M ≥ 6 earthquakes. On Southern Zagros, aseismic strain dominates crustal deformation (the ratio ranges in the 15-33 per cent interval). Such aseismic deformation is probably related to the presence of the weak evaporitic Hormuz Formation which allows the occurrence of large aseismic motion on both subhorizontal faults and surfaces of décollement. These results, framed into the seismotectonic framework of the investigated region, confirm that the fold-and-thrust-dominated deformation is driven by buoyancy forces; by contrast, the shear-dominated deformation is primary driven by plate stresses.

  9. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific (United States)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele


    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  10. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel


    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  11. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  12. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de


    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  13. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.


    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  14. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan


    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  15. Crustal Thickness in the Ibero-Maghrebian region II: Southern Iberia Peninsula (United States)

    Mancilla, F.; Stich, D.; Morales, J.; Martin, R.; Diaz, J.; Pazos, A.; Córdoba, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Ibarra, P.; Harnafi, M.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.


    During the first leg of the TopoIberia experiment, a total of 86, temporal and permanent, seismic broadband stations were recording in Southern Iberian Peninsula. This station deployment provides an extraordinary regional coverage for investigating structure and seismotectonics of the Northern branch of the Betic-Rif arc, and the Iberian Massif. Here, we analyze P-to-S converted waves in teleseismic receiver functions to infer gross crustal properties as thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between ~19 km and ~49 km. Homogeneity in the crustal structure is observed for all the stations in the Iberian massif with average crustal thickness of ~30 km and average Vp/Vs ratio of ~1.71. Outside the Iberian Massif the crustal structure is revealed more complex. In the Betic region, a thickened crust underlies the contact between the External and Internal zones with crustal thicknesses between 35 km and 49 km, decreasing its values toward the Alboran Sea (~ 25 km in the coast). The South-eastern of the Betic region is affected by significant crustal thinning with the presence of dipping crustal-mantle discontinuity with crustal thicknesses between ~30km to ~20 km. The crustal thickness variations are attributed to regional geodynamics possibly the realm of present-day subcrustal dynamics in the final stage of western Mediterranean subduction.

  16. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.


    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.


    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  18. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera (United States)

    Smith, R. B.


    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  19. Quantifying deformation in North Borneo with GPS (United States)

    Mustafar, Mohamad Asrul; Simons, Wim J. F.; Tongkul, Felix; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.


    The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal fold-and-thrust belt and has been fueling a long debate on the possible geophysical sources behind it. At present this fold-and-thrust belt is not generating significant seismic activity and may also not be entirely active due to a decreasing shelfal extension from south to north. Two sets of Global Positioning System (GPS) data have been used in this study; the first covering a time period from 1999 until 2004 (ending just before the Giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake) to determine the continuous Sundaland tectonic plate motion, and the second from 2009 until 2011 to investigate the current deformations of North Borneo. Both absolute and relative positioning methods were carried out to investigate horizontal and vertical displacements. Analysis of the GPS results indicates a clear trend of extension along coastal regions of Sarawak and Brunei in North Borneo. On the contrary strain rate tensors in Sabah reveal that only insignificant and inconsistent extension and compression occurs throughout North-West Borneo. Moreover, station velocities and rotation rate tensors on the northern part of North Borneo suggest a clockwise (micro-block) rotation. The first analysis of vertical displacements recorded by GPS in North-West Borneo points to low subsidence rates along the western coastal regions of Sabah and inconsistent trends between the Crocker and Trusmadi mountain ranges. These results have not been able to either confirm or reject the hypothesis that gravity sliding is the main driving force behind the local motions in North Borneo. The ongoing Sundaland-Philippine Sea plate convergence may also still play an active role in the present-day deformation (crustal shortening) in North

  20. Nanoscale Deformable Optics (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.


    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  1. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.


    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  2. New stratigraphic proposal for supra crustal the Dom Feliciano Belt ( Proterozoic , Uruguay )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Pecoits, E.; Aubet, N.; Peel, E.; Basei, M.


    Dom Feliciano Belt (Fragoso Cesar 1980) is represented in Uruguay so Preciozzi et to the. (1991) defined as Dionisio Blade Belt. It brings together all affected units by metamorphism and deformation during the Brasiliano (sensu Almeida et al. 1973) and magmatism in the same age range, which develops constituting a belt in southeastern Uruguay. Various supra crustal successions have been recognized in the Western domain of this belt in Uruguay, namely Fm. Zanja del Tigre (Sanchez-Bettucci 1998), Lavalleja Group (Bossi 1966), Arroyo del Soldado Group (Gaucher et al. 1996) and Formations Playa Hermosa (Masquelin and Sanchez Bettucci 1993) and Las Ventanas (Midot 1984), among others. The Group has been Lavalleja correlated with Porongos Group and the Brazilian Brusque Metamorphic Complex (Hasui et al. 1975; Silva and Dias 1981). This group has a granitic basement-probably associated gnéissico to Block Valentines (Preciozzi et al. 1979) and the Land Pavas, aged Paleoproterozoicas and Archean (Hartmann et al. 2001). It comprises varied lithologies, metasedimentary; metavolcanic acid; basic and metagabbros metavolcanic

  3. Study of seasonal and long-term vertical deformation in Nepal based on GPS and GRACE observations (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxu; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin; Luan, Wei


    Lithospheric deformation signal can be detected by combining data from continuous global positioning system (CGPS) and satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). In this paper, we use 2.5- to 19-year-long time series from 35 CGPS stations to estimate vertical deformation rates in Nepal, which is located in the southern side of the Himalaya. GPS results were compared with GRACE observations. Principal component analysis was conducted to decompose the time series into three-dimensional principal components (PCs) and spatial eigenvectors. The top three high-order PCs were calculated to correct common mode errors. Both GPS and GRACE observations showed significant seasonal variations. The observed seasonal GPS vertical variations are in good agreement with those from the GRACE-derived results, particularly for changes in surface pressure, non-tidal oceanic mass loading, and hydrologic loading. The GPS-observed rates of vertical deformation obtained for the region suggest both tectonic impact and mass decrease. The rates of vertical crustal deformation were estimated by removing the GRACE-derived hydrological vertical rates from the GPS measurements. Most of the sites located in the southern part of the Main Himalayan Thrust subsided, whereas the northern part mostly showed an uplift. These results may contribute to the understanding of secular vertical crustal deformation in Nepal.

  4. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution. (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  5. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela


    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  6. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for regional and/or emplacement-related strain increments to be frozen in fabrics. Although one may expect a continuum of submagmatic through high-temperature solid state to moderate and low-temperature deformation fabric in syntectonic plutons, the rate of cooling of magma pulses com- pared to the rate of deformation ...

  7. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.


    Petrogenetic models for convergent margins should be consistent with the global systematics of convergent margin volcanic compositions. A newly developed tool for compiling and screening data from the GEOROC database was used to generate a global dataset of whole rock chemical analyses from arc front stratovolcano samples. Data from 227 volcanoes within 31 volcanic arc segments were first averaged by volcano and then by arc to explore global systematics. Three different methods of data normalization produce consistent results that persist across a wide range of Mg# [Mg# =Mg / (Mg +Fe) ]. Remarkably coherent systematics are present among major and trace element concentrations and ratios, with the exception of three arcs influenced by mantle plumes and Peru/N. Chile, which is built on exceptionally thick crust. Chemical parameters also correlate with the thickness of the overlying arc crust. In addition to previously established correlations of Na6.0 with Ca6.0 and crustal thickness, correlations are observed among major elements, trace elements, and trace element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Dy/Yb, Zr/Sm, Zr/Ti). Positive correlations include "fluid mobile," "high field strength," and "large ion lithophile" element groups, with concentrations that vary by a factor of five in all groups. Incompatible element enrichments also correlate well with crustal thickness, with the greatest enrichment found at arcs with the thickest crust. Intra-crustal processes, however, do not reproduce the global variations. High pressure fractionation produces intermediate magmas enriched in aluminum, but such magmas are rare. Furthermore, differences among magma compositions at various volcanic arcs persist from primitive to evolved compositions, which is inconsistent with the possibility that global variations are produced by crystal fractionation at any pressure. Linear relationships among elements appear to be consistent with mixing between depleted primary magma and an enriched contaminant

  8. Crustal and lithospheric structure of the west Antarctic Rift System from geophysical investigations: A review (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.


    The active West Antarctic Rift System, which extends from the continental shelf of the Ross Sea, beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is comparable in size to the Basin and Range in North America, or the East African rift systems. Geophysical surveys (primarily marine seismic and aeromagnetic combined with radar ice sounding) have extended the information provided by sparse geologic exposures and a few drill holes over the ice and sea covered area. Rift basins developed in the early Cretaceous accompanied by the major extension of the region. Tectonic activity has continued episodically in the Cenozoic to the present, including major uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains. The West Antarctic ice sheet, and the late Cenozoic volcanic activity in the West Antarctic Rift System, through which it flows, have been coeval since at least Miocene time. The rift is characterized by sparse exposures of late Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks extending from northern Victoria Land throughout Marie Byrd Land. The aeromagnetic interpretations indicate the presence of > 5 x 105 km2 (> 106 km3) of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (and associated subvolcanic intrusions) in the West Antarctic rift. This great volume with such limited exposures is explained by glacial removal of the associated late Cenozoic volcanic edifices (probably hyaloclastite debris) concomitantly with their subglacial eruption. Large offset seismic investigations in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf indicate a ~ 17-24-km-thick, extended continental crust. Gravity data suggest that this extended crust of similar thickness probably underlies the Ross Ice Shelf and Byrd Subglacial Basin. Various authors have estimated maximum late Cretaceous-present crustal extension in the West Antarctic rift area from 255-350 km based on balancing crustal thickness. Plate reconstruction allowed < 50 km of Tertiary extension. However, paleomagnetic measurements suggested about 1000 km of post

  9. Geochronological synthesis of Bahia state and the crustal evolution, based in evolution diagram of Sr and initial rate of Sr87/Sr86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.


    The crustal evolution of the ancient terrains of the State of Bahia, Brazil, is attempted with the aid of Sr isotopic results as natural tracers. Some Nd and Pb isotopic data are also available, and support the main conclusions based on Sr evolution diagrams. The analysis of the Sr evolution diagrams shows that the Archean Terrains are mainly formed by accretion from mantle-derived material, but crustal reworking is indicated by the high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value of the Jequie Complex. The Transamazonian mobile belt include both types of materials, but the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value, generally lower than those of the Jequie Complex, markes improbable a direct derivation. During Middle and Late Proterozoic, the continental crust was already well consolidated, and reworking of crustal material predominated within the Espinhaco and Brasiliano folded systems [pt

  10. Description of soft sediment deformational structure of the Campano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several soft sediment deformational structures were identified during fieldwork survey carried out on exposures of Gombe Formation in the Gongola sub–basin of the Northern Benue Trough at Gombe and environs. These soft sediment deformational structures includes: simple internal cusps, which occur wide spread ...

  11. The Gakkel Ridge: Crustal Accretion at Extremely Slow Spreading Rates (United States)

    Cochran, J. R.; Kurras, G. J.; Edwards, M. H.; Coakley, B. J.


    The Gakkel Ridge, in the Arctic Ocean, is the slowest spreading portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Total spreading rates range from 12.7 mm/a near Greenland to 6.0 mm/a where the ridge disappears beneath the Laptev Shelf. Swath-bathymetry and gravity data for an 850-km-long section of the Gakkel Ridge from 5° E to 97° E were obtained from the U.S. Navy submarine USS Hawkbill during the SCICEX program. The ridge axis is very deep, generally 4700-5300 m, within a well-developed rift valley. The topography is primarily tectonic in origin, characterized by linear rift-parallel ridges and fault-bounded troughs with up to 2 km of relief. Evidence of extrusive volcanic activity is limited and confined to specific locations. East of 32° E, isolated discrete volcanoes are observed at 25-95 km intervals along the axis. Abundant small-scale volcanism characteristic of the MAR is absent; it appears that the amount of melt generated is insufficient to maintain a continuous magmatic spreading axis. Instead, melt is erupted on the seafloor at a set of distinct locations where multiple eruptions have built up central volcanoes and covered adjacent areas with low relief lava flows. Between 5° E and 32° E, almost no volcanic activity is observed except near 19° E. The ridge axis shoals rapidly by 1500 m over a 30 km wide area at 19° E that coincides with a high-standing axis-perpendicular bathymetric high. Bathymetry and sidescan data show the presence of numerous small volcanic features and flow fronts in the axial valley on the upper portions of the 19° E along-axis high. Gravity data imply up to 3 km of crustal thickening under the 19° E axis-perpendicular ridge. The 19° E magmatic center may result from interaction of the ridge with a passively imbedded mantle inhomogeneity. Away from 19° E, the crust appears thin and patchy and may consist of basalt directly over peridotite. The ridge axis is continuous with no transform offset. However, sections of the

  12. Seismic Tomography of Crustal P and S in Eurasia (United States)

    Steck, L.; Phillips, S.; Begnaud, M.; Stead, R.; Rowe, C.; Mackey, K.


    We present inversion results for Pg and Sg/Lg travel times for Eurasia using data from the LANL Research Knowledge Base. This database consists of integrated local, regional, and global catalogs with arrivals sorted and merged by event. The epicentral ground truth of each event is tested using the Bondar criteria and we weight events by the square root of their ground truth level with a minimum allowed weight of 1. We assign a GT level of 50 km to those events that do not pass any of the Bondar criteria. We use an inversion method analogous to Pn tomography, whereby we assume a straight ray between source and receiver and project travel time anomalies onto this great circle path. Events are restricted to depths less than 33 km and stations to distances greater than .5 degrees. To accommodate depth uncertainty and near-receiver velocity effects we solve for both event and site terms and damp the site term sum to zero. We employ first difference regularization over a one by one degree grid, and solve the set of equations using the LSQR conjugate gradient method. We invert for Pg and Sg/Lg slowness separately over a region from 0 to 80 degrees north latitude and -20 to 195 degrees east longitude. For Pg, the dataset is comprised of 3,709 stations, 407,131 events, and 1,453,318 travel times. The starting RMS error is reduced through inversion by 30% with respect to IASP91. For Sg/Lg, we use 3,084 stations, 266,751 events, and 1,049,125 travel times and achieve a 26% reduction in RMS error. While the Sg/Lg site terms are about twice as large as those for Pg, the Pg and Sg/Lg site terms show similar geographic patterns. Resolution tests with added Gaussian noise of 3 seconds standard deviation are performed for checkerboards having squares of 2, 4, and 10 degrees width. Pg velocities are highest in subduction zones and lowest in eastern Europe and around the Caspian Sea. The ratio of Pg to Lg velocities is high at zones of convergence, including the Pacific Rim and the

  13. Deep crustal structure of the conjugate margins of the SW South China Sea from wide-angle refraction seismic data (United States)

    Pichot, T.; Delescluse, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Pubellier, M. F.; Qiu, Y.; Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Watremez, L.; Auxietre, J.


    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal basin of SE Asia. Yet its mechanism of formation is still debated. While the NE part of the SCS northern margin exhibits ~400 km of extended continental crust, its SW part shows nearly 800 km of extended continental crust, which makes it one of the widest rifted margin in the world. In June 2011, Chinese and French scientists conducted a joint geophysical experiment on board the R/V Tan Bao across the SW sub-basin of the SCS. A 1000-km-long wide-angle refraction seismic profile was acquired along the conjugate margins using a total of 50 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS). 41,100 first refraction and 6,622 PmP reflection arrival traveltimes have been picked. A joint reflection and refraction traveltime tomography inversion is performed to obtain a 2-D velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structures. Based on this new tomographic model, northern and southern margins are found genetically linked since they share common structural characteristics: an average 12-km-thick crust and crustal scale lateral velocity variations. These lateral variations correlate well with seismic reflection observations of the crustal structures. Small-scale normal faults (grabens and horsts, with a spacing of ~15-30 km) are often associated with an apparent tilt of the iso-velocity contours affecting the upper crust. The upper-middle crust shows clear high lateral velocity variations defining low velocity bodies (LVB) bounded by large-scale normal faults (also referred as 'Throughgoing crustal faulting'). Major sedimentary basins are located above the LVBs, interpreted as hanging-wall blocks. The Moho interface remains rather flat (less than 4°) over the extended domain, suggesting that large normal faults root in a ductile lower crust, allowing isostatic compensation of the large normal fault blocks. Along the northern margin, the wavelength of the LVBs decreases from 90 to 45 km as the total crust thins toward the Continent

  14. Wave propagation and instabilities in monolithic and periodically structured elastomeric materials undergoing large deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoldi, Katia; Boyce, M.C.


    Wave propagation in elastomeric materials undergoing large deformations is relevant in numerous application areas, including nondestructive testing of materials and ultrasound techniques, where finite deformations and corresponding stress states can influence wave propagation and hence

  15. Crustal seismicity associated to rpid surface uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos; Tassara, Andrés; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Lara, Luis; Morales, Sergio; Kohler, Paulina; Franco, Luis


    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex (LMVC, Southern Andes of Chile) has been experiencing large rates (ca. 30 cm/yr) of surface uplift as detected since 2008 by satellite geodetic measurements. Previous works have modeled the source of this deformation as an inflating rectangular sub-horizontal sill underlying LMVC at 5 km depth, which is supposedly related to an active process of magmatic replenishment of a shallow silicic reservoir. However little is known about the tectonic context on which this activity is taking place, particularly its relation with crustal seismicity that could help understanding and monitoring the current deformation process. Here we present the first detailed characterization of the seismic activity taking place at LMVC and integrate it with structural data acquired in the field in order to illuminate the possible connection between the ongoing process of surface uplift and the activation of crustal faults. Our main finding is the recognition of repetitive volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarms that occur periodically between 2011 and 2014 near the SW corner of the sill modeled by InSAR studies. A cross-correlation analysis of the waveforms recorded for these VT events allows identifying three different seismic families. Families F1 and F3 share some common features in the stacked waveform and its locations, which markedly differ from those of family F2. Swarms belonging to this later family are more energetic and its energy was increasing since 2011 to a peak in January 2013, which coincide with maximum vertical velocities detected by local GPS stations. This points to a common process relating both phenomena. The location of VT seismic swarms roughly coincides with the intersection of a NE-SW lineament with a WNW-ESE lineament. The former shows clear field evidences of dextral strike-slip that are fully consistent with one nodal plane of focal mechanism for well-recorded F2 events. The conjugate nodal plane of these focal mechanisms could

  16. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  17. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori


    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece, which is characterized by a different tectonic setting.

    AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation.

    Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab.

    Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996–1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998–2001. Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996–1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and

  18. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.


    Research effort on behalf of the Crustal Dynamics Project focused on the development of methodologies suitable for the analysis of space-geodetic data sets for the estimation of crustal motions, in conjunction with results derived from land-based geodetic data, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data. These methodologies were used to provide estimates of both global plate motions and intraplate deformation in the western U.S. Results from the satellite ranging experiment for the rate of change of the baseline length between San Diego and Quincy, California indicated that relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates over the course of the observing period during 1972 to 1982 were consistent with estimates calculated from geologic data averaged over the past few million years. This result, when combined with other kinematic constraints on western U.S. deformation derived from land-based geodesy, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data, places limits on the possible extension of the Basin and Range province, and implies significant deformation is occurring west of the San Andreas fault. A new methodology was developed to analyze vector-position space-geodetic data to provide estimates of relative vector motions of the observing sites. The algorithm is suitable for the reduction of large, inhomogeneous data sets, and takes into account the full position covariances, errors due to poorly resolved Earth orientation parameters and vertical positions, and reduces baises due to inhomogeneous sampling of the data. This methodology was applied to the problem of estimating the rate-scaling parameter of a global plate tectonic model using satellite laser ranging observations over a five-year interval. The results indicate that the mean rate of global plate motions for that interval are consistent with those averaged over several million years, and are not consistent with quiescent or greatly accelerated plate motions. This methodology was also

  19. High resolution crustal structure for the region between the Chilenia and Cuyania terrane above the Pampean flat slab of Argentina from local receiver function and petrological analyses (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Pérez, S. B.; Beck, S. L.; Porter, R. C.; Zandt, G.


    shifting thrust structure down to ~40 km depth. Geological evidence suggests this suture corresponds to an early Devonian subduction zone and that this Devonian structure still accommodates deformation in the region even after intense compression and important crustal thickening during the past 20 million years.

  20. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.


    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  1. Recycling of subducted crustal components into carbonatite melts revealed by boron isotopes (United States)

    Hulett, Samuel R. W.; Simonetti, Antonio; Rasbury, E. Troy; Hemming, N. Gary


    The global boron geochemical cycle is closely linked to recycling of geologic material via subduction processes that have occurred over billions of years of Earth’s history. The origin of carbonatites, unique melts derived from carbon-rich and carbonate-rich regions of the upper mantle, has been linked to a variety of mantle-related processes, including subduction and plume-lithosphere interaction. Here we present boron isotope (δ11B) compositions for carbonatites from locations worldwide that span a wide range of emplacement ages (between ~40 and ~2,600 Ma). Hence, they provide insight into the temporal evolution of their mantle sources for ~2.6 billion years of Earth’s history. Boron isotope values are highly variable and range between -8.6‰ and +5.5‰, with all of the young (-4.0‰), whereas most of the older carbonatite samples record lower B isotope values. Given the δ11B value for asthenospheric mantle of -7 +/- 1‰, the B isotope compositions for young carbonatites require the involvement of an enriched (crustal) component. Recycled crustal components may be sampled by carbonatite melts associated with mantle plume activity coincident with major tectonic events, and linked to past episodes of significant subduction associated with supercontinent formation.

  2. 3D crustal model of the US and Canada East Coast rifted margin (United States)

    Dowla, N.; Bird, D. E.; Murphy, M. A.


    We integrate seismic reflection and refraction data with gravity and magnetic data to generate a continent-scale 3D crustal model of the US and Canada East Coast, extending north from the Straits of Florida to Newfoundland, and east from the Appalachian Mountains to the Central Atlantic Ocean. The model includes five layers separated by four horizons: sea surface, topography, crystalline basement, and Moho. We tested magnetic depth-to-source techniques to improve the basement morphology, from published sources, beneath the continental Triassic rift basins and outboard to the Jurassic ocean floor. A laterally varying density grid was then produced for the resultant sedimentary rock layer thickness based on an exponential decay function that approximates sedimentary compaction. Using constant density values for the remaining layers, we calculated an isostatically compensated Moho. The following structural inversion results of the Moho, controlled by seismic refraction depths, advances our understanding of rift-to-drift crustal geometries, and provides a regional context for additional studies.

  3. Models of recurrent strike-slip earthquake cycles and the state of crustal stress (United States)

    Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Raefsky, Arthur; Mulligan, Stephanie G.


    Numerical models of the strike-slip earthquake cycle, assuming a viscoelastic asthenosphere coupling model, are examined. The time-dependent simulations incorporate a stress-driven fault, which leads to tectonic stress fields and earthquake recurrence histories that are mutually consistent. Single-fault simulations with constant far-field plate motion lead to a nearly periodic earthquake cycle and a distinctive spatial distribution of crustal shear stress. The predicted stress distribution includes a local minimum in stress at depths less than typical seismogenic depths. The width of this stress 'trough' depends on the magnitude of crustal stress relative to asthenospheric drag stresses. The models further predict a local near-fault stress maximum at greater depths, sustained by the cyclic transfer of strain from the elastic crust to the ductile asthenosphere. Models incorporating both low-stress and high-stress fault strength assumptions are examined, under Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology assumptions. Model results suggest a preference for low-stress (a shear stress level of about 10 MPa) fault models, in agreement with previous estimates based on heat flow measurements and other stress indicators.

  4. Lower crustal relaxation beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Qaidam Basin following the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake (United States)

    Ryder, I.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.


    In 2001 November a magnitude 7.8 earthquake ruptured a 400 km long portion of the Kunlun fault, northeastern Tibet. In this study, we analyse over five years of post-seismic geodetic data and interpret the observed surface deformation in terms of stress relaxation in the thick Tibetan lower crust. We model GPS time-series (first year) and InSAR line of sight measurements (years two to five) and infer that the most likely mechanism of post-seismic stress relaxation is time-dependent distributed creep of viscoelastic material in the lower crust. Since a single relaxation time is not sufficient to model the observed deformation, viscous flow is modelled by a lower crustal Burgers rheology, which has two material relaxation times. The optimum model has a transient viscosity 9 ?? 1017 Pa s, steady-state viscosity 1 ?? 1019 Pa s and a ratio of long term to Maxwell shear modulus of 2:3. This model gives a good fit to GPS stations south of the Kunlun Fault, while displacements at stations north of the fault are over-predicted. We attribute this asymmetry in the GPS residual to lateral heterogeneity in rheological structure across the southern margin of the Qaidam Basin, with thinner crust/higher viscosities beneath the basin than beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Deep afterslip localized in a shear zone beneath the fault rupture gives a reasonable match to the observed InSAR data, but the slip model does not fit the earlier GPS data well. We conclude that while some localized afterslip likely occurred during the early post-seismic phase, the bulk of the observed deformation signal is due to viscous flow in the lower crust. To investigate regional variability in rheological structure, we also analyse post-seismic displacements following the 1997 Manyi earthquake that occurred 250 km west of the Kokoxili rupture. We find that viscoelastic properties are the same as for the Kokoxili area except for the transient viscosity, which is 5 ?? 1017 Pa s. The viscosities estimated for the

  5. Rehydration reactions and microstructure development in lower crustal granulites from the Bergen Arcs, Norway (United States)

    Erickson, Timmons; Reddy, Steven; Clark, Chris; Hand, Martin; Bhowany, Kamini; Prent, Alex


    An investigation of the feedbacks generated between lower crust-derived fluids and deformation microstructures formed within retrogressed granulites from the Bergen Arcs on the west coast of Norway will be presented. We hope to assess the role of deformation microstructures in assisting fluid infiltration into nominally impermeable lower crustal rocks, the role of fluids in driving mineral reactions and thus weakening the rock strength, and the interplay between these mechanisms. Granulite wall-rock adjacent to an amphibolite facies shear zone near Isdal, Norway has been sectioned, texturally mapped using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and chemically mapped using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The granuilte protolith is made up of a Precambrian anorthosite - gabbro assemblage of plagioclase and coronas of garnet around clinopyroxene. Local alteration of the granulite to eclogite and amphibolite occurred during the Caledonian orogen and has been attributed to the infiltration of fluids during the high strain event (Mukai et al., 2014). In thin section a thin ( 75 µm) rim of pargasite amphibole can be seen between the garnet and plagioclase, while the rim of amphibole is thicker (600 µm) when between the clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Plagioclase is coarse grained (mms in diameter) and displays prominent growth twins within the undeformed regions of the granulite. However, within a sheared domain of the granulite the grain size has been significantly reduced (max diameter = 74 µm) as has the growth twinning. The plagioclase from the sheared domain also displays a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) which does not appear to be inherited from the 'parent' grains. Within the strained domain there is also an increase in the reaction of garnet to pargasite, which also displays a strong CPO. These textural relationships offer the opportunity to study the active mechanisms during hydration of the lower crust and evaluate the relationships

  6. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul


    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  7. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.

  8. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang


    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  9. Radiologic evaluation of foot deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.


    In order to analyze foot deformities, the foot is divided into three compartments. Their normal and pathological positions are defined by the alignment of the bones' axes. The various foot deformities can be put down to a malalignment of the particular compartments. X-ray analysis of the malalignment allows a diagnosis to be made. The most important congenital and acquired foot deformities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I


    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  11. A Comparison of Vertical Deformations Derived from Space-based Gravimetry, Ground-based Sensors, and Model-based Hydrologic Loading over the Western United States (United States)

    Yin, G.; Forman, B. A.; Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.


    Vertical deformation of the Earth's crust due to the movement and redistribution of terrestrial freshwater can be studied using satellite measurements, ground-based sensors, hydrologic models, or a combination thereof. This current study explores the relationship between vertical deformation estimates derived from mass concentrations (mascons) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), vertical deformation from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and hydrologic loading estimates based on model output from the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (Catchment). A particular focus is made to snow-dominated basins where mass accumulates during the snow season and subsequently runs off during the ablation season. The mean seasonal cycle and the effects of atmospheric loading, non-tidal ocean loading, and glacier isostatic adjustment (GIA) are removed from the GPS observations in order to derive the vertical displacement caused predominately by hydrological processes. A low-pass filter is applied to GPS observations to remove high frequency noise. Correlation coefficients between GRACE- and GPS-based estimates at all PBO sites are calculated. GRACE-derived and Catchment-derived displacements are subtracted from the GPS height variations, respectively, in order to compute the root mean square (RMS) reduction as a means of studying the consistency between the three different methods. Results show that in most sites, the three methods exhibit good agreement. Exceptions to this generalization include the Central Valley of California where extensive groundwater pumping is witnessed in the GRACE- and GPS-based estimates, but not in the Catchment-based estimates because anthropogenic groundwater pumping activities are not included in the Catchment model. The relatively good agreement between GPS- and GRACE-derived vertical crustal displacements suggests that ground-based GPS has tremendous

  12. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.


    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  13. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.


    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  14. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014) (United States)

    Gonzalez, P. J.


    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  15. Development of a model for evaluating mechanical effects of crustal movements on the disposal system in Japan (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo


    In the safety assessment of geological disposal for high level radioactive wastes, it is important to develop the modelling for evaluating mechanical effects of crustal movements on the disposal system in Japan. In this study, the model on crustal movements is represented by accumulating two components of velocity magnitude of the crust to horizontal direction, caused by transient movements associated with fault and/or volcanic activities and ordinary movements with the other continuous factors. We have quantified the ordinary movements with the statistical analysis of data included in the GEONET (GPS Earth Observation Network System) of GSI (Geographical Survey Institute). Okada Model is applied for evaluating the transient movements, which can handle three-dimensional movements of earthquake and volcanic activities theologically and comprehensively. In this report, we provide the specification of the model on crustal movement and analyze the horizontal velocity in Tohoku region using the model. The result indicates that the ordinary movements are classified with magnitude of the longitudinal velocities. The cluster of longitudinal velocities has been distributed along the plate boundary. Because the velocities of the ordinary movements are grater than one of transient movements, the spatial distribution of longitudinal velocities in Tohoku region is similar to that of the ordinary movements. (author)

  16. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes


    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  17. Crustal heterogeneity and seismotectonics of the region around Beijing, China (United States)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng


    A detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Chinese capital (Beijing) region is determined with a spatial resolution of 25 km in the horizontal direction and 4-17 km in depth. We used 48,750 precise P-wave arrival times from 2973 events of local crustal earthquakes, controlled seismic explosions and quarry blasts. These events were recorded by a new digital seismic network consisting of 101 seismic stations equipped with high-sensitivity seismometers. The data are analyzed by using a 3-D seismic tomography method. Our tomographic model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of the region, such as the lithological variations and large fault zones across the major geological terranes like the North China Basin, the Taihangshan and the Yanshan mountainous areas. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological and topographic features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocities, respectively. The Taihangshan and Yanshan mountainous regions are generally imaged as broad high-velocity zones, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. Velocity changes are visible across some of the large fault zones. Large crustal earthquakes, such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake ( M=7.8) and the 1679 Sanhe earthquake ( M=8.0), generally occurred in high-velocity areas in the upper to middle crust. In the lower crust to the uppermost mantle under the source zones of the large earthquakes, however, low-velocity and high-conductivity anomalies exist, which are considered to be associated with fluids. The fluids in the lower crust may cause the weakening of the seismogenic layer in the upper and middle crust and thus contribute to the initiation of the large crustal earthquakes.

  18. Characterization and Modeling of Materials Responsible for Planetary Crustal Magnetism (United States)

    Strauss, Becky E.

    Earth and Mercury are the only terrestrial planets in our solar system with present-day magnetic dipole fields generated by internal dynamo systems. In contrast, Mars and the Moon show evidence of past dipole fields in the form of crustal magnetic anomalies; to hold measurable magnetizations, crustal materials must have been exposed to an applied field. While the physical principles of magnetic recording are consistent between terrestrial planets, the particular conditions at each planet control the mechanisms by which crustal materials may be magnetized and limit the types of minerals that can retain magnetic remanence. As the suite of magnetic materials used for studies of remanence expands, the need for new methods follows. The integration of rock magnetic techniques with microscopy and chemical analyses enables the reconstruction of increasingly comprehensive narratives of remanence acquisition and alteration, even in materials that are challenging to study using traditional methods. This thesis demonstrates the utility of a materials approach to rock magnetism by applying techniques designed for terrestrial use in a planetary context. The first of two case studies focuses on calcite cave deposits as a means to demonstrate how novel techniques can be used to unlock previously inaccessible archives of magnetic information. Tandem magnetic and microscopic analyses improve our understanding of the rock magnetic properties of weakly magnetic stalagmites and their potential for paleomagnetic research, as well as illuminating the pathways of remanence acquisition in cave systems. The second case study addresses the magnetic anomalies recently detected by the MESSENGER orbiter at Mercury. These anomalies are consistent with remanence acquired in a dipole field. However, in the absence of physical samples, the types of magnetic minerals that could be holding remanence in Mercury's hot, highly reducing surface environment have not yet been determined. Orbital data is

  19. Surface deformation associated with the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Argentina, earthquake sequence (United States)

    Kadinsky-Cade, K.; Reilinger, R.; Isacks, B.


    The 1977 Caucete (San Juan) earthquake considered in the present paper occurred near the Sierra Pie de Palo in the Sierras Pampeanas tectonic province of western Argentina. In the study reported, coseismic surface deformation is combined with seismic observations (main shock and aftershocks, both teleseismic and local data) to place constraints on the geometry and slip of the main fault responsible for the 1977 earthquake. The implications of the 1977 event for long-term crustal shortening and earthquake recurrence rates in this region are also discussed. It is concluded that the 1977 Caucete earthquake was accompanied by more than 1 m of vertical uplift.

  20. Crustal structure beneath seismic stations deployed on rock in West Antarctica: New constrains on crustal shear wave velocities, Poisson's ratios and Moho depths (United States)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Huerta, A. D.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T. J.


    Over the past two decades there have been a number of broadband seismic networks deployed in Antarctica for investigating the deep earth structure and elucidating the nature of the crust and upper mantle beneath major tectonic features such as the Transantarctic Mountains, the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, the West Antarctic Rift System, and the Marie Byrd Land Dome. Seismic data recorded by these networks have been analyzed to obtain estimates of crustal structure, such as Moho depth and Possion's ratio, leading to an improved understanding of Antarctic crustal structure. However, data from the different networks have been analyzed separately with a variety of modeling methods, resulting in non-uniform information on crustal properties. In this paper, we address the non-uniformity of available crustal parameters by modeling P wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave velocities for all broadband stations in West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployed on rock. Using the H-k stacking and a joint inversion methods and applying them to data from the 2000-2003 TAMSEIS and 2009-2015 POLENET networks, in addition to three permanent stations, we have obtained new estimates of Moho depth, crustal shear wave velocities and crustal Poisson's ratio. In addition, we report results for two new stations in West Antarctica. The ensemble of information on crustal thickness, crustal Poisson's ratio, and crustal shear wave velocity enables us to examine more comprehensively than previous studies the composition and structure of the crust beneath several tectonic blocks within the West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains, and to comment further on their origin.

  1. Crustal structure variations along the Lesser Antilles Arc (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J. M.; Melekhova, E.; Blundy, J.; Baptie, B.; Latchman, J. L.


    Continental crust is predominantly formed along subduction zones. Therefore, an investigation of the crustal and mantle structure variation of these areas is crucial for understanding the growth of continental crust. This work deals with the seismological characteristics along the Lesser Antilles Arc, an island arc system built by the relatively slow subduction (~2cm/yr) of the North and South American plates beneath the Caribbean plate. The amount of subducted sediments changes significantly from sediment-rich subduction in the South to sediment-poor subduction in the North. The abundance of broadband seismic stations on the Lesser Antilles islands enables a range of seismic methods to be used to study arc processes. Furthermore, the abundance of cumulate samples allows for a detailed petrological analysis, which can be related to the seismological patterns. We use data from three component broadband stations located on the individual islands along the arc. From the island of Grenada in the South to the Virgin Islands in the North significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. In this work, we investigate crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The ratio gives an idea about the material of the subsurface as well as its water and its melt contents. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp due to a low velocity contrast. The real data results were then compared to synthetic receiver functions from subsurface models. We compute a range of synthetic

  2. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth


    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  3. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  4. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...

  5. Dynamics of Deformable Active Particles under External Flow Field (United States)

    Tarama, Mitsusuke


    In most practical situations, active particles are affected by their environment, for example, by a chemical concentration gradient, light intensity, gravity, or confinement. In particular, the effect of an external flow field is important for particles swimming in a solvent fluid. For deformable active particles such as self-propelled liquid droplets and active vesicles, as well as microorganisms such as euglenas and neutrophils, a general description has been developed by focusing on shape deformation. In this review, we present our recent studies concerning the dynamics of a single active deformable particle under an external flow field. First, a set of model equations of active deformable particles including the effect of a general external flow is introduced. Then, the dynamics under two specific flow profiles is discussed: a linear shear flow, as the simplest example, and a swirl flow. In the latter case, the scattering dynamics of the active deformable particles by the swirl flow is also considered.

  6. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, U. J.; Taylor, M. L.; Dunn, L.; Kron, T.; Smith, R. L.; Franich, R. D.


    Purpose: Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. Methods: A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Results: Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all

  7. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry. (United States)

    Yeo, U J; Taylor, M L; Dunn, L; Kron, T; Smith, R L; Franich, R D


    Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all three dimensions occurring as

  8. Nuclear deformation at finite temperature. (United States)

    Alhassid, Y; Gilbreth, C N; Bertsch, G F


    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance.