Heat Coulomb blockade of one ballistic channel
Sivre, E.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Ouerghi, A.; Jin, Y.; Pierre, F.
2018-02-01
Quantum mechanics and Coulomb interaction dictate the behaviour of small circuits. The thermal implications cover fundamental topics from quantum control of heat to quantum thermodynamics, with prospects of novel thermal machines and an ineluctably growing influence on nanocircuit engineering. Experimentally, the rare observations thus far include the universal thermal conductance quantum and heat interferometry. However, evidence for many-body thermal effects paving the way to markedly different heat and electrical behaviours in quantum circuits remains wanting. Here we report on the observation of the Coulomb blockade of electronic heat flow from a small metallic circuit node, beyond the widespread Wiedemann-Franz law paradigm. We demonstrate this thermal many-body phenomenon for perfect (ballistic) conduction channels to the node, where it amounts to the universal suppression of precisely one quantum of conductance for the transport of heat, but none for electricity. The inter-channel correlations that give rise to such selective heat current reduction emerge from local charge conservation, in the floating node over the full thermal frequency range (laws for thermal transport in nanocircuits.
Trinucleon asymptotic normalization constants including Coulomb effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Lehman, D.R.; Payne, G.L.
1982-01-01
Exact theoretical expressions for calculating the trinucleon S- and D-wave asymptotic normalization constants, with and without Coulomb effects, are presented. Coordinate-space Faddeev-type equations are used to generate the trinucleon wave functions, and integral relations for the asymptotic norms are derived within this framework. The definition of the asymptotic norms in the presence of the Coulomb interaction is emphasized. Numerical calculations are carried out for the s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published results is made. The first estimate of Coulomb effects for the D-wave asymptotic norm is given. All theoretical values are carefully compared with experiment and suggestions are made for improving the experimental situation. We find that Coulomb effects increase the 3 He S-wave asymptotic norm by less than 1% relative to that of 3 H, that Coulomb effects decrease the 3 He D-wave asymptotic norm by approximately 8% relative to that of 3 H, and that the distorted-wave Born approximation D-state parameter, D 2 , is only 1% smaller in magnitude for 3 He than for 3 H due to compensating Coulomb effects
A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzger, Kees.
1990-01-01
Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs
Calculation of proton-deuteron phase parameters including the Coulomb force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Sandhas, W.; Ziegelmann, H.
1985-04-01
A previously proposed exact method for including the Coulomb force in three-body collisions is applied to proton-deuteron scattering. We present phase shifts for angular momenta up to L=9, from elastic threshold to 50 MeV proton laboratory energy. Separable rank-one potentials are taken for the nuclear interactions. A charge-independent and a charge-symmetric choise, while leading to different neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron phase parameters, nevertheless yields practically the same Coulomb corrections. We, moreover, investigate the question of P-wave resonances.A critical comparison of our results with those obtained in a co-ordinate space formalism is performed. Furthermore, proposals for an approximate inclusion of the Coulomb potential are tested, and found unsatisfactory. (orig.)
Coulomb collisions of ring current particles: Indirect source of heat for the ionosphere
Cole, K. D.
1975-01-01
The additional energy requirements of the topside ionosphere during a magnetic storm are less than one quarter of the ring current energy. This energy is supplied largely by Coulomb collisions of ring current protons of energy less than about 20 keV with background thermal electrons which conduct the heat to the ionosphere. Past criticisms are discussed of this mechanism for the supply of energy to the SAR-arc and neighboring regions of the ionosphere.
Heat flux dropouts in the solar wind and Coulomb scattering effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Ogilvie, K.W.
1992-01-01
Measurements of solar wind electrons at ISEE 3 located 0.01 AU upstream from the Earth indicate periods of time when the flux of antisunward suprathermal electrons decreases suddenly, leaving the velocity distribution nearly isotropic and causing the solar wind heat flux to drop. These heat flux dropouts (HFDs) are usually found in regions of increased plasma density and decreased electron temperature, and they are associated with sector boundaries. It has been suggested that HFDs may be due either to disconnection from the Sun of the magnetic flux tube in which they are found, or to enhanced Coulomb scattering of halo electrons in transit from the Sun to the Earth. Using the vector electron spectrometer on ISEE 1, the authors have found eight intervals of greatly reduced heat flux which appear to be associated with HFDs at ISEE 3. Five of the eight events were delayed by an appropriate convection time and had approximately the same duration as the corresponding ISEE 3 event. Velocity distributions during HFDs at ISEE 1 show that the depletion of halo electrons traveling away from the Sun is most pronounced in the 100-eV range, while there is essentially no depletion in the 1-keV range, and that in four cases the magnitude of the halo depletion and its upper velocity limit both depend on the density increase in the HFD. These results are shown to be in agreement with the υ -3 dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency. Thus the authors conclude that Coulomb scattering effects play a substantial role in at least some heat flux dropout events
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kendall, David
1997-01-01
.... It also extends the solution to include cases where particular combinations of friction angle, elastic properties, and free-field pressure cause the free field to yield before significant deformation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Hamzavi, Majid
2013-01-01
Approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation for Tietz—Hua (TH) potential including Coulomb-like tensor (CLT) potential with arbitrary spin—orbit quantum number κ are obtained within the Pekeris approximation scheme to deal with the spin—orbit coupling terms κ(κ ± 1)r −2 . Under the exact spin and pseudospin symmetric limitation, bound state energy eigenvalues and associated unnormalized two-component wave functions of the Dirac particle in the field of both attractive and repulsive TH potential with tensor potential are found using the parametric Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method. The cases of the Morse oscillator with tensor potential, the generalized Morse oscillator with tensor potential, and the non-relativistic limits have been investigated. (general)
Unitary Pole Approximation For 16O S12state And 40ca P32state When Coulomb Interaction Is Included
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Acharya
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The form factor of a separable interaction between a pair of particles is an important input in a three body calculation for a transfer reaction. The three body equations of Alt Grassberger and Sandhas have been solved for a system of three particles viz.p n and 16Oand p n and 40Ca when coulomb interaction is included between the particle pairs. The input in this calculation i.e. the two body t-matrices representing the interaction between the pairs of particles is taken to be of a separable form conforming to the bound state of the pair. The form factors of the total interaction between the particle pairs are constructed using the prescription of Ueta and Bund.
Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water
1978-01-01
Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.
1974-01-01
The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)
Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...
Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
Heat Diffusion in Gases, Including Effects of Chemical Reaction
Hansen, C. Frederick
1960-01-01
The diffusion of heat through gases is treated where the coefficients of thermal conductivity and diffusivity are functions of temperature. The diffusivity is taken proportional to the integral of thermal conductivity, where the gas is ideal, and is considered constant over the temperature interval in which a chemical reaction occurs. The heat diffusion equation is then solved numerically for a semi-infinite gas medium with constant initial and boundary conditions. These solutions are in a dimensionless form applicable to gases in general, and they are used, along with measured shock velocity and heat flux through a shock reflecting surface, to evaluate the integral of thermal conductivity for air up to 5000 degrees Kelvin. This integral has the properties of a heat flux potential and replaces temperature as the dependent variable for problems of heat diffusion in media with variable coefficients. Examples are given in which the heat flux at the stagnation region of blunt hypersonic bodies is expressed in terms of this potential.
Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat
Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.
2005-01-01
This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the
Including district heating pipelines in absolute liability laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gronau, W
1977-10-01
On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Ratto, Luca; Satta, Francesca; Tanda, Giovanni
2018-06-01
This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer in the endwall region of a large scale turbine cascade. The steady-state liquid crystal technique has been used to obtain the map of the heat transfer coefficient for a constant heat flux boundary condition. In the presence of two- and three-dimensional flows with significant spatial variations of the heat transfer coefficient, tangential heat conduction could lead to error in the heat transfer coefficient determination, since local heat fluxes at the wall-to-fluid interface tend to differ from point to point and surface temperatures to be smoothed out, thus making the uniform-heat-flux boundary condition difficult to be perfectly achieved. For this reason, numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer in the cascade including the effect of tangential heat conduction inside the endwall have been performed. The major objective of numerical simulations was to investigate the influence of wall heat conduction on the convective heat transfer coefficient determined during a nominal iso-flux heat transfer experiment and to interpret possible differences between numerical and experimental heat transfer results. Results were presented and discussed in terms of local Nusselt number and a convenient wall heat flux function for two values of the Reynolds number (270,000 and 960,000).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fopah-Lele, Armand; Rohde, Christian; Neumann, Karsten; Tietjen, Theo; Rönnebeck, Thomas; N'Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Osterland, Thomas; Opel, Oliver
2016-01-01
A lab-scale thermochemical heat storage reactor was developed in the European project “thermal battery” to obtain information on the characteristics of a closed heat storage system, based on thermochemical reactions. The present type of storage is capable of re-using waste heat from cogeneration system to produce useful heat for space heating. The storage material used was SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Due to agglomeration or gel-like problems, a structural element was introduced to enhance vapour and heat transfer. Honeycomb heat exchanger was designed and tested. 13 dehydration-hydration cycles were studied under low-temperature conditions (material temperatures < 100 °C) for storage. Discharging was realized at water vapour pressure of about 42 mbar. Temperature evolution inside the reactor at different times and positions, chemical conversion, thermal power and overall efficiency were analysed for the selected cycles. Experimental system thermal capacity and efficiency of 65 kWh and 0.77 are respectively obtained with about 1 kg of SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Heat transfer fluid recovers heat at a short span of about 43 °C with an average of 22 °C during about 4 h, acceptable temperature for the human comfort (20 °C on day and 16 °C at night). System performances were obtained for a salt bed energy density of 213 kWh·m 3 . The overall heat transfer coefficient of the honeycomb heat exchanger has an average value of 147 W m −2 K −1 . Though promising results have been obtained, ameliorations need to be made, in order to make the closed thermochemical heat storage system competitive for space heating. - Highlights: • Lab-scale thermochemical heat storage is designed, constructed and tested. • The use of honeycomb heat exchanger as a heat and vapour process enhancement. • Closed system (1 kg SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O) able to give back 3/4 of initial thermal waste energy. • System storage capacity and thermal efficiency are respectively 65 kWh and 0.77.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Kunwoo; Cho, Hyuksu; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Though Material reliability programs (MRPs) have a purpose to provide the evaluation or management methodologies for the operating RVI, the similar evaluation methodologies can be applied to the APR1400 fleet in the design stage for the evaluation of neutron irradiation effects. The purposes of this study are: to predict the thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source; to evaluate effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in relation to isotropic and anisotropic conductivity of porous media for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. The CFD simulations are performed so as to evaluate thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source and effective thermal conductivity for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. In respective of using irradiated structure heat source, the maximum temperature of fluid and core shroud for isotropic ETC are 325.8 .deg. C, 341.5 .deg. C. The total amount of irradiated structure heat source is about 5.41 MWth and not effect to fluid temperature.
Exergo-economic analysis of finned tube for waste heat recovery including phase change heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Shuang Ying; Jiu, Jing Rui; Xiao, Lan; Li, You Rong; Liu, Chao; Xu, Jin Liang
2013-01-01
In this paper, an exergo-economic criterion, i.e. the net profit per unit transferred heat load, is established from the perspective of exergy recovery to evaluate the performance of finned tube used in waste heat recovery. Also, the dimensionless exergy change number is introduced to investigate the effect of the flow (mechanical) exergy loss rate on the recovered thermal exergy. Selecting R245fa as a working fluid and exhaust flue gas as a heat source, the effects of the internal Reynolds number Re_i, the external Reynolds number Re_o , the unit cost of thermal exergy ε_q , the geometric parameter of finned tube η_oβ and the phase change temperature T_v etc. on the performance of finned tube are discussed in detail. The results show that the higher T_v and η_oβ, and lower Re_i may lead to the negligible flow(mechanical) exergy loss rate. There exists an optimal value of Re_i where the net profit per unit transferred heat load peaks, while the variations of Re_o, ε_q and T_v cause monotonic change of the net profit per unit transferred heat load. The phase change temperature exerts relatively greater influence on the exergo-economic performance of finned tube in comparison with other parameters. And there exists a critical phase change temperature, where the net profit per unit transferred heat load is equal to zero.
21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.30 Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including...
A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y"+ up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.
Coulomb Effects in Few-Body Reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deltuva A.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The method of screening and renormalization is used to include the Coulomb interaction between the charged particles in the momentum-space description of three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The necessity for the renormalization of the scattering amplitudes and the reliability of the method is demonstrated. The Coulomb eﬀect on observables is discussed.
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating
Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.
2011-01-01
The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.
Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg
1998-01-01
Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.
Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K
2011-07-01
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.
Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut
2017-11-16
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.
Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Anandan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.
2003-01-01
We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.
Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces
Freyland, Werner
2011-01-01
Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.
Interatomic Coulombic electron capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.
2010-01-01
In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.
Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi
This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.
Coulomb effects in particle distributions inclusive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erazmus, B.; Martin, L.; Pluta, J.; Stavinky, A.
1997-01-01
Single pion distributions from central 158 A.GeV/c Pb + Pb collisions measured by the NA44 experiment show the effect of Coulomb interaction with the net charge produced during the reaction. Coulomb effects are analyzed with the help of the microscopic model RQMD and a model including the Coulomb interaction. Different sets of kinematical characteristics of the net charge have been used to reproduce the experimental data and a strong sensitivity to the charge value has been found. This study has evidenced the non-negligible influence of a Coulomb charge, present in the region of the central rapidity in heavy ion collisions on the inclusive distributions of the produced particles. A more thorough analysis of the data obtained from the experiment NA44 is now under way to take into account the hyperon decay that can modify the fraction of different particles, particularly at low transverse momenta
Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.
Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven
2017-04-12
Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.
Heat exchanger for cooling a liquid metal with air, including panels of identical tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malaval, C.
1985-01-01
The heat exchanger includes panels of identical tubes, each one comprising two horizontal collectors situated at the vertical of each other and a group of vertical tubes for cooling arranged in a horizontal parallelepiped casing opened on two of its opposite sides. The air flows from the inlet to the outlet face of the casing. The panels of tubes are arranged side by side so that their outlet faces form a prismatic surface of which the height is vertical and the inner space communicates with a vertical axis chimney. Each one of the panels is hanging from a fixed structure by means of articulated fasteners, by means of its upper collector only. The invention applies, more particularly, for cooling the primary sodium of fast neutron reactors after they are stopped [fr
Appleberry, W. T.
1983-01-01
Standard hydraulic shock absorber modified to form coulomb (linear friction) damper. Device damps very small velocities and is well suited for use with large masses mounted on soft springs. Damping force is easily adjusted for different loads. Dampers are more reliable than fluid dampers and also more economical to build and to maintain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L.
2001-01-01
Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)
2001-07-01
Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)
Expansions for Coulomb wave functions
Boersma, J.
1969-01-01
In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
2013-01-01
-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two...
Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.
1980-01-01
Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed
CHP in Switzerland from 1990 to 1998. Thermal power generation including combined heat and power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufmann, U.
1999-01-01
The results of a study on thermal power generation in Switzerland show that combined heat and power (CHP) systems have grown rapidly. Statistics are presented on the development of CHP-based power and also on thermal power stations without waste heat usage. Figures are given for gas and steam turbine installations, combined gas and steam turbine stations and motor-driven CHP units. Power production is categorised, separating small and large (over 1 Megawatt electrical) power generation facilities. On-site, distributed power generation at consumers' premises and the geographical distribution of plant is described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sridhar, S.; Faghri, M.; Lessmann, R.C.
1990-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to study thermal wake effects in arrays of rectangular blocks encountered in electronic equipment. Data were obtained for a series of channel heights and flow velocities. The temperature rise due to wake effects behind a single heated module was found to be fairly independent of the channel height and the position of the heated block, for a given approach velocity. The adiabatic temperature rise data for a module due to a heated element immediately upstream of it for different inter-module spacings were found to correlate well in terms of a new parameter called the surface packing density. This paper reports that it was reported by the authors in an earlier paper that both the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient nd pressure-drop data for regular in-line arrays correlated well in terms of a composite geometric parameter called the column packing density. These experiments have been extended to a higher Reynolds number. Empirical correlations are presented here for friction factor and Nusselt number in terms of the volume packing density, and for the thermal wake effects in terms of the surface packing density. Data from literature for arrays with widely different geometric parameters are shown to agree with these correlations
Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.
1982-01-01
Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.
McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.
2014-05-01
We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrasko, P.; Foeldy, L.; Toth, A.
1986-07-01
Electron-positron pair production in strong Coulomb fields is outlined. It is shown that the singular behaviour of the adiabatic basis can be removed if solutions of the time dependent external field Dirac equation are used as a basis to expand the fermion field operator. This latter 'asymptotic basis' makes it possible to introduce Feynman-propagator. Applying the reduction technique, the computation of all of the basic quantities can be reduced to the solution of an integral equation. The positron spectrum for separable potential model with Lorentzian time dependence and for potential jump is analyzed in the pole approximation. (author)
Coulomb energy, vortices, and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, Jeff; Olejnik, Stefan
2003-01-01
We estimate the Coulomb energy of static quarks from a Monte Carlo calculation of the correlator of timelike link variables in the Coulomb gauge. We find, in agreement with Cucchieri and Zwanziger, that this energy grows linearly with distance at large quark separations. The corresponding string tension, however, is several times greater than the accepted asymptotic string tension, indicating that a state containing only static sources, with no constituent gluons, is not the lowest energy flux tube state. The Coulomb energy is also measured on thermalized lattices with center vortices removed by the de Forcrand-D'Elia procedure. We find that when vortices are removed, the Coulomb string tension vanishes
Adaptive time-stepping Monte Carlo integration of Coulomb collisions
Särkimäki, K.; Hirvijoki, E.; Terävä, J.
2018-01-01
We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-Jüttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. The Monte Carlo method is implemented for both the three-dimensional particle momentum space and the five-dimensional guiding center phase space. Detailed description is provided for both the physics and implementation of the operator. The focus is in adaptive integration of stochastic differential equations, which is an overlooked aspect among existing Monte Carlo implementations of Coulomb collision operators. We verify that our operator converges to known analytical results and demonstrate that careless implementation of the adaptive time step can lead to severely erroneous results. The operator is provided as a self-contained Fortran 95 module and can be included into existing orbit-following tools that trace either the full Larmor motion or the guiding center dynamics. The adaptive time-stepping algorithm is expected to be useful in situations where the collision frequencies vary greatly over the course of a simulation. Examples include the slowing-down of fusion products or other fast ions, and the Dreicer generation of runaway electrons as well as the generation of fast ions or electrons with ion or electron cyclotron resonance heating.
Integral equation for Coulomb problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.
1986-01-01
For short range potentials an inhomogeneous (homogeneous) Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation of the Fredholm type yields the wave function of scattering (bound) state. For the Coulomb potential, this statement is no more valid. It has been felt difficult to express the Coulomb wave function in a form of an integral equation with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation. In the present paper, the author shows that an inhomogeneous integral equation of a Volterra type with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation can be constructed both for the scattering and the bound states. The equation yielding the binding energy is given in an integral form. The present treatment is easily extended to the coupled Coulomb problems
Coulomb double helical structure
Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu
2012-01-01
Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
2014-01-01
the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...
Furan and Alkylated Furans in Heat Processed Food, Including Home Cooked Products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fromberg, Arvid; Mariotti, Maria S.; Pedreschi, Franco
2014-01-01
of carbohydrates. Interestingly, breakfast cereals, dry bread products, and dried fruit products including raisins, plums and bananas contained furan at levels up to 387 mu g/kg. Furan was also found in the dry ingredients of cookies and bread, and in snacks such as crisps and popcorn. The 2-alkylfurans, 2...
The Coulomb gap and low energy statistics for Coulomb glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M; Bergli, Joakim; Kirkengen, Martin; Galperin, Yuri M
2008-01-01
We study the statistics of local energy minima in the configuration space of two-dimensional lattice Coulomb glasses with site disorder and the behavior of the Coulomb gap depending on the strength of random site energies. At intermediate disorder, i.e., when the typical strength of the disorder is of the same order as the nearest-neighbor Coulomb energy, the high energy tail of the distribution of the local minima is exponential. We furthermore analyze the structure of the local minima and show that most sites of the system have the same occupation numbers in all of these states. The density of states (DOS) shows a transition from the crystalline state at zero disorder (with a hard gap) to an intermediate, probably glassy state with a Coulomb gap. We analyze this Coulomb gap in some detail and show that the DOS deviates slightly from the traditional linear behavior in 2D. For finite systems these intermediate Coulomb gap states disappear for large disorder strengths and only a random localized state in which all electrons are in the minima of the random potential exists. Dedication: This paper is dedicated to Thomas Nattermann, our dearest friend, brilliant colleague, and outstanding teacher
Coulomb displacement energies in nuclei: a new approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, N.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Bernard, V.; Nguyen, V.G.
1978-04-01
The neutron core polarization gives rise to an important correction to the direct Coulomb contribution when one calculates the Coulomb displacement energies. In the Hartree-Fock model it is shown that this correction is about 2% to 4.5% in medium and heavy nuclei. The core polarization as well as other higher order effects can be included by using a selfconsistent description of the analog state in a complete proton particle-neutron hole space. The Coulomb displacement energies in 48 Ca, 88 Sr and 208 Pb have been calculated using Skyrme interactions SIII and SIV. A good agreement with experiment is obtained
Scattering and stopping of swift diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmund, P.
1992-01-01
The scattering and stopping of the fragments of a fast diatomic molecule under Coulomb explosion has been analysed theoretically. The central assumption in the scheme is the dominance of Coulomb explosion, while electronic stopping (including wake forces) and elastic scattering are treated as perturbations. Charge exchange has been neglected. Coulomb images of penetration phenomena are heavily distorted. For small penetrated layer thicknesses, images appear contracted in the direction of the molecular axis, and expanded perpendicular to it. This distortion is described quantitatively by a linear transformation. General expressions have been derived for the effect of continuous and stochastic forces on the distribution of fragment velocities from Coulomb explosion (the ''ring pattern''). Moreover, relations have been found that allow to scale velocity distributions valid in the absence of Coulomb explosion into distributions allowing for Coulomb explosion. Applications concern the shift in ring pattern due to electronic stopping, the lateral broadening due to multiple scattering, and the effect of zero-point motion on the Coulomb image of a molecule. (orig.)
Some studies in scatering by Coulomb modified nuclear potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laha, U.
1988-01-01
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in theoretical questions concerning the Coulomb nuclear problems with the main emphasis on their off-shell behaviour. Earlier approaches to the problem made use of a version of the two-potential formula as used by Bajzer. A slightly different point of view is presented here. An expression for the interacting Green's function for motion in the Coulomb plus Graz potential is constructed and used to obtain the half-off-shell T matrix in the ''maximal reduced form''. Similar results were also derived for the off-shell Jost functions. It is explicitly demonstrated that Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials the half-off-shell T matrix can be expressed in terms of on-and off-shell Jost functions in the same way as one does for a purely short range interaction. In presenting the results for T matrix and other related quantities, the Coulomb effect is included rigorously. Results clearly delineate the branch point singularities originating from the long range nature of the Coulomb interaction and thus provide a better understanding of the off-shell two-body Coulomb-like T matrices. It is hoped that these results will form an adequate starting point for rigorous calculations on few-body systems with charges. (author). 16 refs
Scattering and stopping of swift diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmund, P.
1991-01-01
The scattering and stopping of the fragments of a fast diatomic molecule under Coulomb explosion has been analyzed theoretically. The central assumption in the scheme is the dominance of Coulomb explosion, while electronic stopping (including wake forces) and elastic scattering are treated as perturbations. Charge exchange has been neglected. Coulomb images of penetration phenomena are heavily distorted. For small penetrated layer thicknesses, images appear contracted in the direction of the molecular axis, and expanded perpendicular to it. This distortion is described quantitatively by a linear transformation. General expressions have been derived for the effect of continuous and stochastic forces on the distribution of fragment velocities from Coulomb explosion (the ''ring pattern''). Moreover, relations have been found that allow to scale velocity distributions valid in the absence of Coulomb explosion into distributions allowing for Coulomb explosion. Applications concern the shift in ring pattern due to electronic stopping, the lateral broadening due to multiple scattering and the effect of zero-point motion on the Coulomb image of a molecule. 14 refs., 5 figs
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, 'HPTAM,' was developed to simulate the transient operation of fully-thawed heat pipes and the startup of heat pipes from a frozen state. The model incorporates: (a) sublimation and resolidification of working fluid; (b) melting and freezing of the working fluid in the porous wick; (c) evaporation of thawed working fluid and condensation as a thin liquid film on a frozen substrate; (d) free-molecule, transition, and continuum vapor flow regimes, using the Dusty Gas Model; (e) liquid flow and heat transfer in the porous wick; and (f) thermal and hydrodynamic couplings of phases at their respective interfaces. HPTAM predicts the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus at the liquid-vapor interface and the radial location of the working fluid level (liquid or solid) in the wick. It also includes the transverse momentum jump condition (capillary relationship of Pascal) at the liquid-vapor interface and geometrically relates the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus to the volume fraction of vapor in the wick. The present model predicts the capillary limit and partial liquid recess (dryout) in the evaporator wick, and incorporates a liquid pooling submodel, which simulates accumulation of the excess liquid in the vapor core at the condenser end.
Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Thaler, R.M.
1980-01-01
The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+ 208 Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data
Computational assignment of redox states to Coulomb blockade diamonds.
Olsen, Stine T; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Hansen, Thorsten; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V
2014-09-07
With the advent of molecular transistors, electrochemistry can now be studied at the single-molecule level. Experimentally, the redox chemistry of the molecule manifests itself as features in the observed Coulomb blockade diamonds. We present a simple theoretical method for explicit construction of the Coulomb blockade diamonds of a molecule. A combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method is invoked to calculate redox energies and polarizabilities of the molecules, including the screening effect of the metal leads. This direct approach circumvents the need for explicit modelling of the gate electrode. From the calculated parameters the Coulomb blockade diamonds are constructed using simple theory. We offer a theoretical tool for assignment of Coulomb blockade diamonds to specific redox states in particular, and a study of chemical details in the diamonds in general. With the ongoing experimental developments in molecular transistor experiments, our tool could find use in molecular electronics, electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis.
The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide
2017-09-01
We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.
Coulomb Dissociation as a Tool of Nuclear Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utsunomiya, H.
2000-01-01
My talk will begin with an introduction of the Coulomb dissociation method, proceed to discussions on Coulomb breakup of 7 Li with respect to the big-bang nucleosynthesis and end with the revision of astrophysical S-factors. The methodology based on the virtual photon source will be introduced in view of experimental techniques. The discussion will include the quantum tunnelling effect in non-resonant breakup, the lifetime of continuum states, and Coulomb distortion of relevant cross sections. Roles of multi-step processes and different multipolarities will also be discussed on the basis of solving a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. My talk will present quantitative results. The theoretical framework of the Coulomb dissociation method and a broad scope of its applications are given by G. Baur. Applications to radioactive nuclei which have quickly become vogue are discussed in the related lecture of J. Kiener. (author)
Stone, P. H.; Salustri, G.
1984-01-01
A modified Eulerian form of the Eliassen-Palm flux which includes the effect of eddy forcing on condensation heating is defined. With the two-dimensional vector flux in the meridional plane which is a function of the zonal mean eddy fluxes replaced by the modified flux, both the Eliassen-Palm theorem and a modified but more general form of the nonacceleration theorem for quasi-geostrophic motion still hold. Calculations of the divergence of the modified flux and of the eddy forcing of the moisture field are presented.
Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.
1981-01-01
The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter
Characterization of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, K.; Takayanagi, T.; Wada, M.; Ohtani, S.; Schuessler, H. A.
2010-01-01
We describe a simple and fast method for simulating observed images of ion Coulomb crystals. In doing so, cold elastic collisions between Coulomb crystals and virtual very light atoms are implemented in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation code. Such an approach reproduces the observed images of Coulomb crystals by obtaining density plots of the statistics of existence of each ion. The simple method has the advantage of short computing time in comparison with previous calculation methods. As a demonstration of the simulation, the formation of a planar Coulomb crystal with a small number of ions has been investigated in detail in a linear ion trap both experimentally and by simulation. However, also large Coulomb crystals including up to 1400 ions have been photographed and simulated to extract the secular temperature and the number of ions. For medium-sized crystals, a comparison between experiments and calculations has been performed. Moreover, an MD simulation of the sympathetic cooling of small molecular ions was performed in order to test the possibility of extracting the temperature and the number of refrigerated molecular ions from crystal images of laser-cooled ions. Such information is basic to studying ultracold ion-molecule reactions using ion Coulomb crystals including sympathetically cooled molecular ions.
Coulomb branches with complex singularities
Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario
2018-06-01
We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.
Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esbensen, H.; Physics
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed
Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esbensen, Henning
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed
Gauge orbits and the Coulomb potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.
2009-01-01
If the color Coulomb potential is confining, then the Coulomb field energy of an isolated color charge is infinite on an infinite lattice, even if the usual UV divergence is lattice regulated. A simple criterion for Coulomb confinement is that the expectation value of timelike link variables vanishes in the Coulomb gauge, but it is unclear how this criterion is related to the spectrum of the corresponding Faddeev-Popov operator, which can be used to formulate a quite different criterion for Coulomb confinement. The purpose of this article is to connect the two seemingly different Coulomb confinement criteria, and explain the geometrical basis of the connection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandao, S.B.
1987-01-01
The level structure of 189 Os has been studied by Coulomb excitation using 35 Cl, 28 Si, 16 O beams. GOSIA, a code written to analyze multiple Coulomb excitation, was used to obtain the reduced probabilities of transition B(E2). The results for interband and intraband turned out possible the classification of the states following Nilsson levels. Gamma-rays originating from deexcitation of 216.7 and 219.4 keV have been separated and the reduced probability of transition has been measured. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Ginzburg criterion for ionic fluids: the effect of Coulomb interactions.
Patsahan, O
2013-08-01
The effect of the Coulomb interactions on the crossover between mean-field and Ising critical behavior in ionic fluids is studied using the Ginzburg criterion. We consider the charge-asymmetric primitive model supplemented by short-range attractive interactions in the vicinity of the gas-liquid critical point. The model without Coulomb interactions exhibiting typical Ising critical behavior is used to calibrate the Ginzburg temperature of the systems comprising electrostatic interactions. Using the collective variables method, we derive a microscopic-based effective Hamiltonian for the full model. We obtain explicit expressions for all the relevant Hamiltonian coefficients within the framework of the same approximation, i.e., the one-loop approximation. Then we consistently calculate the reduced Ginzburg temperature t(G) for both the purely Coulombic model (a restricted primitive model) and the purely nonionic model (a hard-sphere square-well model) as well as for the model parameters ranging between these two limiting cases. Contrary to the previous theoretical estimates, we obtain the reduced Ginzburg temperature for the purely Coulombic model to be about 20 times smaller than for the nonionic model. For the full model including both short-range and long-range interactions, we show that t(G) approaches the value found for the purely Coulombic model when the strength of the Coulomb interactions becomes sufficiently large. Our results suggest a key role of Coulomb interactions in the crossover behavior observed experimentally in ionic fluids as well as confirm the Ising-like criticality in the Coulomb-dominated ionic systems.
Approximate Coulomb effects in the three-body scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haftel, M.I.; Zankel, H.
1981-01-01
From the momentum space Faddeev equations we derive approximate expressions which describe the Coulomb-nuclear interference in the three-body elastic scattering, rearrangement, and breakup problems and apply the formalism to p-d elastic scattering. The approximations treat the Coulomb interference as mainly a two-body effect, but we allow for the charge distribution of the deuteron in the p-d calculations. Real and imaginary parts of the Coulomb correction to the elastic scattering phase shifts are described in terms of on-shell quantities only. In the case of pure Coulomb breakup we recover the distorted-wave Born approximation result. Comparing the derived approximation with the full Faddeev p-d elastic scattering calculation, which includes the Coulomb force, we obtain good qualitative agreement in S and P waves, but disagreement in repulsive higher partial waves. The on-shell approximation investigated is found to be superior to other current approximations. The calculated differential cross sections at 10 MeV raise the question of whether there is a significant Coulomb-nuclear interference at backward angles
A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian
2015-01-01
In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event. (paper)
Vila-Cortavitarte, Marta; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Calzada-Pérez, Miguel Á
2018-05-15
Major advances have been achieved in the field of self-healing by magnetic induction in which the addition of metallic particles into asphalt mixtures enables repairing their own cracks. This technology has already been proven to increase the life expectancy of roads. Nevertheless, its higher costs in comparison with conventional maintenance caused by the price of virgin metallic particles still makes it unattractive for investment. This research aimed at making this process economically accessible as well as environmentally efficient. To this end, an intense search for suitable industrial by-products to substitute both the virgin metal particles and the natural aggregates forming asphalt mixtures was conducted. The set of by-products used included sand blasting wastes, stainless shot wastes, and polished wastes as metallic particles and other inert by-products as aggregates. The results demonstrated that the by-products were adequately heated, which leads to satisfactory healing ratios in comparison with the reference mixture.
Coulomb interactions in charged fluids.
Vernizzi, Graziano; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera
2011-07-01
The use of Ewald summation schemes for calculating long-range Coulomb interactions, originally applied to ionic crystalline solids, is a very common practice in molecular simulations of charged fluids at present. Such a choice imposes an artificial periodicity which is generally absent in the liquid state. In this paper we propose a simple analytical O(N(2)) method which is based on Gauss's law for computing exactly the Coulomb interaction between charged particles in a simulation box, when it is averaged over all possible orientations of a surrounding infinite lattice. This method mitigates the periodicity typical of crystalline systems and it is suitable for numerical studies of ionic liquids, charged molecular fluids, and colloidal systems with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.
Controllability of the Coulomb charging energy in close-packed nanoparticle arrays.
Duan, Chao; Wang, Ying; Sun, Jinling; Guan, Changrong; Grunder, Sergio; Mayor, Marcel; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui
2013-11-07
We studied the electronic transport properties of metal nanoparticle arrays, particularly focused on the Coulomb charging energy. By comparison, we confirmed that it is more reasonable to estimate the Coulomb charging energy using the activation energy from the temperature-dependent zero-voltage conductance. Based on this, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the parameters that could be used to tune the Coulomb charging energy in nanoparticle arrays. We found that four parameters, including the particle core size, the inter-particle distance, the nearest neighboring number, and the dielectric constant of ligand molecules, could significantly tune the Coulomb charging energy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela
2013-01-01
Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation systems and radiant heating/cooling systems. In the first two tests, the simulated residential room was equipped either by a mixing ventilation system supplying warm air for space heat...
Rurek, Michał; Czołpińska, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Krzesiński, Włodzimierz; Spiżewski, Tomasz
2018-01-01
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed. In contrast, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, heat-shock proteins, translation, protein import, and OXPHOS components were involved in heat response and recovery. Several transcriptomic and metabolic regulation mechanisms are also suggested. Cauliflower plants appeared less susceptible to heat; closed stomata in heat stress resulted in moderate photosynthetic, but only minor respiratory impairments, however, photosystem II performance was unaffected. Decreased photorespiration corresponded with proteomic alterations in cold. Our results show that cold and heat stress not only operate in diverse modes (exemplified by cold-specific accumulation of some heat shock proteins), but exert some associations at molecular and physiological levels. This implies a more complex model of action of investigated stresses on plant mitochondria. PMID:29547512
Ordering in classical Coulombic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiffer, J. P.
1998-01-01
The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity Λ (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than approximately175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuo eNakashima
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.
Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo
2014-01-01
Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.
Coulomb effects in relativistic laser-assisted Mott scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngoko Djiokap, J.M.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Tetchou Nganso, H.M.
2004-09-01
We reconsider the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the process of relativistic Mott scattering in a powerful electromagnetic plane wave for which the ponderomotive energy is of the order of the magnitude of the electron's rest mass. Coulomb effects of the bare nucleus on the laser-dressed electron are treated more completely than in the previous work of Li et al. [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 653]. To this end we use Coulomb-Dirac-Volkov functions to describe the initial and the final states of the electron. First-order Born differential cross sections of induced and inverse bremsstrahlung are obtained for circularly and linearly polarized laser light. Numerical calculations are carried out from both polarizations, for various nucleus charge values, three angular configurations and an incident energy in the MeV range. It is found that for parameters used in the present work, incorporating Coulomb effects of the target nucleus either in the initial state or in the final state yields cross sections which are quite similar whatever the scattering geometry and polarization considered. When Coulomb distortions are included in both states, the cross sections are strongly modified with the increase of Z, as compared to the outcome of the prior form of the T-matrix treatment. (author)
Thermodynamic Curvature and Phase Transitions from Black Hole with a Coulomb-Like Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Yiwen; Hong Yun; Bao Zhiqing
2011-01-01
In this paper, we first investigate the thermodynamic features of the black hole with a coulomb-like field. Moreover, we obtain the geometric description of the black hole thermodynamics. We find that for the black hole with a coulomb-like field the Weinhold geometry is flat, whereas its Ruppeiner geometry is curved. For the heat capacity and curvature calculation shows the Ruppeiner geometry has a transition point. (general)
Exclusion of nuclear forces in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neese, R.E.; Guidry, M.W.
1982-01-01
A simple prescription for estimating the energy at which nuclear forces begin to play a role in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments is presented. The method differs from most commonly used recipes in accounting for projectile and target nucleus deformation effects. Using a single adjustable parameter the formula reproduces the energy for the onset of Coulomb-nuclear interference effects for a broad range of heavy-ion systems. It is suggested that most Coulomb fission experiments which have been done involve both Coulomb and nuclear excitation processes and should more properly be termed Coulomb-nuclear fission experiments
Testing the Predictive Power of Coulomb Stress on Aftershock Sequences
Woessner, J.; Lombardi, A.; Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.
2009-12-01
Empirical and statistical models of clustered seismicity are usually strongly stochastic and perceived to be uninformative in their forecasts, since only marginal distributions are used, such as the Omori-Utsu and Gutenberg-Richter laws. In contrast, so-called physics-based aftershock models, based on seismic rate changes calculated from Coulomb stress changes and rate-and-state friction, make more specific predictions: anisotropic stress shadows and multiplicative rate changes. We test the predictive power of models based on Coulomb stress changes against statistical models, including the popular Short Term Earthquake Probabilities and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences models: We score and compare retrospective forecasts on the aftershock sequences of the 1992 Landers, USA, the 1997 Colfiorito, Italy, and the 2008 Selfoss, Iceland, earthquakes. To quantify predictability, we use likelihood-based metrics that test the consistency of the forecasts with the data, including modified and existing tests used in prospective forecast experiments within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Our results indicate that a statistical model performs best. Moreover, two Coulomb model classes seem unable to compete: Models based on deterministic Coulomb stress changes calculated from a given fault-slip model, and those based on fixed receiver faults. One model of Coulomb stress changes does perform well and sometimes outperforms the statistical models, but its predictive information is diluted, because of uncertainties included in the fault-slip model. Our results suggest that models based on Coulomb stress changes need to incorporate stochastic features that represent model and data uncertainty.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
2016-01-08
The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling
Coulomb Final State Interactions for Gaussian Wave Packets
Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Heinz, Ulrich W
1999-01-01
Two-particle like-sign and unlike-sign correlations including Coulomb final state interactions are calculated for Gaussian wave packets emitted from a Gaussian source. We show that the width of the wave packets can be fully absorbed into the spatial and momentum space widths of an effective emission function for plane wave states, and that Coulomb final state interaction effects are sensitive only to the latter, but not to the wave packet width itself. Results from analytical and numerical calculations are compared with recently published work by other authors.
Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.
2013-01-01
Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported
Coulomb potentials between spherical heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwe, H.
1982-01-01
The Coulomb interaction between spherical nuclei having arbitrary radial nuclear charge distributions is calculated. All these realistic Coulomb potentials are given in terms of analytical expressions and are available for immediate application. So in no case a numerical computation of the Coulomb integral is required. The parameters of the charge distributions are taken from electron scattering analysis. The Coulomb self-energies of the charge distributions used are also calculated analytically in a closed form. For a number of nucleus-nucleus pairs, the Coulomb potentials derived from realistic charge distributions are compared with those normally used in various nucleus-nucleus optical model calculations. In this connection a detailed discussion of the problem how to choose consistently Coulomb parameters for different approximations is given. (orig.)
Coulomb blockade induced by magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusmartsev, F.V.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors found that a Coulomb blockade can be induced by magnetic field. The authors illustrated this effect on the example of a ring consisting of two and many Josephson junctions. For the ring with two junctions we present an exact solution. The transition into Coulomb blockade state on a ring transforms into a linear array of Josephson junctions, although in latter case the effect of magnetic field disappears. In the state of Coulomb blockade the magnetization may be both diamagnetic and paramagnetic. The Coulomb blockade may also be removed by external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, G.
1977-01-01
Based on extensive literature evaluations and an experimental programme, the possibilities and limits of avoiding hydrogen-induced cracking in welded joints through heat treatment are presented. The author refers to a report by J.S. Caplan and E. Landerman, published in 1976. (orig./IHOE) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug
2010-01-01
Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are exposed to many construction factors that lower the quality of concrete due to densely packed reinforcements and heat of hydration since they are mostly constructed with mass concrete. The concrete currently being used in Korean NPPs is mixed with Type I cement and fly ash. However, there is a demand to improve the performance of concrete with reduced heat of hydration and superior constructability. Many advantages such as improving workability and durability of concrete and decreasing heat of hydration are introduced by replacing cement with pozzolan binders. Therefore, the manufacturing possibility of high fluidity concrete should be investigated through applying multi-component powders blended with pozzolan binders to the concrete structure of NPPs, while the researches on properties, characteristic of hydration, durability and long-term behavior of high fluidity concrete using multi-component cement should be carried out. High fluidity concrete which is made using portland cement and pozzlonan powders such as fly ash and blast furnace slag has better properties on heat of hydration than the concrete currently in use for NPPs
WIX: statistical nuclear multifragmentation with collective expansion and Coulomb forces
Randrup, J.∅rgen
1993-10-01
By suitable augmentation of the event generator FREESCO, a code WIX has been constructed with which it is possible to simulate the statistical multifragmentation of a specified nuclear source, which may be both hollow and deformed, in the presence of a collective expansion and with the interfragment Coulomb forces included.
Evaluation of the Coulomb logarithm using cutoff and screened Coulomb interaction potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ordonez, C.A.; Molina, M.I.
1994-01-01
The Coulomb logarithm is a fundamental plasma parameter which is commonly derived within the framework of the binary collision approximation. The conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm, λ=ln Λ, takes into account a pure Coulomb interaction potential for binary collisions and is not accurate at small values (λ D in place of λ D (the Debye length) in the conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar
2005-09-01
The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banzet, N.; Richaud, C.; Deveaux, Y.; Kazmaier, M.; Gagnon, J.; Triantaphylides, C.
1998-01-01
Changes in gene expression, by application of H2O2, O2.- generating agents (methyl viologen, digitonin) and gamma irradiation to tomato suspension cultures, were investigated and compared to the well-described heat shock response. Two-dimensional gel protein mapping analyses gave the first indication that at least small heat shock proteins (smHSP) accumulated in response to application of H2O2 and gamma irradiation, but not to O2.- generating agents. While some proteins seemed to be induced specifically by each treatment, only part of the heat shock response was observed. On the basis of Northern hybridization experiments performed with four heterologous cDNA, corresponding to classes I-IV of pea smHSP, it could be concluded that significant amounts of class I and II smHSP mRNA are induced by H2O2 and by irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in plants some HSP genes are inducible by oxidative stresses, as in micro-organisms and other eukaryotic cells. HSP22, the main stress protein that accumulates following H2O2 action or gamma irradiation, was also purified. Sequence homology of amino terminal and internal sequences, and immunoreactivity with Chenopodium rubrum mitochondrial smHSP antibody, indicated that the protein belongs to the recently discovered class of plant mitochondrial smHSP. Heat shock or a mild H2O2 pretreatment was also shown to lead to plant cell protection against oxidative injury. Therefore, the synthesis of these stress proteins can be considered as an adaptive mechanism in which mitochondrial protection could be essential
Coulomb effects in deuteron stripping reactions as a three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1981-08-01
Deuteron stripping nuclear reactions are reconsidered as a three-body problem. The Coulomb effects between the proton and the target nucleus are investigated. The mathematical formalism introduces three-body integral equations which can be exactly calculated for such simple models. These coupled integral equations suitably include the Coulomb effects due to replusive or attractive Coulomb potential. Numerical calculations of the differential cross-sections of the reactions 28 Si(d,p) 29 Si and 40 Ca(d,p) 41 Ca are carried out showing the importance of the Coulomb effects. The angular distributions of these reactions are theoretically calculated and fitted to the experimental data. From this fitting, reasonable spectroscopic factors are obtained. Inclusion of Coulomb force in the three-body model are found to improve the results by a percentage of about 6.826%. (author)
Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange
Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A
1996-01-01
Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The
Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21
Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Rigollet, Catherine; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Van de Walle, J.
2016-01-01
Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a
Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na
Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.
2016-08-01
Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our
Coulomb correction calculations of pp Bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsogiannis, A.; Amos, K.; Jetter, M.; von Geramb, H.V.
1994-01-01
The effects of the Coulomb interaction upon the photon cross section and analyzing power from pp Bremsstrahlung have been studied in detail. Off-shell properties of the Coulomb T matrices have been considered but the associated, Coulomb modified, hadronic T matrices are important elements in any analyses of low energy, forward proton scattering data. At the lowest energy considered (5 MeV), the full calculations gave cross sections that were half the size of those found without Coulomb effects or with a simple model approximation to them. With increasing energy, the cross sections varied to those characteristic of magnetic interaction dominance and the specific differences due to Coulomb effects diminished. 47 refs., 7 figs
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2014-01-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Renormalizable Non-Covariant Gauges and Coulomb Gauge Limit
Baulieu, L
1999-01-01
To study ``physical'' gauges such as the Coulomb, light-cone, axial or temporal gauge, we consider ``interpolating'' gauges which interpolate linearly between a covariant gauge, such as the Feynman or Landau gauge, and a physical gauge. Lorentz breaking by the gauge-fixing term of interpolating gauges is controlled by extending the BRST method to include not only the local gauge group, but also the global Lorentz group. We enumerate the possible divergences of interpolating gauges, and show that they are renormalizable, and we show that the expectation value of physical observables is the same as in a covariant gauge. In the second part of the article we study the Coulomb-gauge as the singular limit of the Landau-Coulomb interpolating gauge. We find that unrenormalized and renormalized correlation functions are finite in this limit. We also find that there are finite two-loop diagrams of ``unphysical'' particles that are not present in formal canonical quantization in the Coulomb gauge. We verify that in the ...
The Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional in Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campagnari, Davide R.
2011-01-01
Yang-Mills theories are the building blocks of today's Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Besides methods based on a discretization of space-time (lattice gauge theory), also analytic methods are feasible, either in the Lagrangian or in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. This thesis focuses on the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theories in Coulomb gauge. The thesis is presented in cumulative form. After an introduction into the general formulation of Yang-Mills theories, the Hamilton operator in Coulomb gauge is derived. Chap. 1 deals with the heat-kernel expansion of the Faddeev-Popov determinant. In Chapters 2 and 3, the high-energy behaviour of the theory is investigated. To this purpose, perturbative methods are applied, and the results are compared with the ones stemming from functional methods in Coulomb and Landau gauge. Chap. 4 is devoted to the variational approach. Variational ansatzes going beyond the Gaussian form for the vacuum wave functional are considered and treated using Dyson-Schwinger techniques. Equations for the higher-order variational kernels are derived and their effects are estimated. Chap. 5 presents an application of the previously obtained propagators, namely the evaluation of the topological susceptibility, which is related to the mass of the η meson. Finally, a short overview of the perturbative treatment of dynamical fermion fields is presented.
Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.
Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M
2015-01-08
Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
Coulomb interaction in the supermultiplet basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruzha, Ya.Kh.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.; Vanagas, V.V.
1989-01-01
An approximate expression for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction operator in the supermultiplet basis has been derived with the account for the orbitally-nonsymmetric terms. From the general expression a simplified formula for the Coulomb interaction energy has been proposed. On the basis of the expression obtained the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the framework of a strongly restricted dynamic model in the light (4≤A≤40) and heavy (158≤A≤196) nuclei region has been studied. 19 refs.; 4 tabs
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
Selfconsistent theory of Coulomb mixing in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyatov, N.I.
1978-01-01
The theory of isobaric states is considered according to the Coulomb mixing in nuclei. For a given form of the isovestor potential the separable residual interactions are constructed by means of the isotopic invariance principle. The strength parameter of the force is found from a selfconsistency condition. The charge dependent force is represented by the Coulomb effective potential. The theory of the isobaric states is developed using the random phase approximation. The Coulomb mixing effects in the ground and isobaric 0 + states of even-mass nuclei are investigated
The eikonal phase of supersymmetric Coulomb partners
Lassaut, M; Lombard, R J
1998-01-01
We investigate the eikonal phase and its systematic corrections for the two supersymmetric Coulomb partners V sub 1 and V sub 2 derived by Amado. Apart from a constant shift of -pi for V sub 1 and -2 pi for V sub 2 , the eikonal phase decay to the eikonal phase of the Coulomb potential as 1/kb. For the potential V sub 2 , which is phase equivalent to the Coulomb potential, this result is only valid at b approx =0 and asymptotically; in the intermediate range, it constitutes a lower limit. (author)
Simulation of Coulomb interaction effects in electron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouse, John; Zhu Xieqing; Liu Haoning; Munro, Eric
2011-01-01
Over many years, we have developed electron source simulation software that has been used widely in the electron optics community to aid the development of rotationally symmetric electron and ion guns. The simulation includes the modelling of cathode emission and the effects of volumetric space charge. In the present paper we describe the existing software and explain how we have extended this software to include the effects of discrete Coulomb interactions between the electrons as they travel from the cathode surface to the exit of the gun. In the paper, we will describe the numerical models we have employed, the techniques we have used to maximize the speed of the Coulomb force computation and present several illustrative examples of cases analyzed using the new software, including thermal field emitters, LaB 6 guns and flat dispenser-type cathodes.
On the Coulomb displacement energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.
1976-01-01
The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-01
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Structure and Spectrum of Dust Coulomb Clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.M.H.; Ford, C.; Barkby, S.; Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.
2005-01-01
In our study, the dynamics of Coulomb cluster systems were simulated for different number of particles. The spectra of energy states of dust Coulomb clusters corresponding to various packing sequences were obtained. The broadening of the spectrum due to inter-ring twist was discovered. It was found that the inter-ring twist will lead to a change in the energy spectrum of Coulomb cluster. This change was accompanied by a distortion of stable shells such that particles are able to compensate for any additional Coulomb energy (owing to the inter-ring twist) by further reducing their radial distance as much as possible. The overall effect is a change in the shape of the outer-shell from circular to elliptical
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression.
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-26
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Experiments on Coulomb ionization by charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, J.U.; Laegsgaard, E.; Lund, M.
1978-01-01
Inner-shell ionization by light projectiles, i.e., in very asymmetric collisions, is often denoted 'Coulomb ionization' because it is caused by the Coulomb interaction between the electron and the projectile. Although with little justification, the term is also used to distinquish such processes, in which the projectile Coulomb field is a small perturbation, from ionization in more violent, nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions. A discussion of Coulomb ionization of atomic K shells is given, with emphasis on experimental methods and results. The discussion is not intended as a review of the field but rather as a progress report on the anthor's work on the subject. A more detailed account was recently presented at the ICPEAC meeting in Paris. (Auth.)
Classical- and quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratzl, W.
1987-01-01
Because in textbooks the quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering is either ignored or treated unsatisfactory, the present work attempts to present a physically plausible, mathematically correct but elementary treatment in a way that it can be used in textbooks and lectures on quantum mechanics. Coulomb scattering is derived as a limiting case of a screened Coulomb potential (finite range) within a time dependent quantum scattering theory. The difference in the asymptotic conditions for potentials of finite versus infinite range leads back to the classical Coulomb scattering. In the classical framework many concepts of the quantum theory can be introduced and are useful in an intuitive understanding of the quantum theory. The differences between classical and quantum scattering theory are likewise useful for didactic purposes. (qui)
Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan
2009-01-01
Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....
Monotonicity of energy eigenvalues for Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Englisch, R.
1983-01-01
Generalising results by earlier workers for a large class of Hamiltonians (among others, Hamiltonians of Coulomb systems) which can be written in the form H(α) = H 0 + αH' the present works shows that their eigenvalues decrease with increasing α. This result is applied to Coulomb systems in which the distances between the infinitely heavy particles are varying and also is used to obtain a completion and simplification of proof for the stability of the biexciton. (author)
Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington
2009-09-01
The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.
Pluchery, Olivier; Caillard, Louis; Dollfus, Philippe; Chabal, Yves J
2018-01-18
Single charge electronics offer a way for disruptive technology in nanoelectronics. Coulomb blockade is a realistic way for controlling the electric current through a device with the accuracy of one electron. In such devices the current exhibits a step-like increase upon bias which reflects the discrete nature of the fundamental charge. We have assembled a double tunnel junction on an oxide-free silicon substrate that exhibits Coulomb staircase characteristics using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as Coulomb islands. The first tunnel junction is an insulating layer made of a grafted organic monolayer (GOM) developed for this purpose. The GOM also serves for attaching AuNPs covalently. The second tunnel junction is made by the tip of an STM. We show that this device exhibits reproducible Coulomb blockade I-V curves at 40 K in vacuum. We also show that depending on the doping of the silicon substrate, the whole Coulomb staircase can be adjusted. We have developed a simulation approach based on the orthodox theory that was completed by calculating the bias dependent tunnel barriers and by including an accurate calculation of the band bending. This model accounts for the experimental data and the doping dependence of Coulomb oscillations. This study opens new perspectives toward designing new kind of single electron transistors (SET) based on this dependence of the Coulomb staircase with the charge carrier concentration.
Tur\\'an type inequalities for regular Coulomb wave functions
Baricz, Árpád
2015-01-01
Tur\\'an, Mitrinovi\\'c-Adamovi\\'c and Wilker type inequalities are deduced for regular Coulomb wave functions. The proofs are based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion for the regular Coulomb wave function, which may be of independent interest. Moreover, some complete monotonicity results concerning the Coulomb zeta functions and some interlacing properties of the zeros of Coulomb wave functions are given.
Coulomb interactions in particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, G.H.
1988-01-01
This thesis presents a theoretical description of the Coulomb interaction between identical charged particles (electrons or ions) in focussed beam. The charge-density effects as well as the various statistical interaction effects, known as the Boersch effect and the 'trajectory displacement effect', are treated. An introductory literature survey is presented from which the large differences in theoretical approach appear. Subsequently the methods are investigated which are used in studies of comparable problems in plasma physics and stellar dynamics. These turn out to be applicable to particle beams only for certain extreme conditions. The approach finally chosen in this study is twofold. On the one hand use is made of a semi-analytical model in which the statistical and dynamical aspects of the N-particle problem are reduced to two-particle problem. This model results in a number of explicit equations in the experimental parameters, with ties of the beam can be determined directly. On the other hand use has been made of a purely numerical Monte Carlo model in which the kinematical equations of an ensemble interacting particles with 'at random' chosen starting conditions are solved exactly. This model does not lead to general expressions, but yields a specific numerical prediction for each simulated experimental situation. The results of both models appear to agree well mutually. This yields a consistent theory which complements the existing knowledge of particle optics and which allow the description of systems in which the interaction between particles can not be neglected. The predictions of this theory are qualitatively and quantitatively compared with those from some other models, recently reported in literature. (author). 256 refs.; 114 figs.; 1180 schemes; 5 tabs
Thermoelectrics in Coulomb-coupled quantum dots: Cotunneling and energy-dependent lead couplings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walldorf, Nicklas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Kaasbjerg, Kristen
2017-01-01
We study thermoelectric effects in Coulomb-coupled quantum-dot (CCQD) systems beyond lowest-order tunneling processes and the often applied wide-band approximation. To this end, we present a master-equation (ME) approach based on a perturbative T -matrix calculation of the charge and heat tunneli...
Core polarization and the Coulomb energy difference of mirror nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, A.
1977-01-01
The effect of the core polarization on the Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei with a LS doubly closed shell plus or minus one nucleon is studied. Using the Kallio-Kolltveit interaction it is found that the first-order configuration mixing including 2p-2h core excitations is too small and sometimes of the wrong sign to explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. (Auth.)
Coulomb effects in the deuteron-nucleus interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.
1990-01-01
The authors develop a consistent theory for calculation of the potential of the deuteron interaction with the Coulomb field of a nucleus. They study the properties of this potential at large distances and give its explicit form at the deuteron-breakup threshold. In the limit of low energies they derive the potential, which includes intermediate off-energy-shell states, and explain the physical nature of its constants. The accuracy of the transition to the polarization interaction is estimated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huelsemann, R.
1984-05-01
A gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including the required heat destribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink to be realized in the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. The total heat capacity was to be reached in two stages, corresponding to the progress of the building and housing structure in this specific area: First stage of construction 5,6 MW, final stage of construction 7,6 MW. With regard to the final stage of construction only a relatively small part of the buildings is provided with heating systems designed for supply and return temperatures of 90/70/sup 0/C respectively. The old people's home built in 1980 was already equipped with low temperature heating systems and all buildings still to be built shall be provided with low-temperature systems. As far as old heating systems are concerned, the required measures must be taken to reduce the temperature in the return lines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tepe, R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Schreitmueller, K.R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Vanoli, K. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany)
1996-11-01
The research project `Solar local heat Goettingen` was started in 1992 in which, by including a 785 m{sup 2} flat collector plant in the return of the local heat supply of the Goettingen City Works; the potential of the combined system of solar plant and conventional heat supply system is to be proved. The size of the collector plant and inclusion in an existing local heat network promised an advantageous combination due to appreciably lower investment costs (lower collector installation costs) and savings in system technique, reduced operating costs, and higher income due to favourable operating conditions with even low collector operating temperatures and reduced piping losses. In parallel with this system, the Goettingen City Works installed an air collector plant which is used to preheat the combustion air taken to the conventional burners. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Es entstand im Jahr 1992 das Forschungsvorhaben `Solare Nahwaerme Goettingen`, in dem durch die Einbindung einer 785 m{sup 2} grossen Flachkollektoranlage in den Ruecklauf der Nahwaermeversorgung der Stadtwerke Goettingen AG das Potential der Systemkombination Solaranlage und konventionelle Waermeversorgungssystem nachgewiesen werden sollte. Die Groesse der Kollektoranlage sowie die Einbindung in ein bestehendes Nahwaermenetz versprachen eine vorteilhafte Kombination aufgrund - deutlich geringerer Investionskosten (geringe Kollektorinstallationskosten sowie Einsparungen bei der Systemtechnik); - reduzierter Betriebskosten; - hoher Ertraege durch guenstige Betriebsbedingungen wie gleichbleibend niedriger Kollektorbetriebstemperaturen und reduzierter Leitungsverluste. Parallel zu diesem System installierten die Stadtwerke Goettingen AG eine Luftkollektoranlage, die der Vorwaermung der den konventionellen Brennern zugefuehrten Verbrennungsluft dient. (orig./HW)
Hybrid and Constrained Resolution-of-Identity Techniques for Coulomb Integrals
Duchemin , Ivan; Li , Jing; Blase , Xavier
2017-01-01
International audience; The introduction of auxiliary bases to approximate molecular orbital products has paved the way to significant savings in the evaluation of four-center two-electron Coulomb integrals. We present a generalized dual space strategy that sheds a new light on variants over the standard density and Coulomb-fitting schemes, including the possibility of introducing minimization constraints. We improve in particular the charge- or multipole-preserving strategies introduced resp...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galetti, D.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.C.
1986-10-01
The quantum relativistic Coulomb excitation process including reccil effects is studied in the plane wave Born approximation. Quantum and relativistic recoil effects allow for relatively large transverse momentum transfers, usually neglected. This specific feature is shown to modify the angular distribution of Coulomb induced fission fragmentation in an essential manner. In contrast with usual treatments it is found that these results compare favourably with recent data. (Authors) [pt
Alpha particles-and 3He inelastic scattering by 124Sn in the coulomb barrier region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appoloni, C.R.
1976-01-01
Angular distributions for inelastic scattering of α and 3 He particles in 124 Sn at the incident energies around Coulomb barrier were measured using the 8UD Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of The University of Sao Paulo. The results were analysed by DWBA with a collective form factor including the effects due to the interference between coulomb and nuclear excitations with the code PATIWEN (Ba75). The nuclear deformation parameters for the one phonon levels (2 + and 3 - ) have been obtained. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Beer, M., E-mail: maritz.db@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Du Toit, C.G., E-mail: Jat.DuToit@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Rousseau, P.G., E-mail: pieter.rousseau@uct.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)
2017-04-01
Highlights: • The radiation and conduction components of the effective thermal conductivity are separated. • Near-wall effects have a notable influence on the effective thermal conductivity. • Effective thermal conductivity is a function of the macro temperature gradient. • The effective thermal conductivity profile shows a characteristic trend. • The trend is a result of the interplay between conduction and radiation. - Abstract: The effective thermal conductivity represents the overall heat transfer characteristics of a packed bed of spheres and must be considered in the analysis and design of pebble bed gas-cooled reactors. During depressurized loss of forced cooling conditions the dominant heat transfer mechanisms for the passive removal of decay heat are radiation and conduction. Predicting the value of the effective thermal conductivity is complex since it inter alia depends on the temperature level and temperature gradient through the bed, as well as the pebble packing structure. The effect of the altered packing structure in the wall region must therefore also be considered. Being able to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena and the characteristics of the resultant effective thermal conductivity. This paper introduces a purpose-designed test facility and accompanying methodology that combines physical measurements with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction heat transfer, including the wall effects. Preliminary results obtained with the methodology offer important insights into the trends observed in the experimental results and provide a better understanding of the interplay between the underlying heat transfer phenomena.
Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1, J=0 states of A=42 nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.
1978-01-01
Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1, J=0 + and 6 1 + states of A=42 nuclei are analyzed with previously known charge dependent forces and effects, and with the available Hartree-Fock single-particle wave functions. From the study of the Coulomb displacement energies of the 6 1 + states it is found that the present knowledge on the charge dependence, including a phenomenological charge symmetry breaking force previously introduced so as to help explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, gives a sufficient and consistent explanation for both single-particle and two-particle systems. From the study of the 0 + states, it is found that the Coulomb displacement energies of the second 0 2 + states can be explained with a compensation between the smaller Coulomb energies of the second lowest two-particle state and larger ones of the deformed 4p-2h state. (Auth.)
11Li Breakup on 208 at energies around the Coulomb barrier.
Fernández-García, J P; Cubero, M; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M; Acosta, L; Alcorta, M; Alvarez, M A G; Borge, M J G; Buchmann, L; Diget, C A; Falou, H A; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Gómez-Camacho, J; Kanungo, R; Lay, J A; Madurga, M; Martel, I; Moro, A M; Mukha, I; Nilsson, T; Sánchez-Benítez, A M; Shotter, A; Tengblad, O; Walden, P
2013-04-05
The inclusive breakup for the (11)Li + (208)Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of (9)Li following the (11)Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the (11)Li continuum at low excitation energy.
11Li Breakup on 208Pb at Energies Around the Coulomb Barrier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernández-García, J.P.; Cubero, M.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.
2013-01-01
The inclusive breakup for the 11Li+208Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of 9Li following the 11Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation...... theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear...... and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the 11Li continuum at low excitation energy....
Coulomb ionization of inner shells by heavy charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapicki, G.
1975-01-01
The theory of inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, of atomic number small compared to the target atomic number, is developed through the extension of work by Brandt and his coworkers for K shells to L shells. In slow collisions relative to the characteristic times of the inner shell electrons, the quantum-mechanical predictions in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) can exceed experimental cross sections by orders of magnitude. The effects of the perturbation of the atom by and the Coulomb deflection of the particle during collisions are included in the theory. The perturbed atomic states amount to a binding of the inner-shell electrons to the moving particle in slow collisions, and to a polarization of the inner shells by the particle passing at large impact parameters during nonadiabatic collisions. These effects, not contained in the PWBA, are treated in the framework of the perturbed stationary state (PSS) theory for slow collisions and in terms of the harmonic oscillator model of Ashley, Brandt, and Ritchie for stopping powers in fast collisions. The effect of the Coulomb deflection of the particle in the field of the target nucleus on the cross sections is incorporated in the semiclassical approximation of Bang and Hansteen. Except for the lightest target atoms, the contribution of electron capture by the particles to inner-shell ionizations is shown to be negligible. The theory as developed earlier for the K shell, and here for L shells, agrees well with the vast body of experimental data on inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles
Heavy ion collisions at energies near the Coulomb barrier 1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagarajan, M.A.
1991-01-01
During recent years, detailed experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out on heavy ion collisions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. These studies have provided direct evidence of strong couplings between the various reaction channels available at energies near the top of the Coulomb barrier. This field of research has remained the focus of interest and with improved experimental techniques, new detailed high resolution data have been obtained. The workshop on ''Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Close to the Coulomb Barrier'' was organized with the aim of reviewing the current understanding of the collision dynamics and to discuss future directions in this area of research. The topics discussed at the workshop were broadly classified under the titles: quasielastic reactions; fusion of heavy ions; and shape and spin dependence in heavy ion collisions. The last of these topics was included to review new data obtained with polarized heavy ions and their theoretical interpretations. This volume contains the invited and contributed talks as well as a few short presentations during panel discussions. (author)
Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2001-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means......, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...
Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, E. V. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chaikovsky, S. A. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics, UD, RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Artyomov, A. P. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-09-15
The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.
Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.
2016-01-01
The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobrov, V.B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Trigger, S.A., E-mail: satron@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2011-04-18
Highlights: The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. → Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. → The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. → The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. → The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Coulomb states in atoms and solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortalano, D.M.
1988-05-01
In this dissertation, an empirical quantum defect approach to describe the valence excitons of the rare gas solids is developed. These Coulomb states are of s-symmetry and form a hydrogen-like series which converges to the bottom of the lowest conduction band. A non-zero quantum defect is found for all of the excitons of neon, argon and xenon. For these systems, then, there exists, in addition to the screened Coulombic component, a non-Coulombic component to the total exciton binding energy. The Wannier formalism is, therefore, inappropriate for the excitons of Ne, Ar and Xe. From the sign of the quantum defect, the non-Coulombic potential is repulsive for Ne and Ar, attractive for Xe, and nearly zero for Kr. This is opposite to that for the Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms, where the non-Coulombic potential between the electron and the cation is attractive for all of the atoms. The excitons then, are not simply perturbed Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms (i.e., the excitons do not possess atomic parentage). Interatomic term value/band gap energy correlations and reduced term value/reduced band gap correlations were performed. These correlations were exploited to provide further evidence against both the Wannier formalism and the atomic parentage view point. From these correlations, it was also discovered that the non-Coulombic potential varies smoothly across the valence isoelectronic series of solids, and that it becomes more attractive (or less repulsive) in going from neon to xenon. In order to address the atomic parentage controversy, it was necessary to compare the excitons to the low-n Rydberg states of the rare gas atoms. A review of the quantum defect description of the atomic Rydberg states is, therefore, presented. Also, Rydberg term value/ionization energy correlations are discussed and compared with the analogous exciton correlations. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs
Coulomb collisions in the solar wind
Klein, L. W.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.
1985-01-01
A major improvement of the present investigation over previous studies of the subject is related to the use of helium temperatures obtained from helium ion measurements uncontaminated by the high-velocity tail of the proton distribution. More observations, covering a large parameter range, were employed, and the effects of interspecies drift were taken into account. It is shown in a more definite way than has been done previously, that Coulomb collisions provide the most important mechanism bringing about equilibrium between helium and protons in the solar wind. Other mechanisms may play some part in restricted regions, but Coulomb collisions are dominant on the macroscale.
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...
Critical behavior in graphene with Coulomb interactions.
Wang, Jianhui; Fertig, H A; Murthy, Ganpathy
2010-05-07
We demonstrate that, in the presence of Coulomb interactions, electrons in graphene behave like a critical system, supporting power law correlations with interaction-dependent exponents. An asymptotic analysis shows that the origin of this behavior lies in particle-hole scattering, for which the Coulomb interaction induces anomalously close approaches. With increasing interaction strength the relevant power law changes from real to complex, leading to an unusual instability characterized by a complex-valued susceptibility in the thermodynamic limit. Measurable quantities, as well as the connection to classical two-dimensional systems, are discussed.
Observation of a Coulomb flux tube
Greensite, Jeff; Chung, Kristian
2018-03-01
In Coulomb gauge there is a longitudinal color electric field associated with a static quark-antiquark pair. We have measured the spatial distribution of this field, and find that it falls off exponentially with transverse distance from a line joining the two quarks. In other words there is a Coulomb flux tube, with a width that is somewhat smaller than that of the minimal energy flux tube associated with the asymptotic string tension. A confinement criterion for gauge theories with matter fields is also proposed.
Perturbative ambiguities in Coulomb gauge QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doust, P.
1987-01-01
The naive Coulomb gauge Feynman rules in non-abelian gauge theory give rise to ambiguous integrals, in addition to the usual ultraviolet divergences. Generalizing the work of Cheng and Tsai, these ambiguities are resolved to all orders in perturbation theory, by defining a gauge that interpolates smoothly between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge. The extra terms V 1 +V 2 of Christ and Lee are identified with certain two-loop ambiguous terms. However, there still seem to be unsolved problems connected with renormalisation. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21
Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos
2016-01-01
Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,γ)N20 and N20(n,γ)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,γ)N20 rate is...
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.
2011-04-01
Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Efficient evaluation of the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method.
Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Takeshi; Hirao, Kimihiko
2010-06-28
We propose an efficient method for evaluating the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method, which is a linear-scaling approach for evaluating the Coulomb matrix and energy in large molecular systems. The efficient evaluation of the analytical gradient in the GFC is not straightforward as well as the evaluation of the energy because the SCF procedure with the Coulomb matrix does not give a variational solution for the Coulomb energy. Thus, an efficient approximate method is alternatively proposed, in which the Coulomb potential is expanded in the Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions as done in the GFC. To minimize the error in the gradient not just in the energy, the derived functions of the original auxiliary functions of the GFC are used additionally for the evaluation of the Coulomb gradient. In fact, the use of the derived functions significantly improves the accuracy of this approach. Although these additional auxiliary functions enlarge the size of the discretized Poisson equation and thereby increase the computational cost, it maintains the near linear scaling as the GFC and does not affects the overall efficiency of the GFC approach.
Comment on "Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit".
Carrillo-Bernal, M A; Núñez-Yépez, H N; Salas-Brito, A L; Solis, Didier A
2015-02-01
In the referred paper, the authors use a numerical method for solving ordinary differential equations and a softened Coulomb potential -1/√[x(2)+β(2)] to study the one-dimensional Coulomb problem by approaching the parameter β to zero. We note that even though their numerical findings in the soft potential scenario are correct, their conclusions do not extend to the one-dimensional Coulomb problem (β=0). Their claims regarding the possible existence of an even ground state with energy -∞ with a Dirac-δ eigenfunction and of well-defined parity eigenfunctions in the one-dimensional hydrogen atom are questioned.
A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio
2017-01-01
We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancellation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.
2002-02-28
In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.
2002-01-01
In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each
Coulomb thermal properties and stability of the Io plasma torus
Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Eviatar, A.
1983-01-01
Coulomb collisional energy exchange rates are computed for a model of the Io plasma torus consisting of newly created pickup ions, a background of thermally degraded intermediary ions, and a population of cooler electrons. The electrons are collisionally heated by both the pickup ions and background ions and are cooled by electron impact excitation of plasma ions which radiate in the EUV. It is found that a relative concentration of S III pickup ions forbidden S III/electrons = 0.1 with a temperature of 340 eV can deliver energy to the electrons at a rate of 3 x 10 to the -13th erg/cu cm per sec, sufficient to power the EUV emissions in the Io torus. The model predicts a background ion temperature Ti of about 53 eV and an electron temperature Te of about 5.5 eV on the basis of steady-state energy balance relations at Coulomb rates. The model also predicts electron temperature fluctuations at the 30 percent level on a time scale of less than 11 hours, consistent with recent observations of this phenomenon.
Simplistic Coulomb Forces in Molecular Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.
2012-01-01
In this paper we compare the Wolf method to the shifted forces (SF) method for efficient computer simulation of bulk systems with Coulomb forces, taking results from the Ewald summation and particle mesh Ewald methods as representing the true behavior. We find that for the Hansen–McDonald molten...
Coulomb's Electrical Measurements. Experiment No. 14.
Devons, Samuel
Presented is information related to the life and work of Charles Coulomb as well as detailed notes of his measurements of the distribution of electricity on conductors. The two methods that he used (the large torsion balance, and the timing of "force" oscillations) are described. (SA)
Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2004-01-01
surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...
Coulomb Coupling Between Quantum Dots and Waveguides
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Porod, Wolfgang
2000-01-01
.... We considered both III-V and Si-based semiconductor systems. In later years, the AASERT award supported work on QCA realizations in Coulomb-blockade metal-dot systems, which were successful in demonstrating the basic QCA switching operation...
Generalized Coulomb gauge without Gribov ambiguity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fachin, S.; Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Physics Dept.)
1992-05-01
We discuss a global gauge-fixing prescription that is free of the Gribov problem, preserves reflection positivity and contains as a limiting case the (maximal) Coulomb gauge. In such a formalism it is very easy to check that only color singlet states propagate in Euclidean time, for any value of [beta]. (orig.).
Lee-Nauenberg theorem and Coulomb scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleming, H; Frenkel, J [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica
1975-08-01
Lee-Nauenberg analysis is extended to the case of Coulomb scattering, where the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian interaction are singular functions. It is shown, using a simple argument, that the leading infrared singularities in the cross-section are mutually canceled out.
Monotonicity and concavity in Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Englisch, R.; Englisch, H.; Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig
1986-01-01
The eigenvalues of H(α) = H 0 + αH * , where H * is an arbitrary Coulomb potential, decrease with increasing α ≥ 0. Linear and parabolic bounds for the ground state energy are presented. These bounds are applied to the biexciton and the exciton at a neutral donor. (orig.)
Signatures of Coulomb fission: a theoretical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberacker, V.; Kruse, H.; Pinkston, W.T.; Greiner, W.
1979-01-01
Evidence for Coulomb fission (CF) is noted first. Then the Hamiltonian is set down and explained, and an expression for the CF probability of CF is obtained. Results are summarized. Figures show the CF probability of 238 U as a function of projectile charge number and the excitation functions for CF of 238 U by 184 W and 136 Xe. 3 figures
Interatomic Coulombic decay in helium nanodroplets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shcherbinin, Mykola; Laforge, Aaron; Sharma, Vandana
2017-01-01
, or in the droplet interior. ICD at the surface gives rise to energetic He+ ions as previously observed for free He dimers. ICD deeper inside leads to the ejection of slow He+ ions due to Coulomb explosion delayed by elastic collisions with neighboring He atoms, and to the formation of Hek+ complexes....
Coulomb Blockade of Tunnel-Coupled Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Golden, John
1997-01-01
.... Though classical charging models can explain the Coulomb blockade of an isolated dot, they must be modified to explain the Coulomb blockade of dots coupled through the quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons...
Coulomb singularity effects in tunnelling spectroscopy of individual impurities
Arseyev, P. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.; Savinov, S. V.
2002-01-01
Non-equilibrium Coulomb effects in resonant tunnelling processes through deep impurity states are analyzed. It is shown that Coulomb vertex corrections to the tunnelling transfer amplitude lead to a power-law singularity in current- voltage characteristics
Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey
2018-01-01
The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.
Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Fyraridis, Alexandros; Tricco, Andrea C
2016-08-01
To present a novel and simple graphical approach to improve the presentation of the treatment ranking in a network meta-analysis (NMA) including multiple outcomes. NMA simultaneously compares many relevant interventions for a clinical condition from a network of trials, and allows ranking of the effectiveness and/or safety of each intervention. There are numerous ways to present the NMA results, which can challenge their interpretation by research users. The rank-heat plot is a novel graph that can be used to quickly recognize which interventions are most likely the best or worst interventions with respect to their effectiveness and/or safety for a single or multiple outcome(s) and may increase interpretability. Using empirical NMAs, we show that the need for a concise and informative presentation of results is imperative, particularly as the number of competing treatments and outcomes in an NMA increases. The rank-heat plot is an efficient way to present the results of ranking statistics, particularly when a large amount of data is available, and it is targeted to users from various backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poisson equation in the Kohn-Sham Coulomb problem
Manby, F. R.; Knowles, Peter James
2001-01-01
We apply the Poisson equation to the quantum mechanical Coulomb problem for many-particle systems. By introducing a suitable basis set, the two-electron Coulomb integrals become simple overlaps. This offers the possibility of very rapid linear-scaling treatment of the Coulomb contribution to Kohn-Sham theory.
Effect of on-chip filter on Coulomb blockade thermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roschier, L; Penttilä, J S; Gunnarsson, D; Prunnila, M; Meschke, M; Savin, A
2012-01-01
Coulomb Blockade Thermometer (CBT) is a primary thermometer based on electric conductance of normal tunnel junction arrays. One limitation for CBT use at the lowest temperatures has been due to environmental noise heating. To improve on this limitation, we have done measurements on CBT sensors fabricated with different on-chip filtering structures in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The CBT sensors were produced with a wafer scale tunnel junction process. We present how the different on-chip filtering schemes affect the limiting saturation temperatures and show that CBT sensors with proper on-chip filtering work at temperatures below 20 mK and are tolerant to noisy environment.
Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...
Universal monopole scaling near transitions from the Coulomb phase.
Powell, Stephen
2012-08-10
Certain frustrated systems, including spin ice and dimer models, exhibit a Coulomb phase at low temperatures, with power-law correlations and fractionalized monopole excitations. Transitions out of this phase, at which the effective gauge theory becomes confining, provide examples of unconventional criticality. This Letter studies the behavior at nonzero monopole density near such transitions, using scaling theory to arrive at universal expressions for the crossover phenomena. For a particular transition in spin ice, quantitative predictions are made by mapping to the XY model and confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations.
The thermodynamics of a strictly non-ideal Coulomb system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krikorian V, R.
1982-01-01
Using the equation of state for a symmetric quantum Coulomb system with strong interactions, the phase transition and the existence of the plasma state are analyzed. With a reduction potential which includes quantum effects, a generalization of Saha's formula is obtained. The thermodynamics stability of the system is demonstrated analytically. The isotherms for equilibrium ionization are presented and the stability of the system is studied. The electrical conductivity is analyzed in a region of critical values, and the predictions are compared with experimental data for which one observes a quantitative change in the conductivity. (L.C.) [pt
Coulomb gap triptych in a periodic array of metal nanocrystals.
Chen, Tianran; Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B I
2012-09-21
The Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states (DOS) is a universal consequence of electron-electron interaction in disordered systems with localized electron states. Here we show that in arrays of monodisperse metallic nanocrystals, there is not one but three identical adjacent Coulomb gaps, which together form a structure that we call a "Coulomb gap triptych." We calculate the DOS and the conductivity in two- and three-dimensional arrays using a computer simulation. Unlike in the conventional Coulomb glass models, in nanocrystal arrays the DOS has a fixed width in the limit of large disorder. The Coulomb gap triptych can be studied via tunneling experiments.
Energy transfer between two vacuum-gapped metal plates: Coulomb fluctuations and electron tunneling
Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2018-05-01
Recent experimental measurements for near-field radiative heat transfer between two bodies have been able to approach the gap distance within 2 nm , where the contributions of Coulomb fluctuation and electron tunneling are comparable. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in the G0W0 approximation, based on a tight-binding model, we obtain for the energy current a Caroli formula from the Meir-Wingreen formula in the local equilibrium approximation. Also, the Caroli formula is consistent with the evanescent part of the heat transfer from the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. We go beyond the local equilibrium approximation to study the energy transfer in the crossover region from electron tunneling to Coulomb fluctuation based on a numerical calculation.
Core polarization and Coulomb displacement energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlomo, S.; Love, W.G.
1982-01-01
The contributions of core polarization terms (other than the Auerbach-Kahana-Weneser (AKW) effect) to Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei near A = 16 and A = 40 are examined within the particle-vibration coupling model. The parameters of the model are determined using updated data on the locations and strengths of multipole core excitations. In the absence of relevant data an energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exploited. Taking into account multipole excitations up to L = 5 and subtracting the contributions which are due to short-range correlations, significant contributions (1-3%) to ΔEsub(c) are found. These corrections arise from particle coupling to low-lying collective states (long-range correlations). The implications of these results on the Coulomb energy problem are discussed. (Auth.)
Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Werf, S.Y.
1997-01-01
Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)
Chaos near the Coulomb barrier. Nuclear molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strayer, M.R.
1984-01-01
The present work examines in detail the classical behavior of the α + 14 C and the 12 C + 12 C(O + ) collison at energies near the Coulomb barrier. The long-time motion of the compound nuclear system is identified in terms of its classical quasiperiodic and chaotic behavior. The consequences of this motion are discussed and interpreted in terms of the evolution of the system along a dynamical energy surface. 45 references
Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motobayashi, T [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-06-01
The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)
Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21Na
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2009-12-01
The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ˜ 5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for γ -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For 21Na , Coulomb excitation from the 3/2+ ground state to the first excited 5/2+ state was observed, while for 20Na , Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states. For both beams, B ( λ L) values were determined using the 2+ rightarrow 0+ de-excitation in 48Ti as a reference. The resulting B( E2) ↓ value for 21Na is 137±9 e^2fm^4, while the resulting B( λ L) ↓ values for 20Na are 55±6 e^2fm^4 for the 3+ rightarrow 2+ , 35.7±5.7 e^2 fm^4 for the 4+ rightarrow 2+ , and 0.154±0.030 μ_ N^2 for the 4+ rightarrow 3+ transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the 21Na B( E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B( λ L) values for the proton dripline nucleus 20Na .-1
How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1974-01-01
The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, S.; Ho, Y.K.
2009-01-01
We have investigated the doubly excited 1 D e resonance states of Ps - interacting with pure Coulomb and screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potentials employing highly correlated wave functions. For pure Coulomb interaction, in the framework of stabilization method and complex coordinate rotation method we have obtained two resonances below the n = 2 threshold of the Ps atom. For screened Coulomb interaction, we employ the stabilization method to extract resonance parameters. Resonance energies and widths for the 1 D e resonance states of Ps - for different screening parameter ranging from infinity (pure Coulomb case) to a small value are also reported. (author)
Regularization of the Coulomb scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshevskii, V.G.; Feranchuk, I.D.; Kats, P.B.
2004-01-01
The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb potential is used within the scope of both stationary and time-dependent scattering theories in order to find the parameters which determine the regularization of the Rutherford cross section when the scattering angle tends to zero but the distance r from the center remains finite. The angular distribution of the particles scattered in the Coulomb field is studied on rather a large but finite distance r from the center. It is shown that the standard asymptotic representation of the wave functions is inapplicable in the case when small scattering angles are considered. The unitary property of the scattering matrix is analyzed and the 'optical' theorem for this case is discussed. The total and transport cross sections for scattering the particle by the Coulomb center proved to be finite values and are calculated in the analytical form. It is shown that the effects under consideration can be important for the observed characteristics of the transport processes in semiconductors which are determined by the electron and hole scattering by the field of charged impurity centers
Coulomb Logarithm in Nonideal and Degenerate Plasmas
Filippov, A. V.; Starostin, A. N.; Gryaznov, V. K.
2018-03-01
Various methods for determining the Coulomb logarithm in the kinetic theory of transport and various variants of the choice of the plasma screening constant, taking into account and disregarding the contribution of the ion component and the boundary value of the electron wavevector are considered. The correlation of ions is taken into account using the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation in the hypernetted-chain approximation. It is found that the effect of ion correlation in a nondegenerate plasma is weak, while in a degenerate plasma, this effect must be taken into account when screening is determined by the electron component alone. The calculated values of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen plasma are compared with the values determined experimentally in the megabar pressure range. It is shown that the values of the Coulomb logarithm can indeed be smaller than unity. Special experiments are proposed for a more exact determination of the Coulomb logarithm in a magnetic field for extremely high pressures, for which electron scattering by ions prevails.
Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, H.
1998-01-01
The scattering system 162 Dy → 116 Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high γ-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in 162 Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valluri, S.R.; Romo, W.J.
1989-01-01
The dependence of the phase shift δ l (k) on the angular momentum l is investigated. An analytic expression for the derivative of the phase shift with respect to angular momentum is derived for a class of potentials that includes complex and real potentials. The potentials behave like the finite range potential for small r and like a Coulomb potential for large r. Specific examples like the square well, the pure point charge Coulomb and a combination of a square well and the Coulomb potential are analytically treated. Possible applications are briefly indicated. (orig.)
Thermal electron heating rate: a derivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoegy, W.R.
1983-11-01
The thermal electron heating rate is an important heat source term in the ionospheric electron energy balance equation, representing heating by photoelectrons or by precipitating higher energy electrons. A formula for the thermal electron heating rate is derived from the kinetic equation using the electron-electron collision operator as given by the unified theory of Kihara and Aono. This collision operator includes collective interactions to produce a finite collision operator with an exact Coulomb logarithm term. The derived heating rate O(e) is the sum of three terms, O(e) O(p) + S + O(int), which are respectively: (1) primary electron production term giving the heating from newly created electrons that have not yet suffered collisions with the ambient electrons, (2) a heating term evaluated on the energy surface m(e)/2 E(T) at the transition between Maxwellian and tail electrons at E(T), and (3) the integral term representing heating of Maxwellian electrons by energetic tail electrons at energies ET. Published ionospheric electron temperature studies used only the integral term O(int) with differing lower integration limits. Use of the incomplete heating rate could lead to erroneous conclusions regarding electron heat balance, since O(e) is greater than O(int) by as much as a factor of two
A realistic solvable model for the Coulomb dissociation of neutron halo nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baur, G.; Hencken, K.; Trautmann, D.
2003-01-01
As a model of a neutron halo nucleus we consider a neutron bound to an inert core by a zero range force. We study the breakup of this simple nucleus in the Coulomb field of a target nucleus. In the post-form DWBA (or, in our simple model CWBA (''Coulomb wave born approximation'')) an analytic solution for the T-matrix is known. We study limiting cases of this T-matrix. As it should be, we recover the Born approximation for weak Coulomb fields (i.e., for the relevant Coulomb parameters much smaller than 1). For strong Coulomb fields, high beam energies, and scattering to the forward region we find a result which is very similar to the Born result. It is only modified by a relative phase (close to 0) between the two terms and a prefactor (close to 1). A similar situation exists for bremsstrahlung emission. This formula can be related to the first order semiclassical treatment of the electromagnetic dissociation. Since our CWBA model contains the electromagnetic interaction between the core and the target nucleus to all orders, this means that higher order effects (including postacceleration effects) are small in the case of high beam energies and forward scattering. Our model also predicts a scaling behavior of the differential cross section, that is, different systems (with different binding energies, beam energies and scattering angles) show the same dependence on two variables x and y. (orig.)
Coulomb-free and Coulomb-distorted recolliding quantum orbits in photoelectron holography
Maxwell, A. S.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.
2018-06-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the different types of orbits in the Coulomb quantum orbit strong-field approximation (CQSFA), ranging from direct to those undergoing hard collisions. We show that some of them exhibit clear counterparts in the standard formulations of the strong-field approximation for direct and rescattered above-threshold ionization, and show that the standard orbit classification commonly used in Coulomb-corrected models is over-simplified. We identify several types of rescattered orbits, such as those responsible for the low-energy structures reported in the literature, and determine the momentum regions in which they occur. We also find formerly overlooked interference patterns caused by backscattered Coulomb-corrected orbits and assess their effect on photoelectron angular distributions. These orbits improve the agreement of photoelectron angular distributions computed with the CQSFA with the outcome of ab initio methods for high energy phtotoelectrons perpendicular to the field polarization axis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papp, Z.; Plessas, W.
1996-01-01
We demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion method for generating accurate solutions of the Faddeev equations. Results obtained with this method are reported for several benchmark cases of bosonic and fermionic three-body systems. Correct bound-state results in agreement with the ones established in the literature are achieved for short-range interactions. We outline the formalism for the treatment of three-body Coulomb systems and present a bound-state calculation for a three-boson system interacting via Coulomb plus short-range forces. The corresponding result is in good agreement with the answer from a recent stochastic-variational-method calculation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Hybrid and Constrained Resolution-of-Identity Techniques for Coulomb Integrals.
Duchemin, Ivan; Li, Jing; Blase, Xavier
2017-03-14
The introduction of auxiliary bases to approximate molecular orbital products has paved the way to significant savings in the evaluation of four-center two-electron Coulomb integrals. We present a generalized dual space strategy that sheds a new light on variants over the standard density and Coulomb-fitting schemes, including the possibility of introducing minimization constraints. We improve in particular the charge- or multipole-preserving strategies introduced respectively by Baerends and Van Alsenoy that we compare to a simple scheme where the Coulomb metric is used for lowest angular momentum auxiliary orbitals only. We explore the merits of these approaches on the basis of extensive Hartree-Fock and MP2 calculations over a standard set of medium size molecules.
Treating Coulomb exchange contributions in relativistic mean field calculations: why and how
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giai, Nguyen Van; Liang, Haozhao; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Long, Wenhui; Meng, Jie
2014-01-01
The energy density functional (EDF) method is very widely used in nuclear physics, and among the various existing functionals those based on the relativistic Hartree (RH) approximation are very popular because the exchange contributions (Fock terms) are numerically rather onerous to calculate. Although it is possible to somehow ‘mock up’ the effects of meson-induced exchange terms by adjusting the meson–nucleon couplings, the lack of Coulomb exchange contributions hampers the accuracy of predictions. In this work, we show that the Coulomb exchange effects can be easily included with good accuracy in a perturbative approach. Therefore, it would be desirable for future relativistic EDF models to incorporate Coulomb exchange effects, at least to some order of perturbation
Long-range Coulomb interactions in low energy (e,2e) data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waterhouse, D.
2000-01-01
Full text: Proper treatment of long-range Coulomb interactions has confounded atomic collision theory since Schrodinger first presented a quantum-mechanical model for atomic interactions. The long-range Coulomb interactions are difficult to include in models in a way that treats the interaction sufficiently well but at the same time ensures the calculation remains tractable. An innovative application of an existing multi-parameter (e,2e) data acquisition system will be described. To clarify the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions, we will report the correlations and interactions that occur at low energy, observed by studying the energy sharing between outgoing electrons in the electron-impact ionisation of krypton
Tornow, Sabine; Zwicknagl, Gertrud
2009-01-01
We investigate the transport characteristics of a redox system weakly coupled to leads in the Coulomb blockade regime. The redox system comprises a donor and acceptor separated by an insulating bridge in a solution. It is modeled by a two-site extended Hubbard model which includes on-site and inter-site Coulomb interactions and the coupling to a bosonic bath. The current voltage characteristics is calculated at high temperatures using a rate equation approach. For high voltages exceeding the ...
Coulomb Stress Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault System
Smith, Bridget; Sandwell, David
2003-01-01
Stress accumulation rates along the primary segments of the San Andreas Fault system are computed using a three-dimensional (3-D) elastic half-space model with realistic fault geometry. The model is developed in the Fourier domain by solving for the response of an elastic half-space due to a point vector body force and analytically integrating the force from a locking depth to infinite depth. This approach is then applied to the San Andreas Fault system using published slip rates along 18 major fault strands of the fault zone. GPS-derived horizontal velocity measurements spanning the entire 1700 x 200 km region are then used to solve for apparent locking depth along each primary fault segment. This simple model fits remarkably well (2.43 mm/yr RMS misfit), although some discrepancies occur in the Eastern California Shear Zone. The model also predicts vertical uplift and subsidence rates that are in agreement with independent geologic and geodetic estimates. In addition, shear and normal stresses along the major fault strands are used to compute Coulomb stress accumulation rate. As a result, we find earthquake recurrence intervals along the San Andreas Fault system to be inversely proportional to Coulomb stress accumulation rate, in agreement with typical coseismic stress drops of 1 - 10 MPa. This 3-D deformation model can ultimately be extended to include both time-dependent forcing and viscoelastic response.
Pairing from dynamically screened Coulomb repulsion in bismuth
Ruhman, Jonathan; Lee, Patrick A.
2017-12-01
Recently, Prakash et al. have discovered bulk superconductivity in single crystals of bismuth, which is a semimetal with extremely low carrier density. At such low density, we argue that conventional electron-phonon coupling is too weak to be responsible for the binding of electrons into Cooper pairs. We study a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction with effective attraction generated on the scale of the collective plasma modes. We model the electronic states in bismuth to include three Dirac pockets with high velocity and one hole pocket with a significantly smaller velocity. We find a weak-coupling instability, which is greatly enhanced by the presence of the hole pocket. Therefore we argue that bismuth is the first material to exhibit superconductivity driven by retardation effects of Coulomb repulsion alone. By using realistic parameters for bismuth we find that the acoustic plasma mode does not play the central role in pairing. We also discuss a matrix element effect, resulting from the Dirac nature of the conduction band, which may affect Tc in the s -wave channel without breaking time-reversal symmetry.
Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.
Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang
2013-07-12
We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.
Phases and amplitudes for a modified repulsive Coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidichimo, M.C.; Davison, T.S.
1990-01-01
The asymptotic form of the radial wave function for positive-energy states is calculated for the case of a repulsive Coulomb field. The cases of a pure Coulomb potential and a modified Coulomb potential are considered. Second-order analytic solutions for the amplitudes and phases are obtained when the modifications to the pure Coulombic potential take the form αr -2 +βr -3 +γr -4 , using the Jeffreys or WKB method. For the case of a pure Coulomb field, numerical results obtained from this method were compared with ''exact'' numerical results that were obtained using the analytic properties of the Coulomb wave functions. Tables are presented to show the conditions under which the method is accurate
Coulomb excitation of {sup 8}Li
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assuncao, Marlete; Britos, Tatiane Nassar [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Descouvemont, Pierre [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique; Lepine-Szily, Alinka; Lichtenthaler Filho, Rubens; Barioni, Adriana; Silva, Diego Medeiros da; Pereira, Dirceu; Mendes Junior, Djalma Rosa; Pires, Kelly Cristina Cezaretto; Gasques, Leandro Romero; Morais, Maria Carmen; Added, Nemitala; Neto Faria, Pedro; Rec, Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear
2012-07-01
Full text: This work shows the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets that have effectively behavior of Rutherford in angles and energies of interest for determining the value of the B(E2) electromagnetic transition. Theoretical aspects involved in this type of measure, known as COULEX [1], and some results in the literature [2-3] will be presented. Some problems with the targets and measurement system while performing an experiment on Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li will be discussed: the energy resolution, background, possible contributions of the primary beam and also the excited states of the target near the region of elastic and inelastic peaks. They will be illustrated by measurements of the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets of {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb using the system RIBRAS(Brazilian Radioactive Ion Beam). In this case, the {sup 8}Li beam(T{sub 1/2} = 838 ms)is produced by {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li;{sup 8} Li){sup 8}Be reaction from RIBRAS system which is installed at Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo. The primary {sup 7L}i beam is provided by Pelletron Accelerator. [1] K. Alder and A. Winther, Electromagnetic Excitation, North-Holland, New York, 1975; [2] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Phys. Letts. B 292, 235-238, 1992; [3] J. A. Brown, F. D. Becchetti, J. W. Jaenecke, K, Ashktorab, and D. A. Roberts, J. J. Kolata, R. J. Smith, and K. Lamkin, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. Letts., 66, 19, 1991; [4] R. J. Smith, J. J Kolata, K. Lamkin and A. Morsard, F. D. Becchetti, J. A. Brown, W. Z. Liu, J. W. Jaenecke, and D. A. Roberts, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. C, 43, 5, 1991. (author)
Ordering transitions induced by Coulomb interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rovere, M.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.
1988-11-01
We briefly review recent progress in treating phase transitions to ordered states driven by Coulomb interactions. Wigner crystallization of the one-component plasma, in the degenerate Fermi limit and in the classical limit, is the foremost example and developments in its theory are discussed in some detail. Attention is also given to quasi-twodimensional realizations of the plasma model in the laboratory. The usefulness of these ideas in relation to freezing and ordering transitions is illustrated with reference to alkali metals, elemental and polar semiconductors, and various types of ionic systems (molten salts, colloidal suspensions and astrophysical plasmas). (author). 70 refs, 5 figs
Hyperon excitation in nuclear coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanyashin, A.V.; Nikitin, Yu.P.; Shan'gin, A.A.
1981-01-01
A possibility is studied to measure radiative decay partial widths from the 3/2 + decuplet hyperon resonances by means of the Coulomb excitation method of the octet hyperons. The expected contributions from the strong and electromagnetic interactions in the coherence range to the hyperon excitation cross sections on heavy nuclei and on the 4 He nucleus are estimated. The particle angular distributions in the reactions Σ-+A→Σ-(1385)+A and Λ+A→Σ 0 (1385)+A are analysed in order to determine the energy range where the background conditions are the most favorable to extract the electromagnetic mechanism of the hyperon excitation [ru
Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seri, Marcello
2012-09-14
In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.
Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seri, Marcello
2012-01-01
In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.
Dynamics in few body Coulomb problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovchinnikov, S.Y.; Macek, J.H.; Tantawi, R.S.; Sabbah, A.S.
1999-01-01
We develop the 'positive energy Sturmian technique' for the solution of time-dependent Schroedinger equations which describe few Coulomb centers with scattering initial conditions. The 'positive energy Sturmian technique' is based on the following main steps: (i) time-dependent scaled transformation; (ii) Fourier transformation into the frequency domain; (iii) outgoing wave Sturmian expansions; and (iv) solution of coupled equations. The technique has been applied in electron-atom and ion-atom collisions for calculations of energy and angular distributions of emitted electrons and excitations of atoms. Refs. 2 (author)
Bound and resonant states in Coulomb-like potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papp, Z.
1985-12-01
The potential separable expansion method was generalized for calculating bound and resonant states in Coulomb-like potentials. The complete set of Coulomb-Sturmian functions was taken as the basis to expand the short-range potential. On this basis the matrix elements of the Coulomb-Green functions were given in closed form as functions of the (complex) energy. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example. (author)
3D Oscillator and Coulomb Systems reduced from Kahler spaces
Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen
2003-01-01
We define the oscillator and Coulomb systems on four-dimensional spaces with U(2)-invariant Kahler metric and perform their Hamiltonian reduction to the three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems specified by the presence of Dirac monopoles. We find the Kahler spaces with conic singularity, where the oscillator and Coulomb systems on three-dimensional sphere and two-sheet hyperboloid are originated. Then we construct the superintegrable oscillator system on three-dimensional sphere and ...
Coulomb sum rules in the relativistic Fermi gas model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Do Dang, G.; L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Giai, Van.
1986-11-01
Coulomb sum rules are studied in the framework of the Fermi gas model. A distinction is made between mathematical and observable sum rules. Differences between non-relativistic and relativistic Fermi gas predictions are stressed. A method to deduce a Coulomb response function from the longitudinal response is proposed and tested numerically. This method is applied to the 40 Ca data to obtain the experimental Coulomb sum rule as a function of momentum transfer
Hyperspherical Coulomb spheroidal basis in the Coulomb three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramov, D. I.
2013-01-01
A hyperspherical Coulomb spheroidal (HSCS) representation is proposed for the Coulomb three-body problem. This is a new expansion in the set of well-known Coulomb spheroidal functions. The orthogonality of Coulomb spheroidal functions on a constant-hyperradius surface ρ = const rather than on a constant-internuclear-distance surface R = const, as in the traditional Born-Oppenheimer approach, is a distinguishing feature of the proposed approach. Owing to this, the HSCS representation proves to be consistent with the asymptotic conditions for the scattering problem at energies below the threshold for three-body breakup: only a finite number of radial functions do not vanish in the limit of ρ→∞, with the result that the formulation of the scattering problem becomes substantially simpler. In the proposed approach, the HSCS basis functions are considerably simpler than those in the well-known adiabatic hyperspherical representation, which is also consistent with the asymptotic conditions. Specifically, the HSCS basis functions are completely factorized. Therefore, there arise no problems associated with avoided crossings of adiabatic hyperspherical terms.
Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....
Empirical Coulomb matrix elements and the mass of 22Al
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, R.R.; Watt, A.; Kelvin, D.; Rutherford, H.J.
1976-01-01
An attempt has been made to obtain a set of Coulomb matrix elements which fit the known Coulomb energy shifts in the nuclei of mass 18 to 22. The interaction obtained fits the data well with only a few exceptions, one of these being the Coulomb shift of the notorious third 0 + state in 18 Ne. These Coulomb matrix elements are used together with the Chung-Wildenthal interaction to obtain a new prediction for the mass excess of 22 Al. The results indicate that 22 Al should be bound against proton emission. (Auth.)
Asymptotic freedom in the axial and Coulomb gauges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frenkel, J.; Taylor, J.C.
1976-01-01
The sources of the negative contribution to the charge renormalization factor gsup(B)/g-1 in Yang-Mills theories are investigated in the axial and Coulomb gauges. In the axial gauge, a Kaellen dispersion relation exists but the spectral function is not positive definite because of the prescription that is used to integrate the singular polarization vectors. In the Coulomb gauge, the negative contributions are (to the lowest order) isolated in the Coulomb self-energy corrections to the Coulomb field. (Auth.)
Spectral sum for the color-Coulomb potential in SU(3) Coulomb gauge lattice Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Saito, T.; Toki, H.
2010-01-01
We discuss the essential role of the low-lying eigenmodes of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghost operator on the confining color-Coulomb potential using SU(3) quenched lattice simulations in the Coulomb gauge. The color-Coulomb potential is expressed as a spectral sum of the FP ghost operator and has been explored by partially summing the FP eigenmodes. We take into account the Gribov copy effects that have a great impact on the FP eigenvalues and the color-Coulomb potential. We observe that the lowest eigenvalue vanishes in the thermodynamic limit much faster than that in the Landau gauge. The color-Coulomb potential at large distances is governed by the near-zero FP eigenmodes; in particular, the lowest one accounts for a substantial portion of the color-Coulomb string tension comparable to the Wilson string tension.
Pseudo-Coulomb potential in singlet superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daemen, L.L.; Overhauser, A.W.
1988-01-01
Reduction of the screened Coulomb potential parameter μ to μ/sup */ = μ/[1+μ ln(E/sub F//(h/2π)ω/sub D/)] is related to the pair correlation function at r = 0. This correlation function is calculated for both the simple Cooper-pair problem and standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory by use of a two-square-well model (with λ and μ describing the attraction and repulsion). Results are compared with values obtained for a one-square-well model (having the suitable net attraction, e.g., λ-μ/sup */ in the BCS case). For the BCS case, the ''true'' pair correlation at r = 0 is reduced by a factor (μ/sup *//μ) 2 relative to the fictitious (one-square-well) value (even though Δ is the same for both models). The reduction factor is typically ≅(1/25. It follows that any short-range attractive contribution to superconducting pairing will suffer a reduction similar to that for the Coulomb repulsion
Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others
1995-08-01
The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.; Madsen, Henrik
2014-01-01
The objective of this paper is to analyze the value of energy replacement in the context of demand response. Energy replacement is dened as the possibility of the consumer to choose the most convenient source for providing space heating to a smart building according to a dynamic electricity price....... In the proposed setup, heat is provided by conventional electric radiators and a combined heat and power generation system, composed by a fuel cell and an electrolyzer. The energy replacement strategy is formulated using model predictive control and mathematical models of the components involved. Simulations show...... that the predictive energy replacement strategy reduces the operating costs of the system and is able to provide a larger amount of regulating power to the grid. In the paper, we also develop a novel dynamic model of a PEM fuel cell suitable for micro-grid applications. The model is realized applying a grey...
An algorithm for computing screened Coulomb scattering in GEANT4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendenhall, Marcus H. [Vanderbilt University Free Electron Laser Center, P.O. Box 351816 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235-1816 (United States)]. E-mail: marcus.h.mendenhall@vanderbilt.edu; Weller, Robert A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, P.O. Box 351821 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235-1821 (United States)]. E-mail: robert.a.weller@vanderbilt.edu
2005-01-01
An algorithm has been developed for the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo package for the efficient computation of screened Coulomb interatomic scattering. It explicitly integrates the classical equations of motion for scattering events, resulting in precise tracking of both the projectile and the recoil target nucleus. The algorithm permits the user to plug in an arbitrary screening function, such as Lens-Jensen screening, which is good for backscattering calculations, or Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark screening, which is good for nuclear straggling and implantation problems. This will allow many of the applications of the TRIM and SRIM codes to be extended into the much more general GEANT4 framework where nuclear and other effects can be included.
An algorithm for computing screened Coulomb scattering in GEANT4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Weller, Robert A.
2005-01-01
An algorithm has been developed for the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo package for the efficient computation of screened Coulomb interatomic scattering. It explicitly integrates the classical equations of motion for scattering events, resulting in precise tracking of both the projectile and the recoil target nucleus. The algorithm permits the user to plug in an arbitrary screening function, such as Lens-Jensen screening, which is good for backscattering calculations, or Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark screening, which is good for nuclear straggling and implantation problems. This will allow many of the applications of the TRIM and SRIM codes to be extended into the much more general GEANT4 framework where nuclear and other effects can be included
Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van de Walle, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Mayet, P.; Raabe, R.; Sawicka, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Duppen, P. van; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Habs, D.; Lutter, R.; Behrens, T.; Gernhauser, R.; Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.
2008-01-01
Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80 Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2 + states. For the first time, an excited state in 80 Zn was observed and the 2 1 + state in 78 Zn was established. The measured B(E2,2 1 + →0 1 + ) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni
4-center STO interelectron repulsion integrals with Coulomb Sturmians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales
2018-01-01
Abstract We present a method for evaluating 4-center electron repulsion integrals (ERI) for Slater-type orbitals by way of expansions in terms of Coulomb Sturmians. The ERIs can then be evaluated using our previously published methods for rapid evaluation of Coulomb Sturmians through hyperspherical...
Coulomb corrections in the low-energy scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.
1985-01-01
Renormalization of the coefficients of the ''effective range expansion'' is considered for the short-range Coulomb problem. The exactly solvable model of the Coulomb plus short range potential is considered. Exact solutions are compared with approximations frequently used in the theory of hadronic atoms
Two-center Coulomb problem with Calogero interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hakobyan, T., E-mail: tigran.hakobyan@ysu.am; Nersessian, A., E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Armenia Tomsk Polytechnic University, Yerevan State University (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
We show that the Calogero-type perturbation preserves the integrability and partial separation of variables for the Stark–Coulomb and two-center Coulomb problems, and present the explicit expressions of their constants of motion. We reveal that this perturbation preserves the spectra of initial systems, but leads to the change of degree of degeneracy.
Known-to-Unknown Approach to Teach about Coulomb's Law
Thamburaj, P. K.
2007-01-01
Analogies from life experiences help students understand various relationships presented in an introductory chemistry course. Coulomb's law is a complex relationship encountered in introductory general chemistry. A proper understanding of the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law is necessary in order for students to…
Coulomb-gas scaling, superfluid films, and the XY model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minnhagen, P.; Nylen, M.
1985-01-01
Coulomb-gas-scaling ideas are invoked as a link between the superfluid density of two-dimensional 4 He films and the XY model; the Coulomb-gas-scaling function epsilon(X) is extracted from experiments and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations of the XY model. The agreement is found to be excellent
Antilocalization of Coulomb Blockade in a Ge-Si Nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Higginbotham, Andrew P.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Larsen, Thorvald Wadum
2014-01-01
The distribution of Coulomb blockade peak heights as a function of magnetic field is investigated experimentally in a Ge-Si nanowire quantum dot. Strong spin-orbit coupling in this hole-gas system leads to antilocalization of Coulomb blockade peaks, consistent with theory. In particular, the peak...
Paleoclassical electron heat transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2005-01-01
Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)
Generalized coherent states for the Coulomb problem in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouri, S.
2002-01-01
A set of generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem in coordinate representation is constructed. At first, we obtain a mapping for proper transformation of the one-dimensional Coulomb problem into a nonrotating four-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator in the hyperspherical space, and the generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem is then obtained in exact closed form. This exactly soluble model can provide an adequate means for a quantum coherency description of the Coulomb problem in one dimension, sample for coherent aspects of the exciton model in one-dimension example in high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors, and polymers. Also, it can be useful for investigating the coherent scattering of the Coulomb particles in one dimension
Separable expansions for local potentials with Coulomb interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1976-01-01
If two particles are interacting via a short range potential and a repulsive Coulomb potential the t matrix can be written as a sum of the Coulomb and the ''nuclear'' t matrices. In order to solve the three-nucleon problem with Coulomb interactions usually we need a separable representation of this ''nuclear'' t matrix. A recently proposed method for finding a separable expansion for local potentials is here extended to find a rapidly convergent separable expansion, with analytic form factors, for the ''nuclear'' part of the t matrix of a local potential, in the presence of Coulomb interactions. The method is illustrated for a two-term Malfliet-Tjon potential. In each rank the ''nuclear'' phase shift is close to the corresponding phase shift when the Coulomb interaction is switched off
Eikonal representation of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fried, H.M.; Kang, K.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1983-01-01
A new technique for the construction of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes is proposed, suggested by the simplest case of N = 2: Calculate the scattering amplitude in eikonal approximation, discard the infinite phase factors which appear upon taking the limit of a Coulomb potential, and treat the remainder as an amplitude whose absolute value squared produces the exact, Coulomb differential cross section. The method easily generalizes to the N-body Coulomb problem for elastic scattering, and for inelastic rearrangement scattering of Coulomb bound states. We give explicit results for N = 3 and 4; in the N = 3 case we extract amplitudes for the processes (12)+3->1+2+3 (breakup), (12)+3->1+(23) (rearrangement), and (12)+3→(12)'+3 (inelastic scattering) as residues at the appropriate poles in the free-free amplitude. The method produces scattering amplitudes f/sub N/ given in terms of explicit quadratures over (N-2) 2 distinct integrands
The Coulomb potential in quantum mechanics and related topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeringen, H. van.
1978-01-01
This dissertation consists of an analytic study of the Coulomb interaction in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and some related topics. The author investigates in a number of self-contained articles various interesting and important properties of the Coulomb potential. Some of these properties are shared by other potentials which also play a role in quantum mechanics. For such related interactions a comparative study is made. The principal difficulties in the description of proton-deuteron scattering and break-up reactions, due to the Coulomb interaction, are studied by working out a simple model. The bound states are studied for the Coulomb plus Yamaguchi potential, for the symmetric shifted Coulomb potential, and for local potentials with an inverse-distance-squared asymptotic behaviour. (Auth.)
Role amplification of the coulomb interaction in nuclear reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Ashok; Soni, S K; Pancholi, S K; Gupta, S L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Radiotekhnicheskij Inst.
1976-10-01
The genarally adopted estimate of coulomb interaction in nuclear reactions based on the comparison of relative energies of real particles participating in the reaction with the coulomb barrier has been shown to provide wrong presentation of the role of coulomb interaction in the reaction mechanism. The relative energy of particles participating in virtual processes forming the reaction mechanism and its relation to the coulomb barrier turn out to be tens of per cent less than for the particles in an inlet channel. This is the main reason of increasing the role of coulomb interaction in the reaction mechanism. This increase is particularly significant for nuclei with large charges, in particular, in heavy ion reaction.
Interplay between superconductivity and Coulomb blockade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorenz, Thomas; Sprenger, Susanne; Scheer, Elke [Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)
2016-07-01
Studying the interplay between superconductivity and Coulomb blockade (CB) can be achieved by investigating an all superconducting single electron transistor (SSET) consisting of an island coupled to the leads by two tunneling contacts. The majority of experiments performed so far were using superconducting tunnel contacts made from oxide layers, in which multiple Andreev reflections (MAR) can be excluded. Using a mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ) made of aluminum enables tuning the contributions of MAR in one junction continuously and thereby addressing different transport regimes within the same sample. Our results offer the possibility to attribute particular features in the transport characteristics to the transmission probabilities of individual modes in the MCBJ contact. We discuss our findings in terms of dynamical CB, SSET behaviour and MAR when continuously opening the MCBJ from the fully closed state to a tunneling contact.
Tests of a Coulomb-nuclear polarimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pauletta, G.; University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712)
1989-01-01
We report on the development and testing of a polarimeter for the high energy polarized proton and antiproton beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The polarimeter was designed to make use of a small but well-known analyzing power in the region of Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) in order to obtain an absolute measurement of the polarization. Feasibility was established in the course of a brief running period at the end of the last fixed-target period at FNAL and potential for considerable improvement was revealed. Beam-time was insufficient to measure polarization accurately but the data obtained bears out design expectations for the beam-line and confirms polarization-tagging techniques to within uncertainties
Coulomb excitation of {sup 123}Cd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartig, Anna-Lena; Kroell, Thorsten; Ilieva, Stoyanka; Boenig, Sabine; Thuerauf, Michael [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Simpson, Gary; Drouet, Floriane; Ramdhane, Mourad [LPSC, Grenoble (France); Georgiev, Georgi [CSNSM, Orsay (France); Kesteloot, Nele; Wrzosek-Lipska, Kasia [KU, Leuven (Belgium); Jungclaus, Andrea; Illana Sison, Andres [CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Balabanski, Dimiter [INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Warr, Nigel [Koeln Univ. (Germany). IKP; Voulot, Didier; Wenander, Fredrik; Marsh, Bruce [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2013-07-01
On the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability in the vicinity of the double magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn one can find the {sup 123}Cd isotope. Surprisingly the neutron-rich even-A Cd isotopes in this region are showing signs of collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. In order to gain a deeper insight in this phenomenon we started to extend these studies to odd-A Cd isotopes. As first isotope the exotic nucleus {sup 123}Cd was produced for safe Coulomb excitation by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and post-accelerated by REX-ISOLDE. The γ-decay from excited states was detected with the MINIBALL array. A report on the status of the ongoing analysis is given.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-01-01
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching
Intriligator, Kenneth
2014-10-01
6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.
Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.
Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M
2008-08-01
We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.
Effective Coulomb interaction in multiorbital system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hase, Izumi; Yanagisawa, Takashi
2013-01-01
Transition metal atom generally takes various valences, and sometimes there are some 'missing valences', for example Fe usually takes 2+, 3+ and 5+, but does not take other valences so often. We have calculated the atomic multiplet energies for the high-spin and lowspin configurations within the ligand-field theory and the Hartree-Fock approximation, and found that the Coulomb interaction energy (U eff ) becomes small when the valence is 'missing'. In case U eff B /Fe only when U eff increased in most cases, but in some special cases U eff decreases and falls below the value U − 3J, which is the least value of the undistorted system.
Coulomb excitation of {sup 107}Sn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DiJulio, D.D.; Cederkall, J.; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Physics Department, 118, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Hjorth-Jensen, M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Albers, M.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Geibel, K.; Hess, H.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Taprogge, J.; Warr, N. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Bildstein, V.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Wimmer, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Darby, I.; Witte, H. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Diriken, J. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Mol (Belgium); Goergen, A.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Lutter, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Garching (Germany); Scheck, M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Walle, J.V. de [PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2012-07-15
The radioactive isotope {sup 107}Sn was studied using Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. This is the lightest odd-Sn nucleus examined using this technique. The reduced transition probability of the lowest-lying 3/2{sup +} state was measured and is compared to shell-model predictions based on several sets of single-neutron energies relative to {sup 100}Sn. Similar to the transition probabilities for the 2{sup +} states in the neutron-deficient even-even Sn nuclei, the measured value is underestimated by shell-model calculations. Part of the strength may be recovered by considering the ordering of the d{sub 5/2} and g{sub 7/2} single-neutron states. (orig.)
Simulation of the formation of two-dimensional Coulomb liquids and solids in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, H.H.; Kushner, M.J.
1997-01-01
Dust particle transport in low-temperature plasmas has recently received considerable attention due to the desire to minimize contamination of wafers during plasma processing of microelectronics devices. Laser light scattering observations of dust particles near wafers in reactive-ion-etching (RIE) radio frequency (rf) discharges have revealed clouds which display collective behavior. These observations have motivated experimental studies of the Coulomb liquid and solid properties of these systems. In this paper, we present results from a two-dimensional model for dust particle transport in RIE rf discharges in which we include particle-particle Coulomb interactions. We predict the formation of Coulomb liquids and solids. These predictions are based both on values of Γ>2 (liquid) and Γ>170 (solid), where Γ is the ratio of electrostatic potential energy to thermal energy, and on crystal-like structure in the pair correlation function. We find that Coulomb liquids and solids composed of trapped dust particles in RIE discharges are preferentially formed with increasing gas pressure, decreasing particle size, and decreasing rf power. We also observe the ejection of particles from dust crystals which completely fill trapping sites, as well as lattice disordering followed by annealing and refreezing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiratsuka, Y.; Oryu, S.; Gojuki, S.
2011-01-01
Reliability of the screened Coulomb renormalization method, which was proposed in an elegant way by Alt-Sandhas-Zankel-Ziegelmann (ASZZ), is discussed on the basis of 'two-potential theory' for the three-body AGS equations with the Coulomb potential. In order to obtain ASZZ's formula, we define the on-shell Moller function, and calculate it by using the Haeringen criterion, i. e. 'the half-shell Coulomb amplitude is zero'. By these two steps, we can finally obtain the ASZZ formula for a small Coulomb phase shift. Furthermore, the reliability of the Haeringen criterion is thoroughly checked by a numerically rigorous calculation for the Coulomb LS-type equation. We find that the Haeringen criterion can be satisfied only in the higher energy region. We conclude that the ASZZ method can be verified in the case that the on-shell approximation to the Moller function is reasonable, and the Haeringen criterion is reliable. (author)
Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory in covariant and Coulomb gauges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haller, K.; Lim-Lombridas, E.
1996-01-01
We quantize quantum electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions coupled to a Chern-Simons (CS) term and a charged spinor field, in covariant gauges and in the Coulomb gauge. The resulting Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) theory describes charged fermions interacting with each other and with topologically massive propagating photons. We impose Gauss's law and the gauge conditions and investigate their effect on the dynamics and on the statistics of n-particle states. We construct charged spinor states that obey Gauss's law and the gauge conditions and transform the theory to representations in which these states constitute a Fock space. We demonstrate that, in these representations, the nonlocal interactions between charges and between charges and transverse currents-along with the interactions between currents and massive propagating photons-are identical in the different gauges we analyze in this and in earlier work. We construct the generators of the Poincare group, show that they implement the Poincare algebra, and explicitly demonstrate the effect of rotations and Lorentz boosts on the particle states. We show that the imposition of Gauss's law does not produce any open-quotes exoticclose quotes fractional statistics. In the case of the covariant gauges, this demonstration makes use of unitary transformations that provide charged particles with the gauge fields required by Gauss's law, but that leave the anticommutator algebra of the spinor fields untransformed. In the Coulomb gauge, we show that the anticommutators of the spinor fields apply to the Dirac-Bergmann constraint surfaces, on which Gauss's law and the gauge conditions obtain. We examine MCS theory in the large CS coupling constant limit, and compare that limiting form with CS theory, in which the Maxwell kinetic energy term is not included in the Larangian. 34 refs
Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayoung Lee
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.
Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho
2017-05-31
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).
Dimensional regularization and renormalization of Coulomb gauge quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heckathorn, D.
1979-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is renormalized in the Coulomb gauge with covariant counter terms and without momentum-dependent wave-function renormalization constants. It is shown how to dimensionally regularize non-covariant integrals occurring in this guage, and prove that the 'minimal' subtraction prescription excludes non-covariant counter terms. Motivated by the need for a renormalized Coulomb gauge formalism in certain practical calculations, the author introduces a convenient prescription with physical parameters. The renormalization group equations for the Coulomb gauge are derived. (Auth.)
On the Emergence of the Coulomb Forces in Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Naudts
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A simple transformation of field variables eliminates Coulomb forces from the theory of quantum electrodynamics. This suggests that Coulomb forces may be an emergent phenomenon rather than being fundamental. This possibility is investigated in the context of reducible quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that states exist which bind free photon and free electron fields. The binding energy peaks in the long-wavelength limit. This makes it plausible that Coulomb forces result from the interaction of the electron/positron field with long-wavelength transversely polarized photons.
On Coulomb disintegration of relativistic nuclei and hypernuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyuboshits, V.L.
1989-01-01
The dependence of the total cross-section of excitation and disintegration of a relativistic nucleus in the Coulomb field on the energy and parameters characterizing nuclear dimensions is investigated. The analogy with the problem of atomic ionization at the passage of charged particles through matter is used. The results are applied to the description of the Coulomb dissociation of nuclei with small binding energies. An explicit expression for the effective cross-section of the Coulomb disintegration of the hypernucleus-Λ 3 H into a deuteron and Λ-particle. 12 refs
Coulomb corrections for interferometry analysis of expanding hadron systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinyukov, Yu.M.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Erazmus, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Akkelin, S.V. [ITP, Kiev (Ukraine)
1997-09-01
The problem of the Coulomb corrections to the two-boson correlation functions for the systems formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered for large effective system volumes. The modification of the standard zero-distance correction (so called Gamow or Coulomb factor) has been proposed for such a kind of systems. For the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}K{sup +} correlation functions the analytical calculations of the Coulomb correction are compared with the exact numerical results. (author). 20 refs.
Intergrain Coupling in Dusty-Plasma Coulomb Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohideen, U.; Smith, M.A.; Rahman, H.U.; Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D.A.
1998-01-01
We have studied the lattice structure of dusty-plasma Coulomb crystals formed in rectangular conductive grooves as a function of plasma temperature and density. The crystal appears to be made of mutually repulsive columns of grains confined by the walls of the groove. The columns are oriented along the direction of the electrode sheath electric field. A simple phenomenological model wherein the intergrain spacing results from an attractive electric-field-induced dipole-dipole force balanced by a repulsive monopole Coulomb force is consistent with observed features of the Coulomb crystal. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Harb, Moussab; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie
2014-01-01
theory (DFT, including the perturbation theory DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation formalism. Among the various explored self-defective structures, a strong stabilization is obtained for the configuration displaying a
Gebremedhin, Daniel H; Weatherford, Charles A
2015-02-01
This is a response to the comment we received on our recent paper "Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit." In that paper, we introduced a computational algorithm that is appropriate for solving stiff initial value problems, and which we applied to the one-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation with a soft Coulomb potential. We solved for the eigenpairs using a shooting method and hence turned it into an initial value problem. In particular, we examined the behavior of the eigenpairs as the softening parameter approached zero (hard Coulomb limit). The commenters question the existence of the ground state of the hard Coulomb potential, which we inferred by extrapolation of the softening parameter to zero. A key distinction between the commenters' approach and ours is that they consider only the half-line while we considered the entire x axis. Based on mathematical considerations, the commenters consider only a vanishing solution function at the origin, and they question our conclusion that the ground state of the hard Coulomb potential exists. The ground state we inferred resembles a δ(x), and hence it cannot even be addressed based on their argument. For the excited states, there is agreement with the fact that the particle is always excluded from the origin. Our discussion with regard to the symmetry of the excited states is an extrapolation of the soft Coulomb case and is further explained herein.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-07-27
The aim of this project was to carry out energetic analysis of typical technical processes in the industrial field, in which low-temperature heat is used. In the frame of these experiments waste heat potentials of the production process were discovered. Furthermore the possibilities of refeeding the waste heat by means of heat transformation plants was investigated. The application of absorption heat transformers or absorption heat pumps is linked to technical marginal conditions, which have to be clarified in the frame of an energetic analysis. The waste heat resulting from processes between 60 and 100 C can be heated to temperatures between 100 and 140 C especially by absorption circuit processes. The incorporation of this enhanced waste heat into the technology was a further aim of the experiments, which is demonstrated by several examples. By means of an absorption heat transformer (performance number {epsilon} = 0,49) a reduction of heating steam of approx. 40% and an amortisation time of five years were achieved. The same result was achieved at the sugar crystallisation in a sugar factory. In the fruit juice industry the exhaust vapours can be used to heat the fruit juice by means of an absorption circuit for heat recovery. Thus it was possible to save energy costs of 360000 DM during one fruit harvest. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Ein Ziel des bearbeiteten Projektes war es, energetische Analysen typischer technologischer Prozesse in der Industrie durchzufuehren, bei denen Niedertemperaturwaerme eingesetzt wird. Innerhalb dieser Untersuchungen wurden Abwaermepotentiale des Produktionsprozesses aufgedeckt. Im weiteren sollten Moeglichkeiten der Wiedereinkopplung von Abwaerme mit Hilfe von Waermetransformationsanlagen ermittelt werden. Der Einsatz von Absorptionswaermetransformatoren oder Absorptionswaermepumpen ist an technologische Randbedingungen geknuepft, die im Rahmen einer energetischen Analyse geklaert werden muessen. Die anfallende Abwaerme der Prozesse
Coulomb displacement energies and neutron density distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlomo, S.
1979-01-01
We present a short review of the present status of the theory of Coulomb displacement energies, ΔEsub(c), discussing the Okamoto-Nolem-Schiffer anomaly and its solution. We emphasize, in particular, that contrary to previous hopes, ΔEsub(c) does not determine rsub(ex), the root-mean square (rms) radius of the excess (valence) neutron density distribution. Instead, ΔEsub(c) is very sensitive to the value of Δr = rsub(n) - rsub(p), the difference between the rms radii of the density distributions of all neutrons and all protons. For neutron rich nuclei, such as 48 Ca and 208 Pb, a value of Δr = 0.1 fm is found to be consistent with ΔEsub(c). This value of Δr, which is considerably smaller than that (of 0.2 - 0.3 fm) predicted by some common Hartree-Fock calculations, seems to be confirmed by very recent experimental results. (orig.)
Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2017-01-24
We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.
Dielectric susceptibility of classical Coulomb systems. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choquard, Ph.; Piller, B.; Rentsch, R.
1987-01-01
This paper deals with the shape dependence of the dielectric susceptibility (equivalently defined, in a canonical ensemble, by the mean square fluctuation of the electric polarization or by the second moment of the charge-charge correlation function) of classical Coulomb systems. The concept of partial second moment is introduced with the aim of analyzing the contributions to the total susceptibility of pairs of particles of increasing separation. For a disk-shaped one-component plasma with coupling parameter γ=2 it is shown, numerically and algebraically for small and large systems, that (1) the correlation function of two particles close to the edge of the disk decays as the inverse of the square of their distance, and (2) the susceptibility is made up of a bulk contribution, which saturates rapidly toward the Stillinger-Lovett value, and of surface contribution, which varies on the scale of the disk diameter and is described by a new law called the arc sine law. It is also shown that electrostatics and statistical mechanics with shape-dependent thermodynamic limits are consistent for the same model in a strip geometry, whereas the Stillinger-Lovett sum rule is verified for a boundary-free geometry such as the surface of a sphere. Some results of extensive computer simulations of one- and two-component plasmas in circular and elliptic geometries are shown. Anisotropy effects on the susceptibilities are clearly demonstrated and the arc sine law for a circular plasma is well confirmed
Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy
Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.
2017-11-01
We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.
Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S
2016-07-21
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals
Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias
2018-04-01
The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.
Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.
1995-01-01
Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems 124,112 Sn + 58,64 Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system 136 Xe + 64 Ni and currently measured the system 124 Xe + 58 Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring
Coulomb scattering in field and photofield emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donders, P.J.; Lee, M.J.G.
1987-01-01
An anomalous high-energy tail has been observed in the measured total energy distribution (TED) in photofield emission from tungsten. The strength of this tail is proportional to the product of the photofield emission current and the total emission current. Similar high- and low-energy tails in the TED's in field emission, which have previously been reported by several workers, are also observed. In any given measurement, the fraction of the total photofield-emission current in the anomalous photofield-emission tail is approximately equal to the fraction of the total field-emission current in the anomalous field-emission tail. Measurements of both the absolute strengths and energy dependences of the anomalous tails are reported. The experimental observations are consistent with the predictions of a classical calculation of the energy transfer that results from the Coulomb interaction between electrons in the vacuum near the field emitter. The various internal mechanisms that have previously been invoked to account for the tails in field-emission TED's do not appear to contribute significantly to the anomalous distributions observed in the present work
Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others
1995-08-01
Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.
Coulomb-interacting billiards in circular cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solanpää, J; Räsänen, E; Nokelainen, J; Luukko, P J J
2013-01-01
We apply a molecular dynamics scheme to analyze classically chaotic properties of a two-dimensional circular billiard system containing two Coulomb-interacting electrons. As such, the system resembles a prototype model for a semiconductor quantum dot. The interaction strength is varied from the noninteracting limit with zero potential energy up to the strongly interacting regime where the relative kinetic energy approaches zero. At weak interactions the bouncing maps show jumps between quasi-regular orbits. In the strong-interaction limit we find an analytic expression for the bouncing map. Its validity in the general case is assessed by comparison with our numerical data. To obtain a more quantitative view on the dynamics as the interaction strength is varied, we compute and analyze the escape rates of the system. Apart from very weak or strong interactions, the escape rates show consistently exponential behavior, thus suggesting strongly chaotic dynamics and a phase space without significant sticky regions within the considered time scales. (paper)
Macmichael, DBA
1988-01-01
A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.
Coulomb Mediated Hybridization of Excitons in Coupled Quantum Dots.
Ardelt, P-L; Gawarecki, K; Müller, K; Waeber, A M; Bechtold, A; Oberhofer, K; Daniels, J M; Klotz, F; Bichler, M; Kuhn, T; Krenner, H J; Machnikowski, P; Finley, J J
2016-02-19
We report Coulomb mediated hybridization of excitonic states in optically active InGaAs quantum dot molecules. By probing the optical response of an individual quantum dot molecule as a function of the static electric field applied along the molecular axis, we observe unexpected avoided level crossings that do not arise from the dominant single-particle tunnel coupling. We identify a new few-particle coupling mechanism stemming from Coulomb interactions between different neutral exciton states. Such Coulomb resonances hybridize the exciton wave function over four different electron and hole single-particle orbitals. Comparisons of experimental observations with microscopic eight-band k·p calculations taking into account a realistic quantum dot geometry show good agreement and reveal that the Coulomb resonances arise from broken symmetry in the artificial semiconductor molecule.
Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-05-13
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.
Applicability of the molecular dynamics method for the Coulomb plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhidkov, A.G.; Galeev, R.Kh.
1993-01-01
Calculations of the local Lyapunov parameter determining the character of movement, n paticle systems, interacting according to the Coulomb law are conducted. The calculations are presented for the most probable states of fully ionized plasma
Analytical evaluation of integrals over Coulomb wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesbet, R.K.
1988-01-01
Indefinite integrals of products of Coulomb wave functions over the interval (r, ∞) can be evaluated by conversion to continued fractions. Examples are given of normalization and dipole transition integrals required in photoionization calculations. (orig.)
Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-03-07
Mar 7, 2014 ... The IMF production increases with the stiffness of symmetry energy. .... to clusterization using minimum spanning tree MST(M) method .... To understand the direct role of Coulomb interactions, we display in figure 4 the mean.
Fusion and quasi-elastic processes near the Coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abriola, D.
1987-01-01
An overview of the fusion phenomenon below Coulomb barrier is presented. The current theoretical descriptions, emphasizing the relations with direct reactions are discussed. The definition and systematic behaviour of the fusion enhancement below the Coulomb barrier are also presented. The role of coupling to surface degrees of freedom, namely permanent deformations of nuclei, inelastic and transfer channels is shown. The importance of studies describing simultaneously quase-elastic processes and fusion are also shown. (M.C.K.) [pt
Coulomb Sturmians as a basis for molecular calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil
2012-01-01
mathematical difficulty of evaluating interelectron repulsion integrals when exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) are used. In this paper we show that when many-centre Coulomb Sturmian ETOs are used as a basis, the most important integrals can be evaluated rapidly and accurately by means of the theory...... of hyperspherical harmonics. For the remaining many-centre integrals, Coulomb Sturmians are shown to have advantages over other ETOs. Pilot calculations are performed on N-electron molecules using the Generalized Sturmian Method....
Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael
2012-01-01
We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures, such as b......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...
Regularized friction and continuation: Comparison with Coulomb's law
Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno
2016-01-01
International audience; Periodic solutions of systems with friction are difficult to investigate because of the irregular nature of friction laws. This paper examines periodic solutions and most notably stick-slip, on a simple one-degre-of-freedom system (mass, spring, damper, belt), with Coulomb's friction law, and with a regularized friction law (i.e. the friction coefficient becomes a function of relative speed, with a stiffness parameter). With Coulomb's law, the stick-slip solution is co...
Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.
1994-01-01
We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself
Trace of a water droplet exerted by coulomb force. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugita, Hideaki; Murakami, Takuro; Nakazawa, Takeshi; Nakasako, Makoto; Yoshimura, Takuma; Osarakawa, Toshihiro
2002-01-01
The movement of water droplets in the air-water separator is based on the principle of the electrostatic precipitator with positive and negative poles. The mechanism of separation is that the water droplets charged negative ions or electrons by corona discharge are collected on the positive pole by Coulomb force operating between the both poles. This paper describes the theoretical analyses that how the movement of a water droplet is affected by Coulomb force in the air-water separator. (author)
Unstable system with Coulomb interaction distorted near the origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerbikov, B.O.
1981-01-01
An unstable system with Coulomb interaction distorted at small distances is considered. The results are applicable to hadronic atoms analysis. A detailed investigation of the model which can be solved exactly is presented. This model contains the separable short-range potential with the Yamaguchi form factor. Closed expressions for the modified effective range function and the Coulomb-modified scattering length ase obtained [ru
The generalized parabolic Coulomb wavefunction in spherical coordinates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasaneo, G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Sur, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Otranto, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Sur, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)
2001-10-19
In this work we present a detailed study of the recently introduced {delta}{sub m,n} basis for three Coulomb particles. We show that the scattering and generalized Coulomb problems as well as a {phi}{sub 2} approach can be viewed as particular cases of this basis. We derive a partial wave expansion for {delta}{sub m,n} functions and analyse the reduction to some of the precedent cases. (author)
Coulomb interference and bending slope in hadron-hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Flavio I.; Ferreira, Erasmo
1994-01-01
With the purpose of testing the results of QCD calculations on the structure of the forward elastic scattering cross-section, we analyse the coulombic-nuclear interference occurring at small values of the momentum transfer. We emphasize the influence of the hadronic structures on the determination of the Coulomb phase and consequently on the t-dependence of the strong interaction slope parameter. (author)
Coulomb drag in electron-hole bilayer: Mass-asymmetry and exchange correlation effects
Arora, Priya; Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.
2018-04-01
Motivated by a recent experiment by Zheng et al. [App. Phys. Lett. 108, 062102 (2016)] on coulomb drag in electron-hole and hole-hole bilayers based on GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructure, we investigate theoretically the influence of mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations on the drag rate. The correlation effects are dealt with using the Vignale-Singwi effective inter-layer interaction model which includes correlations through local-field corrections to the bare coulomb interactions. However, in this work, we have incorporated only the intra-layer correlations using the temperature-dependent Hubbard approximation. Our results display a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. However, it is crucial to include both the electron-hole mass-asymmetry and temperature-dependence of correlations. Mass-asymmetry and correlations are found to result in a substantial enhancement of drag resistivity.
Distributional sources for Newman's holomorphic Coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, Gerald
2004-01-01
Newman (1973 J. Math. Phys. 14 102-3) considered the holomorphic extension E-tilde(z) of the Coulomb field E(x) in R 3 . From an analysis of its multipole expansion, he concluded that the real and imaginary parts E(x+iy)≡Re E-tilde(x+iy), H(x+iy)≡Im E-tilde(x+iy), viewed as functions of x, are the electric and magnetic fields generated by a spinning ring of charge R. This represents the EM part of the Kerr-Newman solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations (Newman E T and Janis A I 1965 J. Math. Phys. 6 915-7; Newman E T et al 1965 J. Math. Phys. 6 918-9). As already pointed out in Newman and Janis (1965 J. Math. Phys. 6 915-7), this interpretation is somewhat problematic since the fields are double-valued. To make them single-valued, a branch cut must be introduced so that R is replaced by a charged disc D having R as its boundary. In the context of curved spacetime, D becomes a spinning disc of charge and mass representing the singularity of the Kerr-Newman solution. Here we confirm the above interpretation of E and H without resorting to asymptotic expansions, by computing the charge and current densities directly as distributions in R 3 supported in D. This will show that D spins rigidly at the critical rate so that its rim R moves at the speed of light
Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julian Schmidt
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.
Functional theory of extended Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, R.M.; Ortiz, G.
1997-01-01
A consistent formulation is presented for a functional theory of extended quantum many-particle systems with long-range Coulomb interactions, which extends the density-functional theory of Hohenberg and Kohn to encompass the theory of dielectrics formulated in terms of electric fields and polarization. We show that a complete description of insulators in the thermodynamic limit requires a functional of density and macroscopic polarization; nevertheless, for any insulator the state with zero macroscopic electric field can be considered a reference state that is a functional of the density alone. Dielectric phenomena involve the behavior of the material in the presence of macroscopic electric fields that induce changes of the macroscopic polarization from its equilibrium value in the reference state. In the thermodynamic limit there is strictly no ground state and constraints must be placed upon the electronic wave functions in order to have a well-defined energy functional; within these constrained subspaces the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems can be generalized in terms of the density and the change in the macroscopic polarization. The essential role of the polarization is shown by an explicit example of two potentials that lead to the same periodic density in a crystal, but different macroscopic electric fields and polarization. In the Kohn-Sham approach both the kinetic and the exchange-correlation energy are shown to depend upon the changes in polarization; this leads to generalized Kohn-Sham equations with a nonlocal operator. The effect can be traced to the polarization of the average exchange-correlation hole itself in the presence of macroscopic fields, which is essential for an exact description of static dielectric phenomena. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
The statistical mechanics of the classical two-dimensional Coulomb gas is exactly solved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samaj, L
2003-01-01
The model under consideration is a classical 2D Coulomb gas of pointlike positive and negative unit charges, interacting via a logarithmic potential. In the whole stability range of temperatures, the equilibrium statistical mechanics of this fluid model is exactly solvable via an equivalence with the integrable 2D sine-Gordon field theory. The exact solution includes the bulk thermodynamics, special cases of the surface thermodynamics and the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-body correlation functions
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
The exact solution of a four-body Coulomb problem
Ray, Hasi
2018-03-01
The elastic collision between two H-like atoms utilizing an ab initio static-exchange model (SEM) in the center of mass (CM) frame considering the system as a four-body Coulomb problem where all the Coulomb interaction terms in the direct and exchange channels are treated exactly, is studied thoroughly. A coupled-channel methodology in momentum space is used to solve Lippman-Schwinger equation following the integral approach. The new SEM code [Ray, Pramana 83, 907 (2014)] in which the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) scattering amplitude acts as input to derive the SEM amplitude using partial wave analysis, is utilized to study the s-, p-, d-wave elastic phase shifts and the corresponding partial cross sections. An augmented-Born approximation is used to include the contribution of higher partial waves more accurately to determine the total/integrated elastic cross sections. The effective range theory is used to determine the scattering lengths and effective ranges in the s-wave elastic scattering. The systems studied are Ps-Ps, Ps-Mu, Ps-H, Ps-D, Ps-T, Mu-Mu, Mu-H, Mu-D, Mu-T, H-H, H-D, H-T, D-D, D-T, T-T. The SEM includes the non-adiabatic short-range effects due to exchange. The MSEM code [Ray, Pramana 83, 907 (2014)] is used to study the effect of the long-range van der Waals interaction due to induced dipole polarizabilities of the atoms in H(1s)-H(1s) elastic collision. The dependence of scattering length on the reduced mass of the system and the dependence of scattering length on the strength of long-range van der Waals interaction that varies with the minimum interatomic distance are observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low Energy Positron and Electron Interactions", edited by James Sullivan, Ron White, Michael Bromley, Ilya Fabrikant, and David Cassidy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guichard, R.
2007-12-01
We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when ℎω > I p : it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with ℎω p : new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, B.
1984-07-01
In three chapters different physical situations are described which have commonly the Coulomb interaction as driving force. The first two chapters study the Coulomb interactions in connection with the excitation of inner electron shells and the Coulomb excitation of nuclei in first order. In the third part on effect ofthe Coulomb interaction between electronic shell and nucleus is treated in second order (nuclear polarization), and its effect on the isotopic and isomeric shift is studied. (orig./HSI) [de
Break up of light ions in the nuclear and Coulomb field of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, D.K.
1985-12-01
The break up of light ion projectiles in the nuclear and Coulomb field of nuclei is considered. Current theoretical concepts for describing break up processes and their theoretical features are discussed. An alternative method, based on a prior-interaction DWBA, is introduced for the calculation of the direct elastic break up cross sections. This method reveals the role of the internal momentum distribution of the break up fragments and includes corresponding 'finite range' effects. The Coulomb break up of 6 Li is studied on the basis of a quasi-sequential break up approach (following Rybicki and Austern) and results are obtained for very low relative energies of the emerging α-particles and deuteron fragments. The astrophysical interest in these cross sections is noted. A view on further extensions of the break up theory is given. (orig.) [de
Onset of collectivity in $^{96,98}$Sr studied via Coulomb excitation
Clement, E; Dijon, A; de France, G; Bastin, B; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Butler, P; Delahaye, P; Ekstrom, A; Georgiev, G; Hasan, N; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D; Korten, W; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Renstrom, T; Seidlitz, M; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Warr, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Zielinska, M; Bauer, C; Bruyneel, B; Butterworth, J; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; GernhäUser, R; Hess, H; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Reiter, P; Siebeck, B; Vermeulen, M; Wiens, A; De Witte, H
2014-01-01
A rapid onset of quadrupole deformation is known to occur around the neutron number 60 in the neutron-rich Zr and Sr isotopes. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich 96,98Sr investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N=60. Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble.
Onset of collectivity in 96,98Sr studied via Coulomb excitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clément E.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A rapid onset of quadrupole deformation is known to occur around the neutron number 60 in the neutron-rich Zr and Sr isotopes. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich 96,98Sr investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N=60. Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble.
Prospective testing of Coulomb short-term earthquake forecasts
Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Wong, K.
2009-12-01
Earthquake induced Coulomb stresses, whether static or dynamic, suddenly change the probability of future earthquakes. Models to estimate stress and the resulting seismicity changes could help to illuminate earthquake physics and guide appropriate precautionary response. But do these models have improved forecasting power compared to empirical statistical models? The best answer lies in prospective testing in which a fully specified model, with no subsequent parameter adjustments, is evaluated against future earthquakes. The Center of Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) facilitates such prospective testing of earthquake forecasts, including several short term forecasts. Formulating Coulomb stress models for formal testing involves several practical problems, mostly shared with other short-term models. First, earthquake probabilities must be calculated after each “perpetrator” earthquake but before the triggered earthquakes, or “victims”. The time interval between a perpetrator and its victims may be very short, as characterized by the Omori law for aftershocks. CSEP evaluates short term models daily, and allows daily updates of the models. However, lots can happen in a day. An alternative is to test and update models on the occurrence of each earthquake over a certain magnitude. To make such updates rapidly enough and to qualify as prospective, earthquake focal mechanisms, slip distributions, stress patterns, and earthquake probabilities would have to be made by computer without human intervention. This scheme would be more appropriate for evaluating scientific ideas, but it may be less useful for practical applications than daily updates. Second, triggered earthquakes are imperfectly recorded following larger events because their seismic waves are buried in the coda of the earlier event. To solve this problem, testing methods need to allow for “censoring” of early aftershock data, and a quantitative model for detection threshold as a function of
Coulomb dissociation in relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mercier, M.T.
1982-01-01
Targets of 12 C, 59 Co, 89 Y, 197 Au and 238 U were bombarded by 2.1 GeV/A 1 H, 12 C and 20 Ne projectiles using the SuperHILAC and BEVATRON facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The beam flux was calculated by monitoring the decay of 11 C produced from the 12 C(projectile,projectile n) 11 C reaction. Residual gamma-ray activity from the Co, Y, Au and U targets was collected in order to trace the decay of several reaction products. The experiment focused on the calculation of cross sections for the formation of products with one neutron removed from the various target nuclei. Corrections to the saturation activity of each product were made for detector efficiency, gamma-ray absorption in the target, gamma-ray branching, beam geometry and secondary reactions. These date are shown to be inconsistent with a geometrical form given by sigma varies as (A/sub p/sup 1/3/ + A/sub t/sup 1/3/ - b) where b is a universal constant. In fact the data indicates the b = A/sub t/sup 1/3/. Instead the data can be fit quite well by a simple empirical relation, sigma/sub emp/ = 12.0 mb A/sub p/sup 1/3/ A/sub t/sup 1/3/. It is demonstrated that an empirical fit which varies as A/sub t/sup 1/3/ is also consistent with projectile fragmentation data measured by a group at LBL. In addition these data are compared to a theoretical prediction which is the sum of a renormalized Glauber term and a term which represents the contribution due to Coulomb or electromagnetic dissociation (ED). The theoretical predictions are quite low for the 12 C projectile data and high for the 20 Ne projectile data. The systematic trends from the comparison seem to indicate that theoretical prediction for the ED contribution is rising too fast as a function of projectile for a given target
Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne
2015-02-01
Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Cosmic-Ray Feedback Heating of the Intracluster Medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, 311 West Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: hsyang@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-07-20
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) play a central role in solving the decades-old cooling-flow problem. Although there is consensus that AGNs provide the energy to prevent catastrophically large star formation, one major problem remains: How is the AGN energy thermalized in the intracluster medium (ICM)? We perform a suite of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement simulations of AGN feedback in a cool core cluster including cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are supplied to the ICM via collimated AGN jets and subsequently disperse in the magnetized ICM via streaming, and interact with the ICM via hadronic, Coulomb, and streaming instability heating. We find that CR transport is an essential model ingredient at least within the context of the physical model considered here. When streaming is included, (i) CRs come into contact with the ambient ICM and efficiently heat it, (ii) streaming instability heating dominates over Coulomb and hadronic heating, (iii) the AGN is variable and the atmosphere goes through low-/high-velocity dispersion cycles, and, importantly, (iv) CR pressure support in the cool core is very low and does not demonstrably violate observational constraints. However, when streaming is ignored, CR energy is not efficiently spent on the ICM heating and CR pressure builds up to a significant level, creating tension with the observations. Overall, we demonstrate that CR heating is a viable channel for the AGN energy thermalization in clusters and likely also in ellipticals, and that CRs play an important role in determining AGN intermittency and the dynamical state of cool cores.
The Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}: spin-orbit and anisotropic Coulomb interaction effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Pavarini, Eva [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
The topology of the Fermi surface of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is well described by local density approximation calculations with spin-orbit interaction, but the relative size of its different sheets is not. By accounting for many-body effects via dynamical mean-field theory, we show that the standard isotropic Coulomb interaction worsen or does not correct this discrepancy. In order to reproduce experiments, it is essential to include the Coulomb anisotropy. The latter is small but has strong effects; it competes with the Coulomb-enhanced spin-orbit coupling and with the isotropic Coulomb term. This mechanism is likely to be at work in other multi-orbital systems. Finally, we find a strong spin-orbital entanglement. This supports the view that the conventional description of Cooper pairs via factorized spin and orbital part might not apply to Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.
Beenakker, W.; Borschensky, C.; Krämer, M.; Kulesza, A.; Laenen, E.
2016-01-01
We present state-of-the art predictions for the production of supersymmetric squarks and gluinos at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), including soft-gluon resummation up to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) accuracy, the resummation of Coulomb corrections and the contribution from bound
Beenakker, Wim; Borschensky, Christoph; Krämer, Michael; Kulesza, Anna; Laenen, Eric
2016-01-01
We present state-of-the art predictions for the production of supersymmetric squarks and gluinos at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), including soft-gluon resummation up to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) accuracy, the resummation of Coulomb corrections and the contribution from bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazza, T; Devetta, M; Milani, P; Motomura, K; Liu, X-J; Fukuzawa, H; Yamada, A; Nagaya, K; Iwayama, H; Sugishima, A; Mizoguchi, Y; Saito, N; Coreno, M; Nagasono, M; Tono, K; Togashi, T; Kimura, H; Okunishi, M; Fennel, Th; Senba, Y
2015-01-01
Free electron laser light sources delivering high intensity pulses of short wavelength radiation are opening novel possibilities for the investigation of matter at the nanoscale and for the discovery and understanding of new physical processes occurring at the exotic transient states they make accessible. Strong ionization of atomic constituents of a nano-sized sample is a representative example of such processes and the understanding of ionization dynamics is crucial for a realistic description of the experiments. We report here on multiple ionization experiments on free clusters of titanium, a high cohesive energy metal. The time of flight ion spectra reveal a saturation of the cluster ionization at ∼10 16 photons per pulse per cm 2 . Our results also show a clear lack of any explosion process, opposite to what is observed for a rare-gas cluster under similar conditions. A simple and generalized multi-step ionization model including Coulomb frustration of the photoemission process effectively reproduces with a good agreement the main features of the experimental observation and points to an interpretation of the data involving a substantial energy deposition into the cluster through electronic system heating upon scattering events within photoemission. (paper)
Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mycek, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.
1995-12-01
The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.
Han, SangEun; Moon, Eun-Gook
2018-06-01
Topological states may be protected by a lattice symmetry in a class of topological semimetals. In three spatial dimensions, the Berry flux around gapless excitations in momentum space concretely defines a chirality, so a protecting symmetry may be referred to as a chiral symmetry. Prime examples include a Dirac semimetal (DSM) in a distorted spinel, BiZnSiO4, protected by a mirror symmetry, and a DSM in Na3Bi , protected by a rotational symmetry. In these states, topology and chiral symmetry are intrinsically tied. In this Rapid Communication, the characteristic interplay between a chiral symmetry order parameter and an instantaneous long-range Coulomb interaction is investigated with the standard renormalization group method. We show that a topological transition associated with chiral symmetry is stable under the presence of a Coulomb interaction and the electron velocity always becomes faster than the one of a chiral symmetry order parameter. Thus, the transition must not be relativistic, which implies that supersymmetry is intrinsically forbidden by the long-range Coulomb interaction. Asymptotically exact universal ratios of physical quantities such as the energy gap ratio are obtained, and connections with experiments and recent theoretical proposals are also discussed.
JANUS - A setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation at ReA3
Lunderberg, E.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Bucher, B.; Cline, D.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Liddick, S. N.; Longfellow, B.; Prokop, C.; Weisshaar, D.; Wu, C. Y.
2018-03-01
A new experimental setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was constructed in a collaboration between the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of Rochester and was commissioned at the general purpose beam line of NSCL's ReA3 reaccelerator facility. The so-called JANUS setup combines γ-ray detection with the Segmented Ge Array (SeGA) and scattered particle detection using a pair of segmented double-sided Si detectors (Bambino 2). The low-energy Coulomb excitation program that JANUS enables will complement intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation studies that have long been performed at NSCL by providing access to observables that quantify collectivity beyond the first excited state, including the sign and magnitude of excited-state quadrupole moments. In this work, the setup and its performance will be described based on the commissioning run that used stable 78Kr impinging onto a 1.09 mg/cm2208Pb target at a beam energy of 3.9 MeV/u.
Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion
Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-06-01
Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.
Fast Electron Repulsion Integrals for Molecular Coulomb Sturmians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil
2013-01-01
A new method is presented for calculating interelectron repulsion integrals for molecular Coulomb Sturmian basis sets. This makes use of an expansion of densities in terms of 2k-Sturmians, and the interelectron repulsion integrals are then calculated by a method based on the theory of hyperspheri......A new method is presented for calculating interelectron repulsion integrals for molecular Coulomb Sturmian basis sets. This makes use of an expansion of densities in terms of 2k-Sturmians, and the interelectron repulsion integrals are then calculated by a method based on the theory...... of hyperspherical harmonics. A rudimentary software library has been implemented and preliminary benchmarks indicate very good performance: On average 40 ns, or approximately 80 clock cycles, per electron repulsion integral. This makes molecular Coulomb Sturmians competitive with Gaussian type orbitals in terms...
Metal nanoparticle film-based room temperature Coulomb transistor.
Willing, Svenja; Lehmann, Hauke; Volkmann, Mirjam; Klinke, Christian
2017-07-01
Single-electron transistors would represent an approach to developing less power-consuming microelectronic devices if room temperature operation and industry-compatible fabrication were possible. We present a concept based on stripes of small, self-assembled, colloidal, metal nanoparticles on a back-gate device architecture, which leads to well-defined and well-controllable transistor characteristics. This Coulomb transistor has three main advantages. By using the scalable Langmuir-Blodgett method, we combine high-quality chemically synthesized metal nanoparticles with standard lithography techniques. The resulting transistors show on/off ratios above 90%, reliable and sinusoidal Coulomb oscillations, and room temperature operation. Furthermore, this concept allows for versatile tuning of the device properties such as Coulomb energy gap and threshold voltage, as well as period, position, and strength of the oscillations.
Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models.
Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian
2017-04-26
Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.
Intershell resistance in multiwall carbon nanotubes: A Coulomb drag study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, Anders Mathias; Flensborg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2005-01-01
We calculate the intershell resistance R-21 in a multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F) (e.g., a gate voltage), varying the chirality of the inner and outer tubes. This is done in a so-called Coulomb drag setup, where a current I-1 in one shell induces...... a voltage drop V-2 in another shell by the screened Coulomb interaction between the shells neglecting the intershell tunneling. We provide benchmark results for R-21 = V2/I-1 within the Fermi liquid theory using Boltzmann equations. The band structure gives rise to strongly chirality-dependent suppression...... effects for the Coulomb drag between different tubes due to selection rules combined with mismatching of wave vector and crystal angular momentum conservation near the Fermi level. This gives rise to orders of magnitude changes in R-21 and even the sign of R-21 can change depending on the chirality...
Metal nanoparticle film–based room temperature Coulomb transistor
Willing, Svenja; Lehmann, Hauke; Volkmann, Mirjam; Klinke, Christian
2017-01-01
Single-electron transistors would represent an approach to developing less power–consuming microelectronic devices if room temperature operation and industry-compatible fabrication were possible. We present a concept based on stripes of small, self-assembled, colloidal, metal nanoparticles on a back-gate device architecture, which leads to well-defined and well-controllable transistor characteristics. This Coulomb transistor has three main advantages. By using the scalable Langmuir-Blodgett method, we combine high-quality chemically synthesized metal nanoparticles with standard lithography techniques. The resulting transistors show on/off ratios above 90%, reliable and sinusoidal Coulomb oscillations, and room temperature operation. Furthermore, this concept allows for versatile tuning of the device properties such as Coulomb energy gap and threshold voltage, as well as period, position, and strength of the oscillations. PMID:28740864
Electron transport in the presence of a Coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgdoerfer, J.; Gibbons, J.
1990-01-01
We analyze the modifications of the transport behavior of electrons in dense media due to the presence of a strong Coulomb field generated by an ion moving initially in close phase-space correlation with the electrons. These modifications play a profound role in convoy electron emission in ion-solid collisions. The transport behavior is studied within the framework of a classical phase-space master equation. The nonseparable master equation is solved numerically using test-particle discretization and Monte Carlo sampling. In the limit of vanishing Coulomb forces the master equation becomes separable and can be reduced to standard one-dimensional kinetic equations for free-electron transport that can be solved exactly. The comparison to free-electron transport is used to gauge both the reliability of test-particle discretization and the significance of Coulomb distortion of the distribution functions. Applications to convoy-electron emission are discussed
Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems.
Badalyan, S M; Shylau, A A; Jauho, A P
2017-09-22
We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon branch. The upper branch exhibits an unusual behavior with end points at finite q. Accordingly, the structure factor shows either a single or a double peak behavior, depending on the plasmon wavelength. The new plasmon structure is relevant to recent experiments, its properties can be controlled by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications.
Physics of the Non-Abelian Coulomb Phase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert
2018-01-01
are applied to obtain further estimates of $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ and $\\beta'_{IR}$ for several SU($N_c$) groups and representations $R$, and comparisons are made with lattice measurements. We apply our results to obtain new estimates of the extent of the respective non-Abelian Coulomb phases in several....... It is shown that an expansion of $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ to $O(\\Delta_f^4)$ is quite accurate throughout the entire non-Abelian Coulomb phase of this supersymmetric theory....
On rate-state and Coulomb failure models
Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.
2000-01-01
We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and rate-state frictional models. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant rate (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity rate r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant rate resulting from tectonic stressing. Models of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay rate, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background rate. A Coulomb model requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity rate increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain rate-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and rate-state models theoretically. Rate-state model fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the rate-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a rate-state model behaves like a modified
Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.
2002-01-01
Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru
Coulomb corrections for interferometry analysis of expanding hadron systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinyukov, Yu.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics of National Acad. Sci., Kiev (Ukraine); Lednicky, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Akkelin, S.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Teoreticheskoj Fiziki; Pluta, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Erazmus, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees
1998-10-01
The problem of the Coulomb corrections to the two-boson correlation functions for the systems formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered for large effective volumes predicted in the realistic evolution scenarios taking into account the collective flows. A simple modification of the standard zero-distance correction (so called Gamow or Coulomb factor) has been proposed for such a kind of systems. For {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}K{sup +} correlation functions this approximate analytical approach is compared with the exact numerical results and a good agreement is found for typical conditions at SPS, RHIC and even LHC energies. (author) 21 refs.
Vibrational motions in rotating nuclei studied by Coulomb excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimizu, Yoshifumi R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1998-03-01
As is well-known Coulomb excitation is an excellent tool to study the nuclear collective motions. Especially the vibrational excitations in rotating nuclei, which are rather difficult to access by usual heavy-ion fusion reactions, can be investigated in detail. Combined with the famous 8{pi}-Spectrometer, which was one of the best {gamma}-ray detector and had discovered some of superdeformed bands, such Coulomb excitation experiments had been carried out at Chalk River laboratory just before it`s shutdown of physics division. In this meeting some of the experimental data are presented and compared with the results of theoretical investigations. (author)
Role of Coulomb repulsion in multilayer cuprate superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh Chauhan, Ekta; Singh, Vipul; Masih, Piyush
2012-01-01
Although BCS theory completely neglects coulomb repulsion; Anderson and Morel showed very early that it plays a central role in superconductivity. Since all high T c superconductors are based on the structure of closely spaced square planner CuO 2 layers and role of interlayer interaction plays important role in enhancement of T c . Therefore the work has been dealt with 'Role of Coulomb repulsion in Multilayer Cuprate Superconductors'. An expression for transition temperature T c is obtained by using simple integration technique and is numerically solved. It has found that T c decreases with electronic repulsion. (author)
Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esbensen, H.
1994-06-01
We study the effect of higher-order processes in Coulomb dissociation of 11 Li by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the relative motion of a di-neutron and the 9 Li core. Comparisons are made to first-order perturbation theory and to measurements. The calculated Coulomb reacceleration effects improve the agreement with experiment, but some discrepancy remains. The effects are much smaller in the dissociation of 11 Be, and they decrease with increasing beam energy. (orig.)
Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swenson, D.G.
1985-01-01
The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, C.Y.; Ho, Y.K.
2010-01-01
The screening effects due to the exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb and screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potentials on photoionization processes are explored within the framework of complex coordinate rotation method. The energy levels of H and He + in both screened potentials shifted with various Debye screening lengths are presented. The photoionization cross sections illustrate the considerable screening effects on photoionization processes in low energy region. The shape resonances can be found near ionization thresholds for certain of Debye screening lengths. The relations between the appearance of resonances and the existence of quasi-bound states under shielding conditions are discussed. (authors)
Coulomb stress transfer and tectonic loading preceding the 2002 Denali fault earthquake
Bufe, Charles G.
2006-01-01
Pre-2002 tectonic loading and Coulomb stress transfer are modeled along the rupture zone of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake (DFE) and on adjacent segments of the right-lateral Denali–Totschunda fault system in central Alaska, using a three-dimensional boundary-element program. The segments modeled closely follow, for about 95°, the arc of a circle of radius 375 km centered on an inferred asperity near the northeastern end of the intersection of the Patton Bay fault with the Alaskan megathrust under Prince William Sound. The loading model includes slip of 6 mm/yr below 12 km along the fault system, consistent with rotation of the Wrangell block about the asperity at a rate of about 1°/m.y. as well as slip of the Pacific plate at 5 cm/yr at depth along the Fairweather–Queen Charlotte transform fault system and on the Alaska megathrust. The model is consistent with most available pre-2002 Global Positioning System (GPS) displacement rate data. Coulomb stresses induced on the Denali–Totschunda fault system (locked above 12 km) by slip at depth and by transfer from the M 9.2 Prince William Sound earthquake of 1964 dominated the changing Coulomb stress distribution along the fault. The combination of loading (∼70–85%) and coseismic stress transfer from the great 1964 earthquake (∼15–30%) were the principal post-1900 stress factors building toward strike-slip failure of the northern Denali and Totschunda segments in the M 7.9 earthquake of November 2002. Postseismic stresses transferred from the 1964 earthquake may also have been a significant factor. The M 7.2–7.4 Delta River earthquake of 1912 (Carver et al., 2004) may have delayed or advanced the timing of the DFE, depending on the details and location of its rupture. The initial subevent of the 2002 DFE earthquake was on the 40-km Susitna Glacier thrust fault at the western end of the Denali fault rupture. The Coulomb stress transferred from the 1964 earthquake moved the Susitna Glacier thrust
The structure of small molecules with the Coulomb Explosion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vager, Z.; Kanter, E.P.
1987-01-01
The content of this paper is divided into two parts: (1) achievements of the last two years in studying molecular ion structure with the aid of the newly developed Coulomb-Explosion (CE) method, and (2) the understanding of the modern CE data in terms of an invariant density of nuclear coordinates of the studied molecule
Yangian Y(sl(2)) in Coulomb problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shengli
1998-01-01
In this paper, the Yangian Y(sl(2)) is shown existing in the system that a particle moves in Coulomb field. The generators of Y(sl(2)) are constructed in terms of the angular momentum operators and so-called Yangian Runge-Lenz vector. The selection rule and matrix element of Y(sl(2)) generators are calculated. (orig.)
Asymptotic coulombic conditions in the electron capture process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corchs, S.E.; Maidagan, J.M.; Rivarola, R.D.
1990-01-01
Several first order perturbative approximations of the transition amplitude for electronic capture are studied. Different models in which the long range Coulomb potential is represented by different internuclear dependent phases, in the initial and final wave functions, are analysed and compared. (Author). 8 refs., 2 figs
Molecular integrals for slater type orbitals using coulomb sturmians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales
2014-01-01
The use of Slater type orbitals in molecular calculations is hindered by the slowness of integral evaluation. In the present paper, we introduce a method for overcoming this problem by expanding STO's in terms of Coulomb Sturmians, for which the problem of evaluating molecular integrals rapidly has...
Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States
Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour
2011-01-01
The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb
Coulomb corrections to scattering length and effective radius
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mur, V.D.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Popov, V.S.
1983-01-01
The problem considered is extraction of the ''purely nuclear'' scattering length asub(s) (corresponding to the strong potential Vsub(s) at the Coulomb interaction switched off) from the Coulomb-nuclear scattering length asub(cs), which is an object of experimental measurement. The difference between asub(s) and asub(cs) is especially large if the potential Vsub(s) has a level (real or virtual) with an energy close to zero. For this case formulae are obtained relating the scattering lengths asub(s) and asub(cs), as well as the effective radii rsub(s) and rsub(cs). The results are extended to states with arbitrary angular momenta l. It is shown that the Coulomb correction is especially large for the coefficient with ksup(2l) in the expansion of the effective radius; in this case the correction contains a large logarithm ln(asub(B)/rsub(0)). The Coulomb renormalization of other terms in the effective radius espansion is of order (rsub(0)/asub(B)), where r 0 is the nuclear force radius, asub(B) is the Bohr radius. The obtained formulae are tried on a number of model potentials Vsub(s), used in nuclear physics
Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method
Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto
2012-01-01
The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…
Coulomb Interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss Experiments with Electrons
Shen, Kan
2009-01-01
This dissertation examines the effect of Coulomb interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) type experiments with electrons. HBT experiments deal with intensity interference, which is related to the second-order correlation function of the particle field. This is an extension of the usual amplitude interference experiment, such as Young's…
Plasmon-mediated Coulomb drag between graphene waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shylau, Artsem A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2014-01-01
We analyze theoretically charge transport in Coulomb coupled graphene waveguides (GWGs). The GWGs are defined using antidot lattices, and the lateral geometry bypasses many technological challenges of earlier designs. The drag resistivity ρD, which is a measure of the many-particle interactions...
Coulomb energy of uniformly charged spheroidal shell systems.
Jadhao, Vikram; Yao, Zhenwei; Thomas, Creighton K; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera
2015-03-01
We provide exact expressions for the electrostatic energy of uniformly charged prolate and oblate spheroidal shells. We find that uniformly charged prolate spheroids of eccentricity greater than 0.9 have lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same area. For the volume-constrained case, we find that a sphere has the highest Coulomb energy among all spheroidal shells. Further, we derive the change in the Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged shell due to small, area-conserving perturbations on the spherical shape. Our perturbation calculations show that buckling-type deformations on a sphere can lower the Coulomb energy. Finally, we consider the possibility of counterion condensation on the spheroidal shell surface. We employ a Manning-Oosawa two-state model approximation to evaluate the renormalized charge and analyze the behavior of the equilibrium free energy as a function of the shell's aspect ratio for both area-constrained and volume-constrained cases. Counterion condensation is seen to favor the formation of spheroidal structures over a sphere of equal area for high values of shell volume fractions.
The Coulomb law and atomic levels in a superstrong B
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vysotsky M.I.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of atomic levels of hydrogen-like ions originating from the lowest Landau level in an external homogeneous superstrong magnetic field is obtained. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb potential on the values of critical nuclear charges is studied.
A conceivable lattice structure of the Coulomb law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papp, E.; Santilli, R.M.
1983-01-01
A few heuristic remarks on recent extensions of the Coulomb law via effective potentials and other means, which appear to admit a lattice structure in time and space whose spacing are given by the characteristic period of the elctron and its Compton wave-length, respectively, are presented
Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandis, S.
1994-04-01
We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)
Generalized second-order Coulomb phase shift functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosendorff, S.
1982-01-01
Some specific properties and the evaluation of the generalized second-order Coulomb phase shift functions (two-dimensional integrals of four spherical cylinder functions) are discussed. The dependence on the three momenta k 1 ,k-bar,k 2 , corresponding to the final, intermediate, and initial states is illustrated
Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.
1985-01-01
The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)
Semiclassical treatment of nuclear effects in Coulomb excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Rasmussen, J O; Ring, P; Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.
1990-09-27
We introduce the effects of the nuclear potential in the semiclassical Alder-Winther-de Boer method, both in the coupling matrix elements and as corrections to the Rutherford orbit. We compare our results to those of pure Coulomb excitation and to coupled-channel calculations. (orig.).
Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.; Pape, A.
1985-08-01
Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given
Structure of light neutron-rich nuclei through Coulomb dissociation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The data analysis for Coulomb breakup of. ½ .... C (605 MeV/u) breaking up into a neutron and a .... direct break up model delivers a cross section of 107 mb for a ... separation energy for the last neutron in the even isotopes = 20 to 24 is 7 to 8 ...
Coulomb fission and transfer fission at heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Himmele, G.
1981-01-01
In the present thesis the first direct evidence of nuclear fission after inelastic scattering of heavy ions (sup(183,184)W, 152 Sm → 238 U; 184 W → 232 Th; 184 W, 232 Th → 248 Cm) is reported. Experiments which were performed at the UNILAC of the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt show the observed heavy ion induced fission possesses significant properties of the Coulomb fission. The observed dependence of the fission probability for inelastic scattering on the projectile charge proves that the nuclear fission is mediated by the electromagnetic interaction between heavy ions. This result suggests moreover a multiple Coulomb-excitation preceding the fission. Model calculations give a first indication, that the Coulomb fission proceeds mainly from the higher β phonons. In the irradiation with 184 W the fission probability of 232 Th is for all incident energies about 40% smaller that at 238 U. The target dependence of the Coulomb fission however doesn't allow, to give quantitative statements about the position and B(E2)-values of higher lying β phonons. (orig./HSI) [de
COULN, a program for evaluating negative energy Coulomb functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, C.J.; Thompson, I.J.
1984-01-01
Program COULN calculates exponentially decaying Whittaker functions, Wsub(K,μ)(z) corresponding to negative energy Coulomb functions. The method employed is most appropriate for parameter ranges which commonly occur in atomic and molecular asymptotic scattering problems using a close-coupling approximation in the presence of closed channels. (orig.)
Analytic structure of many-body Coulombic wave functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas
2009-01-01
We investigate the analytic structure of solutions of non-relativistic Schrödinger equations describing Coulombic many-particle systems. We prove the following: Let ψ(x) with denote an N-electron wavefunction of such a system with one nucleus fixed at the origin. Then in a neighbourhood of a coal...
On the role of coulomb forces in atomic radiative emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yngstroem, S.
1988-10-01
It is shown how the generalized Coulomb interaction (electric and magnetic fields of force) competes with the radiative interaction causing overall inhibition of the radiative capability of atoms and ions in a gaseous sample of matter. Basic quantum mechanical aspects of the electromagnetic interaction are discussed in a heuristic introduction followed by a more precise treatment in the formalism of relativistic quantum electrodynamics. (author)
Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation under a scalar Coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanabadi, H.; Yazarloo, B. H.; Zarrinkamar, S.; Rajabi, A. A.
2011-01-01
Approximate analytical solutions of a Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation are obtained via an elegant ansatz after successive transformations. Apart from the wide application of the DKP equation in both cosmology and theoretical nuclear physics as well as the physical significance of the Coulomb interaction, this is particularly important as we have provided a solution to the corresponding Heun equation.
Exact solution of the N-dimensional generalized Dirac-Coulomb equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutik, R.S.
1992-01-01
An exact solution to the bound state problem for the N-dimensional generalized Dirac-Coulomb equation, whose potential contains both the Lorentz-vector and Lorentz-scalar terms of the Coulomb form, is obtained. 24 refs. (author)
Coulomb Mechanics And Landscape Geometry Explain Landslide Size Distribution
Jeandet, L.; Steer, P.; Lague, D.; Davy, P.
2017-12-01
It is generally observed that the dimensions of large bedrock landslides follow power-law scaling relationships. In particular, the non-cumulative frequency distribution (PDF) of bedrock landslide area is well characterized by a negative power-law above a critical size, with an exponent 2.4. However, the respective role of bedrock mechanical properties, landscape shape and triggering mechanisms on the scaling properties of landslide dimensions are still poorly understood. Yet, unravelling the factors that control this distribution is required to better estimate the total volume of landslides triggered by large earthquakes or storms. To tackle this issue, we develop a simple probabilistic 1D approach to compute the PDF of rupture depths in a given landscape. The model is applied to randomly sampled points along hillslopes of studied digital elevation models. At each point location, the model determines the range of depth and angle leading to unstable rupture planes, by applying a simple Mohr-Coulomb rupture criterion only to the rupture planes that intersect downhill surface topography. This model therefore accounts for both rock mechanical properties, friction and cohesion, and landscape shape. We show that this model leads to realistic landslide depth distribution, with a power-law arising when the number of samples is high enough. The modeled PDF of landslide size obtained for several landscapes match the ones from earthquakes-driven landslides catalogues for the same landscape. In turn, this allows us to invert landslide effective mechanical parameters, friction and cohesion, associated to those specific events, including Chi-Chi, Wenchuan, Niigata and Gorkha earthquakes. The cohesion and friction ranges (25-35 degrees and 5-20 kPa) are in good agreement with previously inverted values. Our results demonstrate that reduced complexity mechanics is efficient to model the distribution of unstable depths, and show the role of landscape variability in landslide size
Coulomb excitation of 206Hg at relativistic energies
Alexander, Tom
The region of the nuclear chart surrounding the doubly-magic nucleus 208Pb provides a key area to constrain and develop contemporary nuclear structure models. One aspect of particular interest is the transition strength of the first excited 2+ state in even-even nuclei; this work describes the measurement of this value for the case of 206Hg, where the Z=80 line meets the N=126 shell closure. The nuclei of interest were synthesized using relativistic-energy projectile fragmentation at the GSI facility in Germany. They were produced in the fragmentation of a primary 208Pb beam at an energy of 1 GeV per nucleon, and separated and identifed using the Fragment Separator. The secondary beams with an energy of 140 MeV per nucleon were Coulomb excited on a secondary target of 400 mg/cm. 2 gold. Gamma-rays were detected with the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA). The precise scattering angle for Doppler-correction was determined with position information from the Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter(LYCCA). Using the sophisticated tracking algorithm native to AGATA in conjunction with pulse-shape analysis, a precise Doppler-correction is performed on the gamma spectra, and using a complex n-dimensional analysis, the B(E2) value for 206Hg is extracted relative to the known value also measured in 206Pb. A total of 409 million 206Hg particles were measured, and a cross-section of 50 mb was determined for the 2+ state at 1068 keV. The measurement of the B(E2) transition strength was found to be 1.109 W.u. This result is compared to a number of theoretical calculations, including two Gogny forces, and a modified shell model parametrization and is found to be smaller than all calculated estimations, implying that the first excited 2. + state in . {206}Hg is uncollective in nature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, M.A.
1985-01-01
Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, Sabine; Zwicknagl, Gertrud [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig (Germany)
2010-02-15
We investigate the transport characteristics of a redox system weakly coupled to leads in the Coulomb blockade regime. The redox system comprises a donor and acceptor separated by an insulating bridge in a solution. It is modeled by a two-site extended Hubbard model which includes on-site and inter-site Coulomb interactions and the coupling to a bosonic bath. The current-voltage characteristics is calculated at high temperatures using a rate equation approach. For high voltages exceeding the Coulomb repulsion at the donor site the calculated transport characteristics exhibit pronounced deviations from the behavior expected from single-electron transport. Depending on the relative sizes of the effective on-site and inter-site Coulomb interactions on one side and the reorganization energy on the other side we find either negative differential resistance or current enhancement. Schematic view of the redox system with donor (D) and acceptor (A) coupled to the leads L and R. The electronic degrees of freedom of the DA system are coupled to the environment comprising internal vibrations and the solvent dynamics. The current is calculated as a function of the bias voltage V{sub b} and gate voltage V{sub g}. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swenson, J.K.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Gregory, D.C.; Stolterfoht, N.
1991-01-01
Autoionizing electrons emitted following low energy ion-atom collisions may scatter significantly from the receding spectator ion's attractive Coulomb field. In such cases the observed electron intensity is ''focused'' in the direction of the scattering ion as a result of the effective compression of the emission solid angle. In addition, interference may occur between trajectories, corresponding to electrons scattering around opposite sides of the ion, which lead to the same final laboratory electron energy and emission angle. This Coulomb ''path'' interference mechanism manifests itself in the uncharacteristically rapid angular dependence of the He target 2s 2 1 S autoionizing state measured near 0 degree following low energy He + + He collisions. A classical trajectory model for Coulomb focusing is presented and a semi-classical approximation is used to model the Coulomb ''path'' interference mechanism. In this description we account for the evolution of the phase of the autoionizing state until its decay and the path dependence of the amplitude of the emitted electron following decay of the autoionizing state. Calculated model lineshapes, which include contributions from adjacent overlapping resonances, reproduce quite well the angular dependence observed in the data near 0 degree. 14 refs., 7 figs
Representation of the Coulomb Matrix Elements by Means of Appell Hypergeometric Function F 2
Bentalha, Zine el abidine
2018-06-01
Exact analytical representation for the Coulomb matrix elements by means of Appell's double series F 2 is derived. The finite sum obtained for the Appell function F 2 allows us to evaluate explicitly the matrix elements of the two-body Coulomb interaction in the lowest Landau level. An application requiring the matrix elements of Coulomb potential in quantum Hall effect regime is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.
1986-01-01
A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)
On the Coulomb gauge quark propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloker, M.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Krenn, R.
2006-01-01
Full text: A solution of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation including transverse gluons is presented. The corresponding retardation effects in the quark propagator are discussed. Especially, their effects on confinement properties and dynamical mass generation are described. (author)
Coulomb and nuclear components of the breakup, their interference and effect on the fusion process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J; Canto, L F; Otomar, D R; Hussein, M S
2015-01-01
We discuss reaction mechanisms involving weakly bound nuclei, at near barrier energies, and the couplings between different reaction channels. This paper may be thought as a brief description of state of the art of this field, particularly on breakup reactions and their influence on the fusion cross section. Recent experimental and theoretical results are presented, including the interference between Coulomb and nuclear components of the breakup and the systematics so far reached on the static effects due to the characteristic of weakly bound nuclei, especially halo-nuclei and the dynamic effects of the breakup coupling on the fusion cross section. (paper)
Coulomb blockade threshold in finite one-dimensional arrays of small tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lien, Nguyen V.; Dat, Nguyen T.; Nam, Nguyen H.
2001-11-01
The current-voltage characteristics of one-dimensional tunnel junction arrays are simulated using the semiclassical and full capacitance matrix description. The threshold voltage V th of the Coulomb blockade (CB) is evaluated and analyzed in detail as a function of the gate capacitance C 0 , the array length N, the temperature, and the degree of disorder. The disordered effect is found to be essential, while the long range interaction included in the full capacitance matrix calculations, when decreasing V th , weakly affects the qualitative behaviour of the CB for the V th (C 0 ) - and the V th (N)-dependences. (author)
Virtual particle-antiparticle pair formation by a scalar particle bound in an external Coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darewych, J.W.; Horbatsch, M.; Lev, B.I.; Shapoval, D.V.
1995-01-01
A Hamiltonian variational Fock-space method is used to describe scalar massive particles in an external Coulomb field with strength f=Zα. The use of an ansatz that includes a three-particle state in addition to a single-particle state built on the field-free vacuum enables one to highlight the role played by particle-antiparticle pair formation. Comparison is made with the Klein-Gordon equation in the Feshbach-Villars representation and it is shown explicitly how the virtual pair contribution corrects an O(f 5 ) deficiency present in the energy spectrum of the naive Schroedinger-type single-particle equation. ((orig.))
Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann
2010-12-14
A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.
Charge-carrier dynamics and Coulomb effects in semiconductor tetrapods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauser, Christian
2011-01-01
In this thesis the Coulomb interaction and its influence on localization effects and dynamics of charge carriers in semiconductor nanocrystals were studied. In the studied nanostructures it deals with colloidal tetrapod heterostructures, which consist of a cadmium selenide (CdSe) core and four tetraedrical grown cadmium sulfide (CdS) respectively cadmium telluride (CdTe) legs, which exhibit a type-I respectively type-II band transition. The dynamics and interactions were studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements both on the ensemble and on single nanoparticles, as well as time-resolved PL and transient absorption spectroscopy. Additionally theoretical simulations of the wave-function distributions were performed, which are based on the effective-mass approximation. The special band structure of the CdSe/CdS tetrapods offers a unique possibility to study the Coulomb interaction. The flat conduction band in these heterostructures makes the electron via the Coulomb interaction sensitive to the localization position of the hole within the structure. The valence band has instead a potential maximum in the CdSe, which leads to a directed localization of the hole and the photoluminescence of the core. Polarization-resolved measurements showed hereby an anisotropy of the photoluminescence, which could be explained by means of simulations of the wave-function distribution with an asymmetry at the branching point. Charge-carrier localization occur mainly both in longer structures and in trap states in the CdS leg and can be demonstrated in form of a dual emission from a nanocrystal. The charge-carrier dynamics of electron and hole in tetrapods is indeed coupled by the Coulomb interaction, however it cannot be completely described in an exciton picture. The coupled dynamics and the Coulomb interaction were studied concerning a possible influence of the geometry in CdSe/CdS nanorods and compared with those of the tetrapods. The interactions of the
Harb, Moussab; Masih, Dilshad; Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2014-01-01
with high accuracy using advanced first-principles quantum methods based on DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states are found
Spherical harmonic expansion of short-range screened Coulomb interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angyan, Janos G [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, UMR 7036, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gerber, Iann [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, UMR 7036, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marsman, Martijn [Institut fuer Materialphysik and Center for Computational Materials Science, Universitaet Wien, Sensengasse 8, A-1090, Vienna (Austria)
2006-07-07
Spherical harmonic expansions of the screened Coulomb interaction kernel involving the complementary error function are required in various problems in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, like for the evaluation of Ewald-type lattice sums or for range-separated hybrid density functionals. A general analytical expression is derived for the kernel, which is non-separable in the radial variables. With the help of series expansions a separable approximate form is proposed, which is in close analogy with the conventional multipole expansion of the Coulomb kernel in spherical harmonics. The convergence behaviour of these expansions is studied and illustrated by the electrostatic potential of an elementary charge distribution formed by products of Slater-type atomic orbitals.
Nucleon-nucleon correlations and the Coulomb Displacement Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Neck, D.; Waroquier, M.; Heyde, K.
1997-01-01
Coulomb Displacement Energies (CDE) are accurately known for a wide range of nuclear masses. Assuming isospin independence in the nuclear Hamiltonian, the CDE can in first instance be interpreted as the Coulomb interaction energy between the density of the excess neutrons and the proton charge density in the parent nucleus. However, when using reasonable mean-field models for the proton and neutron density one underestimates the CDE by about 8% on average. This discrepancy is known as the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, and various explanations have been put forward in the past. In this work the role of nucleon-nucleon correlations are re-examined. Calculations for the pair density functions in various nuclei are presented. Preliminary results suggest that the modifications to the mean-field pair density functions cause an enhancement of the CDE in the order of 4%, which is rather A-independent. (author)
Coulomb repulsion in (TMTSF)2X and (TMTTF)2X
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Kell; Engler, E. M.
1985-01-01
On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF-salts are ......On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF...
Prospects for coherently driven nuclear radiation by Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.
2006-01-01
Possible experiments are discussed in which the Coulomb excitation of nuclear isomers would be followed by sequential energy release. The possibility of the coherent Coulomb excitation of nuclei ensconced in a crystal by channeled relativistic heavy projectiles is considered. The phase shift between neighbor-nuclei excitations can be identical to the photon phase shift for emission in forward direction. Thus, the elementary string of atoms can radiate coherently with emission of characteristic nuclear γ rays and the intensity of the radiation could be increased due to the summation of amplitudes. The Moessbauer conditions should be important for this new type of collective radiation that could be promising in the context of the γ-lasing problem
Static and dynamic properties of two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.
Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosal, Amit
2017-10-01
We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions. The relaxation at multiple time scales show stretched-exponential decay of spatial correlations in irregular traps. Temperature dependence of characteristic time scales, depicting the structural relaxation of the system, show striking similarities with those observed for the glassy systems, indicating that some of the key signatures of supercooled liquids emerge in confinements with lower spatial symmetries.
Stability of Dirac Liquids with Strong Coulomb Interaction.
Tupitsyn, Igor S; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V
2017-01-13
We develop and apply the diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique to address the problem of the stability of the Dirac liquid state (in a graphene-type system) against the strong long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. So far, all attempts to deal with this problem in the field-theoretical framework were limited either to perturbative or random phase approximation and functional renormalization group treatments, with diametrically opposite conclusions. Our calculations aim at the approximation-free solution with controlled accuracy by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton diagrams and establishing the renormalization group flow of the effective Coulomb coupling constant. We unambiguously show that with increasing the system size L (up to ln(L)∼40), the coupling constant always flows towards zero; i.e., the two-dimensional Dirac liquid is an asymptotically free T=0 state with divergent Fermi velocity.
Coulomb effects in low-energy nuclear fragmentation
Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Francis F.; John, Sarah
1993-01-01
Early versions of the Langley nuclear fragmentation code NUCFRAG (and a publicly released version called HZEFRG1) assumed straight-line trajectories throughout the interaction. As a consequence, NUCFRAG and HZEFRG1 give unrealistic cross sections for large mass removal from the projectile and target at low energies. A correction for the distortion of the trajectory by the nuclear Coulomb fields is used to derive fragmentation cross sections. A simple energy-loss term is applied to estimate the energy downshifts that greatly alter the Coulomb trajectory at low energy. The results, which are far more realistic than prior versions of the code, should provide the data base for future transport calculations. The systematic behavior of charge-removal cross sections compares favorably with results from low-energy experiments.
A Coulomb collision algorithm for weighted particle simulations
Miller, Ronald H.; Combi, Michael R.
1994-01-01
A binary Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particle simulations employing Monte Carlo techniques. Charged particles within a given spatial grid cell are pair-wise scattered, explicitly conserving momentum and implicitly conserving energy. A similar algorithm developed by Takizuka and Abe (1977) conserves momentum and energy provided the particles are unweighted (each particle representing equal fractions of the total particle density). If applied as is to simulations incorporating weighted particles, the plasma temperatures equilibrate to an incorrect temperature, as compared to theory. Using the appropriate pairing statistics, a Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particles. The algorithm conserves energy and momentum and produces the appropriate relaxation time scales as compared to theoretical predictions. Such an algorithm is necessary for future work studying self-consistent multi-species kinetic transport.
Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene
Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.
2015-01-01
In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955
Coulomb artifacts and bottomonium hyperfine splitting in lattice NRQCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, T. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Penin, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rayyan, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)
2017-02-16
We study the role of the lattice artifacts associated with the Coulomb binding effects in the analysis of the heavy quarkonium within lattice NRQCD. We find that a “naïve” perturbative matching generates spurious linear Coulomb artifacts, which result in a large systematic error in the lattice predictions for the heavy quarkonium spectrum. This effect is responsible, in particular, for the discrepancy between the recent determinations of the bottomonium hyperfine splitting in the radiatively improved lattice NRQCD (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.054502; Arxiv:1309.5797). We show that the correct matching procedure which provides full control over discretization errors is based on the asymptotic expansion of the lattice theory about the continuum limit, which gives M{sub Υ(1S)}−M{sub η{sub b(1S)}}=52.9±5.5 MeV (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.054502).
Coulomb excitation of atoms by fast multicharged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yudin, G.L.
1980-01-01
Investigated is coulomb eXcitation of discrete levels of a hydrogen-like atom by a fast multicharged ion. Obtained are dependences of probabilities of channels 1S→nS and 1S→nP on the sight parameter in the zero order of sudden excitation theory. 1S-2S transition is considered in detail. Carried out are calculations for excitation of the hydrogen atom by the wholy bare carbon atom. It is shown, that at low values of excitation pr.ocess parameter eta excitation probability is a monotonously decreasing function of the impact parameter. With the growth of eta the situation is changed, and at low impact parameters the probability of 1S-2S transition is decreased. At high impact parameters approximation of sudden excitations is unacceptable, here lagging of coulomb interaction is essential
Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussein M. S.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.
An entropic form for NLFP with coulombic-like potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, A.
2012-01-01
Here it is proposed a new entropy form for which it is possible to obtain a stationary solution of the Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation (NLFP) with coulombic-like potentials. The general properties of this new entropy form are shown and the results are compared with those obtained by other entropy forms. Finally, the behavior of the stationary solution in presence of two point charges is also shown. -- Highlights: ► In this Letter we have proposed a new form of entropy. ► Starting from this new entropy form a Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation has been derived. ► The stationary solution of the Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation is obtained by using an external coulombic-like potential. ► A comparison with other forms of entropies has been proposed in the case of a single or two point charges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macdonald, E.W.; Shotter, A.C.; Branford, D.; Rahighi, J.; Davinson, T.; Davis, N.J.
1992-01-01
Kinematically complete data is presented on the break-up reaction 120 Sn( 9 Be, 8 Be g.s +n) 120 Sn g.s. at E beam =90 MeV for several scattering angles inside the grazing angle. These data are compared with the predictions of a Coulomb break-up model. It is shown that the data can be understood in terms of the Coulomb model provided some account is taken of the interactions of the break-up fragments with the target. Analysis of the 9 Be break-up data, using radio-isotope measurements of the 9 Be(γ, n) cross-section, indicates that for this photo-disintegration reaction there is probably a significant direct component to the threshold cross-section, in addition to a threshold resonance at 1.69 MeV. (orig.)
Coulomb oscillations in three-layer graphene nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guettinger, J; Stampfer, C; Molitor, F; Graf, D; Ihn, T; Ensslin, K
2008-01-01
We present transport measurements on a tunable three-layer graphene single electron transistor (SET). The device consists of an etched three-layer graphene flake with two narrow constrictions separating the island from source and drain contacts. Three lateral graphene gates are used to electrostatically tune the device. An individual three-layer graphene constriction has been investigated separately showing a transport gap near the charge neutrality point. The graphene tunneling barriers show a strongly nonmonotonic coupling as a function of gate voltage indicating the presence of localized states in the constrictions. We show Coulomb oscillations and Coulomb diamond measurements proving the functionality of the graphene SET. A charging energy of ∼0.6 meV is extracted.
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; Lutz, W.; McMullan, D.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
An infinite family of superintegrable deformations of the Coulomb potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, Sarah; Winternitz, Pavel
2010-01-01
We introduce a new family of Hamiltonians with a deformed Kepler-Coulomb potential dependent on an indexing parameter k. We show that this family is superintegrable for all rational k and compute the classical trajectories and quantum wavefunctions. We show that this system is related, via coupling constant metamorphosis, to a family of superintegrable deformations of the harmonic oscillator given by Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz. In doing so, we prove that all Hamiltonians with an oscillator term are related by coupling constant metamorphosis to systems with a Kepler-Coulomb term, both on Euclidean space. We also look at the effect of the transformation on the integrals of the motion, the classical trajectories and the wavefunctions, and give the transformed integrals explicitly for the classical system. (fast track communication)
An infinite family of superintegrable deformations of the Coulomb potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Post, Sarah [Centre de recherches mathematiques, CP 6128 succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Winternitz, Pavel, E-mail: post@CRM.UMontreal.C, E-mail: wintern@CRM.UMontreal.C [Centre de recherches mathematiques and Departement de mathematiques et de statistique, CP 6128 succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2010-06-04
We introduce a new family of Hamiltonians with a deformed Kepler-Coulomb potential dependent on an indexing parameter k. We show that this family is superintegrable for all rational k and compute the classical trajectories and quantum wavefunctions. We show that this system is related, via coupling constant metamorphosis, to a family of superintegrable deformations of the harmonic oscillator given by Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz. In doing so, we prove that all Hamiltonians with an oscillator term are related by coupling constant metamorphosis to systems with a Kepler-Coulomb term, both on Euclidean space. We also look at the effect of the transformation on the integrals of the motion, the classical trajectories and the wavefunctions, and give the transformed integrals explicitly for the classical system. (fast track communication)
Unsafe Coulomb excitation of $^{240-244}Pu$
Wiedenhöver, I; Hackman, L; Ahmad, I; Greene, J P; Amro, H; Carpenter, M P; Nisius, D T; Reiter, P; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; Khoo, T L; Siem, S; Cizewski, J A; Seweryniak, D; Uusitalo, J; Macchiavelli, A O; Chowdhury, P; Seabury, E H; Cline, D; Wu, C Y
1999-01-01
The high spin states of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 244/Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a /sup 208/Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to /sup 242/Pu were obtained as well. In the case of /sup 244/Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h(cross), revealing the completed pi i/sub 13/2/ alignment, a "first" for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of /sup 242/Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of /sup 240/Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (~300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. (11 refs).
Unified approach to probing Coulomb effects in tunnel ionization for any ellipticity of laser light.
Landsman, A S; Hofmann, C; Pfeiffer, A N; Cirelli, C; Keller, U
2013-12-27
We present experimental data that show significant deviations from theoretical predictions for the location of the center of the electron momenta distribution at low values of ellipticity ε of laser light. We show that these deviations are caused by significant Coulomb focusing along the minor axis of polarization, something that is normally neglected in the analysis of electron dynamics, even in cases where the Coulomb correction is otherwise taken into account. By investigating ellipticity-resolved electron momenta distributions in the plane of polarization, we show that Coulomb focusing predominates at lower values of ellipticity of laser light, while Coulomb asymmetry becomes important at higher values, showing that these two complementary phenomena can be used to probe long-range Coulomb interaction at all polarizations of laser light. Our results suggest that both the breakdown of Coulomb focusing and the onset of Coulomb asymmetry are linked to the disappearance of Rydberg states with increasing ellipticity.
On Coulomb collisions in bi-Maxwellian plasmas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2009-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 5 (2009), 054501/1-054501/4 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Coulomb collisions * transport coefficients * bi-Maxwellian distribution function Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?PHPAEN/16/054501/1
Extended Kepler–Coulomb quantum superintegrable systems in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalnins, E G; Kress, J M; Miller, W Jr
2013-01-01
The quantum Kepler–Coulomb system in three dimensions is well known to be second order superintegrable, with a symmetry algebra that closes polynomially under commutators. This polynomial closure is also typical for second order superintegrable systems in 2D and for second order systems in 3D with nondegenerate (four-parameter) potentials. However, the degenerate three-parameter potential for the 3D Kepler–Coulomb system (also second order superintegrable) is an exception, as its symmetry algebra does not close polynomially. The 3D four-parameter potential for the extended Kepler–Coulomb system is not even second order superintegrable, but Verrier and Evans (2008 J. Math. Phys. 49 022902) showed it was fourth order superintegrable, and Tanoudis and Daskaloyannis (2011 arXiv:11020397v1) showed that, if a second fourth order symmetry is added to the generators, the symmetry algebra closes polynomially. Here, based on the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz construction, we consider an infinite class of quantum extended Kepler–Coulomb three- and four-parameter systems indexed by a pair of rational numbers (k 1 , k 2 ) and reducing to the usual systems when k 1 = k 2 = 1. We show these systems to be superintegrable of arbitrarily high order and determine the structure of their symmetry algebras. We demonstrate that the symmetry algebras close algebraically; only for systems admitting extra discrete symmetries is polynomial closure achieved. Underlying the structure theory is the existence of raising and lowering operators, not themselves symmetry operators or even defined independent of basis, that can be employed to construct the symmetry operators and their structure relations. (paper)
Coulomb interaction rules timescales in potassium ion channel tunneling
De March, N.; Prado, S. D.; Brunnet, L. G.
2018-06-01
Assuming the selectivity filter of KcsA potassium ion channel may exhibit quantum coherence, we extend a previous model by Vaziri and Plenio (2010 New J. Phys. 12 085001) to take into account Coulomb repulsion between potassium ions. We show that typical ion transit timescales are determined by this interaction, which imposes optimal input/output parameter ranges. Also, as observed in other examples of quantum tunneling in biological systems, the addition of moderate noise helps coherent ion transport.
Coulomb reacceleration as a clock for nuclear reactions -- II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C.A.; Bertsch, G.F.
1994-01-01
Reacceleration effects in the Coulomb breakup of nuclei are modeled with the two-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation, extending a previous one-dimensional study. The present model better describes the individual contributions of longitudinal and transverse forces to the breakup and reacceleration. Reacceleration effects are found to preserve a strong memory of the pre-breakup phase of the reaction, as was concluded with the one-dimensional model
Space charge-limited emission studies using Coulomb's Law
Carr, Christopher G.
2004-01-01
Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Child and Langmuir introduced a solution to space charge limited emission in an infinite area planar diode. The solution follows from starting with Poisson's equation, and requires solving a non-linear differential equation. This approach can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical geometries, but only for one-dimensional cases. By approaching the problem from Coulomb's law and applying the effect of an assumed charge distribution...
Existence for viscoplastic contact with Coulomb friction problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amina Amassad
2002-01-01
frictional contact between an elastic-viscoplastic body and a rigid obstacle. We model the frictional contact both by a Tresca's friction law and a regularized Coulomb's law. We assume, in a first part, that the contact is bilateral and that no separation takes place. In a second part, we consider the Signorini unilateral contact conditions. Proofs are based on a time-discretization method, Banach and Schauder fixed point theorems.
Probing Minicharged Particles with Tests of Coulomb's Law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeckel, Joerg
2009-01-01
Minicharged particles arise in many extensions of the standard model. Their contribution to the vacuum polarization modifies Coulomb's law via the Uehling potential. In this Letter, we argue that tests for electromagnetic fifth forces can therefore be a sensitive probe of minicharged particles. In the low mass range < or approx. μeV existing constraints from Cavendish type experiments provide the best model-independent bounds on minicharged particles.
Many-Body Coulomb Gauge Exotic and Charmed Hybrids
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.
2000-01-01
Utilizing a QCD Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian with linear confinement specified by lattice, we report a relativistic many-body calculation for the light exotic and charmed hybrid mesons. The Hamiltonian successfully describes both quark and gluon sectors, with vacuum and quasiparticle properties generated by a BCS transformation and more elaborate TDA and RPA diagonalizations for the meson ($q\\bar{q}$) and glueball ($gg$) masses. Hybrids entail a computationally intense relativistic three quasipa...
Superheavy Elements and Beyond: - Supercritical Coulomb Field and Giant Quasiatoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, Walter
2007-01-01
The status of theory of Superheavy Nuclei is reviewed. Based with the Two-Center Shell Model Potential Energy Surfaces are calculated. Fusion, fission, quasifission and other processes are discussed. I particular time-delay during the formation of giant quasi atoms/molecules will be crucial for observing the change of the Dirac vacuum in supercritical Coulomb fields by spontaneous positron emission. It will be shown how the various phenomena are interrelated
An Algorithm for Computing Screened Coulomb Scattering in Geant4
Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Weller, Robert A.
2004-01-01
An algorithm has been developed for the Geant4 Monte-Carlo package for the efficient computation of screened Coulomb interatomic scattering. It explicitly integrates the classical equations of motion for scattering events, resulting in precise tracking of both the projectile and the recoil target nucleus. The algorithm permits the user to plug in an arbitrary screening function, such as Lens-Jensen screening, which is good for backscattering calculations, or Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark screenin...
Coulomb two-body problem with internal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuperin, Yu.A.; Makarov, K.A.; Mel'nikov, Yu.B.
1988-01-01
The methods of the theory of extensions to an enlarged Hilbert space are used to construct a model of the interaction of the external (Coulomb) and internal (quark) channels in the two-body problem. The mutual influence of the spectra of the corresponding channel Hamiltonians is studied: it leads, in particular, to a rearrangement of the spectra of hadronic atoms. An explicit representation is obtained for the S matrix, and its singularities on the energy shell are studied
Sine-Gordon mean field theory of a Coulomb gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Alexandre; Barbosa, Marcia C.; Levin, Yan
1997-12-31
Full text. The Coulomb gas provides a paradigm for the study of various models of critical phenomena. In particular, it is well known that the two dimensional (2 D). Coulomb gas can be directly used to study the superfluidity transition in {sup 4} He films, arrays of Josephson junctions, roughening transition, etc. Not withstanding its versatility, our full understanding of the most basic model of Coulomb gas, namely an ensemble of hard spheres carrying either positive or negative charges at their center, is still lacking. It is now well accepted that at low density the two dimensional plasma of equal number of positive and negative particles undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) metal insulator transition. This transition is of an infinite order and is characterized by a diverging Debye screening length. As the density of particles increases, the validity of the KT theory becomes questionable and the possibility of the KT transition being replaced by some kind of first order discontinuity has been speculated for a long time. In this work sine-Gordon field theory is used to investigate the phase diagram of a neutral Coulomb gas. A variational mean-field free energy is constructed and the corresponding phase diagrams in two and three dimensions are obtained. When analyzed in terms of chemical potential, the sine-Gordon theory predicts the phase diagram topologically identical to the Monte Carlo simulations and a recently developed Debye-Huckel-Bjerrum theory. In 2D, we find that the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless line terminates in a tricritical point, after which the metal-insulator transition becomes first order. However, when the transformation from chemical potential to the density is made the whole insulating phase is mapped onto zero density. (author)
Multiple Coulomb ordered strings of ions in a storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, Rainer W.
2002-01-01
We explain that the anomalous frequency shifts of very close masses measured in the high precision mass measurement experiments in the ESR storage ring result from the locking of Coulomb interacting strings of ions. Here two concentric strings which run horizontally close to each other for many revolutions are captured into a single string if their thermal clouds overlap. They give up their identity and lock into an average frequency
Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhemchuzhna, Liubov, E-mail: lzhemchuzhna@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Gao, Bo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2015-03-15
A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N = 3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.
Coulomb energy differences in mirror nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenzi, Silvia M
2006-01-01
By comparing the excitation energies of analogue states in mirror nuclei, several nuclear structure properties can be studied as a function of the angular momentum up to high spin states. They can be described in the shell model framework by including electromagnetic and nuclear isospin-non-conserving interactions. Calculations for the mirror energy differences in nuclei of the f 7/2 shell are described and compared with recent experimental data. These studies are extended to mirror nuclei in the upper sd and fp shells
Engineering drag currents in Coulomb coupled quantum dots
Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2018-02-01
The Coulomb drag phenomenon in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot system is revisited with a simple model that highlights the importance of simultaneous tunneling of electrons. Previously, cotunneling effects on the drag current in mesoscopic setups have been reported both theoretically and experimentally. However, in both cases the sequential tunneling contribution to the drag current was always present unless the drag level position were too far away from resonance. Here, we consider the case of very large Coulomb interaction between the dots, whereby the drag current needs to be assisted by cotunneling events. As a consequence, a quantum coherent drag effect takes place. Further, we demonstrate that by properly engineering the tunneling probabilities using band tailoring it is possible to control the sign of the drag and drive currents, allowing them to flow in parallel or antiparallel directions. We also show that the drag current can be manipulated by varying the drag gate potential and is thus governed by electron- or hole-like transport.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5 GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Effect of Coulomb stress on the Gutenberg-Richter law
Navas-Portella, V.; Corral, A.; Jimenez, A.
2017-12-01
Coulomb stress theory has been used for years in seismology to understand how earthquakes trigger each other. Whenever an earthquake occurs, the stress field changes in its neighbourhood, with places with positive values brought closer to failure, whereas negative values distance away that location from failure. Earthquake models that relate rate changes and Coulomb stress after a main event, such as the rate-and-state model, assume negative and positive stress values affect rate changes according to the same functional form. As a first order approximation, under uniform background seismicity before the main event, different values of the b-exponent in the Gutenberg-Richter law would indicate different behaviour for positive and negative stress. In this work, we study the Gutenberg-Richter law in the aftershock sequence of the Landers earthquake (California, 1992, MW=7.3). By using a statistically based fitting method, we discuss whether the sign of Coulomb stresses and the distance to the fault have a significant effect on the value of the b-exponent.
Quasi-exactly solvable relativistic soft-core Coulomb models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agboola, Davids, E-mail: davagboola@gmail.com; Zhang, Yao-Zhong, E-mail: yzz@maths.uq.edu.au
2012-09-15
By considering a unified treatment, we present quasi exact polynomial solutions to both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with the family of soft-core Coulomb potentials V{sub q}(r)=-Z/(r{sup q}+{beta}{sup q}){sup 1/q}, Z>0, {beta}>0, q{>=}1. We consider cases q=1 and q=2 and show that both cases are reducible to the same basic ordinary differential equation. A systematic and closed form solution to the basic equation is obtained using the Bethe ansatz method. For each case, the expressions for the energies and the allowed parameters are obtained analytically and the wavefunctions are derived in terms of the roots of a set of Bethe ansatz equations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relativistic bound-state solutions of the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasi-exact treatments of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solutions obtained in terms of the roots to the Bethe ansatz equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hidden Lie algebraic structure discussed for the models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results useful in describing mesonic atoms and interaction of intense laser fields with atom.
Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus Na20
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2009-10-01
The low-energy structure of the proton dripline nucleus Na20 has been studied using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. A 1.7-MeV/nucleon Na20 beam of ~5×106 ions/s was Coulomb excited by a 0.5-mg/cm2natTi target. Scattered beam and target particles were detected by the BAMBINO segmented Si detector while γ rays were detected by two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors set perpendicular to the beam axis. Coulomb excitation from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states was observed, and B(λL) values were determined using the 2+→0+ de-excitation in Ti48 as a reference. The resulting B(λL)↓ values are B(E2;3+→2+)=55±6e2fm4 (17.0±1.9 W.u.), B(E2;4+→2+)=35.7±5.7e2fm4 (11.1±1.8 W.u.), and B(M1;4+→3+)=0.154±0.030μN2 (0.086±0.017 W.u.). These measurements provide the first experimental determination of B(λL) values for this proton dripline nucleus of astrophysical interest.
A complex angular momentum theory of modified Coulomb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thylwe, K.E.; Connor, J.N.L.
1985-01-01
The paper develops an exact complex angular momentum (CAM) theory of elastic scattering for a complex optical potential with a Coulombic tail. The present CAM theory avoids complications due to the long range nature of the Coulombic potential in a straightforward way. The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation together with a travelling wave (near-side far-side) decomposition, is used to obtain an exact representation for the scattering amplitude f(theta) in terms of a background integral fsub(B)(theta) and a series of subamplitudes fsup((+-))sub(n)(theta). New exact representations are derived for fsub(B)(theta) when the scattering matrix element S(lambda) possesses local symmetries of the type S(-lambda)=S(lambda)exp(+-2iπlambda) and S(-lambda)=S(lambda). The exact results obtained in this paper unify the CAM theory of scattering for Coulombic and short range potentials and are especially suitable for the introduction of semiclassical approximations. (author)
Interaction of charged 3D soliton with Coulomb center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rybakov, Yu.P.
1996-03-01
The Einstein - de Broglie particle-soliton concept is applied to simulate stationary states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. According to this concept, the electron is described by the localized regular solutions to some nonlinear equations. In the framework of Synge model for interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields a system of integral equations has been obtained, which describes the interaction between charged 3D soliton and Coulomb center. The asymptotic expressions for physical fields, describing soliton moving around the fixed Coulomb center, have been obtained with the help of integral equations. It is shown that the electron-soliton center travels along some stationary orbit around the Coulomb center. The electromagnetic radiation is absent as the Poynting vector has non-wave asymptote O(r -3 ) after averaging over angles, i.e. the existence of spherical surface corresponding to null Poynting vector stream, has been proved. Vector lines for Poynting vector are constructed in asymptotical area. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?
Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I
2015-11-19
The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.
Aspects of confinement in a functional approach to coulomb gauge QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtenegger, K. G.
2010-01-01
The topic of this thesis are aspects of the confinement phenomenon in Coulomb gauge Quantum Chromodynamics.First we investigated the quark gap equation with an infrared-divergent Coulomb gluon propagator D00. As an extension to studies performed so far, some forms of an infrared-divergent spatial quark-gluon vertex have been tested, but the results remain inconclusive. There is, however, considerable evidence that some infrared dressing is required in order to obtain quantitatively reliable results. The numerical studies performed in this thesis indicate that neither the vertex form derived from the approximate Abelian Ward-Takahashi identity nor a globally divergent vertex is fit for this purpose.In addition, finite-temperature studies of pure gauge theory have been performed: On the one hand the Gribov-Zwanziger approach has been extended to the deconfined phase of Yang-Mills theory. The resulting equation has been solved numerically, which yields the Gribov mass. From this, the free energy, the interaction measure and the bulk viscosity have been determined. On the other hand, the asymptotic infrared behaviour of Dyson-Schwinger equations in Coulomb gauge have been analyzed. They yield a more than linearly rising potential for three spatial dimensions. A result which has yet to be understood.Apart from the two main topics, this thesis contains a pedagogic presentation of some peculiarities of non-Abelian gauge theories and several smaller conjectures and findings: This includes a proposal to systematize the set of gauges by introduction of an approriate metric, a discussion of the role of interpolating gauges and the use of to non-integrable potentials as well as a general expression for the number of components in the tensor decomposition of arbitrary Green functions. (author) [de
Heating systems for heating subsurface formations
Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX
2011-04-26
Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.
Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R
2011-10-13
In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamics of strong coupling superconductors including the effect of anisotropy
Daams, J. M.; Carbotte, J. P.
1981-05-01
The thermodynamics of several elemental superconductors is computed from isotropic Eliashberg theory formulated on the imaginary frequency axis. A symmary of the available experimental literature is presented and a comparison with theory is given. The small disagreements that are found are all in the direction expected from anisotropy effects. We calculate the effect of a small amount of model anisotropy on the critical temperature, critical field, and high-temperature specific heat from an exact solution of the anisotropic Eliashberg equations. These are the first such results below the critical temperature; unlike previous analytical work, we include retardation, anisotropy in the mass enhancement, and the effect of the Coulomb repulsion in enhancing anisotropy, all of which are significant. We derive a new formula independent of any model anisotropy for the rate of decrease with impurity lifetime of the critical temperature. Finally we demonstrate how the commonly used formulas of Markowitz and Kadanoff and of Clem may give entirely misleading estimates of the gap anisotropy when used to interpret certain experiments.
Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M
2014-01-01
Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan E Nuss
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinh Mau, N.
1987-03-01
In a model including approximately a large set of non elastic channels, the real and imaginary potentials are consistently derived. The anomaly of the real potential which sharply increases in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier where the imaginary potential is strongly reduced is studied in 16 0+ 40 Ca and 16 O+ 208 Pb systems. The results on the imaginary potential are discussed and compared to our previous calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.
1984-01-01
Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Guangping; Lin, Bihong; Wu, Guocan
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A new model of the quantum dot refrigeration devices is established. • The effects of the Zeeman and Coulomb effects on performance are discussed. • Maximum cooling rate and coefficient of performance are calculated. • Upper boundary of the optimal region of the device is discussed. • Optimum choice criteria of some important parameters are provided. - Abstract: A general class of quantum dot refrigeration devices, which is consisting of a single orbital interacting quantum dot and two metal leads with different temperatures and chemical potentials, is established. In the model, not only the Zeeman splitting of energy levels resulting from an external magnetic field but also the effect of a linear fade of the Coulomb energy caused by the splitting are taken into account simultaneously. Based on the quantum master equation, the occupation probabilities of quantum states for the electron are determined under the steady state condition. The general expressions of the particle fluxes, heat flows, power input, cooling rate and the coefficient of performance (COP) are derived. The influences of the energy level and external magnetic field on the performance of the refrigerator are discussed in detail. By applying numerical simulations, three-dimensional diagrams of the cooling rate and COP varying with the magnetic field and energy level are given. The maximum COP and the optimal values of corresponding parameters as well as the maximum cooling rate are obtained. The optimal regions of the magnetic field and the energy level are determined. The optimized scopes of the COP and cooling rate are provided. Some important conclusions in the previous literatures can be directly deduced from the current model under the different extreme conditions.
Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn
1991-01-01
Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.
Barron, Randall F
2016-01-01
Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N
2006-01-01
.... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericsson, Karin; Boerjesson, Paal
2008-01-15
The objective of this study is to analyse how the use of biomass may increase in the next 10-20 years in production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels in Sweden. In these analyses, the biomass is assumed to be used in a resource and cost efficient way. This means for example that the demand for heat determines the potential use of biomass in co-generation of heat and electricity and in energy combines, and that the markets for by-products determine the use of biomass in production of certain transportation fuels. The economic conditions are not analysed in this study. In the heat and electricity production sector, we make regional analyses of the potential use of biomass in production of small-scale heat, district heat, process heat in the forest industry and electricity produced in co-generation with heat in the district heating systems and forest industry. These analyses show that the use of biomass in heat and electricity production could increase from 87 TWh (the use in 2004/2005, excluding small-scale heat production with firewood) to between 113 TWh and 134 TWh, depending on the future expansion of the district heating systems. Geographically, the Stockholm province accounts for a large part of the potential increase owing to the great opportunities for increasing the use of biomass in production of district heat and CHP in this region. In the sector of transportation fuels we applied a partly different approach since we consider the market for biomass-based transportation fuels to be 'unconstrained' within the next 10-20 years. Factors that constrain the production of these fuels are instead the availability of biomass feedstock and the local conditions required for achieving effective production systems. Among the first generation biofuels this report focuses on RME and ethanol from cereals. We estimate that the domestic production of RME and ethanol could amount to up to 1.4 TWh/y and 0.7-3.8 TWh/y, respectively, where the higher figure
Coulombic faulting from the grain scale to the geophysical scale: lessons from ice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiss, Jerome [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Schulson, Erland M, E-mail: weiss@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.f, E-mail: Erland.M.Schulson@Dartmouth.ED [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755 (United States)
2009-11-07
Coulombic faulting, a concept formulated more than two centuries ago, still remains pertinent in describing the brittle compressive failure of various materials, including rocks and ice. Many questions remain, however, about the physical processes underlying this macroscopic phenomenology. This paper reviews the progress made in these directions during the past few years through the study of ice and its mechanical behaviour in both the laboratory and the field. Fault triggering is associated with the formation of specific features called comb-cracks and involves frictional sliding at the micro(grain)-scale. Similar mechanisms are observed at geophysical scales within the sea ice cover. This scale-independent physics is expressed by the same Coulombic phenomenology from laboratory to geophysical scales, with a very similar internal friction coefficient ({mu} {approx} 0.8). On the other hand, the cohesion strongly decreases with increasing spatial scale, reflecting the role of stress concentrators on fault initiation. Strong similarities also exist between ice and other brittle materials such as rocks and minerals and between faulting of the sea ice cover and Earth's crust, arguing for the ubiquitous nature of the underlying physics.
Coulomb Excitation of a Neutron-Rich $^{88}$Kr Beam Search for Mixed Symmetry States
Andreoiu, C; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S
2002-01-01
We propose to use the ISOLDE/REX/MINIBALL/CD set-up to perform a Coulomb Excitation experiment with a $^{88}$Kr radioactive beam. The motivation includes a search for $Mixed$ $Symmetry$ states predicted by the IBM-2 model, gathering more spectroscopy data about the $^{88}$Kr nucleus and extending shape coexistence studies (performed previously by the proposers for neutron-deficient Kr isotopes) to the neutron-rich side. The proposed experiment will provide data complementary to the Coulomb Excitation of a relativistic $^{88}$Kr beam proposed by D. Tonev et al. for a RISING experiment. A total of 12 days of beam time is necessary for the experiment, equally divided into two runs. One run with a 2.2 MeV/A beam energy on a $^{48}$Ti target and a second run with the maximum available REX energy of 3.1 MeV/A on a $^{208}$Pb target are requested. Using either a UC$_{x}$ or ThC$_{x}$ fissioning primary target coupled with a plasma source by a cooled transfer line seems to be the best choice for the proposed experime...
Extensive degeneracy, Coulomb phase and magnetic monopoles in artificial square ice.
Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas
2016-12-15
Artificial spin-ice systems are lithographically patterned arrangements of interacting magnetic nanostructures that were introduced as way of investigating the effects of geometric frustration in a controlled manner. This approach has enabled unconventional states of matter to be visualized directly in real space, and has triggered research at the frontier between nanomagnetism, statistical thermodynamics and condensed matter physics. Despite efforts to create an artificial realization of the square-ice model-a two-dimensional geometrically frustrated spin-ice system defined on a square lattice-no simple geometry based on arrays of nanomagnets has successfully captured the macroscopically degenerate ground-state manifold of the model. Instead, square lattices of nanomagnets are characterized by a magnetically ordered ground state that consists of local loop configurations with alternating chirality. Here we show that all of the characteristics of the square-ice model are observed in an artificial square-ice system that consists of two sublattices of nanomagnets that are vertically separated by a small distance. The spin configurations we image after demagnetizing our arrays reveal unambiguous signatures of a Coulomb phase and algebraic spin-spin correlations, which are characterized by the presence of 'pinch' points in the associated magnetic structure factor. Local excitations-the classical analogues of magnetic monopoles-are free to evolve in an extensively degenerate, divergence-free vacuum. We thus provide a protocol that could be used to investigate collective magnetic phenomena, including Coulomb phases and the physics of ice-like materials.
Fusion and particle transfer around the Coulomb-Barrier in intermediate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascholati, P.R.
1989-01-01
The most important characteristics of fusion reactions below and around the Coulomb-barrier are summarized. Experimental fusion cross sections for typical systems are discussed and compared with current formulae obtained from semi-classical and quantum tunneling approaches. The influence of nucleons transfer in the enhancement of the fusion cross section below the Coulomb-barrier is also shown. Sub-barrier fusion cross sections for the systems 35,37 Cl + 58,64 Ni and 33 S + 90,91,92 Zr, and near-barrier cross sections of all important transfer channels have been measured using the XTU-TANDEM at Legnaro, Italy. In 35,37 Cl + 58,64 Ni systems, the motivation further investigated was the influence of the valence proton in the enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross section. The data are discussed in comparison with the similar data of 34,36 S + 58,64 Ni with the aim of revealing the influence of coupled proton transfer channels. Calculations were performed using the simplified coupled channel code CCFUS including ''pick-up'' of one and two neutrons and ''stripping'' of two neutrons channels. Signatures of positive Q-values transfer channels coupled to fusion were clearly identified. For the 33 S + 90,91,92 Zr systems taking into account the coupling effects between transfer and fusion and using the semi-classical approach, transfer form-factors were extracted and succesfully employed to described the isotopic effects in fusion enhancement. (Author) [es
Rigorous study of the mean field approximation of Debye and Hueckel for Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, T.G.
1984-01-01
The statistical mechanics of a classical charge symmetric Coulomb system is studied in three dimensions in the limit that the plasma parameter (the inverse temperature divided by the Debye length) goes to zero. To make the system stable, a short range interaction, e.g., hard cores is included. This short range interaction is allowed to go to zero as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Debye and Hueckel used a mean field approximation to give a nonrigorous study of Coulomb systems in his limit. For a system with no external charge distribution, it is shown that the pressure, density, and correlation functions are asymptotic to their Debye-Hueckel approximations. These approximations consist of the ideal gas term plus a term of one lower order in the plasma parameter. The main tools are the Sine-Gordon transformation, the Mayer expansion, and some new correlation inequalities. The sine-Gordon transformation and the Mayer expansion are used to express the observables as functional integrals with respect to a Gaussian measure. The correlation inequalities help control these functional integrals
A particle-in-cell method for modeling small angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, S.E.
1989-01-01
We propose a computational method to self-consistently model small angle collisional effects. This method may be added to standard Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma simulations to include collisions, or as an alternative to solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation using finite difference methods. The distribution function is represented by a large number of particles. The particle velocities change due to the drag force, and the diffusion in velocity is represented by a random process. This is similar to previous Monte-Carlo methods except we calculate the drag force and diffusion tensor self- consistently. The particles are weighted to a grid in velocity space and associated ''Poisson equations'' are solved for the Rosenbluth potentials. The motivation is to avoid the very time consuming method of Coulomb scattering pair by pair. First the approximation for small angle Coulomb collisions is discussed. Next, the FP-PIC collision method is outlined. Then we show a test of the particle advance modeling an electron beam scattering off a fixed ion background. 4 refs
... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...
Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...
Coulomb stress analysis of the 21 February 2008 Mw= 6.0 Wells, Nevada, earthquake
Sevilgen, Volkan
2011-01-01
Static Coulomb stress changes imparted by the February 21, 2008 Wells, Nevada earthquake are calculated, using an 8 x 6 km rectangular patch with a uniform slip as a source fault. Stress changes are resolved on nearby active faults using their rake, dip, and strike direction, assuming a fault friction of 0.4. The largest Coulomb stress increase (0.2 bars) imparted to surrounding major active faults from the Wells earthquake occurs on the Clover Hill fault, which may be the southern continuation of the ruptured fault. A 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase is calculated on the western Snake Mountains fault. Coulomb stress decreases of 0.5 bars are calculated for the northern parts of the Independence and Ruby Mountains faults. The Coulomb stress change is calculated on relocated aftershocks assuming that they have the same strike, dip, and rake, as the source fault. Under this assumption, 75% of the aftershocks received a Coulomb stress increase.
A proposal for Coulomb assisted laser cooling of piezoelectric semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: hmohseni@ece.northwestern.edu [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2014-07-28
Anti-Stokes laser cooling of semiconductors as a compact and vibration-free method is very attractive. While it has achieved significant milestones, increasing its efficiency is highly desirable. The main limitation is the lack of the pristine material quality with high luminescence efficiency. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the Coulomb interaction among electrons and holes in piezoelectric heterostructures could lead to coherent damping of acoustic phonons; rendering a significantly higher efficiency that leads to the possibility of cooling a broad range of semiconductors.
Scattering of strongly absorbed particles near the Coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, B.
1979-01-01
The elastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles near the Coulomb barrier is sensitive to one size parameter, which is the distance at which the real nuclear potential has some fixed value, 0.2 MeV for α-particle, 1 MeV for 16 O. This size parameter can be related in a simple way to the radial distance of the target nucleus where the density takes some given value, 2x10 -3 nucleon /fm 3 for α-particle scattering and 5x10 -3 nucleon/fm 3 for 16 O scattering
Ice limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.
2008-01-01
In this paper we describe gauge invariant multiquark states generalizing the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio, and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is illustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark-antiquark potential.
Coulomb interactions via local dynamics: a molecular-dynamics algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasichnyk, Igor; Duenweg, Burkhard
2004-01-01
We derive and describe in detail a recently proposed method for obtaining Coulomb interactions as the potential of mean force between charges which are dynamically coupled to a local electromagnetic field. We focus on the molecular dynamics version of the method and show that it is intimately related to the Car-Parrinello approach, while being equivalent to solving Maxwell's equations with a freely adjustable speed of light. Unphysical self-energies arise as a result of the lattice interpolation of charges, and are corrected by a subtraction scheme based on the exact lattice Green function. The method can be straightforwardly parallelized using standard domain decomposition. Some preliminary benchmark results are presented
The rotational temperature of polar molecular ions in Coulomb crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertelsen, Anders; Joergensen, Solvejg; Drewsen, Michael
2006-01-01
With MgH + ions as a test case, we investigate to what extent the rotational motion of smaller polar molecular ions sympathetically cooled into Coulomb crystals in linear Paul traps couples to the translational motions of the ion ensemble. By comparing the results obtained from rotational resonance-enhanced multiphoton photo-dissociation experiments with data from theoretical simulations, we conclude that the effective rotational temperature exceeds the translational temperature (<100 mK) by more than two orders of magnitude, indicating a very weak coupling. (letter to the editor)
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
On low energy scattering theory with Coulomb potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, A.G.
1985-09-01
The scattering length is a very useful characteristic of the scattering phenomena. But in the presence of a combined potential (e.g. in nuclear physics, when Coulomb, the polarization and the strong potentials are to be added), the analytical definition of the scattering length in not unambigous and strictly defined. This problem is discussed in detail, the various alternatives are examined and compared. A practical suggestion is given for the proper choice of the definition and for the calculation of scattering length. Numerical solutions of the Schroedinger equation are compared with the results of different definitions. Some questions of application to nuclear physics are discussed. (D.Gy.)
Coulomb interaction from the interplay between confinement and screening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaete, P.; Guendelman, E.I.
2004-01-01
It has been noticed that confinement effects can be described by the addition of a √(-F μν a F aμν ) term in the Lagrangian density. We now study the combined effect of such 'confinement term' and that of a mass term. The surprising result is that the interplay between these two terms gives rise to a Coulomb interaction. Our picture has a certain correspondence with the quasiconfinement picture described by Giles, Jaffe and de Rujula for QCD with symmetry breaking
Coulomb scattering and η-η' the mixing angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleefeld, F.
2006-01-01
The fascinating physics underlying η and η ' mesons can be studied theoretically and experimentally in various contexts. In this presentation we want to turn our attention to two important uncorrelated aspects of this vivid research field which provide yet unexpected challenges or surprises. First we discuss open questions in the theoretical treatment of Coulomb-interaction in the context of reaction processes like pp → ppη. Then we review η-η ' and σ (600) - F 0 (980) mixing in the U (3) x U (3) Linear Sigma Model and extract information on η-η ' mixing and K 0 (800) resonance from meson-meson scattering (Author)
Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.
Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey
2014-07-16
We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of giant resonances in the hydrodynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasconcellos Gomes, Ana Cristina de.
1990-05-01
We investigate the Coulomb excitation of giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions using a macroscopic hydrodynamical model for the harmonic vibrations of the nuclear fluid. The motion is treated as a combination of the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode and the Steinwedel-Jensen acoustic mode, and the restoring forces are calculated using the droplet model. This model is used as input to study the characteristics of multiple excitation of giant dipole resonances in nuclei. Possible signatures for the existence of such states are also discussed quantitatively. (author). 52 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton; Langfeld, Kurt; Lavelle, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; McMullan, David
2008-01-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all ch...
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
Marshall, J. R.
1999-09-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minnhagen, P.
1983-01-01
The Coulomb-gas model of vortex fluctuations leads to scaling relations for the resistive transition which can be directly tested by experiments. By analyzing published resistance data, it is shown that there is experimental evidence for the Coulomb-gas scaling relation in the absence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that there exists some suggestive support for the Coulomb-gas predictions in the presence of a magnetic field
Enhanced population of side band of {sup 155}Gd in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oshima, Masumi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others
1998-03-01
In the Coulomb excitation of {sup 155}Gd with heavy projectiles, {sup 32}S, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr, unexpectedly large enhancement of a positive-parity side band has been observed. This enhancement could not be reproduced by a Coulomb-excitation calculation taking into account the recommended upper limits of E1 or E3 transitions, which are compiled in the whole mass region, and is proportional to the electric field accomplished in the Coulomb-scattering process. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Feng; Wang Xue-Jin; Liu Yan-Hong; Ye Mao-Fu; Wang Long
2010-01-01
Structures and dynamics of two-dimensional dust lattices with and without Coulomb molecules in plasmas are investigated. The experimental results show that the lattices have the crystal-like hexagonal structures, i.e. most particles have six nearest-neighboring particles. However, the lattice points can be occupied by the individual particles or by a pair of particles called Coulomb molecules. The pair correlation function is used to compare the structures between the lattices with or without the Coulomb molecules. In the experiments, the Coulomb molecules can also decompose and recombine with another individual particle to form a new molecule. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Magnetoresistance effect of heat generation in a single-molecular spin-valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Feng; Yan, Yonghong; Wang, Shikuan; Yan, Yijing
2016-01-01
Based on non-equilibrium Green's functions' theory and small polaron transformation's technology, we study the heat generation by current through a single-molecular spin-valve. Numerical results indicate that the variation of spin polarization degree can change heat generation effectively, the spin-valve effect happens not only in electrical current but also in heat generation when Coulomb repulsion in quantum dot is smaller than phonon frequency and interestingly, when Coulomb repulsion is larger than phonon frequency, the inverse spin-valve effect appears by sweeping gate voltage and is enlarged with bias increasing. The inverse spin-valve effect will induce the unique heat magnetoresistance effect, which can be modulated from heat-resistance to heat-gain by gate voltage easily. - Highlights: • Spin-valve effect of heat generation happens when Coulomb repulsion in quantum dot is less than phonon frequency. • When Coulomb repulsion is larger than phonon frequency, inverse spin-valve effect appears and is enlarged with bias increasing. • The variation of spin polarization degree can change heat generation effectively. • The heat magnetoresistance can be modulated from heat-resistance to heat-gain by gate voltage easily.
Boschini, M.J.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivantchenko, V.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Tacconi, M.
2011-01-01
In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.
Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve
2013-08-07
We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γ(H) = 2) and eight (γ(1st) = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (αmin (G)=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d(4) with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step-namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems
NNLL soft and Coulomb resummation for squark and gluino production at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Piclum, J. [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen,Walter-Flex-Straße 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schwinn, C. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University,Sommerfeldstraße 16, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Wever, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR “Demokritos' ,Patriarchou Gregoriou E. & Neapoleos street 27, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi (Greece); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics (TTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2016-10-11
We present predictions for the total cross sections for pair production of squarks and gluinos at the LHC including a combined NNLL resummation of soft and Coulomb gluon effects. We derive all terms in the NNLO cross section that are enhanced near the production threshold, which include contributions from spin-dependent potentials and so-called annihilation corrections. The NNLL corrections at √s=13 TeV range from up to 20% for squark-squark production to 90% for gluino pair production relative to the NLO results and reduce the theoretical uncertainties of the perturbative calculation to the 10% level. Grid files with our numerical results are publicly available http://users.ph.tum.de/t31software/SUSYNNLL/.
8B + 208Pb Elastic Scattering at Coulomb Barrier Energies
La Commara, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Di Meo, P.; Grebosz, J.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Iwasa, N.; Jeong, S. C.; Jia, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Kubono, S.; Lin, C. J.; Miyatake, H.; Mukai, M.; Nakao, T.; Nicoletto, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Soramel, F.; Teranishi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. Y.
2018-02-01
The scattering process of weakly-bound nuclei at Coulomb barrier energies provides deep insights on the reaction dynamics induced by exotic nuclei. Within this framework, we measured for the first time the scattering process of the short-lived Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) 8B (Sp = 0.1375 MeV) from a 208Pb target at 50 MeV beam energy. The 8B RIB was produced by means of the in-flight facility CRIB (RIKEN, Japan) with an average intensity on target of 10 kHz and a purity about 25%. Elastically scattering ions were detected in the angular range θc.m. = 10°-160° by means of the detector array EXPADES. A preliminary optical model analysis indicates a total reaction cross section of about 1 b, a value, once reduced, 2-3 times larger than those obtained for the reactions induced by the stable weakly-bound projectiles 6,7Li on a 208Pb target in the energy range around the Coulomb barrier.
Mapping the Coulomb Environment in Interference-Quenched Ballistic Nanowires.
Gutstein, D; Lynall, D; Nair, S V; Savelyev, I; Blumin, M; Ercolani, D; Ruda, H E
2018-01-10
The conductance of semiconductor nanowires is strongly dependent on their electrostatic history because of the overwhelming influence of charged surface and interface states on electron confinement and scattering. We show that InAs nanowire field-effect transistor devices can be conditioned to suppress resonances that obscure quantized conduction thereby revealing as many as six sub-bands in the conductance spectra as the Fermi-level is swept across the sub-band energies. The energy level spectra extracted from conductance, coupled with detailed modeling shows the significance of the interface state charge distribution revealing the Coulomb landscape of the nanowire device. Inclusion of self-consistent Coulomb potentials, the measured geometrical shape of the nanowire, the gate geometry and nonparabolicity of the conduction band provide a quantitative and accurate description of the confinement potential and resulting energy level structure. Surfaces of the nanowire terminated by HfO 2 are shown to have their interface donor density reduced by a factor of 30 signifying the passivating role played by HfO 2 .
Laser-Driven Recollisions under the Coulomb Barrier.
Keil, Th; Popruzhenko, S V; Bauer, D
2016-12-09
Photoelectron spectra obtained from the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be in striking disagreement with predictions by the strong-field approximation (SFA), not only at low energy but also around twice the ponderomotive energy where the transition from the direct to the rescattered electrons is expected. In fact, the relative enhancement of the ionization probability compared to the SFA in this regime can be several orders of magnitude. We show for which laser and target parameters such an enhancement occurs and for which the SFA prediction is qualitatively good. The enhancement is analyzed in terms of the Coulomb-corrected action along analytic quantum orbits in the complex-time plane, taking soft recollisions under the Coulomb barrier into account. These recollisions in complex time and space prevent a separation into sub-barrier motion up to the "tunnel exit" and subsequent classical dynamics. Instead, the entire quantum path up to the detector determines the ionization probability.
Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ershova, Olga
2012-03-09
Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on {sup 100}Mo, {sup 93}Mo and {sup 92}Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the {sup 100}Mo({gamma},n), {sup 100}Mo({gamma},2n), {sup 93}Mo({gamma},n) and {sup 92}Mo({gamma},n) reactions were determined. A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. (orig.)
Theory of Coulomb drag for massless Dirac fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrega, M; Principi, A; Polini, M; Tudorovskiy, T; Katsnelson, M I
2012-01-01
Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann-transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the transport scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for the case when one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity. (paper)
Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media
Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-01
Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.
Coulomb holes and correlation potentials in the helium atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slamet, M.; Sahni, V.
1995-01-01
Thus, the asymptotic structure of the exchange-correlation potential W xc (r) of the work formalism is that of W x (r) which is (-1/r). We also detemine via the Kinoshita wave function the correlation potential μ c (r) of Kohn-Sham theory, which differs from W c (r) in that it also incorporates the effects of the correlation contribution to the kinetic energy. Consequently, it is less attractive than W c (r), but also has zero slope at the nucleus. However, as is known, the potential μ c (r) is nonmonotonic, since it goes positive within the atom, then becomes negative in the classically forbidden region, finally vanishing asymptotically as a negative function. Since the exchange potentials of the work formalism and Kohn-Sham theory are the same for this atom, and because W c (r) is strictly representative of Coulomb correlations, we attribute the nonmonotonicity and positiveness of the Kohn-Sham potential μ c (r) to the correlation kinetic energy. This conclusion is consistent with the result that the difference between the correlation energies determined within the work formalism from the dynamic Coulomb hole and Kohn-Sham theory is equal to the correlation contribution to the kinetic energy
Unsafe Coulomb excitation of 240-244Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Cizewski, J.; Cline, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nisius, D. T.; Reiter, P.; Seabury, E. H.; Seweryniak, D.; Siem, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Wu, C. Y.
1999-01-01
The high spin states of 240 Pu and 244 Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a 208 Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to 242 Pu were obtained as well. In the case of 244 Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h b ar revealing the completed πi 13/2 alignment, a ''first'' for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of 242 Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of 240 Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (approximately300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. In this case, several observable such as the large B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios in the negative parity band, and the vanishing energy staggering between the negative and positive parity bands suggest that the strength of octupole correlations increases with rotational frequency. These stronger correlations may well be responsible for delaying or suppressing the πi 13/2 particle alignment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg
2017-01-01
not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...
Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.
2017-04-01
Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lienau, P J
1990-01-01
Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelm, R.
1989-01-01
Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs
Time-dependent photon heat transport through a mesoscopic Josephson device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang, E-mail: zhaohonk@bit.edu.cn
2017-02-15
The time-oscillating photon heat current through a dc voltage biased mesoscopic Josephson Junction (MJJ) has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived in both of the Fourier space and its time-oscillating versions, where Coulomb interaction, self inductance, and magnetic flux take effective roles. Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current due to the quantum nature of MJJ and applied external dc voltage. The magnitude of heat current decreases with increasing the external bias voltage, and subtle oscillation structures appear as the superposition of different photon heat branches. The overall period of heat current with respect to time is not affected by Coulomb interaction, however, the magnitude and phase of it vary considerably by changing the Coulomb interaction. - Highlights: • The time-oscillating photon heat current through a mesoscopic Josephson Junction has been investigated. • The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived by the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. • Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current resulting from the self inductance and Coulomb interaction. • The oscillation structure of heat current is composed of the superposition of oscillations with different periods.
Time-dependent photon heat transport through a mesoscopic Josephson device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2017-01-01
The time-oscillating photon heat current through a dc voltage biased mesoscopic Josephson Junction (MJJ) has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived in both of the Fourier space and its time-oscillating versions, where Coulomb interaction, self inductance, and magnetic flux take effective roles. Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current due to the quantum nature of MJJ and applied external dc voltage. The magnitude of heat current decreases with increasing the external bias voltage, and subtle oscillation structures appear as the superposition of different photon heat branches. The overall period of heat current with respect to time is not affected by Coulomb interaction, however, the magnitude and phase of it vary considerably by changing the Coulomb interaction. - Highlights: • The time-oscillating photon heat current through a mesoscopic Josephson Junction has been investigated. • The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived by the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. • Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current resulting from the self inductance and Coulomb interaction. • The oscillation structure of heat current is composed of the superposition of oscillations with different periods.
Dunn, Peter D
1994-01-01
It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo
Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P
2014-10-30
Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abdelmonem, M. S.; Abdel-Hady, Afaf; Nasser, I.
2017-07-01
The scaling laws are given for the entropies in the information theory, including the Shannon's entropy, its power, the Fisher's information and the Fisher-Shannon product, using the exponential-cosine screened Coulomb potential. The scaling laws are specified, in the r-space, as a function of |μ - μc, nℓ|, where μ is the screening parameter and μc, nℓ its critical value for the specific quantum numbers n and ℓ. Scaling laws for other physical quantities, such as energy eigenvalues, the moments, static polarisability, transition probabilities, etc. are also given. Some of these are reported for the first time. The outcome is compared with the available literatures' results.
Baumgärtel, M.; Ghanem, K.; Kiani, A.; Koch, E.; Pavarini, E.; Sims, H.; Zhang, G.
2017-07-01
We discuss the efficient implementation of general impurity solvers for dynamical mean-field theory. We show that both Lanczos and quantum Monte Carlo in different flavors (Hirsch-Fye, continuous-time hybridization- and interaction-expansion) exhibit excellent scaling on massively parallel supercomputers. We apply these algorithms to simulate realistic model Hamiltonians including the full Coulomb vertex, crystal-field splitting, and spin-orbit interaction. We discuss how to remove the sign problem in the presence of non-diagonal crystal-field and hybridization matrices. We show how to extract the physically observable quantities from imaginary time data, in particular correlation functions and susceptibilities. Finally, we present benchmarks and applications for representative correlated systems.
Interference of Coulomb and nuclear excitation in inelastic scattering of 20Ne from 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratel, Guy.
1976-01-01
Angular distributions at 54 and 63MeV and excitation functions from 35 to 95MeV for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 20 Ne by 40 Ca have been measured. Experimental data for the inelastic scattering leading to the 20 Ne (2 + , 1.63MeV) state show a characteristic minimum for the angular distributions and excitation functions. This phenomenon was explained by an interference effect between Coulomb and nuclear excitation amplitudes with the DWBA and the coupled-channel formalism. The existence of this interference minimum could be explained only by assuming a nuclear deformation stronger than these obtained with light ion scattering. However a small shift between the experimental data and theoretical curves suggests that effects of a stronger complex coupling or nuclear reorientation due to the large quadrupole moment of 20 Ne must be included [fr
Effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions on inertial confinement fusion plasmas.
Turrell, A E; Sherlock, M; Rose, S J
2014-06-20
Large-angle Coulomb collisions affect the rates of energy and momentum exchange in a plasma, and it is expected that their effects will be important in many plasmas of current research interest, including in inertial confinement fusion. Their inclusion is a long-standing problem, and the first fully self-consistent method for calculating their effects is presented. This method is applied to "burn" in the hot fuel in inertial confinement fusion capsules and finds that the yield increases due to an increase in the rate of temperature equilibration between electrons and ions which is not predicted by small-angle collision theories. The equilibration rate increases are 50%-100% for number densities of 10(30) m(-3) and temperatures around 1 keV.
Optical conductivity of layered ruthenates. The role of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarvestani, Esmaeel; Zhang, Guoren; Gorelov, Evgeny; Pavarini, Eva [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)
2016-07-01
We use the combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory (LDA+DMFT) to calculate the optical conductivity of the layered ruthenates Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} and Sr{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The calculations are performed via linear response theory and Kubo's formalism. For Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} two sets of interaction parameters, (U,J)=(2.3,0.4)eV and (3.1,0.7)eV, both commonly employed for ruthenates, are used. We show that including the spin-orbit coupling improves the agreement with experimental data. Finally, we analyze the effects of low-symmetry Coulomb interaction.
Role of transfer reactions in heavy-ion collisions at the Coulomb barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pollarolo Giovanni
2011-10-01
Full Text Available One and two neutron transfer reactions are discussed in the semiclassical formalism. The twoneutrons transfer cross sections are calculated in the successive approximation. Comparisons with new experimental data below the Coulomb barrier are discussed in term of transfer probabilities as a function of the distance of closest approach for Coulomb scattering.
A set-valued force law for spatial Coulomb-Contensou friction
Leine, R.I.; Glocker, C.
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to develop a set-valued contact law for combined spatial Coulomb-Contensou friction, taking into account a normal friction torque (drilling friction) and spin. The set-valued Coulomb-Contensou friction law is derived from a non-smooth velocity pseudo potential. A
Derivation of magnetic Coulomb's law for thin, semi-infinite solenoids
Kitano, Masao
2006-01-01
It is shown that the magnetic force between thin, semi-infinite solenoids obeys a Coulomb-type law, which corresponds to that for magnetic monopoles placed at the end points of each solenoid. We derive the magnetic Coulomb law from the basic principles of electromagnetism, namely from the Maxwell equations and the Lorentz force.
Scattering amplitudes on the Coulomb branch of N=4 super Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henn, J.M.
2010-01-01
We discuss planar scattering amplitudes on the Coulomb branch of N=4 super Yang-Mills. The vacuum expectation values on the Coulomb branch can be used to regulate infrared divergences. We argue that this has a number of conceptual as well as practical advantages over dimensional regularisation.
Three-body Coulomb systems using generalized angular-momentum S states
Whitten, R. C.; Sims, J. S.
1974-01-01
An expansion of the three-body Coulomb potential in generalized angular-momentum eigenfunctions developed earlier by one of the authors is used to compute energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of bound S states of three-body Coulomb systems. The results for He, H(-), e(-)e(+)e(-), and pmu(-)p are compared with the results of other computational approaches.
Yamada, Toshishige; Yamada, Hidenori; Lohn, Andrew J; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P
2011-02-04
Detailed electron transport analysis is performed for an ensemble of conical indium phosphide nanowires bridging two hydrogenated n(+)-silicon electrodes. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit a Coulomb staircase in the dark with a period of ∼ 1 V at room temperature. The staircase is found to disappear under light illumination. This observation can be explained by assuming the presence of a tiny Coulomb island, and its existence is possible due to the large surface depletion region created within contributing nanowires. Electrons tunnel in and out of the Coulomb island, resulting in the Coulomb staircase I-V. Applying light illumination raises the electron quasi-Fermi level and the tunneling barriers are buried, causing the Coulomb staircase to disappear.
Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan
2015-01-01
Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials
Ionization and Coulomb explosion of small uranium oxide clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, Matt W; Castleman, A W Jr
2012-01-01
Femtosecond pulses are used to study the strong-field ionization and subsequent Coulomb explosion of small uranium oxide clusters. The resulting high atomic charge states are explored as a function of laser intensity and compared to ionization rates calculated using semi-classical tunneling theory with sequential ionization potential values. The gap in laser intensity between saturation intensity values for the 7s, 6d, and 5f orbitals are identified and quantified. Extreme charge states of oxygen up to O 4+ are observed indicating multiple ionization enhancement processes occurring within the clusters. The peak splittings of the atomic charge states are explored and compared to previous results on transition metal oxide species. Participation of the 5f orbitals in bonding is clearly identified based on the saturation intensity dependence of oxygen to uranium metal.
Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)
2008-07-01
Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.
Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States
Lai, Keji
2011-10-01
The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Local probing of these submicrometer features, however, is challenging due to the buried 2DEG structures. Using a newly developed microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping of the edge and bulk states. The sizes, positions, and field dependence of the edge strips around the sample perimeter agree quantitatively with the self-consistent electrostatic picture. The evolution of microwave images as a function of magnetic fields provides rich microscopic information around the ν=2 QHE state. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Coulomb Blockade in a Two-Dimensional Conductive Polymer Monolayer.
Akai-Kasaya, M; Okuaki, Y; Nagano, S; Mitani, T; Kuwahara, Y
2015-11-06
Electronic transport was investigated in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) monolayers. At low temperatures, nonlinear behavior was observed in the current-voltage characteristics, and a nonzero threshold voltage appeared that increased with decreasing temperature. The current-voltage characteristics could be best fitted using a power law. These results suggest that the nonlinear conductivity can be explained using a Coulomb blockade (CB) mechanism. A model is proposed in which an isotropic extended charge state exists, as predicted by quantum calculations, and percolative charge transport occurs within an array of small conductive islands. Using quantitatively evaluated capacitance values for the islands, this model was found to be capable of explaining the observed experimental data. It is, therefore, suggested that percolative charge transport based on the CB effect is a significant factor giving rise to nonlinear conductivity in organic materials.
On some aspects of Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massmann, H.; Robotham, H.
1979-01-01
The Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states is studied with a semiclassical method using classical trajectories and the classical action in order to construct the excitation probabilities. This method allows one to consider the effect on the excitation probabilities of a weak nuclear potential. An explicit expression for the 'safe bombarding energy' that is the largest bombarding energy for which the nuclear force can be neglected, is found. Also the transfer of angular momentum to the projectile's orbit is considered. One finds that the dynamical distortion of the orbit has a measurable effect on the excitation probabilities for the case of very heavy ions. Furthermore, new dimensionless parameters measuring the dynamical distortion and the effect of the adiabaticity of the collision are introduced and discussed. (author)
Investigation of uncertainty components in Coulomb blockade thermometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.; Manninen, A.; Meschke, M.; Savin, A.; Pekola, J. P.; Gunnarsson, D.; Prunnila, M.; Penttilä, J. S.; Roschier, L.
2013-01-01
Coulomb blockade thermometry (CBT) has proven to be a feasible method for primary thermometry in every day laboratory use at cryogenic temperatures from ca. 10 mK to a few tens of kelvins. The operation of CBT is based on single electron charging effects in normal metal tunnel junctions. In this paper, we discuss the typical error sources and uncertainty components that limit the present absolute accuracy of the CBT measurements to the level of about 1 % in the optimum temperature range. Identifying the influence of different uncertainty sources is a good starting point for improving the measurement accuracy to the level that would allow the CBT to be more widely used in high-precision low temperature metrological applications and for realizing thermodynamic temperature in accordance to the upcoming new definition of kelvin
Investigation of uncertainty components in Coulomb blockade thermometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.; Manninen, A. [MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Tekniikantie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Meschke, M.; Savin, A.; Pekola, J. P. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Gunnarsson, D.; Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Penttilä, J. S.; Roschier, L. [Aivon Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)
2013-09-11
Coulomb blockade thermometry (CBT) has proven to be a feasible method for primary thermometry in every day laboratory use at cryogenic temperatures from ca. 10 mK to a few tens of kelvins. The operation of CBT is based on single electron charging effects in normal metal tunnel junctions. In this paper, we discuss the typical error sources and uncertainty components that limit the present absolute accuracy of the CBT measurements to the level of about 1 % in the optimum temperature range. Identifying the influence of different uncertainty sources is a good starting point for improving the measurement accuracy to the level that would allow the CBT to be more widely used in high-precision low temperature metrological applications and for realizing thermodynamic temperature in accordance to the upcoming new definition of kelvin.
Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering
Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang
2018-04-01
In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.
Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.
2004-01-01
Emission models that form the basis of self-consistent field computations make use of the approximation that emitted electrons form a smooth space charge jelly. In reality, electrons are discrete particles that are subject to statistical Coulomb interactions. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics. We find that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, regardless of the current density. Interactions near the emitter effectively conserve the Maxwellian distribution. The surprising result is that the width of the distribution of transversal velocities does not change. The distribution of longitudinal velocities does broaden, as expected from existing theories
The Coulomb Branch Formula for Quiver Moduli Spaces
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2014-01-01
In recent series of works, by translating properties of multi-centered supersymmetric black holes into the language of quiver representations, we proposed a formula that expresses the Hodge numbers of the moduli space of semi-stable representations of quivers with generic superpotential in terms of a set of invariants associated to `single-centered' or `pure-Higgs' states. The distinguishing feature of these invariants is that they are independent of the choice of stability condition. Furthermore they are uniquely determined by the $\\chi_y$-genus of the moduli space. Here, we provide a self-contained summary of the Coulomb branch formula, spelling out mathematical details but leaving out proofs and physical motivations.
Convergence problems of Coulomb and multipole sums in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholopov, Evgenii V
2004-01-01
Different ways of calculating Coulomb and dipole sums over crystal lattices are analyzed comparatively. It is shown that the currently alleged disagreement between various approaches originates in ignoring the requirement for the self-consistency of surface conditions, which are of fundamental importance due to the long-range nature of the bulk interactions that these sums describe. This is especially true of surfaces arising when direct sums for infinite translation-invariant structures are truncated. The charge conditions for actual surfaces being self-consistently adjusted to the bulk state are formally the same as those on the truncation surface, consistent with the concept of the thermodynamic limit for the bulk-state absolute equilibrium and with the fact that the surface energy contribution in this case is, naturally, statistically small compared to the bulk contribution. Two-point multipole expansions are briefly discussed, and the problems associated with the boundary of their convergence circle are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)
Electric and Magnetic Coulomb Potentials in the Deuteron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard Schaeffer
2013-09-01
Full Text Available After one century of nuclear physics, the underlying fun- damental laws of nuclear physics are still missing. Bohr had found a formula for the H atom and another for the H2 molecule but no equivalent formula exists for the deuteron 2H. The only known Coulomb interaction in a nucleus by the mainstream nuclear physics is the long range repulsion between protons, forgetting that the neutron contains elec- tric charges with no net charge. The neutron is attracted by the proton in a way discovered two millenaries ago by the Greeks. This attraction is equilibrated by the repulsion between the opposite magnetic moments of the proton and of the neutron in the deuteron. The bare application of ge- ometry together with electric and magnetic Coulomb’s in- teractions accounts for the binding energy of the deuteron, without fitting, with only 4 per cent discrepancy, proving the electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.
Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.
1986-01-01
The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms
Finsler-type modification of the Coulomb law
Itin, Yakov; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Perlick, Volker
2014-12-01
Finsler geometry is a natural generalization of pseudo-Riemannian geometry. It can be motivated e.g. by a modified version of the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild axiomatic approach to space-time theory. Also, some scenarios of quantum gravity suggest a modified dispersion relation which could be phrased in terms of Finsler geometry. On a Finslerian space-time, the universality of free fall is still satisfied but local Lorentz invariance is violated in a way not covered by standard Lorentz invariance violation schemes. In this paper we consider a Finslerian modification of Maxwell's equations. The corrections to the Coulomb potential and to the hydrogen energy levels are computed. We find that the Finsler metric corrections yield a splitting of the energy levels. Experimental data provide bounds for the Finsler parameters.
Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lotkhov, Sergey V
2013-01-01
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage–current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ∼ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ∼7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current. (paper)
Exact wavefunctions for a time-dependent Coulomb potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, S; Maamache, M; Saadi, Y; Choi, J R
2008-01-01
The one-dimensional Schroedinger equation associated with a time-dependent Coulomb potential is studied. The invariant operator method (Lewis and Riesenfeld) and unitary transformation approach are employed to derive quantum solutions of the system. We obtain an ordinary second-order differential equation whose analytical exact solution has been unknown. It is confirmed that the form of this equation is similar to the radial Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom in a (arbitrary) strong magnetic field. The qualitative properties for the eigenstates spectrum are described separately for the different values of the parameter ω 0 appearing in the x 2 term, x being the position, i.e., ω 0 > 0, ω 0 0 = 0. For the ω 0 = 0 case, the eigenvalue equation of invariant operator reduces to a solvable form and, consequently, we have provided exact eigenstates of the time-dependent Hamiltonian system
Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Marganiec
2016-08-01
Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.
Exact Extremal Statistics in the Classical 1D Coulomb Gas
Dhar, Abhishek; Kundu, Anupam; Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory
2017-08-01
We consider a one-dimensional classical Coulomb gas of N -like charges in a harmonic potential—also known as the one-dimensional one-component plasma. We compute, analytically, the probability distribution of the position xmax of the rightmost charge in the limit of large N . We show that the typical fluctuations of xmax around its mean are described by a nontrivial scaling function, with asymmetric tails. This distribution is different from the Tracy-Widom distribution of xmax for Dyson's log gas. We also compute the large deviation functions of xmax explicitly and show that the system exhibits a third-order phase transition, as in the log gas. Our theoretical predictions are verified numerically.
Characteristic features of net information measures for constrained Coulomb potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patil, S H; Sen, K D; Watson, N A; Jr, H E Montgomery
2007-01-01
The dimensional analyses of the position and momentum variance based quantum mechanical Heisenberg uncertainty measure and the other useful net entropic information measures for the bound states of two constrained Coulomb potentials are reported for the first time. The potentials describe an electron moving in the central field due to a nucleus of charge Z with radius R defining the constraints as (a) the truncated potential given by -Z/(r n +R n ) 1/n , and (b) the radius of the impenetrable spherical wall. The net information measures for the two potentials are explicitly shown to be independent of the scaling of the set [Z, R] at a fixed value of ZR. Analytic proof is presented, for the first time, showing the presence of a characteristic extremum in the variation of the net information entropy as a function of the radius R with its location scaling as Z -1 . Numerical results are presented which support the validity of the scaling properties
Conformal field theories, Coulomb gas picture and integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, J.B.
1988-01-01
The aim of the study is to present the links between some results of conformal field theory, the conventional Coulomb gas picture in statistical mechanics and the approach of integrable models. It is shown that families of conformal theories, related by the coset construction to the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra, may be regarded as obtained from some free field, and modified by the coupling of its winding numbers to floating charges. This representation reflects the procedure of restriction of the corresponding integrable lattice models. The work may be generalized to models based on the coset construction with higher rank algebras. The corresponding integrable models are identified. In the conformal field description, generalized parafermions appear, and are coupled to free fields living on a higher-dimensional torus. The analysis is not as exhaustive as in the SU(2) case: all the various restrictions have not been identified, nor the modular invariants completely classified
Coulomb explosion sputtering, crater and blister formation by HCI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parilis, E.S.
2001-01-01
A simple theoretical model based on gradual Auger neutralization of a highly charged ion as it approaches the surface, with consequent positive charge deposition in surface layers and their expansion due to Coulomb repulsion provides the means to make some estimates that could explain the creation of very shallow blisters and craters on surface, as well as sputtering of up to 10 3 atoms in a single ion impact. Calculation of the dependence of blister size on projectile charge, based on charge evolution, gives some results fitting the experimental data. The model deals not just with the conducting properties of the solid, but with its structure as well, for instance the layered structure of mica. While the general source of energy remains the same, the particular mechanism of its realization depends largely on the composition, structure and electronic properties of the solid. The composition of the ejecta is discussed within the framework of the shock wave approach. (orig.)
Influence of Coulomb screening on lateral lasing in VECSELs.
Wang, Chengao; Malloy, Kevin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor
2015-12-14
Parasitic lateral lasing in certain optically pumped semiconductor disc lasers drains the gain of the vertical mode and thus causes power scaling degradation and premature rollover in surface emitting operation. We have observed this effect in both multiple quantum wells (MQW) (GaInAs/GaAs) and double heterostructures (DHS) (GaInP/GaAs/GaInP) under pulsed excitation even when the gain chip lateral dimensions are much larger than the diameter of the pump laser. Lateral lasing occurs persistently between cleaved facets at a band-tail wavelength much longer than the peak of the gain. We show that the effect of bandgap renormalization due to Coulomb screening explains this phenomena. Exploiting the simple analytical plasma theory of bulk semiconductors (Banyai & Koch, 1986), we can account for such an effect in double heterostructures.
Many-nucleon transfer reactions at the coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wegmann, H.
1974-01-01
The aim of the present work was to investigate the many-nucleon transfer with heavy ion radiation near the coulomb barrier. The neutron-rich targets 76 Ge, sup(92,94,96)Zr and 100 Mo were thus irradiated with 32 S and 34 S radiation. By measuring the activity of the back-scattered light reaction products in the transfer, total cross sections were determined for the 3p, 4p, 3pn, 4pn, 3n, 4n and 6n transfer. Excitation functions for the 3p, 4p, 3pn and 4pn transfer were measured for the target-projectile combination 96 Zr- 32 S. Differential cross sections could be determined with 96 Zr and 100 Mo. The results were compared with various theoretical calculations. (orig./LH) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.
2002-01-01
-electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions...... for the ordinary single-site methods, including the generalized perturbation method, is still possible. We obtained such a parametrization for bulk and surface NiPt alloys, which allows one to obtain quantitatively accurate effective interactions in this system....
Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected
Hill, David P.
2012-01-01
Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10 km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.
Coulomb Problem for Z > Zcr in Doped Graphene
Kuleshov, V. M.; Mur, V. D.; Fedotov, A. M.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2017-12-01
The dynamics of charge carriers in doped graphene, i.e., graphene with a gap in the energy spectrum depending on the substrate, in the presence of a Coulomb impurity with charge Z is considered within the effective two-dimensional Dirac equation. The wave functions of carriers with conserved angular momentum J = M + 1/2 are determined for a Coulomb potential modified at small distances. This case, just as any two-dimensional physical system, admits both integer and half-integer quantization of the orbital angular momentum in plane, M = 0, ±1, ±2, …. For J = 0, ±1/2, ±1, critical values of the effective charge Z cr( J, n) are calculated for which a level with angular momentum J and radial quantum numbers n = 0 and n = 1 reaches the upper boundary of the valence band. For Z function of charge Z for the lowest values of orbital angular momentum M, the level with J = 0 being the first to descend to the band edge. For Z > Z cr ( J, n = 0), scattering phases are calculated as a function of hole energy for several values of supercriticality, as well as the positions ɛ0 and widths γ of quasistationary states as a function of supercriticality. The values of ɛ0* and width γ* are pointed out for which quasidiscrete levels may show up as Breit-Wigner resonances in the scattering of holes by a supercritical impurity. Since the phases are real, the partial scattering matrix is unitary, so that the radial Dirac equation is consistent even for Z > Z cr. In this single-particle approximation, there is no spontaneous creation of electron-hole pairs, and the impurity charge cannot be screened by this mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antunes, J.; Axisa, F.; Beaufils, B.; Guilbaud, D.
1990-01-01
The working life of heat exchanger multispan tube bundles subjected to flow-induced vibration, is heavily dependent on nonlinear interaction between the loosely supported tubes and their supports. Reliable wear prediction techniques must account for a number of factors controlling impact-sliding tube response, such as tube support gap, contact stiffness, impact damping, Coulomb friction and squeeze film effect at supports. Tube fretting wear potential risk may then be adequately quantified by an equivalent wear work rate. A simple model is presented which accounts for the key aspects of dry friction and is well suited to the efficient explicit numerical integration schemes, specifically through nonlinear model superposition. Extensive parametric two-dimensional simulations, under random vibration induced by flow turbulence, are presented. Also, the effect of permanent tube-support preload, arising from cross flow drag, tube-support misalignment and thermal expansion, is investigated. Results show that frictional forces consistently reduce wear work rates, which decrease for high values of the coefficient of friction. Such reductions may be extremely important for the limiting case when preload and frictional forces are of sufficient magnitude to overcome dynamic forces, preventing tube-support relative motion. (author)