WorldWideScience

Sample records for include cost lack

  1. Including adults with intellectual disabilities who lack capacity to consent in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calveley, Julie

    2012-07-01

    The Mental Capacity Act 2005 has stipulated that in England and Wales the ethical implications of carrying out research with people who are unable to consent must be considered alongside the ethical implications of excluding them from research altogether. This paper describes the methods that were used to enable people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities, who lacked capacity, to participate in a study that examined their experience of receiving intimate care. The safeguards that were put in place to protect the rights and well-being of participants are described, and it is argued that the approaches used in this study met the requirements set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Although this paper is based on research involving people with intellectual disabilities, it has implications for research involving other groups who may also lack capacity to consent, including people with mental health problems, head injuries and dementia.

  2. 10 CFR 503.32 - Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not substantially exceed the cost of using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply at a cost which does not... (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.32 Lack of alternate...) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1) (A)(ii) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption due to lack of an...

  3. Which Costs Matter? Costs Included in Economic Evaluation and their Impact on Decision Uncertainty for Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Bojke, Laura; Gale, Chris P; Richardson, Gerry; Walker, Simon

    2018-02-14

    Variation exists in the resource categories included in economic evaluations, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests the inclusion only of costs related to the index condition or intervention. However, there is a growing consensus that all healthcare costs should be included in economic evaluations for Health Technology Assessments (HTAs), particularly those related to extended years of life. We aimed to quantify the impact of a range of cost categories on the adoption decision about a hypothetical intervention, and uncertainty around that decision, for stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) based on a dataset comprising 94,966 patients. Three costing scenarios were considered: coronary heart disease (CHD) costs only, cardiovascular disease (CVD) costs and all costs. The first two illustrate different interpretations of what might be regarded as related costs. Employing a 20-year time horizon, the highest mean expected incremental cost was when all costs were included (£2468) and the lowest when CVD costs only were included (£2377). The probability of the treatment being cost effective, estimating health opportunity costs using a ratio of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), was different for each of the CHD (70%) costs, CVD costs (73%) and all costs (56%) scenarios. The results concern a hypothetical intervention and are illustrative only, as such they cannot necessarily be generalised to all interventions and diseases. Cost categories included in an economic evaluation of SCAD impact on estimates of both cost effectiveness and decision uncertainty. With an aging and co-morbid population, the inclusion of all healthcare costs may have important ramifications for the selection of healthcare provision on economic grounds.

  4. 41 CFR 301-74.4 - What should cost comparisons include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... comparisons include? 301-74.4 Section 301-74.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.4 What should cost comparisons include? Cost comparisons should include...

  5. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  6. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen’s Lack of Compliance with the United States’ Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Kai; Luthin, Moira A.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW) for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx). We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA’s Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles’ lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S. population. PMID:27618076

  7. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen's Lack of Compliance with the United States' Emission Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Kai; Luthin, Moira A; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-09-08

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW) for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx). We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA's Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles' lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S.

  8. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen’s Lack of Compliance with the United States’ Emission Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx. We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA’s Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles’ lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S. population.

  9. ON A COURNOT DUOPOLY GAME WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS, HETEROGENEOUS EXPECTATIONS AND A COST FUNCTION INCLUDING EMISSION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SARAFOPOULOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the dynamics of a nonlinear Cournot- type duopoly game with differentiated goods, linear demand and a cost function that includes emission costs. The game is modeled with a system of two difference equations. Existence and stability of equilibria of this system are studied. We show that the model gives more complex chaotic and unpredictable trajectories as a consequence of change in the parameter of horizontal product differentiation and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation (weaker or fiercer competition destabilize (stabilize the economy. The chaotic features are justified numerically via computing Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Also, we show that in this case there are stable trajectories and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation does not tend to destabilize the economy.

  10. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  11. Performance analysis of the MHD-steam combined cycle, including the influence of cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G. F.; Dennis, C. B.

    1980-08-01

    The MHD Systems group of the ANL Engineering Division is conducting overall system studies, utilizing the computer simulation code that has been developed at ANL. This analytical investigation is exploring a range of possible performance variables, in order to determine the sensitivity of a specific plant design to variation in key system parameters and, ultimately, to establish probable system performance limits. The comprehensive computer code that has been developed for this task will analyze and simulate an MHD power plant for any number of different configurations, and will hold constraints automatically while conducting either sensitivity studies or optimization. A summary of a sensitivity analysis conducted for a combined cycle, MHD-steam power plant is presented. The influence of several of the more important systems parameters were investigated in a systematic fashion, and the results are presented in graphical form. The report is divided into four sections. Following the introduction, the second section describes in detail the results of a validation study conducted to insure that the code is functioning correctly. The third section includes a description of the ANL cost algorithm and a detailed comparison between the ANL cost results and published OCMHD cost information. it is further demonstrated in this section that good agreement is obtained for the calculated cost of electricity. The fourth section is a sensitivity study and optimization for a specific OCMHD configuration over several key plant parameters.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Holtzer-Goor

    Full Text Available Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands.A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS located with the general practitioner (GP. This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer, home care, informal care, and implementation costs.With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%, or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved.Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting.

  13. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...... in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents....

  14. Cost and lack of insurance coverage are prohibitive to having dental implants after resections for benign mandibular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Zachary S; Ji, Yisi D

    2017-06-01

    To assess how often patients receive dental implants after mandibular resection for benign neoplasms and to determine barriers to completion of functional reconstruction. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent resection for benign mandibular neoplasms between 2005 and 2014. Demographic variables included age, sex, and race. Outcome variables include rates of implant placement, implant restoration, and reasons for not having implants. Fisher's exact test and odds ratios were calculated. In all, 52 subjects (age 47.1 ± 19.2 years) were included. Twenty (38.6%) received dental implants. Race was associated with the likelihood of receiving implants (P = .0302). African Americans (1/11, 9.1%) were least likely compared to all other racial groups to have implants (odds ratio = 0.1158; P = .035; 95% confidence interval 0.013-0.989). Caucasians (17/35, 48.6%) were 4.41 times more likely to receive implants compared to all other races (odds ratio = 4.41; 95% confidence interval 1.073-18.093; P = .038). Of the 20 patients who received implants, 10 went on to have dental prostheses. The most common reason for not having implants was cost (37.5% overall), cited by 50% of black and 16.7% of white patients. Patients do not typically go on to dental reconstruction after mandibular resection, with cost as a major barrier. African Americans were least likely to complete full reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  16. The cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes screening including prevention of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai; Jiwani, Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with elevated risks of perinatal complications and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and screening and intervention can reduce these risks. We quantified the cost, health impact and cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and intervention in India and Israel,...

  17. Lack of Detection of Bt Sugarcane Cry1Ab and NptII DNA and Proteins in Sugarcane Processing Products Including Raw Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer and the main sugar exporter in the world. The industrial processes applied by Brazilian mills are very efficient in producing highly purified sugar and ethanol. Literature presents evidence of lack of DNA/protein in these products, regardless of the nature of sugarcane used as raw material. Recently CTNBio, the Brazilian biosafety authority, has approved the first biotechnology-derived sugarcane variety for cultivation, event CTC175-A, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein to control the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis. The event also expresses neomycin-phosphotransferase type II (NptII protein used as selectable marker during the transformation process. Because of the high purity of sugar and ethanol produced from genetically modified sugarcane, these end-products should potentially be classified as “pure substances, chemically defined,” by Brazilian Biosafety Law No. 11.105. If this classification is to be adopted, these substances are not considered as “GMO derivatives” and fall out of the scope of Law No. 11.105. In order to assess sugar composition and quality, we evaluate Cry1Ab and NptII expression in several sugarcane tissues and in several fractions from laboratory-scale processing of event CTC175-A for the presence of these heterologous proteins as well as for the presence of traces of recombinant DNA. The results of these studies show that CTC175-A presents high expression of Cry1Ab in leaves and barely detectable expression of heterologous proteins in stalks. We also evaluated the presence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and DNA in the fractions of the industrial processing of conventional Brazilian sugarcane cultivars. Results from both laboratory and industrial processing were concordant, demonstrating that DNA and protein are not detected in the clarified juice and downstream processed fractions, including ethanol and raw sugar, indicating that protein

  18. Including Ethics in Banking and Finance Programs: Teaching "We Shouldn't Win at Any Cost"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Grainne; Dias, Roshanthi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify whether ethics is incorporated into the curriculum in postgraduate banking and finance programmes. There is growing concern that moral failure preceded the global financial crisis with waves of ethical scandals overwhelming the global banking industry highlighting a lack of integrity. Consequently,…

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs.

  20. Patient and program costs, and outcomes, of including gender-sensitive services in intensive inpatient programs for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornack, Sarah E; Yates, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    Gender-sensitive services (GSS) attempt to make substance use treatment better for women, but at what cost and with what results? We sought answers to these questions in a federally-funded study by measuring separately the patient and provider costs of adding GSS, outcomes, and cost-outcome relationships for 12 mixed-gender intensive inpatient programs (IIP) that varied in amounts and types of GSS. GSS costs to female inpatients included time devoted to GSS and expenses for care of dependents while in the IIP. GSS costs to providers included time spent with patients, indirect services, treatment facilities, equipment, and materials. Offering more GSS was expected to consume more patient and provider resources. Offering more GSS also was expected to enhance outcomes and cost-outcome relationships. We found that average GSS costs to patients at the IIPs were $585 ($515-$656) per patient. Average GSS costs to providers at the IIPs were $344 ($42-$544) per patient. GSS costs to patients significantly exceeded GSS costs to providers. Contrary to previous research, offering more GSS services to patients did not result in significantly higher costs to patients or providers. IIPs offering more GSS may have delivered fewer traditional services, but this did not significantly affect outcomes, i.e., days until returning to another substance use treatment. In fact, median cost-outcome for these IIPs was a promising 35 treatment-free days, i.e., over a month, per $100 of GSS resources used by patients and providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Federal employees health program experiences lack of competition in some areas, raising cost concerns for exchange plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Barker, Abigail R; Pollack, Lisa M; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith J

    2012-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for creation of health insurance exchanges designed to provide private health insurance plan choices. The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program is a national model that to some extent resembles the planned exchanges. Both offer plans at the state level but are also overseen by the federal government. We examined the availability of plans and enrollment levels in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program throughout the United States in 2010. We found that although plans were widely available, enrollment was concentrated in plans owned by just a few organizations, typically Blue Cross/Blue Shield plans. Enrollment was more concentrated in rural areas, which may reflect historical patterns of enrollment or lack of provider networks. Average biweekly premiums for an individual were lowest ($58.48) in counties where competition was extremely high, rising to $65.13 where competition was extremely low. To make certain that coverage sold through exchanges is affordable, policy makers may need to pay attention to areas where there is little plan competition and take steps through risk-adjustment policies or other measures to narrow differences in premiums and out-of-pocket expenses for consumers.

  2. Performance analysis of the MHD-steam combined cycle, including the influence of cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G. F.; Dennis, C. B.

    1980-08-01

    A range of possible performance variables is explored in order to determine the sensitivity of a specific plant design to variation in key system parameters and, ultimately, to establish probable system performance limits. The comprehensive computer code that was developed analyzes and simulates an MHD plant for any number of different configurations, and holds constraints automatically while conducting either sensitivity studies or optimization. A summary of a sensitivity analysis conducted for a combined cycle, MHD steam power plant is presented. The influence of several of the more important system parameters were investigated and the results are presented in graphical form. The ANL cost algorithm is described and it is demonstrated that good agreement is obtained for the calculated cost of electricity.

  3. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

  4. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  5. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  6. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  8. Cost estimating relationships for coal conversion process units. Volume 1. Technical report. [Includes in some cases dependence on capacity and data references from which estimates were derived

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, E.N.; Carden, H.W.; Curtis, R.L.; Heidler, L.M.; Roppel, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Cost estimating relationships for commercial-scale coal conversion process units are developed in this study. The specific units include: coal preparation, oxygen plant, gasification, shift conversion, acid gas/CO/sub 2/ removal, sulfur recovery, and the dissolver. Also set forth is a detailed Cost Chart of Accounts, together with a discussion of cost analysis procedures and problems.

  9. Impact on total population health and societal cost, and the implication on the actual cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Duy, An; Boonen, Annelies; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental CE of anti-TNF agents using a closed cohort while budget impact studies are mainly lacking. Notwithstanding, information on impact on total population health and societal budget as well as on actual incremental CE for a given decision time span are important for decision makers. This study aimed at quantifying, for different decision time spans starting from January 1, 2014 in the Dutch society, (1) impact of sequential drug treatment strategies without and with inclusion of anti-TNF agents (Strategies 1 and 2, respectively) on total population health and societal cost, and (2) the actual incremental CE of Strategy 2 compared to Strategy 1. Dynamic population modelling was used to capture total population health and cost, and the actual incremental CE. Distinguishing the prevalent AS population on January 1, 2014 and the incident AS cohorts in the subsequent 20 years, the model tracked individually an actual number of AS patients until death or end of the simulation time. During the simulation, data on patient characteristics, history of drug use, costs and health at discrete time points were generated. In Strategy 1, five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were available but anti-TNF agents withdrawn. In Strategy 2, five NSAIDs and two anti-TNF agents continued to be available. The predicted size of the prevalent AS population in the Dutch society varied within the range of 67,145-69,957 with 44-46 % of the patients receiving anti-TNF agents over the period 2014-2034. The use of anti-TNF agents resulted in an increase in the annual drug costs (168.54-205.28 million Euros), but at the same time caused a decrease in the annual productivity costs (12.58-31.21 million Euros) and in annual costs of

  10. Does including informal care in economic evaluations matter? A systematic review of inclusion and impact of informal care in cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; van Exel, Job

    2015-02-01

    Informal care makes an important contribution to societal welfare. However, it may involve substantial time costs and can have a considerable negative effect on the health and well-being of informal caregivers. These costs and effects of informal caregiving are often excluded in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions. The impact of this exclusion on the outcomes of these evaluations is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations and the potential impact of the costs and effects of informal caregiving on cost-effectiveness outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of interventions in four distinct disease areas where informal care is potentially important: Alzheimer's disease, metastatic colorectal cancer, Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It was recorded how often economic evaluations included informal caregiving. Next, for the studies including informal care, the impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was determined by removing informal care costs and effects of the cost-effectiveness calculations and recalculating the outcomes. The new cost-effectiveness outcomes were then compared with the original reported outcomes. The study identified 100 economic evaluations investigating interventions targeted at Alzheimer's disease (n = 25), metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 24), Parkinson's disease (n = 8) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 43). Twenty-three of these evaluations (23 %) included costs and/or effects of informal caregiving: 64 % of the Alzheimer's disease studies, 0 % of the metastatic colorectal cancer studies, 13 % of Parkinson's disease studies and 14 % of rheumatoid arthritis studies. When informal care was included, this mostly concerned time costs. Studies rarely included both costs and effects. The effect of including or excluding informal care costs or effects on cost-effectiveness outcomes in most studies was modest, but in some studies the

  11. Cost-effectiveness of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies including plerixafor in multiple myeloma and lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichopád, Aleš; Vítová, Veronika; Kořístek, Zdeněk; Lysák, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) are preferred source of hematopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation. Mobilization of PBSCs using chemotherapy and/or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) however fails in around 20%. Combining G-CSF with plerixafor increases the mobilizations success. We compared cost-effectiveness of following schemes: the use of plerixafor "on demand" (POD) during the first mobilization in all patients with inadequate response, the remobilization with plerixafor following failure of the first standard mobilization (SSP), and the standard (re)mobilization scheme without plerixafor (SSNP). Decision tree models populated with data from a first-of-a-kind patient registry in six Czech centers (n = 93) were built to compare clinical benefits and direct costs from the payer's perspective. The success rates and costs for POD, SSP and SSNP mobilizations were; 94.9%, $7,197; 94.7%, $8,049; 84.7%, $5,991, respectively. The direct cost per successfully treated patient was $7,586, $8,501, and $7,077, respectively. The cost of re-mobilization of a poor mobilizer was $5,808 with G-CSF only and $16,755 if plerixafor was added. The total cost of plerixafor "on-demand" in the sub-cohort of poor mobilizers was $17,120. Generally, plerixafor improves the mobilization success by 10% and allows an additional patient to be successfully mobilized for incremental $11,803. Plerixafor is better and cheaper if used "on demand" than within a subsequent remobilization. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of Implementing Lifetime Energy Cost, Including Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel and Energy Footprints of Contractors, as Mandatory Decision Factors in Navy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Cost Of Energy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Footprint, Mandatory Evaluation Factors, Navy Acquisition, Energy Management Systems, Corporate Social Responsibility 16...Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CPG Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines CSR Corporate Social Responsibility DAG Defense Acquisition... corporate social responsibility (CSR), in the pursuit of maximizing profit, corporations are incentivized, at least theoretically, to produce their goods

  13. Walking- and cycling track networks in Norwegian cities : cost-benefit analyses including health effects and external costs of road traffic : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Cost- benefit analyses of walking- and cycling track net-works in three Norwegian cities are presented in this study. A project group working with a National Cycling Strategy in Norway initialised the study. Motivation for starting the study is the P...

  14. Lack of high-quality studies comparing the effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness, of dental auxiliaries and dentists in performing dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2014-09-01

    Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group's Specialised Register; Cochrane Oral Health Group's Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Medline; Embase; CINAHL; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; five other databases and two trial registries. A number of dental journals were hand-searched and a grey literature search preformed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) were considered. Selection was conducted independently by two reviewers. Three reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible so a narrative summary was presented. Five studies (one cluster RCT, three RCTs and one NRCT) were included. All the studies were at high risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence was very low. The majority of the studies were more than 20 years old.Four studies evaluated sealant placement; three found no evidence of a difference in retention rates of those placed by dental auxiliaries and dentists over a range of follow-up periods (six to 24 months). One study found that sealants placed by a dental auxiliary had lower retention rates than ones placed by a dentist after 48 months (9.0% with auxiliary versus 29.1% with dentist); but the net reduction in the number of teeth exhibiting caries was lower for teeth treated by the dental auxiliary than the dentist (three with auxiliary versus 60 with dentist, P value dental decay after treatment with fissure sealants between groups. One study comparing the effectiveness of dental auxiliaries and dentists performing ART reported no difference in survival rates of the restorations (fillings) after 12 months. We only identified five studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were at high risk of bias, and four were published more than 20 years ago, highlighting

  15. Long-term healthcare costs and functional outcomes associated with lack of remission in schizophrenia: a post-hoc analysis of a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Virginia S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients with schizophrenia who fail to achieve symptomatic remission. This post-hoc analysis of a 3-year study compared the costs of mental health services and functional outcomes between individuals with schizophrenia who met or did not meet cross-sectional symptom remission at study enrollment. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a large, 3-year prospective, non-interventional observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the United States conducted between July 1997 and September 2003. At study enrollment, individuals were classified as non-remitted or remitted using the Schizophrenia Working Group Definition of symptom remission (8 core symptoms rated as mild or less. Mental health service use was measured using medical records. Costs were based on the sites’ medical information systems. Functional outcomes were measured with multiple patient-reported measures and the clinician-rated Quality of Life Scale (QLS. Symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Outcomes for non-remitted and remitted patients were compared over time using mixed effects models for repeated measures or generalized estimating equations after adjusting for multiple baseline characteristics. Results At enrollment, most of the 2,284 study participants (76.1% did not meet remission criteria. Non-remitted patients had significantly higher PANSS total scores at baseline, a lower likelihood of being Caucasian, a higher likelihood of hospitalization in the previous year, and a greater likelihood of a substance use diagnosis (all p Conclusions In this post-hoc analysis of a 3-year prospective observational study, the failure to achieve symptomatic remission at enrollment was associated with higher subsequent healthcare costs and worse functional outcomes. Further examination of outcomes for schizophrenia patients who fail to achieve remission at

  16. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  17. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  18. Should asymptomatic men be included in chlamydia screening programs? Cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening among male and female entrants to a national job training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Diane R; Quinn, Thomas C; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2008-01-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of various chlamydia screening strategies within a population of male and female youth entering a national job training program. Cost-effectiveness analysis of various chlamydia screening strategies among a cohort of 4000 female and male New England job training students. Strategies for women include (a) no screening, (b) universal endocervical DNA probe screening, (c) universal urine based NAAT screening, and (d) universal endocervical NAAT screening. Strategies for men include (a) no screening, (b) selective urine NAAT screening of leukocyte esterase (LE)-positive urines, and (c) universal urine-based NAAT screening. Universal endocervical NAAT screening of women and universal urine NAAT screening of men were the most effective and cost-effective strategies individually and in combination. Endocervical NAAT screening of women prevented 23 more cases of PID and saved $27,000 more than endocervical DNA probe screening. Likewise, universal urine NAAT screening of men prevented 21 more cases of PID in their female partners and saved $16,000 more than selective urine NAAT screening of LE positive men. Use of a sensitive NAAT to screen both men and women for chlamydia upon entry to a National Job Training Program is cost-effective, cost-saving, and provides a public health opportunity to substantially reduce chlamydia infections among youth at risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Audit of Trichomonas vaginalis test requesting by community referrers after a change from culture to molecular testing, including a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo

    2017-06-16

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.

  20. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  1. [Clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including physical exercises for patients with ischemic heart disease under conditions of resort and outpatient clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhova, E V; Guliaeva, S F; Tsarev, Iu K; Chervotkina, L A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including long-term physical training of moderate intensity intended for the management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who had undergone acute coronary events; the programs were adapted to the treatment under conditions of spa resorts, dispensaries, and outpatient clinics. It was shown that rehabilitation of patients presenting with CDH with the use of moderately intensive physical exercises during a long period enhances the effectiveness of application of the available funds due to improved clinical course of coronary heart disease, tolerance of physical load, and quality of life.

  2. Technical meeting on lessons learned with respect to SAT implementation, including development of trainers and use of cost effective training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The past years have brought some significant changes in the world energy market, where the nuclear power plants and utilities are operating. Part of NPPs is privatised now; the electricity markets are liberalized and become more and more international. Due to the increase of competition, the power production costs are now monitored more closely than before. The opening of electricity markets has led the nuclear power plants to be under the serious economic pressure with a demand for continuous cost reduction. All these require from NPPs to make their personnel training more cost-effective. In addition, based on modern technology, a great amount of new training tools, aids and technologies have been introduced during the last 2-3 years, these new opportunities can be quite useful for training cost optimization. On the basis of experience gained worldwide in the application of the systematic approach to training (SAT), SAT based training is now a broad integrated approach emphasizing not only technical knowledge and skills but also human factor related knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this way, all competency requirements for attaining and maintaining personnel competence and qualification can be met, thus promoting and strengthening quality culture and safety culture, which should be fostered throughout the initial and continuing training programmes. The subject of the present technical meeting was suggested by the members of the Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of the IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. The technical Meeting on 'Lessons Learned with Respect to SAT Implementation, Including Development of Trainers and Use of Cost Effective Training Methods' was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Tecnatom A.S. and was held from 21 to 24 October 2002 in San Sebastian de los Reyes/ Madrid, Spain. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for

  3. Concept analysis: lack of anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Marilyn A; Hobbs, Barbara B

    2017-05-01

    To re-examine and expand understanding of the concept 'lack of anonymity' as a component of rural nursing theory. Early healthcare literature reports lack of anonymity as part of social and working environments, particularly rural nursing. Rural nursing theory included the first published concept analysis on lack of anonymity but lacked empirical referents. Workforce, societal and rural healthcare changes support an updated analysis. To further understand lack of anonymity, its present day use and applicability to diverse environments, research from multiple disciplines was reviewed. Concept analysis. A literature search using eight terms in eleven databases was conducted of literature published between 2008-2013. Walker and Avant's concept analysis methodology guided the analysis. The previous concept analysis is supported in part by current literature. The defining attributes, 'identifiable', 'establishing boundaries for public and private self and interconnectedness' in a community were updated. Updated antecedents include: (i) environmental context; (ii) opportunities to become visible; (iii) developing relationships and (iv) unconscious or limited awareness of public or personal privacy. Consequences are: (i) familiarity; (ii) visibility; (iii) awareness of privacy and (iv) manage or balance of lack of anonymity. Cases were constructed and empirical referents identified. The concept of lack of anonymity was updated; portions of the original definition remain unchanged. Empirical referents reveal the defining attributes in daily life and may guide future research on the effect of lack of anonymity on nursing practice. This analysis advances the conceptual understanding of rural nursing theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Misunderstood or lacking legitimacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, G; Sims, D

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the rising interest in marketing within professional service firms in the last twenty years, past research has identified a reluctant acceptance and application of marketing within these organisations. The present paper will debate whether this is due to lack of understanding of the role of marketing, lack of acceptance as a valid management discipline suitable for professional services or lack of legitimacy as a profession in its own right. A brief overview of the role of marketi...

  5. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  6. Development of a method for calculating the cost of the program for decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Prognosis of future costs for the authorities including the corresponding net present value. Analysis performed May 6-7 and June 8 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Lorens; Lichtenberg, Steen; Lindskog, Staffan

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this report is to present a calculation of the authorities' total future costs in terms of their activities to monitor a safe and prudent decommission of the power plants, including the long term storage of the used fuel. An assessment of the inherent uncertainty in this estimate is also made. The study forms an integrated part of the total monitoring into the financial assessment of the whole programme of decommissioning and demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants that continuously is made by SKI. Hence, the estimate is presented with the additional function of supporting SKI's annual calculations of fees and contingencies in accordance with the Swedish Finance Act. Main result The expected Net Present Value of the authorities' costs as at January 2004 price level have consequently been estimated as follows: Mean Value (M): 2303 MSEK Standard deviation (S): 538 MSEK 8 This result tallies with the corresponding prognoses for the last two years. An additional clarification of a number of key figures resulted in some reduction of the total Net Present Value. By way of supplement to this main result, the undiscounted costs have been estimated (calculation 2). Besides, a tentative estimate has also been made by incorporating the official view on the future development on real rate of return in a long time perspective (calculation 3). The uncertainty of the result is significant in terms of the final budget figures and of the scale of the supplementary amounts in those situations where the budgets must be prudent and conservative. There may be a potential for further reduction of the current uncertainty in that the greatest causes of uncertainty now have been identified and ranked in order of priority. The greatest causes of uncertainty are set out in the table below. No. Cause of uncertainty Uncertainty group 1 Priority 2 1 Correction allowing for the uncertainty of the real interest rate N 55 % 2 Productivity E2 8 % 3 Uncertainty in the current base

  7. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  8. Energy brands lack vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godri, S.; Wilders, E.

    2004-01-01

    The three Dutch energy companies (Nuon, Essent and Eneco Energie) have relatively little brand strength. The brands are not perceived to be sufficiently different from one another and are not valued by consumers. With liberalisation imminent, this is hardly a strong starting point. How can you win over consumers if it is not clear what is on offer? In the business market, decision-makers are better placed to distinguish between brands. However, the brands lack vitality in this sector of the market too. The only consolation is that the situation is by no means exclusive to the Netherlands [nl

  9. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys’ vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). Results At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000). Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs – only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost

  10. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Smith, Megan; Canfell, Karen; Blakely, Tony

    2014-06-26

    Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys' vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000).Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs - only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost-effective. These results suggest that

  11. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  12. Cost-effective and rapid lysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for quantitative western blot analysis of proteins, including phosphorylated eIF2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jung; Ramesh, Rashmi; de Boor, Valerie; Gebler, Jan M; Silva, Richard C; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2017-09-01

    The common method for liberating proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves mechanical cell disruption using glass beads and buffer containing inhibitors (protease, phosphatase and/or kinase inhibitors), followed by centrifugation to remove cell debris. This procedure requires the use of costly inhibitors and is laborious, in particular when many samples need to be processed. Also, enzymatic reactions can still occur during harvesting and cell breakage. As a result low-abundance and labile proteins may be degraded, and enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases may still modify proteins during and after cell lysis. We believe that our rapid sample preparation method helps overcome the above issues and offers the following advantages: (a) it is cost-effective, as no inhibitors and breaking buffer are needed; (b) cell breakage is fast (about 15 min) since it only involves a few steps; (c) the use of formaldehyde inactivates endogenous proteases prior to cell lysis, dramatically reducing the risk of protein degradation; (d) centrifugation steps only occur prior to cell lysis, circumventing the problem of losing protein complexes, in particular if cells were treated with formaldehyde intended to stabilize and capture large protein complexes; and (e) since formaldehyde has the potential to instantly terminate protein activity, this method also allows the study of enzymes in live cells, i.e. in their true physiological environment, such as the short-term effect of a drug on enzyme activity. Taken together, the rapid sample preparation procedure provides a more accurate snapshot of the cell's protein content at the time of harvesting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  14. Should vitamin B12 tablets be included in more Canadian drug formularies? An economic model of the cost-saving potential from increased utilisation of oral versus intramuscular vitamin B12 maintenance therapy for Alberta seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Sherilyn K D; Kolber, Michael R; Chuck, Anderson W

    2014-05-02

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-savings attainable if all patients aged ≥65 years in Alberta, Canada, currently on intramuscular therapy were switched to oral therapy, from the perspective of a provincial ministry of health. Primary care setting in Alberta, Canada. Seniors of age 65 years and older currently receiving intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy. Oral vitamin B12 therapy at 1000 μg/day versus intramuscular therapy at 1000 μg/month. Cost saving from oral therapy over intramuscular therapy, from the perspective of the Alberta Ministry of Health, including drug costs, dispensing fees, injection administration fees, additional laboratory monitoring and physician visit fees. Over 5 years, if all Albertans aged 65 years and older who currently receive intramuscular B12 are switched to oral therapy, our model found that $C13 975 883 can be saved. Even if no additional physician visits are billed for among patients receiving intramuscular therapy, $C8 444 346 could be saved from reduced administration costs alone. Oral B12 therapy has been shown to be an effective therapeutic option for patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, yet only three provinces and the Non-Insured Health Benefits program include oral tablets on their formulary rather than the parenteral preparation. To ensure judicious use of limited health resources, clinicians and formulary committees are encouraged to adopt oral B12 therapy as a clinically and cost-effective first-line therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  15. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false.

  16. Study protocol: Cost effectiveness of two strategies to implement the NVOG guidelines on hypertension in pregnancy: An innovative strategy including a computerised decision support system compared to a common strategy of professional audit and feedback, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luitjes Susanne HE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disease in pregnancy remains the leading cause of maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Seventeen percent of the clinical pregnancies are complicated by hypertension and 2% by preeclampsia. The Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG has developed evidence-based guidelines on the management of hypertension in pregnancy and chronic hypertension. Previous studies showed a low adherence rate to other NVOG guidelines and a large variation in usual care in the different hospitals. An explanation is that the NVOG has no general strategy of practical implementation and evaluation of its guidelines. The development of an effective and cost effective implementation strategy to improve adherence to the guidelines on hypertension in pregnancy is needed. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to assess the cost effectiveness of an innovative implementation strategy of the NVOG guidelines on hypertension including a computerised decision support system (BOS compared to a common strategy of professional audit and feedback. A cluster randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside will be performed. Both pregnant women who develop severe hypertension or pre-eclampsia and professionals involved in the care for these women will participate. The main outcome measures are a combined rate of major maternal complications and process indicators extracted from the guidelines. A total of 472 patients will be included in both groups. For analysis, descriptive as well as regression techniques will be used. A cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle and from a societal perspective. Cost effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques.

  17. The Henrietta Lacks legacy grows

    OpenAIRE

    Greely, Henry T; Cho, Mildred K

    2013-01-01

    Now that the NIH has reached an agreement with Henrietta Lacks's family concerning the use of the HeLa cell line, what lessons can we learn about informed consent and the unforeseen use of biological samples?

  18. German power options: Lack of clarity will be costly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The German environment minister Norbert Roettgen (CDU) revived the German debate about the future of nuclear power in February when he argued for a limited lifetime extension of Germany's nuclear plants. His statements created much dissent in his own party and with the coalition partner FDP. The government will not take a formal decision before the autumn, but the contradicting messages from inside the government send highly ambiguous signals to electricity utilities with investment plans in Germany. What does the German government want the companies to do?

  19. Apathy in aging: are lack of interest and lack of initiative dissociable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabienne; Rochat, Lucien; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Lekeu, Françoise; Charnallet, Annik; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is common in aging and generally defined on the basis of three dimensions: lack of initiative, lack of interest and emotional blunting. Curiously, no study until now has examined the associations and dissociations between these dimensions in elderly people (with or without dementia). These questions were addressed in two studies. In the first study, we explored the distribution of scores and the relationships between the three dimensions of apathy in 56 patients with dementia, focusing mainly on lack of initiative and lack of interest. Apathy was hetero-evaluated with the Apathy Inventory (AI), a scale widely used to assess the apathy dimensions in aging. In the second study, given the AI's limitations, we investigated in more detail the relationship between lack of initiative and interest in 115 elderly people using a new questionnaire specifically designed to assess these two dimensions. Results showed that lack of initiative was closely related to lack of interest (Study 1). Although we used a more specific questionnaire, these facets of apathy did not constitute two separable dimensions, but reflected a common main factor of apathy in aging (Study 2). Thus, the distinction between lack of initiative and lack of interest seems questionable. Only a multifactorial approach that includes the various psychological factors involved in apathy would enable one to gain a better understanding of the different manifestations of apathy and to highlight possible dissociations between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does lack of sleep cause diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Carol; Pannain, Silvana

    2011-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic lack of sleep may contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adequate sleep and good sleep hygiene should be included among the goals of a healthy lifestyle, especially for patients with diabetes. We urge clinicians to recommend at least 7 hours of uninterrupted sleep per night as part of a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  2. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall. PMID:23202816

  3. Valuation of green walls and green roofs as soundscape measures: including monetised amenity values together with noise-attenuation values in a cost-benefit analysis of a green wall affecting courtyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-10-24

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  4. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  5. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE COST OF THE DISEASE — PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Omel'yanovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the estimation of the disease value, which includes direct, indirect and «intangible» costs. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to cost accounting, including the method of direct costs microcalculation compared with established norms of reimbursement are presented. It is demonstrated that disease’s cost not only reveals the burden of a pathology, but also allows the State to rationally allocate resources. The authors conclude that lack of comparability of the results of studies with different approaches to cost accounting does not allow their use in health care management. To solve this problem is necessary to develop a common methodology for analyzing the cost of the disease.Key words: cost of illness study, clinical and economical analysis, direct cost, indirect cost, impalpable costs, microcalculation of costs, human capital method, friction costs method, absenteeism, presenteeism.

  7. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  8. The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 Best Book of the Year lists, 75 weeks on the New York Best Sellers list, and several prestigious awards, The Immortal life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot is a must read for all. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/the-immortal-life-of-henrietta-lacks/

  9. On Teaching the Lack of Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration that has been effective in teaching the concept of the lack of simultaneity in introductory physics courses. The demonstration experiment can be used for studying the relationship between simultaneity and causality and as a conceptual device for analyzing the lack of simultaneity in special relativity thought…

  10. Lack of consent for mediation between companies and its reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Karpińska-Królikowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses commercial mediation, presenting its principles and procedure. It shows the reason why I became interested in the topic of companies’ lack of willingness to solve problems through mediation. It presents empirical statistics from mediation in commercial cases, including those on lack of consents or settlements. The figures are shown against the background of court statistics. On the basis of research conducted in the form of case studies, it presents...

  11. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  12. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants. Final (third annual) technical progress report, September 1991--June 1993 (September 1989--June 1993): Includes no-cost extension period from September 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1993-12-31

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project`s final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control.

  13. Future costs in cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H

    2008-07-01

    This paper resolves several controversies in CEA. Generalizing [Garber, A.M., Phelps, C.E., 1997. Economic foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 1-31], the paper shows accounting for unrelated future costs distorts decision making. After replicating [Meltzer, D., 1997. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 33-64] quite different conclusion that unrelated future costs should be included in CEA, the paper shows that Meltzer's findings result from modeling the budget constraint as an annuity, which is problematic. The paper also shows that related costs should be included in CEA. This holds for a variety of models, including a health maximization model. CEA should treat costs in the manner recommended by Garber and Phelps.

  14. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  15. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  16. Mandatory Publications: An Approach to Kill 'Lack of Will' or 'Lack of Skill'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehal, Neelam; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Amarjeet

    2018-04-01

    The issue of 'mandatory publications' has generated serious flak about its usefulness among the various stakeholders. A lot of debate centers around the question of 'lack of will' or 'lack of skill' as a reason for the diminishing research interests among the medical faculty in India. In our view, it is the lack of will to publish good quality research which is to be blamed rather than the lack of skill to do good quality research.

  17. Orbit Clustering Based on Transfer Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric D.; Arrieta-Camacho, Juan J.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2013-01-01

    We propose using cluster analysis to perform quick screening for combinatorial global optimization problems. The key missing component currently preventing cluster analysis from use in this context is the lack of a useable metric function that defines the cost to transfer between two orbits. We study several proposed metrics and clustering algorithms, including k-means and the expectation maximization algorithm. We also show that proven heuristic methods such as the Q-law can be modified to work with cluster analysis.

  18. Supplier Selection by Considering Cost and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    K. -H. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Supplier selection problem is one of the important issues of supply chain problems. Two categories of methodologies include qualitative and quantitative approaches which can be applied to supplier selection problems. However, due to the complexities of the problem and lacking of reliable and quantitative data, qualitative approaches are more than quantitative approaches. This study considers operational cost and supplier's reliability factor and solves the problem by using a quantitative appr...

  19. Delay and environmental costs of truck crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report presents estimates of certain categories of costs of truck- and bus-involved crashes. Crash related costs estimated as part of this study include vehicle delay costs, emission costs, and fuel consumption costs. In addition, this report al...

  20. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  1. Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wasser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods: A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK. Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results: A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.. A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002. Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011. Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI (p=0.003 and p=0.044. Conclusion: Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of

  2. A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Teerawattananon, Yot; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Lertpitakpong, Chanida; Thitiboonsuwan, Khannika; Neramitpitagkul, Prapag; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2010-06-09

    There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity). The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP) or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP), followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP), health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP), cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP), and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP), respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214,053.0 million baht (7,102.1 - 13,201 million US$ PPP

  5. 42 CFR 417.540 - Enrollment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment costs. 417.540 Section 417.540 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.540 Enrollment costs. (a) Principle. Enrollment costs are... of costs included. Enrollment costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs incurred in...

  6. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  7. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  8. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1997-01-01

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  9. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  10. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  11. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  12. Dissecting Costs of CT Study: Application of TDABC (Time-driven Activity-based Costing) in a Tertiary Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Heilbrun, Marta E; Haas, Derek; Boi, Luca; Moshre, Kirk; Minoshima, Satoshi; Kaplan, Robert; Lee, Vivian S

    2017-02-01

    The lack of understanding of the real costs (not charge) of delivering healthcare services poses tremendous challenges in the containment of healthcare costs. In this study, we applied an established cost accounting method, the time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC), to assess the costs of performing an abdomen and pelvis computed tomography (AP CT) in an academic radiology department and identified opportunities for improved efficiency in the delivery of this service. The study was exempt from an institutional review board approval. TDABC utilizes process mapping tools from industrial engineering and activity-based costing. The process map outlines every step of discrete activity and duration of use of clinical resources, personnel, and equipment. By multiplying the cost per unit of capacity by the required task time for each step, and summing each component cost, the overall costs of AP CT is determined for patients in three settings, inpatient (IP), outpatient (OP), and emergency departments (ED). The component costs to deliver an AP CT study were as follows: radiologist interpretation: 40.1%; other personnel (scheduler, technologist, nurse, pharmacist, and transporter): 39.6%; materials: 13.9%; and space and equipment: 6.4%. The cost of performing CT was 13% higher for ED patients and 31% higher for inpatients (IP), as compared to that for OP. The difference in cost was mostly due to non-radiologist personnel costs. Approximately 80% of the direct costs of AP CT to the academic medical center are related to labor. Potential opportunities to reduce the costs include increasing the efficiency of utilization of CT, substituting lower cost resources when appropriate, and streamlining the ordering system to clarify medical necessity and clinical indications. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rural ED transfers due to lack of radiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Matthew; Sturgis, LaShon; Lendermon, Darren; Kuchinski, Ann Marie; Mueller, Taylor; Loeffler, Patrick; Xu, Hongyan; Gibson, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the frequency of patient transfers to a tertiary care emergency department (Tertiary ED) due to a lack of radiology services in rural hospital EDs (Rural EDs), and examine the community and patient attributes that are associated with these transfers. This was a retrospective chart review of patients transferred to a Tertiary ED from Rural EDs. Transfers excluded from the study included pediatric patients (age lack of a radiology service. Lack of radiology services in Rural EDs leads to numerous patient transfers to the Tertiary ED each year. A disproportionate number of these transfer patients are African American. These transfers place additional financial and social burdens on patients and their families. This study discusses these findings and alternative diagnostic options (ie, telemedicine and ultrasound video transfer) to address the lack of radiology services available in Rural EDs. The use of these alternate diagnostic options will likely reduce the number of patient transfers to Tertiary EDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Cost-Utility Analysis Using Direct and Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Simon, Matthew S; Hamid, Kamran S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-15

    Total ankle replacement and ankle fusion are costly but clinically effective treatments for ankle arthritis. Prior cost-effectiveness analyses for the management of ankle arthritis have been limited by a lack of consideration of indirect costs and nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of operative and nonoperative treatments for ankle arthritis with inclusion of direct and indirect costs in the analysis. Markov model analysis was conducted from a health-systems perspective with use of direct costs and from a societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs were derived from the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars; effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Model transition probabilities were derived from the available literature. The principal outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the direct-cost analysis for the base case, total ankle replacement was associated with an ICER of $14,500/QALY compared with nonoperative management. When indirect costs were included, total ankle replacement was both more effective and resulted in $5900 and $800 in lifetime cost savings compared with the lifetime costs following nonoperative management and ankle fusion, respectively. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, surgical management of ankle arthritis was preferred for patients younger than ninety-six years and total ankle replacement was increasingly more cost-effective in younger patients. Total ankle replacement, ankle fusion, and nonoperative management were the preferred strategy in 83%, 12%, and 5% of the analyses, respectively; however, our model was sensitive to patient age, the direct costs of total ankle replacement, the failure rate of total ankle replacement, and the probability of arthritis after ankle fusion. Compared with nonoperative treatment for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis, total ankle

  15. Denmark lacks coherent policy on basic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    . Danish science is moderately well funded 1 . We have modern facilities, an excellent level of technical support and a buoyant biotechnology sector 2 . What is sorely lacking is a coherent policy on the funding and nurturing of basic research. Entry-level appointments (assistant professor) have a heavy...... suggest that more critical problems exist that must be addressed immediately to ensure the long-term health of Danish science. Chief among these are a poorly funded and misdirected policy on basic research funding, and conditions of employment that restrict the research opportunities of young scientists...... teaching load and no support for scientific staff. Young scientists cannot improve their situation by writing grant applications, since the funding available to the research councils allows little, if any, support for salary components. Such restrictions are making assistant professorships increasingly...

  16. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  17. Productivity costs in economic evaluations: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner; Rutten, Frans

    2013-07-01

    Productivity costs occur when the productivity of individuals is affected by illness, treatment, disability or premature death. The objective of this paper was to review past and current developments related to the inclusion, identification, measurement and valuation of productivity costs in economic evaluations. The main debates in the theory and practice of economic evaluations of health technologies described in this review have centred on the questions of whether and how to include productivity costs, especially productivity costs related to paid work. The past few decades have seen important progress in this area. There are important sources of productivity costs other than absenteeism (e.g. presenteeism and multiplier effects in co-workers), but their exact influence on costs remains unclear. Different measurement instruments have been developed over the years, but which instrument provides the most accurate estimates has not been established. Several valuation approaches have been proposed. While empirical research suggests that productivity costs are best included in the cost side of the cost-effectiveness ratio, the jury is still out regarding whether the human capital approach or the friction cost approach is the most appropriate valuation method to do so. Despite the progress and the substantial amount of scientific research, a consensus has not been reached on either the inclusion of productivity costs in economic evaluations or the methods used to produce productivity cost estimates. Such a lack of consensus has likely contributed to ignoring productivity costs in actual economic evaluations and is reflected in variations in national health economic guidelines. Further research is needed to lessen the controversy regarding the estimation of health-related productivity costs. More standardization would increase the comparability and credibility of economic evaluations taking a societal perspective.

  18. The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Mattias; Granström, Ola; Omérov, Sead; Jacob, Johanna; Landén, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive cost-of-illness studies in bipolar disorder, in particular studies based on patient-level data. The purpose of this study was to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalisation and patient functioning. Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care during 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47% of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm. This dataset was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual cost per patient was 28,011 in 2008 (n = 1,846). Indirect costs due to sick leave and early retirement represented 75%, inpatient costs 13%, outpatient costs 8%, pharmaceuticals 2% and community care another 2% of the total cost. Total costs were considerably higher during mood episodes (six times higher than in remission), for hospitalised patients (55,500 vs. 22,200) and for patients with low GAF scores. The high cost of bipolar disorder is driven primarily by indirect costs. Costs were strongly associated with mood episodes, hospitalisations and low GAF scores. This suggests that treatment that reduces the risk for relapses and hospitalizations and improve functioning may decrease both the societal cost of bipolar disorder and patient suffering.

  19. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  20. Cost accounting in ECN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wout, E.L.; Bever Donker, J.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    A five year planning is made in which the available money is distributed to the expected programmes. This five year plan is used as basis for working plan and budget for the next year. In the working plan all financial means are divided into kinds of costs, cost centres and cost units. Based on this working plan and the relevant budgets the tariffs are calculated per working centre (cost centre). The tariffs are fixed for a whole year. Up till now these tariffs are also basis for the cost unit accounting at the end of the year together with the results of the time registration. The estimated work shop services for the working centres are included in the tariffs. For the allocation of overhead costs ECN uses dynamic keys. Depreciation costs with respect to instruments, investments etc. are determined per working centre according to a computer programme. The cost unit related costs are charged directly to cost unit. This implies that project related in instruments are looked upon as running costs. In the future we will try to refine the present cost accounting system still further in this way that we will look upon a cost centre as a profit centre. Furthermore we will try to analyse the tariff and calculation deviations and under/over occupation deviations afterwards (post calculation). The information provided to the management knows a hierachic construction: project information to projectleader, programme (compound projects) information to programme coordinator, cost centre summary to department heads, attention area (compound programme) information to programme coordinator and managing director, ECN research (compound attention areas) information to general management, information re kind of costs to relevant persons, f.e. surveys of expenditure for part time personnel to personnel bureau. The information is provided by the department of Finance and Administrative Organisation. The entire scope of cost accounting is the responsibility of the head of the department

  1. Henrietta Lacks, HeLa cells, and cell culture contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Nelson-Rees, Walter A; Hutchins, Grover M

    2009-09-01

    Henrietta Lacks died in 1951 of an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A tissue biopsy obtained for diagnostic evaluation yielded additional tissue for Dr George O. Gey's tissue culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, Maryland). The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. HeLa cells were used by researchers around the world. However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. Cultures, supposedly of tissues such as breast cancer or mouse, proved to be HeLa cells. We describe the history behind the development of HeLa cells, including the first published description of Ms Lacks' autopsy, and the cell culture contamination that resulted. The debate over cell culture contamination began in the 1970s and was not harmonious. Ultimately, the problem was not resolved and it continues today. Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line.

  2. Logistics costs of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describe a problem of specification and systematization of enterprise’s logistics costs. With in a growing division of labour, also logistics costs increase their part in enterprises total costs.Almost all decisions about products and production in general, influence logistics processes even logistics costs and performances.In present is not clear enough, which of the cost-particles are relevant fot logistics costs, because some of logistics cost-particles accounts within overhead are charged together with costs of other sorts.Substantive step in the process of the monitoring and evidence of logistics costs is definition of this, that costs of enterprise´s processes will be inclusive in logistics costs and determining points of contact with the others departments (acquisition, production, sale etc.. After the specification of meditation processes, there is a need to choose applicable parameters for the expression of logistics performances. Besides logistics costs is needed to know logistics performances equivalent herewith at a cost of, therefore from the control side have for enterprise bigger value indices expressive correlation costs and performances(e.g. share of logistics unit costs performance.At the proposal and evidence of logistics costs and performances is needed consistently entertain an individual conditions of enterprise. Because the area of processes included strongly affects the size of account logistics costs and its share part in total costs of enterprise. Logistics costs are flow line between economy and logistics of the enterprise.

  3. Cost of illness of atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study of societal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Dalby, Lene Worsaae; Täckström, Tomas; Olsen, Jens; Fraschke, Anina

    2017-11-10

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is increasing rapidly; however, to date, population-based data are lacking on the attributable cost of illness of atrial fibrillation from a societal perspective, including both direct and indirect costs. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study based on national registries covering the entire population of Denmark. We identified all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2001 and 2012. For every atrial fibrillation patient, we identified three age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Both the total and the attributable costs of atrial fibrillation were estimated based on individual level information on hospital care (in- and out-patient contacts), primary sector care, use of prescription drugs and productivity loss. Average 3-year societal costs per patient attributable to atrial fibrillation were estimated to be €20,403-26,544 during the study period. The costs were highest during the first year after diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Admission costs constituted the largest cost component, whereas primary sector costs and medicine costs only constituted minor components. The attributable costs were more than two-fold higher among patients experiencing a stroke. The total 3-year cost attributable to atrial fibrillation in Denmark was estimated to be €219-295 million. The societal costs attributable to atrial fibrillation are significant. Reducing the need for hospitalizations, in particular from stroke, is a key factor in controlling the costs.

  4. The economic burden of injury: Health care and productivity costs of injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinder, Suzanne; Haagsma, Juanita; Panneman, Martien; Scholten, Annemieke; Brugmans, Marco; Van Beeck, Ed

    2016-08-01

    Detailed information on health care costs and productivity costs for the whole spectrum of injuries is lacking. We measured the total costs of injuries by external-cause, injury groupings, age and sex. Injury patients visiting an Emergency Department in the Netherlands were included. Health service use and work absenteeism were estimated with national database data and a prospective follow-up study. Health care costs (direct costs) and productivity costs (indirect costs) were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Cost of Injury Model. Total costs of injuries were €3.5 billion annually (€210/capita and €4300/patient); €2.0 billion healthcare costs and €1.5 billion productivity costs. Home and leisure injury subcategory falls caused 41% of total costs. Traffic injury was prominent in the 15-54 age group, mainly due to bicycle injuries. Sports injuries, in special football/soccer injuries, resulted in high costs in the 15-24 age group. Although costs per patient were comparable between males and females, health care costs were higher in females, whereas males have more than twice as high productivity costs. Health care costs were highest for hip fractures (€20,000/patient). Extremity fractures had high costs due to high incidences and high productivity costs per patient. Our detailed cost model identified known risk groups, such as elderly females with hip fractures resulting from falls, as well as less obvious important high risk groups, such as young children falling from furniture, young males who sustained football/soccer injuries and bicycle injuries among all ages. This information is essential to assess additional priority areas for prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  6. Cost of allergy immunotherapy: sublingual vs subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberling, Kristin; Hiebert, Jared; Nyirady, Janice; Lin, Sandra; Chang, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to manage the allergic patient and may be administered either through the subcutaneous route (SCIT) or the sublingual route (SLIT). Both have been proven efficacious; however, SLIT is currently not covered by insurance companies and is an out-of-pocket expense. The goal of the current study is to compare the costs of SCIT to SLIT. For SCIT, a total of 9 different insurance groups were studied including 8 preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and Medicare. Costs were broken down according to the percentage of coverage for the injections, serum vial fees, weekly co-pay, and deductibles. Total yearly cost for SCIT was calculated for the varying insurance plans and compared to the yearly cost of SLIT. PPO plans covered between 60% and 100% of allergy immunotherapy treatment with a range of weekly co-pay between $0 and $50. Deductibles ranged between $0 and $7000. Medicare had a flat rate of 80% coverage costing the insurer $807.20 for the year of therapy. None of the above costs include loss of work productivity and travel expense. The cost of SLIT ranged from $500 to $2100 depending on the allergy practice and number on antigens treated. The cost of SCIT varies dramatically according to insurance plan whereas the cost of SLIT varies between practices. When loss of productivity and travel expense are added into the cost of SCIT, SLIT might be comparable in cost and more convenient for the patient. Although the lack of insurance coverage for SLIT currently makes it more expensive than SCIT, we have found that the financial gap is much smaller than initially thought, especially when indirect costs and plans with less than 80% coverage or high weekly co-pay are factored into the equation. Copyright © 2012 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  7. Costing for decommissioning: Continuing NEA engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; Weber, Inge; ); Siemann, Michael; )

    2017-01-01

    On 20-21 September 2016, the International Conference on Financing of Decommissioning of nuclear power plants was held in Stockholm, Sweden. The conference focused on the exchange and sharing of information on current and emerging issues in the financing of nuclear power plant decommissioning and the underlying costs of decommissioning. It aimed at providing a good picture of the variety of financing systems in place to cover the costs of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As an increasing number of nuclear reactors are expected to be permanently shut-down and enter into the decommissioning phase, the conference highlighted challenges for financing and delivering these decommissioning activities and explored the ways in which they were being addressed. This also included consideration of the implications of potentially under-funded or uncertain decommissioning liabilities. The insights gained in the course of the conference informed future development of work on these issues. The conference addressed a variety of issues from a range of perspectives under three main themes: financing systems - the variety of financing systems in place to provide the financial resources needed for decommissioning, including the arrangements for collecting and developing financial resources during operation and drawing down the assets during decommissioning activities, as well as oversight and reporting issues; decommissioning costing - understanding the cost estimates, quality and interpretation issues in decommissioning costing, the challenges of assurance, comparisons of estimates and actual costs, exploring ways to remedy the current lack of comparable actual cost data, possible benchmarking, etc.; [financial] risk management - effective management of financial assets, risk management strategies, the changing of markets and investment strategies for financial assets, balancing the rates of return and the reduction of risk, implications of the major changes in the energy and

  8. Rethinking sunk costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capen, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    As typically practiced in the petroleum/ natural gas industry, most economic calculations leave out sunk costs. Integrated businesses can be hurt by the omission of sunk costs because profits and costs are not allocated properly among the various business segments. Not only can the traditional sunk-cost practice lead to predictably bad decisions, but a company that operates under such a policy will have no idea how to allocate resources among its operating components; almost none of its calculated returns will be correct. This paper reports that the solution is to include asset value as part of the investment in the calculation

  9. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  10. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  11. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  12. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  13. Causes of Fiscal Illusion: Lack of Information or Lack of Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    According to fiscal illusion theory, voters misperceive fiscal parameters because of incomplete information. The costs of public services are underestimated, implying that if voters had full information, their support for public services would drop. The literature has focused on testing the impli......According to fiscal illusion theory, voters misperceive fiscal parameters because of incomplete information. The costs of public services are underestimated, implying that if voters had full information, their support for public services would drop. The literature has focused on testing...... the implications of fiscal illusions, whereas the question why fiscal illusions occur at all has received less attention. According to the standard argument, individuals base their opinion of policy proposals on a valuation of benefits and costs. We formalize the standard argument and show that it is a special...... case of the attention model of fiscal illusion. In this model, opinion depends on the saliency of attributes of the proposal. We show that the attention model can better explain fiscal illusion by deriving competing hypotheses, which are tested in a survey experiment. We conclude that the mechanism...

  14. Escherichia coli lacking RpoS are rare in natural populations of non-pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Gordon, David M; Stoebel, Daniel M

    2012-11-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoS controls a large regulon that allows E. coli to respond to a variety of stresses. Mutations in rpoS can increase rates of nutrient acquisition at the cost of a decrease in stress resistance. These kinds of mutations evolve rapidly under certain laboratory conditions where nutrient acquisition is especially challenging. The frequency of strains lacking RpoS in natural populations of E. coli is less clear. Such strains have been found at frequencies over 20% in some collections of wild isolates. However, laboratory handling can select for RpoS-null strains and may have affected some of these strain collections. Other studies have included an unknown diversity of strains or only used a phenotypic proxy as a measure of RpoS levels. We directly measured RpoS levels in a collection of E. coli that includes the full diversity of the species and that was handled in a manner to minimize the potential for laboratory evolution. We found that only 2% of strains produce no functional RpoS. Comparison of these strains in multiple labs shows that these rpoS mutations occurred in the laboratory. Earlier studies reporting much higher levels of RpoS polymorphism may reflect the storage history of the strains in laboratories rather than true frequency of such strains in natural populations.

  15. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey eMirkovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-pore domain K+ (K2P channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and resistance to depression. While the distribution of Trek2 mRNA in the CNS is broad, little is known about the relevance of this Trek family member to neurobiology and behavior. Here, we probed the effect of constitutive Trek2 ablation, as well as the simultaneous constitutive ablation of all three Trek family genes, in paradigms that assess motor activity, coordination, anxiety-related behavior, learning and memory, and drug-induced reward-related behavior. No differences were observed between Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice in coordination or total distance traveled in an open-field. A gender-dependent impact of Trek ablation on open-field anxiety-related behavior was observed, as female but not male Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice spent more time in, and made a greater number of entries into, the center of the open-field than wild-type counterparts. Further evaluation of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box, however, did not reveal a significant influence of genotype on performance for either gender. Furthermore, Trek–/– mice behaved normally in tests of learning and memory, including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition, and with respect to opioid-induced motor stimulation and conditioned place preference. Collectively, these data argue that despite their broad distribution in the CNS, Trek channels exert a minimal influence on a wide-range of behaviors.

  16. THE COST OF PRODUCTION UNDER DIRECT COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING – A COMPARATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea-Bontaş Cristina Aurora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Managerial accounting has an important role in strategic management of a company, being designed especially for managers, in order to optimise their decision regarding operating activities. One of the objectives of managerial accounting is the cost calculation, for measuring inventory costs, and the costs and profitability of products and services. Cost calculation systems can vary in terms of which costs are assigned to cost objects, two significant calculation systems being adopted by the costing theory: full cost accounting, which includes all costs of production as product costs, and partial cost accounting, which includes only those costs that vary with output. This article provides a comparative approach regarding the differences between the calculation of the cost of production under direct costing and absorption costing. It also examines the implication of using each of these calculation systems on the financial position and financial performance of the companies reported on the statement of financial position and the income statement. Finally, the advantages of using direct costing for internal reporting are discussed, considering that this method is not acceptable for external reporting to stockholders and other external users.

  17. No pain, no gain: lack of exercise obstructs neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nate; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    Bedridden patients develop atrophied muscles, their daily activities greatly reduced, and some display a depressive mood. Patients who are able to receive physical rehabilitation sometimes show surprising clinical improvements, including reduced depression and attenuation of other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for CNS disorders, namely, transplantation of exogenous stem cells and amplification of endogenous neurogenesis. The latter strategy embraces a natural way of reinnervating the damaged brain and correcting the neurological impairments. In this study, we discussed how immobilization-induced disuse atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, affects neurogenesis in rats. The overarching hypothesis is that immobilization suppresses neurogenesis by reducing the circulating growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor. That immobilization alters neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS requires characterization of the stem cell microenvironment by examining the trophic and growth factors, as well as stress-related proteins that have been implicated in exercise-induced neurogenesis. Although accumulating evidence has revealed the contribution of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the reverse paradigm involving "lack of exercise," which mimics pathological states (e.g., stroke patients are often immobile), remains underexplored. This novel paradigm will enable us to examine the effects on neurogenesis by a nonpermissive stem cell microenvironment likely produced by lack of exercise. BrdU labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are proposed as indices of neurogenesis, while quantitative measurements of spontaneous movements will reveal psychomotor components of immobilization. Studies designed to

  18. [The cost of sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerer, O; Burchardi, H

    2006-06-01

    In recent years great efforts in clinical sepsis research have led to a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and new therapeutic approaches including drugs and supportive care. Despite this success, severe sepsis remains a serious health care problem. Each year approximately 75,000 patients in Germany and approximately 750,000 patients in the USA suffer from severe sepsis. The length of stay and the cost of laborious therapies lead to high intensive care unit (ICU) costs. Sepsis causes a significant national socioeconomic burden if indirect costs due to productivity loss are included and in Germany severe sepsis has been estimated to generate costs between 3.6 and 7.7 billion Euro annually. Thus, this complex and life-threatening disease has been identified as a high cost driver not only for the ICU, but also from the perspectives of hospitals and society. To improve the outcome of severe sepsis, innovative drugs and treatment strategies are urgently needed. Some drugs and strategies already offer promising results and will probably play a major role in the future. Even though their cost-effectiveness is likely, intensive care medicine has to carry a substantial economic burden. This article summarizes studies focusing on the evaluation of direct or indirect costs of sepsis and the cost-effectiveness of new therapies.

  19. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  20. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  1. 7 CFR 760.614 - Lack of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of access. 760.614 Section 760.614 Agriculture... Lack of access. In addition to other provisions for eligibility provided for in this part, the Deputy Administrator may provide assistance to participants who suffered 2008 production losses that meet the lack of...

  2. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21... Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for... calculation formula; and (4) The anticipated duration of the lack of alternate fuel supply which constitutes...

  3. Hidden costs of low-cost screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrlak, D.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred women in Orange County, California, took part in a low-cost mammography screening project sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the KCBS-TV. Patients were followed up by telephone and questioned about actual costs incurred as a result of screening mammography, including costs of repeated and follow-up mammograms, US examinations and surgical consultations. The total number of biopsies, cancers found, and the costs involved were investigated. The authors' results suggest that particularly in centers with a high positive call rate, the cost of screening mammograms accounts for only a small proportion of the medical costs

  4. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  5. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  6. Immunization against Leishmania major infection using LACK- and IL-12-expressing Lactococcus lactis induces delay in footpad swelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hugentobler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional T(H1 CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells and a systemic LACK-specific T(H1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific T(H1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective T(H1 response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania.

  7. Immunization against Leishmania major Infection Using LACK- and IL-12-Expressing Lactococcus lactis Induces Delay in Footpad Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Felix; Yam, Karen K.; Gillard, Joshua; Mahbuba, Raya; Olivier, Martin; Cousineau, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. Methodology/Principal findings We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional TH1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a systemic LACK-specific TH1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific TH1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective TH1 response. Conclusions/Significance This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania. PMID:22348031

  8. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  9. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  10. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  11. Direct costs of radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a microcosting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Céilleachair, Alan Ó; Skally, Máiréad; O'Neill, Ciaran; Sharp, Linda

    2015-05-02

    Radiotherapy provides significant benefits in terms of reducing risk of local recurrence and death from rectal cancer. Despite this, up-to-date cost estimates for radiotherapy are lacking, potentially inhibiting policy and decision-making. Our objective was to generate an up-to-date estimate of the cost of traditional radiotherapy for rectal cancer and model the impact of a range of potential efficiency improvements. Microcosting methods were used to estimate total direct radiotherapy costs for long- (assumed at 45-50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over a 5 week period) and short-courses (assumed at 25 Gy in 5 daily fractions over a one week period). Following interviews and on-site visits to radiotherapy departments in two designated cancer centers, a radiotherapy care pathway for a typical rectal cancer patient was developed. Total direct costs were derived by applying fixed and variable unit costs to resource use within each care phase. Costs included labor, capital, consumables and overheads. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Radiotherapy treatment was estimated to cost between €2,080 (5-fraction course) and €3,609 (25-fraction course) for an average patient in 2012. Costs were highest in the treatment planning phase for the short-course (€1,217; 58% of total costs), but highest in the radiation treatment phase for the long-course (€1,974: 60% of total costs). By simultaneously varying treatment time, capacity utilization rates and linear accelerator staff numbers, the base cost fell by 20% for 5-fractions: (€1,660) and 35% for 25-fractions: (€2,354). Traditional radiotherapy for rectal cancer is relatively inexpensive. Moreover, significant savings may be achievable through service organization and provision changes. These results suggest that a strong economic argument can be made for expanding the use of radiotherapy in rectal cancer treatment.

  12. Distribution costs -- the cost of local delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winger, N.; Zarnett, P.; Carr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the power transmission system in the province of Ontario is owned and operated as a regulated monopoly by Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC). Local distribution systems deliver to end-users from bulk supply points within a service territory. OHSC distributes to approximately one million, mostly rural customers, while the approximately 250 municipal utilities together serve about two million, mostly urban customers. Under the Energy Competition Act of 1998 local distribution companies will face some new challenges, including unbundled billing systems, a broader range of distribution costs, increased costs, made up of corporate taxes or payments in lieu of taxes and added costs for regulatory affairs. The consultants provide a detailed discussion of the components of distribution costs, the three components of the typical budget process (capital expenditures, (CAPEX), operating and maintenance (O and M) and administration and corporate (GA and C), a summary of some typical distribution costs in Ontario, and the estimated impacts of the Energy Competition Act (ECA) compliance on charges and rates. Various mitigation strategies are also reviewed. Among these are joint ventures by local distribution companies to reduce ECA compliance costs, re-examination of controllable costs, temporary reduction of the allowable return on equity (ROE) by 50 per cent, and/or reducing the competitive transition charge (CTC). It is estimated that either one of these two reductions could eliminate the full amount of the five to seven per cent uplift in delivered energy service costs. The conclusion of the consultants is that local distribution delivery charges will make up a greater proportion of end-user cost in the future than it has in the past. An increase to customers of about five per cent is expected when the competitive electricity market opens and unbundled billing begins. The cost increase could be mitigated by a combination of actions that would be needed for about

  13. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs...

  14. 40 CFR 791.50 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Costs. 791.50 Section 791.50 Protection...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.50 Costs. (a) All costs reasonable and necessary to... tests, are eligible for reimbursement. Necessary costs include: (1) Direct and indirect costs of...

  15. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  16. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  17. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  18. Lack of focus on cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga

    2012-01-01

    Research into cardiovascular disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by lack of funding and expertise. However, hospital- and community-based data reveal high economic and social costs of these diseases to the national health services and the communities, with the region facing a mixed burden of diseases related to poverty and infections, emergence of risk factors and diseases of affluence, as well as new cardiovascular problems caused by the HIV/AIDS epidemics. The availability of ec...

  19. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  20. Systematization of Cost Factors for Cost Management at Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification and structuring of factors determining the cost level has significant importance in cost analysis and control. Cost factors need to be systematized for more effective cost management. The objective of the study is to identify and structure the factors with impact on the enterprise costs. The external and internal factors with impact on the enterprise costs in industry are highlighted. For cost management purposes, it is proposed to group the cost factors into the two categories: structural and functional. The essence of structural and functional factors is shown; a classification of functional factors is given. The effect of a structural factor such as products range (complexity is illustrated. As the factor of complexity, combined with cost analysis systems and innovative tools of analysis (ABC and XYZ methods, has been increasingly in focus of analysts, three problems are described which, once dealt with, will enable ABC method to fit into the cost management system. The importance of another structural factor of costs, technology selection, in cost management is shown. The analysis allows for the following conclusions: for purposes of current cost management, including one based on operational analysis, the output needs to be addressed as the central factor determining the cost level; in the strategic perspective, an enterprise needs to concentrate on calculating the costs for the structural alternatives that are supposed to determine its competitive position; for cost management purposes, the cost factors should be broken into two categories, structural and functional; a specific management system exists for each cost factor, which is greatly important for the positioning of an enterprise.

  1. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  2. LACK OF AWARENESS ABOUT SAFE BLOOD IN PAKISTANI POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in various transfusion-dependent life threatening conditions and donation of safe blood is a prerequisite for achieving this goal. This study was designed to evaluate the awareness regarding “safe blood” in Pakistani population. This study was conducted at a large scale through a population survey. The test population was divided into two groups i.e. general population and students. The Performa was designed for a general and student population and included 20 questions related to awareness of safe blood. A total of 4900 individuals belonging to different ethnic groups were included in this population survey. Results of social survey were analyzed by using Usman and Moin awareness chart. Results of this study revealed profound unawareness about safe blood in Pakistani population. This study found lack of awareness about safe blood as a major factor that is playing a vital role in the propagation of blood borne diseases in Pakistan. To secure the recipients from blood borne complications through blood donation, it is necessary to create effective awareness about safe blood in Pakistani population.

  3. General presentation including new structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  4. Cost restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the cost restructuring of the petroleum industry. This current decade is likely to be one of the most challenging for the petroleum industry. Though petroleum remains among the world's biggest businesses, news of consolidations, restructuring, and layoffs permeates the oil patch from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Isles. The recessionary economy has accelerated these changes, particularly in the upstream sector. Today, even the best-managed companies are transforming their cost structures, and companies that fail to do likewise probably won't survive as independent companies. Indeed, significant consolidation took place during the 1980s. More consolidations can be expected in this decade for companies that do not adapt to the economic realities of the mature business

  5. Cost-Based Decision in Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cretu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Management decision must be based on relevant costs (costs that allow for the best measures for business management, recognized by their forecasting characteristics which records hidden or opportunity costs, social costs and outsourced costs. Correctly predicted a profit is to build costs for possible revenue. The cost is a sacrifice, resource consumption. Because decisions aimed at future activities, the management calls in this respect, detailed information on future costs, some of which are not included in accounting data collection system. The power of decision maker on costs is therefore limited.d

  6. Operating Room Supply Costs in Orthopaedic Trauma: Cost Containment Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnea, Taylor P; Frye, Wesley P; Althausen, Peter L

    2016-12-01

    In the current health care environment, cost containment is more important than ever. Most physicians currently are unaware of the cost of operating room supplies. A large amount of waste occurs secondary to lack of knowledge and absence of physician incentives for cost saving. Many of the decisions for supply use can be based on good scientific evidence, which supports specific cost saving measures. Careful attention to blood utilization and use of tranexamic acid has the potential to save millions in the hip fracture treatment and arthroplasty treatments. Standardization of surgical preparation and draping can decrease costs and prevent costly surgical site infections. Following protocols and guidelines for bone graft and orthobiologics is critical. The clinical and legal repercussions of retained instruments and costs associated with dropped implants is a huge source of wasted health care dollars. Reprocessing programs for external fixators and tourniquets have been extremely successful. A myriad of opportunities for intraoperative cost savings exist that could be applied to nearly every orthopaedic surgery performed in the United States. It is incumbent on all surgeons to put aside the choices made out of habit and take part in reducing operating room waste for the benefit of hospitals, patients, and the health care system. When applied to the 5.3 million orthopaedic surgeries performed annually in the United States, billions of dollars could easily be saved with no adverse effect on patient care.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention). Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates the addition of clozapine

  8. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Theo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates

  9. Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K; Bewley, J

    2018-03-20

    Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare. The previous literature on total lameness cost estimates was also summarized. The reviewed studies indicated that previous estimates of total lameness costs are variable and inconsistent in the expenditures and losses they include. Many of the identified expenditure and loss categories require further research to accurately include in total lameness cost estimates. Future research should focus on identifying costs associated with specific lameness conditions, differing lameness severity levels, and differing stages of lactation at onset of lameness to provide better total lameness cost estimates that can be useful for decision making at both the herd and individual cow level.

  10. 5 CFR 950.107 - Lack of a qualified PCFO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of a qualified PCFO. 950.107 Section 950.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.107 Lack of a qualified PCFO. There is no authority in...

  11. 47 CFR 1.360 - Proof of lack of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proof of lack of record. 1.360 Section 1.360 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Evidence § 1.360 Proof of lack of record. The absence of an official record or entry of a specified tenor in an...

  12. 43 CFR 4.105 - Dismissal for lack of jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismissal for lack of jurisdiction. 4.105 Section 4.105 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND... Procedure Rules § 4.105 Dismissal for lack of jurisdiction. Any motion challenging the jurisdiction of the...

  13. 29 CFR 18.602 - Lack of personal knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lack of personal knowledge. 18.602 Section 18.602 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.602 Lack of personal knowledge. A...

  14. The relationships between OHS prevention costs, safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Metin; Ünğan, Mustafa C; Ardıç, Kadir

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the costs of safety. A literature review conducted for this study indicates there is a lack of survey-based research dealing with the effects of occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention costs. To close this gap in the literature, this study investigates the interwoven relationships between OHS prevention costs, employee satisfaction, OHS performance and accident costs. Data were collected from 159 OHS management system 18001-certified firms operating in Turkey and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that OHS prevention costs have a significant positive effect on safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs savings; employee satisfaction has a significant positive effect on accident costs savings; and occupational safety performance has a significant positive effect on employee satisfaction and accident costs savings. Also, the results indicate that safety performance and employee satisfaction leverage the relationship between prevention costs and accident costs.

  15. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  16. Safety, therapeutic effectiveness, and cost of parenteral iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2009-07-01

    Patients have to discontinue the use of oral iron therapy due to the development of side effects and lack of long-term adherence to medication for iron deficiency anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy. The computerized database and medical records of 453 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who received intravenous iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The improvement of hematologic parameters and cost of therapy were evaluated 4 weeks after therapy. 453 patients (443 females, 10 males; age: 44.2 +/- 12.3 years) received iron sucrose therapy. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume values were 8.2 +/- 1.4 g/dL, 26.9 +/- 3.8%, and 66.1 +/- 7.8 fL, respectively, before therapy and 11.5 +/- 1.0 g/dL, 35.8 +/- 2.5%, 76.5 +/- 6.1 fL, respectively, after therapy (P 50%). The mean cost of therapy was 143.07 +/- 29.13 US dollars. The therapy was well tolerated. Although the cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy may seem high, a lack of adherence to therapy and side effects including gastrointestinal irritation during oral iron therapy were not experienced during intravenous therapy.

  17. Standardized education and parental awareness are lacking for testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ariella A; Ahmed, Haris; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion leads to orchiectomy in 30-50% of cases, which may cause psychological upset and parental guilt over a potentially avertable outcome. Presentation delay is an important modifiable cause of orchiectomy; yet, families are not routinely educated about torsion or its urgency. The present study assessed parental knowledge regarding acute scrotal pain. An anonymous survey was distributed to parents in Urology and ENT offices, asking about their children's gender and scrotal pain history, urgency of response to a child's acute scrotal pain, and familiarity with testicular torsion. Surveys of 479 urology and 59 ENT parents were analyzed. The results between the two were not statistically different. Among the urology parents, 34% had heard of testicular twisting/torsion, most commonly through friends, relatives or knowing someone with torsion (35%); only 17% were informed by pediatricians (Summary Figure). Parents presenting for a child's scrotal pain were significantly more likely to have heard of torsion (69%) than those presenting for other reasons (30%, OR 5.24, P parents of boys had spoken with their children about torsion. Roughly three quarters of them would seek emergent medical attention - by day (75%) or night (82%) - for acute scrotal pain. However, urgency was no more likely among those who knew about torsion. This was the first study to assess parental knowledge of the emergent nature of acute scrotal pain in a non-urgent setting, and most closely approximating their level of knowledge at the time of pain onset. It also assessed parents' hypothetical responses to the scenario, which was markedly different than documented presentation times, highlighting a potential area for improvement in presentation times. Potential limitations included lack of respondent demographic data, potential sampling bias of a population with greater healthcare knowledge or involvement, and assessment of parents only. Parental knowledge of testicular torsion was

  18. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Nour; Kweider, Mahmoud; Abbady, Abdul-Qader; Soukkarieh, Chadi

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK) antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica. The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique. The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed. Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  19. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  20. Stranded costs and exit fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has been directed to examine the issue of stranded costs since it is a major component of restructuring within the electricity sector. When regulated monopolies are faced with competition, they could find that some of their embedded costs cannot be recovered. These costs are referred to as stranded costs. Common sources include large capital investments in uneconomic plants or expensive power purchase contracts or fuel supply contracts. In general, stranded costs do not include gains or losses associated with normal business risks experienced by regulated utilities. This report presents recommendations for mitigation of stranded costs, valuation methodologies and cost-recovery mechanisms. It also presents a summary of experience with stranded costs in other jurisdictions such as California, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and Ontario. Stranded costs are often recovered through an obligatory charge on all customers, particularly in jurisdictions where retail competition exists. In the New Brunswick market, however, the only customers who can create stranded costs are those eligible to choose their own suppliers. It is argued that since most customers will not have a choice of electricity suppliers, they cannot generate stranded costs and therefore, should not have to pay costs stranded by others. A method to quantify stranded costs is presented, along with a review of transmission-related stranded costs in New Brunswick. Expansion of self-generation in New Brunswick could strand transmission assets. Currently, self-generators only contribute a small amount to fixed charges of the transmission system. However, under new recommended tariffs, the amount could increase. It is likely that the net amount of stranded transmission costs will not be large. 2 refs., 1 fig

  1. 26 CFR 1.263A-1 - Uniform capitalization of costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs and direct labor costs. (A) Direct material costs include the costs of those materials that become... property produced. (B) Direct labor costs include the costs of labor that can be identified or associated.... Direct labor costs include all elements of compensation other than employee benefit costs described in...

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70, however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  4. Comparative study of minimal fresh gas flow used in Lack-Plus and Lack's circuit in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerapongpakdee, Sunchai; Sathitkarnmanee, Thepakorn; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Sucher, Siwalai; Thananun, Maneerat; Nonlhaopol, Duangthida

    2016-01-01

    The Lack's circuit is a co-axial Mapleson A breathing system commonly used in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults but still requires high fresh gas flow (FGF). The Lack-Plus circuit was invented with the advantage of lower FGF requirement. The authors compared the Lack-Plus and Lack's circuit for the minimal FGF requirement with no rebreathing in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults. This was a randomized crossover study. We enrolled 24 adult patients undergoing supine elective surgery, with a body mass index ≤30 kg/m 2 and an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II. They were randomly allocated to group 1 (LP-L) starting with Lack-Plus then switching to Lack's circuit or group 2 (L-LP) (with the reverse pattern). After induction and intubation, anesthesia was maintained with 50% N 2 O/O 2 and desflurane (4%-6%) plus fentanyl titration to maintain an optimal respiratory rate between 10 and 16/min. Starting with the first circuit, all the patients were spontaneously breathing with a FGF of 4 L/min for 10 min, gradually decreased by 0.5 L/min every 5 min until FGF was 2.5 L/min. End-tidal CO 2 , inspired minimum CO 2 (ImCO 2 ), mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded until rebreathing (ImCO 2 >0 mmHg) occurred. The alternate anesthesia breathing circuit was used and the measurements were repeated. The respective minimal FGF at the point of rebreathing for the Lack-Plus and Lack's circuit was 2.7±0.8 and 3.3±0.5 L/min, respectively, p Lack-Plus circuit can be used safely and effectively, and it requires less FGF than Lack's circuit in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults.

  5. Lack of association of glycated haemoglobin with blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan African communities. However, lack of longitudinal data in these regions prevents adequate analysis of the link between measures of glycaemia and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we examined the relationships of fasting glucose ...

  6. Relation Between Lack of Forgiveness and Depression: The Moderating Effect of Self-Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung-Sun

    2016-12-01

    Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderated multiple regression was used for analysis, and a buffering interaction of self-compassion was discovered. Specifically, self-compassion moderated the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depression; the relationship was stronger for those low on self-compassion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  8. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  9. Lack of testicular seipin causes teratozoospermia syndrome in men

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Min; Gao, Mingming; Wu, Chaoming; He, Hui; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Yang, Hongyuan; Xiao, Xinhua; Liu, George; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body fat and male reproduction is clearly seen when excess fat compromises fertility; however, potential consequences of adipose tissue paucity on fertility are unclear. We report that lack of seipin, a transmembrane protein localizing to the endoplasmic reticulum, causes both paucity of adipose tissue and male sterility. Human patients and mouse models lacking seipin in germ cells produce severely abnormal sperm because of impaired lipid distribution during sperm mat...

  10. The Obstacle of Remigration Due to the Lack of Revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    ZSUZSANNA DABASI HALÁSZ; KINGA FEKSZI

    2013-01-01

    Spatial differences have become an obstacle for Hungarian competiveness. In addition, the use or little use of brownfields has even more deepened regional inequalities. In our opinion, the lack of brownfields revitalisation and lack of opportunities forced population to migrate. Circular migration would be a solution to decrease regional inequalities. However, the non-revitalisation of rust areas prevents implementation of the process. Circular migration means that the labour force emigrates ...

  11. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    % skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...... effects, food insecurity, and simply forgetting. Lack of HIV-related knowledge about ART and HIV may be a barrier to nonadherence....

  12. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  13. Lack of level I evidence on how to prevent infection after elective shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Carola F; Neumann, Julie A; Limpisvasti, Orr; Adams, Christopher R

    2018-01-16

    Infection is a concern after all orthopedic procedures, including shoulder surgery. This systematic review of literature aimed to determine risk factors for infection as well as the availability and effectiveness of measures utilized to prevent infection after elective shoulder surgery. An electronic database search was performed using MEDLINE (1950-October 2017), EMBASE (1980-October 2017), CINAHL (1982-October 2017), and the Cochrane database to identify studies reporting a risk factor or preventive measure for infection after shoulder surgery. Fifty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Risk factors identified for infection were male sex, the presence of hair, receiving an intra-articular cortisone injection within the 3 months prior to surgery, smoking, obesity, and several comorbidities. The only preventive measure with level I evidence was for the use of chlorhexidine wipes for cleansing the skin in the days prior to surgery and for the use of ChloraPrep or DuraPrep over povodine and iodine to prep the skin at the time of surgery. Level II-IV evidence was found for other infection prevention methods such as intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis. There are many risk factors associated with developing an infection after elective shoulder surgery. Many preventive measures have been described which may decrease the risk of infection; however, most lack a high level evidence to support them. The findings of this systematic review are clinically relevant as it has been shown that infection after shoulder surgery results in poor patient-reported outcomes and pose a significant financial burden. As surgeons the goal should be to prevent infections to avoid the morbidity for patients and the increased cost for society. IV systematic review of literature.

  14. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    costs of preservation planning and digital migrations. However, more work is needed to refine the existing equations and include the other functional entities of the OAIS model. Also the user-friendliness of the spreadsheet tool must be improved in future versions of the model. The CMDP is presently closing its second phase, where it has been extended to include the OAIS Functional Entity Ingest. This has also enabled us to adjust the theoretical model further, especially regarding the accuracy and precision of the model and in relation to the underlying parameters used in the equations, such as migration frequency and format complexity. Understanding the nature of digital preservation cost is prerequisite for increasing the overall efficiency, and achieving first quality for preservation of cultural heritage materials.

  15. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  16. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design: We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results: Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion: To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  17. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  18. Clinical consequences and economic costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Knauert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide an overview of the healthcare and societal consequences and costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Data sources: PubMed database for English-language studies with no start date restrictions and with an end date of September 2014. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify all studies that discussed the physiologic, clinical and societal consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as well as the costs associated with these consequences. There were 106 studies that formed the basis of this analysis. Conclusions: Undiagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome can lead to abnormal physiology that can have serious implications including increased cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disease, excessive daytime sleepiness, work-place errors, traffic accidents and death. These consequences result in significant economic burden. Both, the health and societal consequences and their costs can be decreased with identification and treatment of sleep apnea. Implications for practice: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, despite its consequences, is limited by lack of diagnosis, poor patient acceptance, lack of access to effective therapies, and lack of a variety of effective therapies. Newer modes of therapy that are effective, cost efficient and more accepted by patients need to be developed. Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Cost, Continuous positive airway pressure, Mandibular advancement device

  19. Reduction of cost of poor quality in nuclear fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, B.

    2000-01-01

    Within ABB reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) has become an important process to focus quality improvement initiatives on bottom-line results. The process leads to improved bottom-line results, through cost savings, but it also leads to quality improvements in our processes, products and services. The traditional way of measuring and controlling COPQ in the production workshops is not enough. It is of vital importance to include other non-value creating costs as well, both internally, e.g. in the engineering work, and externally, in delivered products and purchased goods. ABB Atom has since a number of years used the COPQ process in the various steps of nuclear fuel manufacturing. The definition has been expanded to cover, for instance: Scrap, rework and deviations; Margin slippage; Warranty costs; Lack of supplier performance; Excess and obsolete inventory. Each of the COPQ elements has a responsible 'owner' within the management of the Nuclear Fuel Division. The owners form a COPQ task force, which is responsible for analyzing results, setting goals and initiating improvement actions. The COPQ result is updated each month and is presented to all employees in several ways, such as Intranet. For the various COPQ elements improvement initiatives have been implemented. The presentation will describe some of them, such as reduction of: Scrap, rework and deviations through a process with zero defect meetings, high level of process automation, statistical methods; Margin slippage through business process re-engineering; Warranty costs through an improved design review process and expanded testing of new products; Costs for lack in supplier performance through a new concept for supplier QA/QC. It is our strong belief that both ABB Atom and our Customers will benefit from the COPQ process since it leads to a higher quality for nuclear fuel and control rods and facilitates lower product prices. (author)

  20. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Acupuncture for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Penny; Pezzullo, Lynne; Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effectiveness is a major criterion underpinning decisions in mainstream health care. Acupuncture is increasingly used in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP), but there is a lack of evidence on cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in alleviating chronic LBP either alone or in conjunction with standard care compared with patients receiving routine care, and/or sham. To determine effectiveness, we undertook meta-analyses which found a significant improvement in pain in those receiving acupuncture and standard care compared with those receiving standard care alone. For acupuncture and standard care vs. standard care and sham, a weak positive effect was found for weeks 12 to 16, but this was not significant. For acupuncture alone vs. standard care alone, a significant positive effect was found at week 8, but not at weeks 26 or 52. The main outcome parameters for our cost-effectiveness analysis were the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of acupuncture treatment presented as cost (A$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved. The WHO benchmark for a very highly cost-effective intervention is one that costs less than gross domestic product per capita per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained or DALY averted, or less than around $A52,000 in 2009 (the base year for the analysis). According to this threshold, acupuncture as a complement to standard care for relief of chronic LBP is highly cost-effective, costing around $48,562 per DALY avoided. When comorbid depression is alleviated at the same rate as pain, cost is around $18,960 per DALY avoided. Acupuncture as a substitute for standard care was not found to be cost-effective unless comorbid depression was included. According to the WHO cost-effectiveness threshold values, acupuncture is a cost-effective treatment strategy in patients with chronic LBP. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Cost Accounting: Production and Equipment Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, William T.

    Cost accounting for audiovisual productions should include direct costs, and, in some cases, the media administrator may have to calculate a per-hour surcharge for general operating overhead as well. Such procedures enable the administrator to determine cost effectiveness, to control cost overruns, and to generate more staff efficiency. Cost…

  3. 10 CFR 600.30 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing. 600.30 Section 600.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.30 Cost sharing. In...-Federal contribution: (1) Base the non-Federal contribution on total project costs, including the cost of...

  4. 7 CFR 330.107 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 330.107 Section 330.107 Agriculture Regulations...; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.107 Costs. All costs (including those incurred under § 330.106 of this... usual places of duty shall be furnished without cost to the person requesting the services, unless a...

  5. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program costs. 700.115 Section 700... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) CONGREGATE HOUSING SERVICES PROGRAM § 700.115 Program costs. (a) Allowable costs. (1) Allowable costs for direct provision of supportive services includes the provision of...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1135 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible costs. 35.1135 Section 35....1135 Eligible costs. A PHA may use financial assistance received under the modernization program (CIAP....112 of this title. Eligible costs include: (a) Evaluation and insurance costs. Evaluation and hazard...

  7. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education...? § 642.40 Allowable costs. Allowable project costs may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a Training Program project: (a) Rental of space, if space is not available at a sponsoring...

  8. Lack of drug preparations for use in children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia Quirino da; Rey, Luis C; Coelho, Helena Lutéscia L

    2009-01-01

    To identify drugs which are not suited for pediatric use in Brazil. A descriptive study involving the development of a national list of unlicensed and off-label medications for pediatric use (problem drugs in pediatrics, PDP) through a literature review, a comparison among sources of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, and a survey with pediatricians. Drugs coded at the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System were analyzed regarding licensing status in Brazil and recommendations/indications in pediatrics, based on the following reference sources: the list of licensed drugs of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (2005), the Brazilian Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (2005-2007) and the website www.bulas.med.br. Our literature search returned 126 PDP, but 24 drugs were excluded due to absence of national reference. To compose the final list, 24 other drugs referred by pediatricians were added. Of the 126 PDP, 23 drugs were not licensed in the country for use in children; and of the 103 licensed drugs, 24 presented age-related restrictions for pediatric use. The pharmaceutical list included 42 therapeutic groups and 68 subgroups. The groups containing larger numbers of PDP were: antibiotics for systemic use (15), antiepileptics (8), antiasthmatics (7), and analgesics (7). The most frequent problems were: inappropriate dosage (35), unlicensed for pediatric use (28), age-related restrictions (23). The lack of pediatric drug formulations in Brazil shows a profile similar to that observed in other countries, which involves a wide range of clinically important products. This study brings a contribution to the evaluation of the needs and priorities that support the development of suitable medicines for the pediatric patient.

  9. Altered sleep latency and arousal regulation in mice lacking norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsley, Melissa S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Latency to sleep and the amount of sensory stimulation required to awaken an animal are measures of arousal threshold, which are ultimately modulated by an arousal regulation system involving many brain areas. Among these brain areas and network connections are wake-promoting nuclei of the brainstem and their corresponding neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we used mice that are unable to produce NE to study its role in regulating sleep latency after a variety of interventions, and to study arousal from sleep after sleep deprivation (SD). Sleep latency was measured after gentle awakening or after injections of saline, caffeine or modafinil. Sleep latency was also measured before and after partial restoration of NE pharmacologically. Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by sleep, followed by an additional 3 h SD). Results showed that when mice were awakened without being touched, there were no differences in sleep latency between the genotypes. However, after an injection of saline, the control mice increased their sleep latency, whereas the NE-deficient mice did not. There were no group differences in sleep latency after treatment with either stimulant. The sleep latency difference between the genotypes was ameliorated by partial restoration of NE. The arousal threshold experiments revealed that significantly more noise was required to wake the NE-deficient mice after 3 and 3 + 3 h of SD. These findings show that mice lacking NE fall asleep more rapidly only after a mild stressor, such as an intraperitoneal injection. NE-deficient mice are also more difficult to wake up using audio stimulation after SD. The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances. Copyright 2004

  10. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  11. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  12. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  13. Lack of focus on cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga

    2012-03-01

    Research into cardiovascular disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by lack of funding and expertise. However, hospital- and community-based data reveal high economic and social costs of these diseases to the national health services and the communities, with the region facing a mixed burden of diseases related to poverty and infections, emergence of risk factors and diseases of affluence, as well as new cardiovascular problems caused by the HIV/AIDS epidemics. The availability of echocardiography has raised the profile of these conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, stimulating several projects led by local cardiologists under the umbrella of the Pan-African Society of Cardiology. This research may help to overcome the lack of focus on cardiovascular diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as increase the awareness of the public and policymakers on the burden of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  15. Economic stress and lack of internal health locus of control: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-01

    To investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and lack of internal health locus of control (HLC), testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses. A cross-sectional public health (postal) survey was conducted in Skåne in 2008, based on a random sample with 28,198 participants in the age interval 18-80 years, with 55% participation. Logistic regressions analyzed associations between childhood and current economic stress, and lack of internal HLC. A 33.7% prevalence of men and 31.8% of women lack internal HLC, which was significantly associated with the covariates included. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported because combined childhood and adulthood economic stress exposures were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC in a graded manner. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since the association between economic stress in childhood and lack of internal HLC was partly significant in the final model, and the association with adult (current) economic stress was also significant. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since both childhood and current economic stress experience were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC. Economic conditions in childhood as well as adulthood are plausibly of relevance for HLC.

  16. Predictors and consequences of perceived lack of choice in becoming an informal caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R; Cook, Thomas B; Martire, Lynn M; Tomlinson, Jennifer M; Monin, Joan K

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of informal caregivers to older adults, we identify predictors of lack of choice and the consequences of lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. A national telephone survey with 1397 caregivers was carried out to assess whether respondents had a choice in taking on the caregiving role, their demographic characteristics, the nature and duration of their caregiving experience, and its impact on their physical and psychological well-being. We compare caregivers who felt they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role to those who did. In total, 44% of caregivers reported a lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. Highly educated, older caregivers caring for a younger care recipient with emotional or behavioral problems were most likely to report that they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role. Lack of choice is associated with higher levels of emotional stress, physical strain, and negative health impacts, after controlling for multiple confounds including level of care provided, relationship type, primary health condition of the care recipient, and demographic characteristics. Lack of choice is an independent risk factor for the negative effects of caregiving, and clinicians should be vigilant to lack of choice as a marker of caregiver distress.

  17. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  18. Opportunities for Reducing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) compliance costs: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainger, Lisa A

    2012-09-04

    The Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program is an unprecedented opportunity to restore the Chesapeake Bay, yet program costs threaten to undermine its complete implementation. Analyses of Bay TMDL program design and implementation were used to relate program cost-effectiveness to choices in (1) compliance definitions, (2) geographic load allocations, and (3) approaches to engaging unregulated sources. A key finding was that many design choices require choosing an acceptable level of risk of achieving water quality outcomes, and a lack of data can lead to precautionary choices, which increase compliance costs. Furthermore, although some choices managed costs, others decisions may have reduced the potential for cost savings from water quality trading and payment programs. In particular, the choice by some states to distribute the portion of load reductions that improve water quality in the Bay mainstem to many small basins is likely to diminish the potential for market development or reduce funding for the most cost-effective nutrient and sediment reduction practices. Strategies for reducing costs of future TMDLs include considering diminishing marginal returns early in the TMDL design to balance costs and risks in regulatory goal setting and to design rules and incentives that promote innovation and cost-effective compliance strategies.

  19. Fitness cost of resistance to Bt cotton linked with increased gossypol content in pink bollworm larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Williams

    Full Text Available Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

  20. The costs of producing a unit of blood in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Nyoni, Herbert; Nkomo, Sisodwa Z; Jacob, Jeffery S; Chikwereti, Radhi; Musekiwa, Zamile; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is lack of published data on the costs of blood and blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the unit costs of producing blood in Zimbabwe using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A management accounting approach, based on

  1. Lack of dust in quasar absorption line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the origin of absorption line systems in quasars is still uncertain. Most such systems apparently have atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 19 /cm 2 , but at least two quasars, 1331 + 170 and PHL957, have such strong Lyman α absorption lines that atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 21 /cm 2 are indicated. It should be possible to observe the dust produced 2,200 A extinction feature as it is red shifted into the visible, and to determine whether absorption line systems are produced in spiral galaxies where the dust content is similar to that in the interstellar medium. It has been argued that the emission line regions of quasars generally lack dust and that towards PHL957 the 2,200 A feature is absent. The present author argues that dust similar to that found in the interstellar medium is not found towards the quasars 1331 + 170 and PHL957. This could explain why H 2 is not found towards PHL957, and it indicates that the absorption line systems in quasars are not produced in spiral galaxies similar to our own. It seems from the analysis presented that the dust-to-gas ratio towards 1331 + 170 is at least a factor of 20 less than in the interstellar medium, and there is no reason to suppose that this lack of dust results from a lack of metals It is concluded that there seems to be a lack of normal dust towards PHL957 by at least a factor of two; and that the absorption region towards 1331 + 170 and probably the region towards PHL957 are lacking dust similar to that in our own galaxy. This can explain the lack of H 2 in these systems. (U.K.)

  2. Undertaking research on people who lack decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2017-10-02

    The Declaration of Helsinki requires that health care research takes place with the informed consent of those who participate in the study. This approach upholds the autonomy of the participants, but restricts research to subjects who have decision-making capacity. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 introduced safeguards that enable researchers to investigate the care and treatment of people with incapacity, while protecting this vulnerable patient group. These safeguards allow people who lack decision-making capacity to benefit from research findings. In this article, Richard Griffith outlines the requirements that must be met when district nurses conduct research on subjects who lack decision-making capacity.

  3. Effect of lack of later support in the masseter muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Lopez, Otton

    2007-01-01

    One of the main complaints during dental consultation has been pain in the zone of the masseter muscle, especially a lack of rear support. None research has published that reveals what has been the relationship between the rear support and histological alterations in muscle mass. Both topics have treated to relate through a process of tooth wear in laboratory animals and produce a lack of rear support. Cuts of the masseter muscles and specimens were subjected to microscopic study of light and electronic. The conclusion has been that by removing the rear support are produced important changes to histological level. (author) [es

  4. Developing macroeconomic energy cost indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Indicators are more and more drawn on for policy making and assessment. This is also true for energy policy. However, while numerous different energy price figures are available, subordinate energy cost indicators are lacking. This paper lays out a general concept for such indicator sets and presents a flexible framework for representative and consistent energy cost indicators with an underlying weighting principle based on consumption shares. Their application would provide interesting new insights into the relationship between energy cost burdens of different sectors and countries. It would allow for more rigorous analysis in the field of energy economics and policy, particularly with regard to market monitoring and impact assessment as well as ex-post-policy analysis.

  5. CECP, Decommissioning Costs for PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Cost Estimating Computer Program CECP, designed for use on an IBM personal computer or equivalent, was developed for estimating the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) and light-water reactor (PWR) power stations to the point of license termination. 2 - Method of solution: Cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial volume and costs; and manpower staffing costs. Using equipment and consumables costs and inventory data supplied by the user, CECP calculates unit cost factors and then combines these factors with transportation and burial cost algorithms to produce a complete report of decommissioning costs. In addition to costs, CECP also calculates person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed for a specific waste charge structure. The waste cost data structure cannot handle intermediate waste handlers or changes in the charge rate structures. The decommissioning of a reactor can be divided into 5 periods. 200 different items for special equipment costs are possible. The maximum amount for each special equipment item is 99,999,999$. You can support data for 10 buildings, 100 components each; ESTS1071/01: There are 65 components for 28 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTS1071/02: There are 75 components for 25 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (PWR)

  6. Systematic review of guidelines in estimating social costs on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Vella, Vincenzo; García-Altes, Anna; Segura García, Lidia; Ibáñez Martínez, Nuria; Colom Farran, Joan

    2017-12-16

    To systematically review guidance documents for the estimation of the social cost of illegal drugs, and to define standards for this estimation. A systematic literature search was conducted between April and May 2015 and updated in November 2015. Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched. Studies were included only if they provided indications of analytical methods for calculating the social cost of illegal drugs consumption. A total of 21 papers were selected for a final review. Four main areas of discussion were identified: a) alternative theories for the framework design; b) basic concepts definition; c) theoretical issues in the application of the framework and; d) definition of the cost matrix and its elements. The review exercise enabled the definition of two analytical approaches, which are proposed as references for estimation in the field. although social cost is a well-established method in the literature, there is a lack of agreement on the most appropriate approaches in the area of estimation of the social cost of illegal drugs consumption. Moreover, the two analytical approaches proposed are aimed at promoting more research focused at sophisticating the methodology in the field. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; Tuinstra, J.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15

  8. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  9. Opportunity cost, willingness to pay and cost benefit analysis of a community forest of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup KC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major policies in response to global climate change is reduction of green house gases emission. Community forests of Nepal are acting as major sources and sink of green house gases, in spite of providing socio-economic benefits to the user groups. There is a lack of information on whether community forests address the socio-economic disparity of user groups, and how it affects opportunity cost and willingness to pay to the forest users groups. Focusing on how the socio-economic conditions of forest users affect forest management, opportunity cost and willingness to pay; and effect of carbon trading mechanism and discounting on the cost benefit ratio, this study was carried out in one CF in western Nepal. The data collection methods included carbon stock measurement, household survey, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Study has shown that most of the forest users are in medium and poor economic classes and female involvement in forest conservation and management was remarkable. Poor people had high dependency on forest product and are most likely affected in terms of opportunity cost. Rich people were willing to pay more to sustain forest ecosystem services. Benefit cost ratio measured directly with and without discounting was 3.91 and 2.97, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the community forests users groups are benefitted from the current state of management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10522 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 108-124

  10. Cost overruns and demand shortfalls in urban rail and other infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Risk, including economic risk, is increasingly a concern for public policy and management. The possibility of dealing effectively with risk is hampered, however, by lack of a sound empirical basis for risk assessment and management. This article demonstrates the general point for cost and demand...... is proposed as a model for other types of policies and projects in order to improve economic and financial risk assessment and management in policy and planning....

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional home-based palliative care program for patients with end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Ng, Alina Yee Man; Lam, Po-Tin; Ng, Jeffrey Sheung Ching; Ng, Nancy Hiu Yim; Chau, June; Sham, Michael Mau Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown positive clinical outcomes of specialist palliative care for end-stage heart failure patients, but cost-effectiveness evaluation is lacking. To examine the cost-effectiveness of a transitional home-based palliative care program for patients with end-stage heart failure patients as compared to the customary palliative care service. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial (Trial number: NCT02086305). The costs included pre-program training, intervention, and hospital use. Quality of life was measured using SF-6D. The study took place in three hospitals in Hong Kong. The inclusion criteria were meeting clinical indicators for end-stage heart failure patients including clinician-judged last year of life, discharged to home within the service area, and palliative care referral accepted. A total of 84 subjects (study = 43, control = 41) were recruited. When the study group was compared to the control group, the net incremental quality-adjusted life years gain was 0.0012 (28 days)/0.0077 (84 days) and the net incremental costs per case was -HK$7935 (28 days)/-HK$26,084 (84 days). The probability of being cost-effective was 85% (28 days)/100% (84 days) based on the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended both by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (£20,000/quality-adjusted life years) and World Health Organization (Hong Kong gross domestic product/capita in 2015, HK$328117). Results suggest that a transitional home-based palliative care program is more cost-effective than customary palliative care service. Limitations of the study include small sample size, study confined to one city, clinic consultation costs, and societal costs including patient costs and unpaid care-giving costs were not included.

  12. Wind power costs in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleiro, C. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Biological Engineering (Portugal); Araujo, M.; Ferreira, P. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Production and Systems (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    In a way to reduce the external energy dependence, increasing also the investments in renewable energy sources and aiming for the concretization of the European renewable objectives, the Portuguese government defined a goal of 5100 MW of installed wind power, up to 2012. If the drawn objectives are accomplished, by 2010 the wind power share may reach values comparable to leading countries like Denmark, Germany or Spain. The Portuguese forecasts also indicate a reinforcement of the natural gas fired generation in particular through the use of the combined cycle technology, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs and external costs of emissions, for each type of technology. For the evaluation of the externalities ExternE values were used. The results show that presently the wind power production cost is higher than the CCGT one, at least from the strictly financial point of view. CCGT costs increase significantly when charges for externalities are included. However, they only reach levels higher than the equivalents for wind power for high externality costs estimations. This partially results from the low load factor of the wind farms in Portugal and also from the low emission levels of the gas fired technology used in the comparison. A sensitive analysis of the technical and economical parameters was also conducted. Particular attention was given to the natural gas prices due to the possible increase over time. The fuel escalation rate is the parameter that has larger effects on the final costs. It was verified that the total cost of wind plant is more influenced by the load factor than the total cost of CCGT. (au)

  13. Silence is Golden: The Lack of Direction on Compensation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silence is Golden: The Lack of Direction on Compensation for Expropriation in the 2011 Green Paper on Land Reform. ... Frustrated at the slow pace of land reform, the ruling party is starting to indicate that the state will in future rely on its expropriation powers to acquire such land. Section 25 of the Constitution makes it ...

  14. Special Relativity in Week One: 4) Lack of Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is our final article on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. One of the profound changes in our view of the world was Einstein's discovery of the lack of simultaneity. He illustrated this result with a thought experiment in which we observe a railroad car passing by us. We see the two ends of the…

  15. Siim Nestor soovitab : lack of Eoins / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Väikefirma Seksound annab sel nädalavahetusel välja Viljandi indiebändi Lack of Eoins esikplaadi "Echo Group" (plaadiesitlused 11. dets. Tallinnas Von Krahlis ja 12. dets. Tartus Genialistide klubis, esinevad ka Ans. Andur ja Popidiot, plaate keerutavad Hannes Praks ja Taavi Laatsit)

  16. Lack of Emphasis on Nutrition in Medical School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Suanne

    The need and concern for the apparent lack of nutrition education provided in training programs for physicians was the impetus for begining a 10-session nutrition lecture series program. The program was developed and implemented in a large teaching medical center hospital and given to 16 third-year medical students. The program's purpose was to…

  17. DETECTION OF LACK OF FUSION WELD DEFECTS BY RADIOGRAPHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M. P.; Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Soares, S. D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, radiography was employed as the NDT technique for detection of flaws in circumferential girth welds of steel pipelines used in offshore installations in the petroleum industry. The kind of defect specifically focused was lack of fusion. It is currently accepted in the literature that radiography is not as sensitive as ultrasonics to detect lack of fusion defects. Unfortunately, the radiographic inspection can barely detect lack of fusion and only when it is associated to inclusions and voids of considerable size. However, in a previous article ('Reliability of radiographic inspection of steel pipeline girth welds', QNDE Conference, 2007), the authors showed that it is possible to detect lack of fusion defects if, in the radiographic tests, the angle of incidence is the same angle that the weld bevel makes with the test piece surface, which means lowering the angle of disorientation between the flaw and the radiographic beam. However, no concerns were made to sizing the defects. Computational simulation was used with XRSIM software to establish the optimal radiographic parameters to reach the lower limit for detection for this kind of defect.

  18. Understanding the Lack of Female Leadership in Collegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarco, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study sought an understanding of the current trends in the lack of females in leadership positions within collegiate athletic departments amongst California Community Colleges. The passage of Title IX created a new funding stream for women's athletics, resulting in male coaches and administrators entering into the female realm, therefore…

  19. The evolution of culture (or the lack thereof): mapping the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAGHAVENDRA GADAGKAR

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... Abstract. This short essay is based on a lecture that I gave at short notice on a subject in which I am by no means an expert. The combination of lack of expertise and time for preparation, created an unexpectedly unique opportunity for thinking outside the box. I decided not to try to read up (as there was no ...

  20. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc.), the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantifi...

  1. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  2. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  3. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  4. 44 CFR 204.42 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities. (d) Travel and per diem costs. Eligible costs include: (1) Travel and per diem of employees who... Assistance Directorate , the State should immediately notify the Regional Administrator of its intention to...

  5. Cost Estimate for Gun Liner Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    the gun tube. (The Rowan cost estimate includes the extra thermal soak for the explosive bonding process.) The cost for the extra stress relief... nuts for optimum performance. GUIDANCE SYSTEM:  Cylinder guidance is provide by the rod bushing

  6. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  7. Intranasal Vaccination against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with a Particulated Leishmanial Antigen or DNA Encoding LACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Eduardo Fonseca; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Rayol, Alice; Larraga, Vicente; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

    2004-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oral delivery of a disease-promoting particulated antigen of Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg) partially protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present work, we sought to optimize a mucosal vaccine by using the intranasal route for delivery of different antigen preparations, including (i) LaAg, (ii) soluble recombinant p36/LACK leishmanial antigen (LACK), and (iii) plasmid DNA encoding LACK (LACK DNA). BALB/c mice that received two intranasal doses of 10 μg of LaAg and were challenged 1 week postvaccination with L. amazonensis developed delayed but effective control of lesion growth. A diminished parasite burden was accompanied by enhancement of both gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 levels in the lesion-draining lymph nodes. The vaccine efficacy improved with time. At 4 months postvaccination, when a strong parasite-specific TH1-type response was present in vivo, the infection was controlled for at least 5 months after challenge. In contrast to the particulated LaAg, soluble LACK (10 μg/dose) had no effect. Interestingly, LACK DNA (30 μg/dose), but not empty DNA, promoted rapid and durable protective immunity. Parasite growth was effectively controlled, and at 5 months after challenge LACK-reactive cells in both the mucosal and lesion-draining lymph nodes produced high levels of IFN-γ. These results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using the intranasal route for long-lived memory vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis with adjuvant-free crude antigens or DNA. PMID:15271911

  8. Association of hypertension-related distress with lack of self-care among hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Aguirre-Hernandez, Rebeca; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Research on factors associated with poor adherence to self-care focuses primarily on psychiatric emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas non-psychiatric chronic-disease-related emotional distress has received little attention in hypertensive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of hypertension-related distress with the lack of self-care including low adherence to pharmacological treatment, lack of regular physical activity, low intake of fruits and vegetables and frequent intake of high-salt foods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in two family medical units affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 487 hypertensive patients >19 years of age. The conceptual framework for the study was based on the Health Promotion Model. The analysis included multiple Poisson regression models. We found that 21.1% of participants had hypertension-related distress. Low adherence to pharmacological treatment was identified in 45.8% of patients, whereas 46.8% lacked regular physical activity, 30.8% reported a low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 54.6% frequently consumed foods high in salt content. Hypertension-related distress was associated with lack of regular physical activity and low intake of fruits and vegetables. These findings highlight the importance of addressing distress in order to improve self-care of hypertensive patients.

  9. LACK, a RACK1 ortholog, facilitates cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression to promote Leishmania major fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Daviel; Carter, Pamela M; Nation, Catherine S; Pizarro, Juan C; Guidry, Jessie; Aiyar, Ashok; Kelly, Ben L

    2015-04-01

    Leishmania are kinetoplastid parasites that cause the sandfly-transmitted disease leishmaniasis. To maintain fitness throughout their infectious life cycle, Leishmania must undergo rapid metabolic adaptations to the dramatically distinct environments encountered during transition between sandfly and vertebrate hosts. We performed proteomic and immunoblot analyses of attenuated L. major strains deficient for LACK, the Leishmania ortholog of the mammalian receptor for activated c kinase (RACK1), that is important for parasite thermotolerance and virulence. This approach identified cytochrome c oxidase (LmCOX) subunit IV as a LACK-dependent fitness protein. Consistent with decreased levels of LmCOX subunit IV at mammalian temperature, and in amastigotes, LmCOX activity and mitochondrial function were also impaired in LACK-deficient L. major under these conditions. Importantly, overexpression of LmCOX subunit IV in LACK-deficient L. major restored thermotolerance and macrophage infectivity. Interestingly, overexpression of LmCOX subunit IV enhanced LmCOX subunit VI expression at mammalian temperature. Collectively, our data suggest LACK promotes Leishmania adaptation to the mammalian host environment by sustaining LmCOX subunit IV expression and hence energy metabolism in response to stress stimuli such as heat. These findings extend the repertoire of RACK1 protein utility to include a role in mitochondrial function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lack of Trust in the Health-Care System After Losing a Child to Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Rossana; Omerov, Pernilla; Steineck, Gunnar; Titelman, David; Dyregrov, Atle; Nyberg, Tommy; Nyberg, Ullakarin

    2015-01-01

    Lack of trust in the health-care system after losing a child to suicide may prevent bereaved parents from seeking professional treatment when needed, thus diminishing their chances of recovery. This is the first large study to aim at evaluating the incidence of lack of trust in the health-care system and associated variables in suicide-bereaved parents. This nationwide population-based survey included 569 parents who lost a child to suicide 2-5 years earlier and a matched comparison group of 326 nonbereaved parents. Using a study-specific questionnaire, we asked bereaved and nonbereaved parents if they trusted the health-care system and measured psychological and background variables. Prevalence of lack of trust in the health-care system differed between the bereaved (46.5%) and the nonbereaved parents (18.3%), giving a relative risk of 2.5 (95% CI = 2.0-3.3). After multivariable modeling, high scores of depression, living in big cities, and being single were identified as variables associated with lack of trust in suicide-bereaved parents. Suicide-bereaved parents show lack of trust in the health-care system. We present possible effect modifiers that may be considered in professional interventions aiming at influencing suicide-bereaved parents' level of trust.

  11. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  12. Electricity costs in liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Junghans, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the liberalized electricity market the flexible demand determines the operation of power plants. Under market conditions the producers are forced to compete, and their power plants are normally loaded in order of increasing prices. The electricity costs consist of fixed and variable components, and the competition among producers simulates minimization of both the components. Considering the fixed costs (including maintenance, depreciation, capital costs and other permanent costs not depending on production) to be known, the total electricity costs in different operating conditions are based on the economic characteristics and the equipment load of a power plant. The paper describes the method for determination of electricity costs for condensing thermal power plants with permanent steam take-off for regeneration purposes and adjustable steam take-off for the needs of local heat energy consumers. The marginal costs for CHP plants are determined considering a number of different steam take-off from a turbine. At the electricity cost determination, auxiliary services also are taken into account. These can be reduced by adjusting the rotational speed of electric motors. The paper also shows how to determine the electricity costs for gas turbines, combined cycle gas turbines, and nuclear power plants. The position of hydro power plants among other PPs in the free market is also analysed. (authors)

  13. Medical Student Perceptions of Cost-Conscious Care in an Internal Medicine Clerkship: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Kimberly M; Kman, Nicholas; Ledford, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    Although as much as 87 % of all healthcare spending is directed by physicians, studies have demonstrated that they lack knowledge about the costs of medical care. Similarly, learners have not traditionally received instruction on cost-conscious care. To examine medical students' perceptions of healthcare delivery as it relates to cost consciousness Retrospective qualitative analysis of medical student narratives Third-year medical students during their inpatient internal medicine clerkship Students completed a reflective exercise wherein they were asked to describe a scenario in which a patient experienced lack of attention to cost-conscious care, and were asked to identify solutions and barriers. We analyzed these reflections to learn more about students' awareness and perceptions regarding the practice of cost-conscious care within our medical center. Eighty students submitted the assignment between July and December 2012. The most common problems identified included unnecessary tests and treatments (n = 69) and duplicative tests and treatments (n = 20.) With regards to solutions, students described 82 scenarios, with 125 potential solutions identified. Students most commonly used discussion with the team (speak up, ask why) as the process they would use (n = 28) and most often wanted to focus lab testing (n = 38) as the intervention. The most common barriers to high-value care included increased time and effort (n = 19), ingrained practices (n = 17), and defensive medicine or fear of missing something (n = 18.) Even with minimal clinical experience, medical students were able to identify instances of lack of attention to cost-conscious care as well as potential solutions. Although students identified the hierarchy in healthcare teams as a potential barrier to improving high value care, most students stated they would feel comfortable engaging the team in discussion. Future efforts to empower learners at all levels to question value

  14. Obstructed labor and caesarean delivery: the cost and benefit of surgical intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake C Alkire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in the reduction of maternal mortality have been made, up to 273,000 women will die this year from obstetric etiologies. Obstructed labor (OL, most commonly treated with Caesarean delivery, has been identified as a major contributor to global maternal morbidity and mortality. We used economic and epidemiological modeling to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY averted and benefit-cost ratio of treating OL with Caesarean delivery for 49 countries identified as providing an insufficient number of Caesarean deliveries to meet demand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using publicly available data and explicit economic assumptions, we estimated that the cost per DALY (3,0,0 averted for providing Caesarean delivery for OL ranged widely, from $251 per DALY averted in Madagascar to $3,462 in Oman. The median cost per DALY averted was $304. Benefit-cost ratios also varied, from 0.6 in Zimbabwe to 69.9 in Gabon. The median benefit-cost ratio calculated was 6.0. The main limitation of this study is an assumption that lack of surgical capacity is the main factor responsible for DALYs from OL. CONCLUSIONS: Using the World Health Organization's cost-effectiveness standards, investing in Caesarean delivery can be considered "highly cost-effective" for 48 of the 49 countries included in this study. Furthermore, in 46 of the 49 included countries, the benefit-cost ratio was greater than 1.0, implying that investment in Caesarean delivery is a viable economic proposition. While Caesarean delivery alone is not sufficient for combating OL, it is necessary, cost-effective by WHO standards, and ultimately economically favorable in the vast majority of countries included in this study.

  15. Obstructed labor and caesarean delivery: the cost and benefit of surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Blake C; Vincent, Jeffrey R; Burns, Christy Turlington; Metzler, Ian S; Farmer, Paul E; Meara, John G

    2012-01-01

    Although advances in the reduction of maternal mortality have been made, up to 273,000 women will die this year from obstetric etiologies. Obstructed labor (OL), most commonly treated with Caesarean delivery, has been identified as a major contributor to global maternal morbidity and mortality. We used economic and epidemiological modeling to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and benefit-cost ratio of treating OL with Caesarean delivery for 49 countries identified as providing an insufficient number of Caesarean deliveries to meet demand. Using publicly available data and explicit economic assumptions, we estimated that the cost per DALY (3,0,0) averted for providing Caesarean delivery for OL ranged widely, from $251 per DALY averted in Madagascar to $3,462 in Oman. The median cost per DALY averted was $304. Benefit-cost ratios also varied, from 0.6 in Zimbabwe to 69.9 in Gabon. The median benefit-cost ratio calculated was 6.0. The main limitation of this study is an assumption that lack of surgical capacity is the main factor responsible for DALYs from OL. Using the World Health Organization's cost-effectiveness standards, investing in Caesarean delivery can be considered "highly cost-effective" for 48 of the 49 countries included in this study. Furthermore, in 46 of the 49 included countries, the benefit-cost ratio was greater than 1.0, implying that investment in Caesarean delivery is a viable economic proposition. While Caesarean delivery alone is not sufficient for combating OL, it is necessary, cost-effective by WHO standards, and ultimately economically favorable in the vast majority of countries included in this study.

  16. Lack of diversity in behavioral healthcare leadership reflected in services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2008-04-01

    America's rapidly changing demographics present an enormous challenge for today's healthcare leaders to redesign the organization and delivery of care to accommodate people who now represent every language, culture and religious belief in the world. So will mental health and addictions services in this country be ready to address the unique needs of these multicultural patients? A survey of the present landscape in 2008 tells us that we have a long, long way to go. Not only are mental health and addictions fields lacking in cultural competency, but there is little diversity in our leadership ranks. Top administrators and executives in behavioral health today are overwhelmingly non-Hispanic whites. This lack of cultural diversity among our leaders will lead to an ever-widening gap in the current chasm of racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare.

  17. Economy may be harmed by lack of LLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A study released by Organizations United for Responsible Low-Level Radioactive Waste Solutions warns that the substantial benefits of using radioactive materials are threatened by the lack of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. The main point of the study is the threat to the American economy posed by insufficient facilities for disposal of the 1.7 billion ft 3 of LLW produced by the use of radioactive materials every year only 34.8 percent of which comes from nuclear power plants. open-quotes Thirty years of experience have provided the technical knowledge to design waste disposal facilities that protect the public and environment. But an impending lack of adequate disposal facilities jeopardizes our continued use of radioactive materials,close quotes according to the study

  18. Food irradiation : estimates of cost of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    For estimating the cost of food irradiation, three factors have to be taken into consideration. These are : (1) capital cost incurred on irradiation device and its installation, (2) recurring or running cost which includes maintenance cost and operational expenditure, and (3) product specific cost dependent on the factors specific to the food item to be processed, its storage, handling and distribution. A simple method is proposed to provide estimates of capital costs and running costs and it is applied to prepare a detailed estimate of costs for irradiation processing of onions and fish in India. The cost of processing onions worked out to be between Rs. 40 to 120 per 1000 Kg and for fish Rs 354 per 1000 Kg. These estimates do not take into account transparation costs and fluctuations in marketing procedures. (M.G.B.). 7 tables

  19. The Quality Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenie Constantin PAULICĂ

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality has a cost and this fact cannot be denied. In the same time, it is true that non-quality is more expensive. Quality is considered asbeing expensive because no one tries to calculate non-quality costs. Out of the final cost of a product, non-quality stands for 20% up to 35%.According to this idea all the economic sectors contain error costs caused by the mistakes made during the production process. To have a realconsummation situation, it is necessary to know the cost quantum. The final quality cost is the result of the following costs: prevention costs,necessary to preclude errors; evaluation costs, as results of a final product evaluation, and failure costs, generated by the non – attainment ofproduct’s purpose. The gross of these costs stand for the total quality costs. Nowadays, the problem inheres in how much this quality cost representsout of the final cost.

  20. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  1. The evolution of culture (or the lack thereof): mapping the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... This short essay is based on a lecture that I gave at short notice on a subject in which I am by no means an expert. The combination of lack of expertise and time for preparation, created an unexpectedly unique opportunity for thinking outside the box. I decided not to try to read up (as there was no time in ...

  2. Improving the accuracy of admitted subacute clinical costing: an action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Arblaster, Ross; Lim, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether action research could be used to improve the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting Methods The setting was a 100-bed in-patient rehabilitation centre. Using a pre-post study design all admitted subacute separations during the 2011-12 financial year were eligible for inclusion. An action research framework aimed at improving clinical costing methodology was developed and implemented. Results In all, 1499 separations were included in the study. A medical record audit of a random selection of 80 separations demonstrated that the use of an action research framework was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of the costing data. This was evidenced by a significant increase in the average number of activities costed, a reduction in the average number of activities incorrectly costed and a reduction in the average number of activities missing from the costing, per episode of care. Conclusions Engaging clinicians and cost centre managers was effective in facilitating the development of robust clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. Further investigation into the value of this approach across other care types and healthcare services is warranted. What is known about this topic? Accurate clinical costing data is essential for informing price models used in activity-based funding. In Australia, there is currently a lack of robust admitted subacute cost data to inform the price model for this care type. What does this paper add? The action research framework presented in this study was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. What are the implications for practitioners? To improve clinical costing practices, health services should consider engaging key stakeholders, including clinicians and cost centre managers, in reviewing clinical costing methodology. Robust clinical costing data has

  3. REPROBATION AND LACK OF INTEREST IN MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Humberto Guzmán Valdivia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering education in mechatronics is an attractive field of research because it is a new multidisciplinary career. However, a potential problem is the reprobation rate. In the period from January to April 2012 at the Universidad Politécnica de Zacatecas a 53% regular students of a total of 197 were registered. To find the causes of this problem, a survey was conducted to determine the causes of reprobation, lack of motivation and interest to a population of 96 students, of which 40 were the first training cycle, 32 the second and 24 the third. The surveys yielded three main results. The first indicates that the lack of interest is proportional to the time spent in college. The second shows that the reprobation rate is linked to the laziness and the excess of courses. And the last shows a lack of motivation and low expectations of student due to the monotony of the theoretical courses. In conclusion, more research is needed to have a motivated student in an engineering career in mechatronics.

  4. The subjetivacion of the lack: between Lacan and Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Souyris Oportot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops a reflection concerning the figure of the subjectivation and the statute of the lack  in relation to Jacques Lacan y Hegel's thought . The analysis will be addressed from a philosophical approach as and with a psychoanalytic perspective, to show the need to understand the subjectivity, not already as a "work" of duel, but ligature to the loss and the split. The idea is that the above mentioned significances make possible deconstruir and to rethink the duel in lack, that he structures to the subject in an experience "escripturaire" (escriptural and, for the same thing, of dispossession. So that the figure of the subjetivación "in" lack  will allow to grant an important place to the non-place while I spread where the unthinkable thing and the "Autre" registers.  Once exposed this, the reflection will focus on the tragic exigences behind experience “escripturaire” expressed in the image of Antigone

  5. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    OFILEANU Dimi

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  6. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  7. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  8. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The available literature on the cost of radiotherapy yields a large variation in data related to the specifics of the methodology used (the viewpoint of the analysis, time frame, health care system, etc.) and to the cost components and radiotherapy activities included. To overcome this difficulty, the reimbursement paid by medical insurance is commonly used as a proxy for the actual radiotherapy costs. Costs, however, generally bear little or no resemblance to charges, as the latter also include allowances for non-capacity use and profit margins. Accurate resource cost data are therefore more valid and should ideally be used in the context of economic evaluations and public health provisions. In addition to the theoretical problems related to obtaining accurate costs, it is difficult to interpret cost data across country borders because of differences in economics. If this is already the case for high income countries, using these cost data for low and middle income countries (LMICs) is even more problematic. Thus, there clearly is a need for calculations performed from the viewpoint of LMICs to prevent misapprehensions based on conclusions derived from data from their high income counterparts. The IAEA endeavours to assist Member States in accumulating appropriate and sufficient cost data for the initiation or expansion of radiation oncology services. Although relatively simple and easy to understand, the IAEA has found that in many countries where it has been involved in the establishment of new radiotherapy departments, the basic principles of cost calculation for radiotherapy facilities were not followed by the local planners. Radiotherapy needs careful planning, organization and a strong quality assurance (QA) programme in order to deliver safe treatments, due to the complexity of the planning and treatment process and the possibility of systematic errors. Administrators should be aware that the cost of building a radiotherapy facility and buying machines

  9. Life cycle cost analysis rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates data from CDOTs Cost Data books and Pavement Management Program. Cost : indices were used to normalize project data to year 2014. Data analyzed in the study was obtained from : the CDOTs Cost Data books and the Pavement Man...

  10. Understanding costs and cost-effectiveness in critical care: report from the second American Thoracic Society workshop on outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-15

    Economic evaluations are increasingly common in the critical care literature, although approaches to their conduct are not standardized. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop to address methodologic and reporting issues for economic analyses in critical care and to determine how guidelines from the U.S. Public Health Service Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine (PCEHM) were applicable to critical care. We identified several issues that hamper cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) in the critically ill. Data on the effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU) interventions are often lacking; ICU patients are complex, with multiple concurrent problems and interventions; most ICU therapies are only supportive, and therefore may not individually result in improved outcome; accurate cost data are not commonly available and are difficult to obtain; there is no standardized approach for measuring or valuing costs across countries; typical outcomes in ICU studies (e.g., short-term mortality) are not ideal for CEAs while preferred outcomes for CEAs (e.g., long-term quality-adjusted survival) are rarely collected; valuing the importance of appropriate end-of-life care, an important aspect of ICU care, is difficult, and the burden of critical illness on family members is not easily captured in a CEA. Nevertheless, many of these problems are not unique to critical care, and we believe the PCEHM guidelines can be adapted to the critical care setting. We recommend all CEAs in the critically ill include a PCEHM reference case, where the cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated by adopting a societal perspective, estimating long-term costs and quality of life after ICU care, applying a 3% annual discount rate to costs and effects, and conducting multiway sensitivity analyses. Because elements of the reference case, such as long-term costs and quality of life, may only be estimated using modeling and assumptions, we also recommend inclusion of a "data-rich" case

  11. COST OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Vukčević

    2008-01-01

    Cost of quality are part of structure a total cost of organisation. Cost of quality management is important aspect of successful organization. In this paper, models are analised and key aspects cost of quality are given. Problem a cost of quality management particularly is investigated.

  12. Future Costs, Fixed Healthcare Budgets, and the Decision Rules of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Meltzer, David; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Life-saving medical technologies result in additional demand for health care due to increased life expectancy. However, most economic evaluations do not include all medical costs that may result from this additional demand in health care and include only future costs of related illnesses. Although there has been much debate regarding the question to which extent future costs should be included from a societal perspective, the appropriate role of future medical costs in the widely adopted but more narrow healthcare perspective has been neglected. Using a theoretical model, we demonstrate that optimal decision rules for cost-effectiveness analyses assuming fixed healthcare budgets dictate that future costs of both related and unrelated medical care should be included. Practical relevance of including the costs of future unrelated medical care is illustrated using the example of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Our findings suggest that guidelines should prescribe inclusion of these costs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  14. Potential costs of breast augmentation mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, William P; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Ford, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation mammaplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by plastic surgeons. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of the initial procedure and its subsequent complications, as well as project the cost of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended surveillance imaging. The potential costs to the individual patient and society were calculated. Local plastic surgeons provided billing data for the initial primary silicone augmentation and reoperative procedures. Complication rates used for the cost analysis were obtained from the Allergen Core study on silicone implants. Imaging surveillance costs were considered in the estimations. The average baseline initial cost of silicone augmentation mammaplasty was calculated at $6335. The average total cost of primary breast augmentation over the first decade for an individual patient, including complications requiring reoperation and other ancillary costs, was calculated at $8226. Each decade thereafter cost an additional $1891. Costs may exceed $15,000 over an averaged lifetime, and the recommended implant surveillance could cost an additional $33,750. The potential cost of a breast augmentation, which includes the costs of complications and imaging, is significantly higher than the initial cost of the procedure. Level III, economic and decision analysis study. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reincarnation and the Lack of Imagination in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Burley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed, by D. Z. Phillips among others, that philosophy suffers from a “lack of imagination”. That is, philosophers often fail to see possibilities of sense in forms of life and discourse due to narrow habits of thinking. This is especially problematic in the philosophy of religion, not least when cross-cultural modes of inquiry are called for. This article examines the problem in relation to the philosophical investigation of reincarnation beliefs in particular. As a remedial strategy, I argue for increased attention both to ethnographic sources and to the articulation of distinctively religious moral visions that reincarnation-talk facilitates.

  16. Cost savings from performance-based maintenance contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2009-01-01

    New procurement approaches combined with performance-based building approaches should reduce costs, but empirical qualitative and quantitative studies are lacking. Performance-based maintenance contracts give maintenance suppliers incentives to improve their way of working. Innovative,

  17. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  18. The cost of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezaris, Renée; Aversa, Lorraine; Wolf-Klein, Gisele; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Reid-Durant, Marie

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the cost of chronic constipation care. A consecutive sample of 31 chronically constipated elderly patients. A not-for-profit long-term care facility in New Hyde Park, New York. Patient demographics and functional status, including activity of daily living scores, diagnosis, and medications were recorded. All constipation medication costs were obtained using the average wholesale price obtained from the Redbook (November 1999). All subjects were closely monitored for constipation care during two shifts a day (from 7:00 AM to 11:00 PM), over a 6-week period resulting in the collection of 1,860 shift reports. Each component of constipation treatment cost, namely drugs and staff time for drug administration, was identified and analyzed. The average number of nursing interactions for constipation treatment was 23.3 per month. The average cost per day for care specifically for the treatment of constipation was 2.11 US dollars. Fleet Enema trade mark and milk of magnesia accounted for 49% of all treatments. Administration (staffing) costs accounted for 70% of total drug costs. Although laxatives are the most frequently prescribed drugs used in long-term care settings, drug utilization patterns and associated costs in the treatment of chronic constipation have not been systematically reported. Our study identified staffing as the major cost factor in constipation care.

  19. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  20. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delivery contractor, or supplier in a direct distribution food delivery system. In addition, food costs may... delivery system, including the cost of transporting food. (5) The cost of translators for materials and... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. The cost of tuberculosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wejse, Christian

    Hypothesis: Tuberculosis (TB) patients carry higher direct health-related and indirect costs than the general population. Objective: To calculate the economic burden of TB in Denmark, including the health-related costs of treatment and the indirect costs for society in a national retrospective case...

  2. Capital cost models for geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, P.D.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1976-07-01

    A computer code, titled GEOCOST, has been developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, to rapidly and systematically calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. A description of the cost models in GEOCOST for the geothermal power plants is given here. Plant cost models include the flashed steam and binary systems. The data sources are described, along with the cost data correlations, resulting equations, and uncertainties. Comparison among GEOCOST plant cost estimates and recent A-E estimates are presented. The models are intended to predict plant costs for second and third generation units, rather than the more expensive first-of-a-kind units.

  3. The real cost of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Gas prices only seem high. When you say fillerup, you pay but a fraction of the actual cost. Not included are the tens of billions (close to $50 for each barrel of oil) the military spends annually to protect oil fields in the Persian Gulf. Then tack on the hidden costs of environmental degradation, health effects, lost employment, government subsidies and more. Sooner or later, the public pays the entire price. Bringing market prices in line with energy's hidden burdens will be one of the great challenges of the coming decades. The author describes these hidden costs and makes estimates of them

  4. Costs of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Nawaz Kayani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has both costs and benefits. In this paper we would focus upon one of the damages of globalization to China. It is said that inward FDI replaces local domestic capabilities in import-substitution countries. In the case of China the Chinese domesticindustries are lacking technological innovations because of heavy reliance upon FDI. Most of the Chinese exports of electronics are carried under FDI whereas in Korea and Japan they are indigenously-driven. In 1960s, Korea received foreign capital in the formof loans but it denied the entrance to foreign firms. Korea followed the Japanese model by quickly mastering the foreign technology rather than letting foreign firms to establish local subsidiaries and to decide the speed and scope of technology diffusion. Korea andJapan adopted the techno-nationalist policies for attaining autonomous domestic innovated industries. By restricting FDI, Korea and Japan were able to maintain their management independent of Multi-National Companies. In this paper we would try to analyze that whether China’s policy of reliance upon FDI is a success or a debacle by comparing it with Korea and Japan.

  5. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  6. Agrobacteria lacking ornithine lipids induce more rapid tumour formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences-Guzmán, Miguel Ángel; Guan, Ziqiang; Bermúdez-Barrientos, José Roberto; Geiger, Otto; Sohlenkamp, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ornithine lipids (OLs) are phosphorus-free membrane lipids that are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Their basic structure consists of a 3-hydroxy fatty acyl group attached in amide linkage to the α-amino group of ornithine and a second fatty acyl group ester-linked to the 3-hydroxy position of the first fatty acid. It has been shown that OLs can be hydroxylated within the amide-linked fatty acyl moiety, the secondary fatty acyl moiety or within the ornithine moiety. These modifications have been related to increased stress tolerance and symbiotic proficiency in different organisms such as Rhizobium tropici or Burkholderia cenocepacia. Analysing the membrane lipid composition of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens we noticed that it forms two different OLs. In the present work we studied if OLs play a role in stress tolerance and pathogenicity in A. tumefaciens. Mutants deficient in the OLs biosynthesis genes olsB or olsE were constructed and characterized. They either completely lack OLs (ΔolsB) or only form the unmodified OL (ΔolsE). Here we present a characterization of both OL mutants under stress conditions and in a plant transformation assay using potato tuber discs. Surprisingly, the lack of agrobacterial OLs promotes earlier tumour formation on the plant host. PMID:22958119

  7. Lack of antimicrobial bactericidal activity in Mycobacterium abscessus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Florian P; Bruderer, Vera L; Ritter, Claudia; Castelberg, Claudio; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotic therapy of infections caused by the emerging pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus is challenging due to the organism's natural resistance toward most clinically available antimicrobials. We investigated the bactericidal activity of antibiotics commonly administered in M. abscessus infections in order to better understand the poor therapeutic outcome. Time-kill curves were generated for clinical M. abscessus isolates, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Escherichia coli by using antibiotics commonly categorized as bactericidal (amikacin and moxifloxacin) or bacteriostatic (tigecycline and linezolid). In addition, the impact of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes on the mode of action of substrate and nonsubstrate aminoglycosides was studied by using M. smegmatis as a model organism. While amikacin and moxifloxacin were bactericidal against E. coli, none of the tested compounds showed bactericidal activity against M. abscessus. Further mechanistic investigations of the mode of action of aminoglycosides in M. smegmatis revealed that the bactericidal activity of tobramycin and gentamicin was restored by disruption of the chromosomal aac(2') gene in the mycobacterial genome. The lack of bactericidal antibiotics in currently recommended treatment regimens provides a reasonable explanation for the poor therapeutic outcome in M. abscessus infection. Our findings suggest that chromosomally encoded drug-modifying enzymes play an important role in the lack of aminoglycoside bactericidal activity against rapidly growing mycobacteria. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Efficient lighting in buildings: The lack of legislation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, António Manuel; Martins, António Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of building designers is conditioned by the existing legislation and regulations in the national context in which they operate. However, in the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight, and therefore, designers are not stimulated to adopt solutions that make use of the existing potential of sunlight availability. In the same way, it is difficult to understand the lack of specific regulation, with quantified targets, limiting power density of artificial lighting installed inside buildings. The present opportunity, generated by the need to carry out the revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation, should be used to fill the existing gap in national legislation regarding those matters. In this paper the authors present some proposals for future legislation that will have as central purpose the utilization of efficient lighting systems and the promotion of architectural solutions that optimize the use of daylighting. It is possible, and desirable, to add new directives to national legislation that contribute to the improvement of Portuguese buildings, characterized by its good performance in terms of daylight availability, and at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of lighting systems installed in those buildings. - Highlights: • In the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight. • Lack of specific regulation limiting power density of artificial lighting. • Revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation. • Some proposals for future legislation. • Improvement of Portuguese buildings promoting energy efficiency

  9. Sour taste responses in mice lacking PKD channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Horio

    Full Text Available The polycystic kidney disease-like ion channel PKD2L1 and its associated partner PKD1L3 are potential candidates for sour taste receptors. PKD2L1 is expressed in type III taste cells that respond to sour stimuli and genetic elimination of cells expressing PKD2L1 substantially reduces chorda tympani nerve responses to sour taste stimuli. However, the contribution of PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 to sour taste responses remains unclear.We made mice lacking PKD2L1 and/or PKD1L3 gene and investigated whole nerve responses to taste stimuli in the chorda tympani or the glossopharyngeal nerve and taste responses in type III taste cells. In mice lacking PKD2L1 gene, chorda tympani nerve responses to sour, but not sweet, salty, bitter, and umami tastants were reduced by 25-45% compared with those in wild type mice. In contrast, chorda tympani nerve responses in PKD1L3 knock-out mice and glossopharyngeal nerve responses in single- and double-knock-out mice were similar to those in wild type mice. Sour taste responses of type III fungiform taste cells (GAD67-expressing taste cells were also reduced by 25-45% by elimination of PKD2L1.These findings suggest that PKD2L1 partly contributes to sour taste responses in mice and that receptors other than PKDs would be involved in sour detection.

  10. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p <0.001) and showed a lower level of assertiveness on the RAS (p <0.001). Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  11. The Obstacle of Remigration Due to the Lack of Revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSUZSANNA DABASI HALÁSZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial differences have become an obstacle for Hungarian competiveness. In addition, the use or little use of brownfields has even more deepened regional inequalities. In our opinion, the lack of brownfields revitalisation and lack of opportunities forced population to migrate. Circular migration would be a solution to decrease regional inequalities. However, the non-revitalisation of rust areas prevents implementation of the process. Circular migration means that the labour force emigrates from the region, but it comes back later and then they use their competent, acquired knowledge (which they got somewhere else successfully to their investments. This process is not fulfilled, as the non-revitalised brownfields are attractive neither for population, nor for investors. Our research is based on 263 questionnaires. The major question groups of the questionnaires are: expectations regarding the labour market, assessment of home environment and related expectations, the history and structure of labour relations, employment-related information, potential employees, interpersonal social capital, income use plans, value system structures. All in all, the rust fields’ revitalisation is essential to keep the workforce and population. Our research aims to contribute to a complex revitalization strategy, which should have a significant role in the retention of labour, and its repatriation.

  12. Characteristics of Adolescents Lacking Provider-Recommended Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Beavis, Anna; Cosides, Olivia; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-01

    To characterize subgroups of teens in the United States for whom provider recommendation is less likely to impact human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation. We analyzed provider-verified vaccination data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen. Poisson regression models identified characteristics associated with the lack of HPV vaccine initiation among teens who received a provider recommendation (n = 12,742). Top qualitative reasons for nonvaccination among teens who received a provider recommendation were summarized (n = 1,688). Among teens with provider recommendations, males, younger teens, and white teens were less likely to initiate vaccination, compared to peers. Believing the vaccine was unnecessary, concerns about safety and lack of vaccine knowledge were common reasons parents did not initiate the vaccine, despite receiving provider recommendations. These key subgroups and barriers to HPV vaccination should be targeted with interventions that complement provider recommendation to achieve broad vaccine uptake in the United States. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Individuals With OCD Lack Unrealistic Optimism Bias in Threat Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls. Whereas healthy participants showed an optimistic expectation bias regarding positive and negative future events, OCD participants lacked such a bias. This lack of an optimistic expectation bias was not specific to OCD. Compared to healthy controls, OCD participants overestimated their personal risk for experiencing negative events, but did not differ from controls in their risk estimation regarding other people. Finally, OCD participants' biases in the prediction of checking-related events were associated with their impairments in learning probabilistic cue-outcome associations in a disorder-relevant context. In sum, the present results add to a growing body of research demonstrating that cognitive biases in OCD are context-dependent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Supply disruption cost for power network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoelle, G.H.

    1992-09-01

    A description is given of the method of approach to calculate the total annual socio-economic cost of power supply disruption and non-supplied energy, included the utilities' cost for planning. The total socio-economic supply disruption cost is the sum of the customers' disruption cost and the utilities' cost for failure and disruption. The mean weighted disruption cost for Norway for one hour disruption is NOK 19 per kWh. The customers' annual disruption cost is calculated with basis in the specific disruption cost referred to heavy load (January) and dimensioning maximum loads. The loads are reduced by factors taking into account the time variations of the failure frequency, duration, the loads and the disruption cost. 6 refs

  15. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  16. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  17. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  18. A Novel Lack-of-Fit Assessment as a System Suitability Test for Potency Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruojia; Cai, Weiguo; Zocher, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay data analysis is used to determine the potency of protein therapeutics. To properly determine potency, the experimental data need to be fitted to a model that adequately describes the observed dose-response relationship. Typical models include 4-parameter logistic curve fits, 5-parameter logistic curve fits or parallel line analysis. Lack-of-fit assessment can be used as a measure of potency assay system suitability to ensure appropriate closeness of the chosen model fit to the experimental data. We present a novel lack-of-fit approach that overcomes the shortcomings of previously described lack-of-fit tests, such as the conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) F-test and the lack-of-fit sum of squares test. Simulation studies and examples are used to assess the performance of the new lack-of-fit test. The results show that the described lack-of-fit approach can effectively reject poorly fitted data while retaining well-fitted data, and has advantages in potency assay applications where instrument-to-instrument variability in absolute readout is expected. LAY ABSTRACT: Potency assays are analytical procedures used for characterization as well as release and stability analysis in drug development and for approved products. Dose-response data generated from a drug sample and a well-characterized reference standard are evaluated to determine the potency of the drug sample relative to the reference standard. In order to obtain a potency determination, dose-response data need to be fitted to a proper model that adequately describes the observed dose-response relationship. There are different options described to assess the goodness-of-fit of the data. One approach is the goodness-of-fit assessment based on F-test. This approach compares the lack-of-fit error (representing the discrepancy between observed data and fitted curve) to the pure error (representing the random noise between replicate measurement) to determine if the observed lack-of-fit error can be

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials, parts...

  20. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  1. Economic costs associated with an MS relapse

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K.

    2014-09-01

    This was an prospective audit composed of medical chart review and patient questionnaire. Relapses were stratified into 3 groups: low, moderate and high intensity. Age, gender, MS subtype, disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, disease modifying therapy (DMT) use and employment status were recorded. Direct costs included GP visits, investigations, clinic visit, consultations with medical staff, medication and admission costs. Indirect costs assessed loss of earnings, partner\\'s loss of earnings, childcare, meals and travel costs.

  2. Energy costs form European wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.

    1995-01-01

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  3. Cost containment: the Americas. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálizas, F; Gallesio, A; Wainsztein, N; Ceraso, D; Apezteguía, C; Pacín, J

    1994-08-01

    For many years, the evolution of Argentina's healthcare system has been influenced by political and economic instability. Inflation and hyperinflation have led to anarchic development of both health administration systems and hospitals. Critical care grew in a similar manner, resulting in a mix of > 500 critical care units with very different levels of technology and trained personnel. Cost-containment policies have been implemented mainly by health administration systems. Public institutions (university and large provincial and county hospitals) have suffered hard budget cuts that have resulted in a decrease in the quality of care and the loss of trained human resources. Union organizations, which cover the healthcare costs of > 60% of the population, implemented a low reimbursement policy that resulted in low standards of care for critically ill patients. The country's private hospital system is extremely heterogenous, ranging from little, simple institutions with a 20- to 30-bed capacity to great private institutions with international standards of care. Cost-containment efforts have been sporadic and isolated, and statistical data to analyze the results are lacking. In order to formulate a strategy of cost-containment in the near future, accreditation and categorization of critical care units and human resources training are being implemented by health authorities and the Argentine Society of Critical Care Medicine.

  4. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commerical electric power cost studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139-MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume includes in addition to the foreword and summary, the plant description and the detailed cost estimate

  5. A Trunk Support System to Identify Posture Control Mechanisms in Populations Lacking Independent Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodworth, Adam D; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Felmlee, Duffy; Dunklebarger, Ellis; Saavedra, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Populations with moderate-to-severe motor control impairments often exhibit degraded trunk control and/or lack the ability to sit unassisted. These populations need more research, yet their underdeveloped trunk control complicates identification of neural mechanisms behind their movements. The purpose of this study was to overcome this barrier by developing the first multi-articulated trunk support system to identify visual, vestibular, and proprioception contributions to posture in populations lacking independent sitting. The system provided external stability at a user-specific level on the trunk, so that body segments above the level of support required active posture control. The system included a tilting surface (controlled via servomotor) as a stimulus to investigate sensory contributions to postural responses. Frequency response and coherence functions between the surface tilt and trunk support were used to characterize system dynamics and indicated that surface tilts were accurately transmitted up to 5 Hz. Feasibility of collecting kinematic data in participants lacking independent sitting was demonstrated in two populations: two typically developing infants, [Formula: see text] months, in a longitudinal study (eight sessions each) and four children with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS III-V). Adaptability in the system was assessed by testing 16 adults (ages 18-63). Kinematic responses to continuous pseudorandom surface tilts were evaluated across 0.046-2 Hz and qualitative feedback indicated that the trunk support and stimulus were comfortable for all subjects. Concepts underlying the system enable both research for, and rehabilitation in, populations lacking independent sitting.

  6. [Psychosocial functioning in non-psychiatric acute and chronic inpatients: depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Marcelo; Behar, Rosa; Marín, Sofía; Inzunza, Nicolás; Madrid, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Depression, alexithymia, and lack of assertiveness interfere with individual psychosocial functioning and may result in longer hospitalization stay and poorer therapeutic results. To analyze the psychosocial functioning in acute and chronic patients and its association with psychological, clinical and sociodemographic variables. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 80 inpatients of both sexes with organic pathology, aged between 18 to 70 years old, without any current psychiatric disorder. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected from a semi-structured interview and hospital records. Beck Depression Inventory-IA, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale were administered. Fifty five percent of patients had some degree of depression, 33% alexithymia and 34% lack of assertiveness. The levels of depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness in chronic patients were significantly higher than those observed in acute patients. Women and participants older than 60 years exhibited the highest degrees of depression. Alexithymia and lack of assertiveness were associated with a lower educational level. A negative significant correlation between alexithymia and assertiveness scores was observed among acute patients. Participants with chronic diseases had a lower psychosocial functioning. Less educated patients showed more alexithymic and less assertive features. We emphasized the need of a better management of these aspects by the health team, since social functioning might interfere with the outcome of physical illnesses.

  7. Quantitative trait loci for a neurocranium deformity, lack of operculum, in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrín-Báez, D; Navarro, A; Afonso, J M; Toro, M A; Zamorano, M J

    2016-04-01

    Lack of operculum, a neurocranial deformity, is the most common external abnormality to be found among industrially produced gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), and this entails significant financial losses. This study conducts, for the first time in this species, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of the lack of operculum. A total of 142 individuals from a paternal half-sibling family (six full-sibling families) were selected for QTL mapping. They had previously shown a highly significant association with the prevalence of lack of operculum in a segregation analysis. All the fish were genotyped for 106 microsatellite markers using a set of multiplex PCRs (ReMsa1-ReMsa13). A linear regression methodology was used for the QTL analysis. Four QTL were detected for this deformity, two of which (QTLOP1 and QTLOP2) were significant. They were located at LG (linkage group) nine and LG10 respectively. Both QTL showed a large effect (about 27%), and furthermore, the association between lack of operculum and sire allelic segregation observed was statistically significant in the QTLOP1 analysis. These results represent a significant step towards including marker-assisted selection for this deformity in genetic breeding programmes to reduce the incidence of the deformity in the species. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome mimickers lacking common risk factors of the Berlin definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelin, Aude; Parrot, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Fartoukh, Muriel; de Prost, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Some patients presenting with acute respiratory failure and meeting the Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) lack exposure to common risk factors (CRF). These so-called ARDS mimickers often lack histological diffuse alveolar damage. We aimed to describe such ARDS mimickers lacking CRF (ARDS CRF-) in comparison with others (ARDS CRF+). Retrospective study including all patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two tertiary care centers from January 2003 to December 2012. The prevalence of ARDS CRF- was 7.5 % (95 % CI [5.5-9.5]; n = 50/665). On the basis of medical history, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology, and chest CT scan patterns, four etiological categories were identified: immune (n = 18; 36 %), drug-induced (n = 13; 26 %), malignant (n = 7; 14 %), and idiopathic (n = 12; 24 %). Although the ARDS CRF- patients had a lower logistic organ dysfunction score (4 [3-8] vs. 10 [6-13]; p risk of mortality. For such atypical ARDS, a complete diagnostic workup, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology and chest CT scan patterns, should be performed to identify those patients who might benefit from specific therapies, including corticosteroids.

  9. Utilizing Respiratory Therapists to Reduce Costs of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ellen A; Hoerr, Cheryl A; Wiles, Kimberly S; Skees, Debra L; Miller, Corinne H; Laher, Douglas S

    2018-01-01

    Changes to the reimbursement of respiratory care services over the past 26 years make it imperative that respiratory therapists (RTs) demonstrate cost savings to establish their value. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the cost-related impacts from utilizing RTs to deliver care when compared to other care providers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to guide the search process. The study addressed articles across all age groups and care settings that compared the cost of care provided by RTs to a comparison group. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English, described care provided outside of the United States, did not provide quantitative data, or lacked a comparison group. A total of 4,120 articles emerged from the search process, of which 60 qualified for a full text review. Cost savings were evaluated for the 28 articles included in this review, noting the study design, the specific respiratory care practice, use of protocols, clinical setting, and age group. The most frequently studied topic was mechanical ventilation, which along with disease management represented by the most randomized, controlled trials for the study design. The clinical practice area notably absent was home care. Although cost comparisons across studies could not be made due to the inconsistent manner in which data were reported, evidence demonstrated that care provided by RTs yielded both direct and indirect cost reductions, which were achieved through protocol utilization, specialized expertise, and autonomous decision making. The care provided was consistent with care provided by other disciplines. It is critical for the respiratory care profession to highlight key clinical practice areas for future research, to establish uniform reporting measures for outcomes, and to foster the development of future respiratory care researchers to affirm the value that respiratory therapists add to patient care

  10. Yield and Costs of Evaluating Children with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia-Casadonte, Chantal; Whaley, Kaitlin; Chogle, Ashish

    2018-01-25

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) clinical guidelines recommend an algorithm of basic testing for standard patients, and more targeted testing, including laboratory and imaging studies, in the presence of specific red flags. The cost effectiveness of this screening of children with suspected CVS is lacking. To determine if screening studies in CVS patients results in diagnostic change, and to estimate their healthcare cost. Charts of patients (1-18 years) with suspected CVS were retrospectively reviewed at a single center. Results and cost of laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. 503 charts were reviewed from electronic medical records with the ICD9 code 536.2 or search terms "CVS, cyclic vomiting, persistent emesis/vomiting, hyperemesis, or intractable/ periodic vomiting". Of these, 165 (33%) had a diagnosis of CVS and 135 (82%) children (mean age 7.7 ± 4.3; 73 (54%) females) met CVS criteria based on NASPGHAN diagnostic criteria. Of those meeting CVS criteria, 6 (4%) had a change in management based on the CVS screening evaluation. The mean cost of screening per patient that met CVS criteria was $6,125.02 USD and the estimated total cost for all patients who met CVS criteria was $826,877.88 USD. The screening metabolic labs, pelvic ultrasound, MRI, and upper endoscopy resulted in a diagnosis change in few patients screened for CVS. Most children who met criteria for CVS did not benefit from screening evaluation as results did not change clinical diagnosis or management, and were associated with higher cost.

  11. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  12. The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, M.; Keller, K.; Tuana, N.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for the deployment of a different approach: to geoengineer climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically suggest that substituting aerosol geoengineering for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions results in large net monetary benefits. However, these studies neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) the potential for future geoengineering failures and (ii) the negative impacts associated with the aerosol forcing. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcing. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes severe caveats on the interpretation of the results. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on the question of intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of endogenous learning about the climate system. We show that the risks associated with a future geoengineering failure and negative impacts of aerosol forcings can cause geoenginering strategies to fail an economic cost-benefit test. One key to this finding is that a geoengineering failure would lead to dramatic and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to this failure can

  13. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-05-17

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran.‎ This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS.‎ The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department.

  14. Application of an Original Wildfire Smoke Health Cost Benefits Transfer Protocol to the Western US, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin A.; Berrens, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    Recent growth in the frequency and severity of US wildfires has led to more wildfire smoke and increased public exposure to harmful air pollutants. Populations exposed to wildfire smoke experience a variety of negative health impacts, imposing economic costs on society. However, few estimates of smoke health costs exist and none for the entire Western US, in particular, which experiences some of the largest and most intense wildfires in the US. The lack of cost estimates is troublesome because smoke health impacts are an important consideration of the overall costs of wildfire. To address this gap, this study provides the first time series estimates of PM2.5 smoke costs across mortality and several morbidity measures for the Western US over 2005-2015. This time period includes smoke from several megafires and includes years of record-breaking acres burned. Smoke costs are estimated using a benefits transfer protocol developed for contexts when original health data are not available. The novelty of our protocol is that it synthesizes the literature on choices faced by researchers when conducting a smoke cost benefit transfer. On average, wildfire smoke in the Western US creates 165 million in annual morbidity and mortality health costs.

  15. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1 might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure.

  17. Lack of Glycogenin Causes Glycogen Accumulation and Muscle Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Giorgia; Duran, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Vilaplana, Francisco; Serrano, Antonio L; Sebastián, David; López-Soldado, Iliana; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Slebe, Felipe; Vilaseca, Marta; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Guinovart, Joan J

    2017-07-05

    Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise. These observations can be attributed to a switch of oxidative myofibers toward glycolytic metabolism. Mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in the muscle showed similar alterations, thus indicating that this switch is caused by the excess of glycogen. These results may explain the muscular defects of GSD XV patients, who lack glycogenin-1 and show high glycogen accumulation in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quantitative demands, influences and control of the time. Drawing on a sample of 142 workers from four departments (development, implantation, support and administration, the research results show that the employees who belong to a department that offers few opportunities for individual time management are less satisfied, have worse general and mental health, and experience more behavioral, symptomatic and cognitive stress than those who can manage their work schedule.

  19. Lack of production sharing laws slows joint ventures in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.

    1995-01-01

    When Russia opened its doors to foreign oil companies in 1990, there was a rush to secure a piece of the country's potentially vast oil wealth. Since then, many of the ventures between Russian and non-Russian partners have become bogged down with operational problems and an ever changing tax and legal regime. There is a stockpile of massive developments building, while government grinds with seeming reluctance toward passing laws that will allow outside firms to do big business. For major development projects the main stumbling block is the lack of production sharing contract legislation. The paper describes the problems, the current legislation, and operating problems, then highlights several joint ventures that have been successful and several that have ended in pullouts of the foreign investor

  20. Lack of national consensus in preoperative airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Difficult airway management is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Several preoperative risk factors associated with airway management difficulties have been proposed; however, no clear guideline for airway assessments exists. We therefore hypothesised...... that Danish airway assessment was lacking uniformity. We aimed to examine whether multivariable risk assessment tools and predictors for difficult intubation and mask ventilation were used systematically. METHODS: Heads of anaesthesia departments were sent a six-question survey at the beginning of 2012. We...... asked if systematic risk assessment tools, particularly the Simplified Airway Risk Index (SARI), and predictors for difficult intubation and mask ventilation were used. Additionally, we asked if any risk factors were pre-printed on the anaesthesia record. RESULTS: In all, 29 of 31 (94%) departments...

  1. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses....... These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We...

  3. What does primary health care cost and can we afford to find out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost information is also a critical management tool for both public and private sector providers. In this context, the inability of public sector PHC providers to generate accurate cost accounting information is a serious shortcoIDing. In an attempt to address this lack of local PHC cost data, a detailed analysis of the costs of PHC ...

  4. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  5. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  6. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E; Nichols, Thomas E; Bullmore, Ed T; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  7. Developing a standardized healthcare cost data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Sue L; Naessens, James M; Yawn, Barbara P; Reinalda, Megan S; Anderson, Stephanie S; Borah, Bijan J

    2017-06-12

    Research addressing value in healthcare requires a measure of cost. While there are many sources and types of cost data, each has strengths and weaknesses. Many researchers appear to create study-specific cost datasets, but the explanations of their costing methodologies are not always clear, causing their results to be difficult to interpret. Our solution, described in this paper, was to use widely accepted costing methodologies to create a service-level, standardized healthcare cost data warehouse from an institutional perspective that includes all professional and hospital-billed services for our patients. The warehouse is based on a National Institutes of Research-funded research infrastructure containing the linked health records and medical care administrative data of two healthcare providers and their affiliated hospitals. Since all patients are identified in the data warehouse, their costs can be linked to other systems and databases, such as electronic health records, tumor registries, and disease or treatment registries. We describe the two institutions' administrative source data; the reference files, which include Medicare fee schedules and cost reports; the process of creating standardized costs; and the warehouse structure. The costing algorithm can create inflation-adjusted standardized costs at the service line level for defined study cohorts on request. The resulting standardized costs contained in the data warehouse can be used to create detailed, bottom-up analyses of professional and facility costs of procedures, medical conditions, and patient care cycles without revealing business-sensitive information. After its creation, a standardized cost data warehouse is relatively easy to maintain and can be expanded to include data from other providers. Individual investigators who may not have sufficient knowledge about administrative data do not have to try to create their own standardized costs on a project-by-project basis because our data

  8. Cost escalation in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montomery, W.D.; Quirk, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with the escalation of capital costs of nuclear central station power plants between the early 1960s and the present. The report presents an historical overview of the development of the nuclear power industry and cost escalation in the industry, using existing data on orders and capital costs. New data are presented on regulatory delays in the licensing process, derived from a concurrent study being carried on in the Social Science group at Caltech. The conclusions of the study are that nuclear capital costs have escalated more rapidly than the GNP deflator or the construction industry price index. Prior to 1970, cost increases are related to bottleneck problems in the nuclear construction and supplying industries and the regulatory process; intervenors play only a minor role in cost escalation. After 1970, generic changes introduced into the licensing process by intervenors (including environmental impact reviews, antitrust reviews, more stringent safety standards) dominate the cost escalation picture, with bottlenecks of secondary importance. Recent increases in the time from application for a construction permit to commercial operation are related not only to intervenor actions, but also to suspensions, cancellations or postponements of construction by utilities due to unfavorable demand or financing conditions

  9. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  10. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  11. The direct and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Anne; Kearns, Karen; O'Neill, Ciaran; Sharp, Linda; Staines, Anthony; O'Dwyer, Victoria; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Perry, Ivan J

    2014-04-16

    The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity places a financial burden on health services and on the wider economy. Health service and societal costs of overweight and obesity are typically estimated by top-down approaches which derive population attributable fractions for a range of conditions associated with increased body fat or bottom-up methods based on analyses of cross-sectional or longitudinal datasets. The evidence base of cost of obesity studies is continually expanding, however, the scope of these studies varies widely and a lack of standardised methods limits comparisons nationally and internationally. The objective of this review is to contribute to this knowledge pool by examining direct costs and indirect (lost productivity) costs of both overweight and obesity to provide comparable estimates. This review was undertaken as part of the introductory work for the Irish cost of overweight and obesity study and examines inconsistencies in the methodologies of cost of overweight and obesity studies. Studies which evaluated the direct costs and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity were included. A computerised search of English language studies addressing direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity in adults between 2001 and 2011 was conducted. Reference lists of reports, articles and earlier reviews were scanned to identify additional studies. Five published articles were deemed eligible for inclusion. Despite the limited scope of this review there was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches and findings. In the four studies which presented separate estimates for direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity, the indirect costs were higher, accounting for between 54% and 59% of the estimated total costs. A gradient exists between increasing BMI and direct healthcare costs and indirect costs due to reduced productivity and early premature mortality. Determining precise estimates for the increases is mired by the

  12. Cost Estimates for the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Eight ORNL Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains a number of buildings that are antiquated and no longer used. These buildings historically were used for the production of atomic weapons and often remain contaminated with radioactive materials. Certain costs and risks are associated with the long-term stewardship of the buildings. One way to reduce these liabilities is to eliminate the buildings that are no longer in use and are not expected to be used in the future. Some of these buildings at ORNL are located in an area known as 'Isotope Circle'. From this area, eight buildings that are expected to be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in the next five to ten years were chosen to have cost estimates completed. The specific facilities are Buildings 3030, 3031, 3118, 3032, 3033, 3033 Annex, 3034, and 3093. There are many challenges for estimating the costs to D and D buildings potentially contaminated with radionuclides. Each building is unique, has various types and levels of contamination, and (as in this case) often lacks up-to-date information. Because of these limitations, order-of- magnitude cost estimates for each of the eight ORNL buildings were completed using parametric cost modeling software known as RACER TM (Remedial Action Cost Engineering and Requirements System). This type of cost estimate is useful for screening technical concepts and is used for budgetary planning. For the eight buildings evaluated in this study, the total cost to D and D was estimated to be nearly $6 M. This value includes the direct cost of approximately $3.5 M to complete D and D and $2.5 M in cost markups. Also, assuming the actual project does not begin until the year 2010, this total cost is escalated to almost $6.7 M, which accounts for expected inflation. Although the cost estimates in this study were expected to have a wide range in accuracy, there are various factors that could impact these estimates in a negative or positive fashion

  13. Does Lack of "Genetic-Relative Family Health History" Represent a Potentially Avoidable Health Disparity for Adoptees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas; Strong, Kimberly A; Zusevics, Kaija L; Jeruzal, Jessica; Farrell, Michael H; LaPean Kirschner, Alison; Derse, Arthur R; Evans, James P; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-12-01

    Many adoptees face a number of challenges relating to separation from biological parents during the adoption process, including issues concerning identity, intimacy, attachment, and trust, as well as (for older adopted children) language and other cultural challenges. One common health challenge faced by adoptees involves lack of access to genetic-relative family health history (GRFHx). Lack of GRFHx represents a disadvantage due to a reduced capacity to identify diseases and recommend appropriate screening for conditions for which the adopted person may be at increased risk. In this article, we draw out common features of traditionally understood "health disparities" in order to identify analogous features in the context of adoptees' lack of GRFHx.

  14. Uncertainties associated with lacking data for predictions of solid-solution partitioning of metals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.T. Yen; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2014-01-01

    Soil properties, i.e., pH and contents of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), clay, oxides, and reactive metals, are required inputs to both mechanistic and empirical modeling in assessing metal solid-solution partitioning. Several of these properties are rarely measured in site-specific risk assessment. We compared the uncertainties induced by lacking data on these soil properties in estimating metal soil solution concentrations. The predictions by the Orchestra framework were more sensitive to lacking soil property data than the predictions by the transfer functions. The deviations between soil solution concentrations of Cd, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Co estimated with measured SOM and those estimated with generic SOM by the Orchestra framework were about 10 times larger than the deviations in the predictions by the transfer functions. High uncertainties were induced by lacking data in assessing solid-solution partitioning of oxy-anions like As, Mo, Sb, Se, and V. Deviations associated with lacking data in predicting soil solution concentrations of these metals by the Orchestra framework reached three-to-six orders of magnitude. The solid-solution partitioning of metal cations was strongly influenced by pH and contents of organic matter, oxides, and reactive metals. Deviations of more than two orders of magnitude were frequently observed between the estimates of soil solution concentrations with the generic values of these properties and the estimates based on the measured data. Reliable information on these properties is preferred to be included in the assessment by either the Orchestra framework or transfer functions. - Highlights: • Estimates of metal solid-solution partitioning sensitive to soil property data. • Uncertainty mainly due to lacking reactive metal contents, pH, and organic matter. • Soil solution concentrations of oxy-anions highly influenced by oxide contents. • Clay contents had least effects on solid-solution partitioning

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of lack gene sequences for 22 Chinese Leishmania isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Ying; Zhou, Juan; Ding, Bin; Lu, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Ling; Hu, Xiao-Su; Ma, Ying

    2013-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between Chinese Leishmania strains were investigated using lack (Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated protein kinase C) gene sequences, and the power of this gene was assessed for understanding the epidemiology and population genetics of Leishmania. The lack gene sequences from Leishmania isolates were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Sequence alignment was performed and a phylogenetic tree was created using the MEGA 5.0 software program. Sequences of 850 bp were analyzed for each of the Leishmania strains collected from different locations in China, and minor differences in sequences were noted between the strains. Four distinct groups formed according to differences in the sequences of the lack gene. Group I consisted of 12 isolates from Shandong, Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan. These strains are part of the Leishmania donovani complex and are pathogenic to humans and canines. Group II included six isolates from Xinjiang and a reference strain, Leishmania turanica. Group III contained two isolates (one from a sand fly in Xinjiang and one from a rodent in Inner Mongolia) and they were identified as Leishmania gerbilli. Finally, group IV contained a strain from a sand fly in Xinjiang and a strain from a lizard in Inner Mongolia, and these strains were found to be Sauroleishmania. The Chinese Leishmania isolates formed four groups based on differences in the sequences of the lack gene, and this result is consistent with previous studies. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Leishmania isolates from China are more complicated than previously thought. There is consensus between genetic clustering and identification using classical methods, which means that the lack gene yields polymorphic information that could be used for genotyping Leishmania isolates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  17. Laser cost experience and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shofner, F.M.; Hoglund, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    This report addresses the question of estimating the capital and operating costs for LIS (Laser Isotope Separation) lasers, which have performance requirements well beyond the state of mature art. This question is seen with different perspectives by political leaders, ERDA administrators, scientists, and engineers concerned with reducing LIS to economically successful commercial practice, on a timely basis. Accordingly, this report attempts to provide ''ballpark'' estimators for capital and operating costs and useful design and operating information for lasers based on mature technology, and their LIS analogs. It is written very basically and is intended to respond about equally to the perspectives of administrators, scientists, and engineers. Its major contributions are establishing the current, mature, industrialized laser track record (including capital and operating cost estimators, reliability, types of application, etc.) and, especially, evolution of generalized estimating procedures for capital and operating cost estimators for new laser design

  18. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  19. Public Participation UK Case Studies -Schemes and Strategies including costs of partcipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarises the main issues arising from a review of approaches to engaging stakeholders in flood risk management undertaken as part of the ComCoast project. The UK Environment Agency selected a sample of six experiences for review from the east of England. The detailed case studies are

  20. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  1. Lack of sleep is associated with internet use for leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that excessive internet use may cause lack of sleep. However, recent studies have hypothesized that lack of sleep may instigate internet use for leisure. To elucidate the potential effects of sleep time on internet use, we explored the different associations between sleep time and internet use according to its purpose. The population-based, cross-sectional study group from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) collected data from 57,425 middle school students in 2014 and 2015. Sleep time over the past 7 days was classified into the following groups: Internet use time per day was separately surveyed for leisure and for study and categorized as follows: 0 h; > 0 h, ≤ 1 h (1 h); > 1 h, ≤ 2 h (2 h); and > 2 h (2+ h) per day. Information on age, sex, region of residence, body mass index (BMI), economic level, parental education level, stress level, school performance level, and sleep satisfaction were retrieved. The relationships between sleep time and internet use time for leisure/study were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression with complex sampling. In the subgroup analysis according to sleep satisfaction (good, normal, and poor), the associations of sleep time with internet use for leisure were analyzed using the same methods. Compared to 9+ h of sleep, less sleep was related to a long internet use time (2+ h) for leisure (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] of sleep: 8 h = 1.23 [1.14-1.32]; 7 h = 1.42 [1.31-1.54]; and 6 h = 1.56 [1.44-1.70]; P internet use time (2+ h) for study was evident only for 6 h of sleep (AOR of sleep: 8 h = 0.84 [0.84-1.04]; 7 h = 1.05 [0.94-1.17]; and 6 h = 1.32 [1.27-1.59]; P internet use time for leisure in all sleep satisfaction groups, although the relationship was more significant in the lower sleep satisfaction group. Less sleep was significantly related to long-term use of the internet for leisure, whereas this association was not definite for internet

  2. Opinion Leaders See Rising College Costs as Major Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A recent survey of federal government officials, corporate leaders in charge of personnel and research, and journalists found dramatically different views in some areas, but agreement in concern about college costs, financing, and lack of government spending for research. Most felt college is a fair value for the cost. (MSE)

  3. Illness Perceptions and Costs in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Cats, H.A.; van Helmond, T.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Geenen, R.; Van den Ende, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with Fibromyalgia (FM) experience a high disease burden, leading to substantial economic costs (1). These costs may be due to the chronic nature of FM, dissatisfaction with the diagnosis, lack of a uniform and effective treatment, and perhaps also beliefs of individuals.

  4. Discriminant Analysis of the Effects of Software Cost Drivers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper work investigates the effect of software cost drivers on project schedule estimation of software development projects in Nigeria. Specifically, the paper determines the extent to which software cost variables affect our software project time schedule in our environment. Such studies are lacking in the recent ...

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, P.; Schricker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB) [de

  6. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  7. Estimating and understanding DOE waste management costs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.S.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties

  8. Involvement of alanine racemase in germination of Bacillus cereus spores lacking an intact exosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venir, Elena; Del Torre, Manuela; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Musetti, Rita; Stecchini, Mara Lucia

    2014-02-01

    The L-alanine mediated germination of food isolated Bacillus cereus DSA 1 spores, which lacked an intact exosporium, increased in the presence of D-cycloserine (DCS), which is an alanine racemase (Alr) inhibitor, reflecting the activity of the Alr enzyme, capable of converting L-alanine to the germination inhibitor D-alanine. Proteomic analysis of the alkaline extracts of the spore proteins, which include exosporium and coat proteins, confirmed that Alr was present in the B. cereus DSA 1 spores and matched to that encoded by B. cereus ATCC 14579, whose spore germination was strongly affected by the block of conversion of L- to D-alanine. Unlike ATCC 14579 spores, L-alanine germination of B. cereus DSA 1 spores was not affected by the preincubation with DCS, suggesting a lack of restriction in the reactant accessibility.

  9. Cost Concept Model and Gateway Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    user communities and builds upon our understanding of the requirements, drivers, obstacles and objectives that various stakeholder groups have relating to digital curation. Ultimately, this concept model should provide a critical input to the development and refinement of cost models as well as helping...... and solution providers, and by researchers in follow-up research and development projects. The Framework includes: • A Cost Concept Model—which defines the core concepts that should be included in curation costs models; • An Implementation Guide—for the cost concept model that provides guidance and proposes...... questions that should be considered when developing new cost models and refining existing cost models; • A Gateway Specification Template—which provides standard metadata for each of the core cost concepts and is intended for use by future model developers, model users, and service and solution providers...

  10. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  11. Valuing inter-sectoral costs and benefits of interventions in the healthcare sector: methods for obtaining unit prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ruben M W A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-02-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about methods for valuing health intervention-related costs and monetary benefits in the education and criminal justice sectors, also known as 'inter-sectoral costs and benefits' (ICBs). The objective of this study was to develop methods for obtaining unit prices for the valuation of ICBs. By conducting an exploratory literature study and expert interviews, several generic methods were developed. The methods' feasibility was assessed through application in the Netherlands. Results were validated in an expert meeting, which was attended by policy makers, public health experts, health economists and HTA-experts, and discussed at several international conferences and symposia. The study resulted in four methods, including the opportunity cost method (A) and valuation using available unit prices (B), self-constructed unit prices (C) or hourly labor costs (D). The methods developed can be used internationally and are valuable for the broad international field of HTA.

  12. Internalization of external costs for nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Ionita, Gheorghe; Gheorghe-Sorescu, Antonius; Glodeanu, Florin

    2006-01-01

    A technology that competes against alternatives on a full cost basis is not sustainable - no matter how environmentally friendly is. Competitive performance, however, means more than lower costs. Additional factors as the following have to be considered as criteria ensuring a sustainable energy development: - environmentally compatibility - intergenerational compatibility - power demand compatibility - socio-political compatibility - geopolitical compatibility. Some factors are less difficult to express in al.) Recent Cold Fterms (e.g. the economic value of degraded public health) than others (e.g. the economic value of reliable supplies or lack of public acceptance) but their quantifications are fraught with uncertainty, vary greatly from location to location and cannot be generalized. Still, these factors often tilt the balance in favor or disfavor of a particular technology. From a public perspective, a set of costs called 'external costs' are important. By definition these costs are external to standard private sector cost accounting schemes. They are necessarily paid for, not as a cost of doing business, but by society. The concept of externalities has been referred to in the economic literature since early in the 20th century. In 1974, the Council of OECD recommended the application by governments of the 'Polluter Pays Principle', defined in the early 1970s as a means to allocate costs of pollution prevention and control measures to pollutants, and thereby to consumers of their products, rather than to society as a whole. The externality may be defined as 'a cost or benefit that is not included in the market price of a commodity because it is not included in the supply price or demand price. An externality is produced when the economic activity of one actor (or group of actors) has a positive or negative impact on the welfare function of another actor (or group of actors) and when the former fails to be fully compensated, or to fully compensate the latter

  13. Quarterly report on program cost and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a summary of the cost and schedule performance for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Performance data are presented for each of the major program elements. Also included in this report is the status of the Nuclear Waste Fund revenues and disbursements. This report includes cost and schedule data through June 1989

  14. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands....... We use three axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well as all...... connection costs; and, (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on estimated connection costs and allocates true connection costs of the selected network....

  15. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  16. Safety cost management in construction companies: A proposal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Ibarrondo-Dávila, M P; Rubio, M C

    2016-06-16

    Estimating health and safety costs in the construction industry presents various difficulties, including the complexity of cost allocation, the inadequacy of data available to managers and the absence of an accounting model designed specifically for safety cost management. Very often, the costs arising from accidents in the workplace are not fully identifiable due to the hidden costs involved. This paper reviews some studies of occupational health and safety cost management and proposes a means of classifying these costs. We conducted an empirical study in which the health and safety costs of 40 construction worksites are estimated. A new classification of the health and safety cost and its categories is proposed: Safety and non-safety costs. The costs of the company's health and safety policy should be included in the information provided by the accounting system, as a starting point for analysis and control. From this perspective, a classification of health and safety costs and its categories is put forward.

  17. User instructions for levelized power generation cost codes using an IBM-type PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Programs for the calculation of levelized power generation costs using an IBM or compatible PC are described. Cost calculations for nuclear plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. 7 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Anders; Svensson, Mikael; Jacobi, Frank; Allgulander, Christer; Alonso, Jordi; Beghi, Ettore; Dodel, Richard; Ekman, Mattias; Faravelli, Carlo; Fratiglioni, Laura; Gannon, Brenda; Jones, David Hilton; Jennum, Poul; Jordanova, Albena; Jönsson, Linus; Karampampa, Korinna; Knapp, Martin; Kobelt, Gisela; Kurth, Tobias; Lieb, Roselind; Linde, Mattias; Ljungcrantz, Christina; Maercker, Andreas; Melin, Beatrice; Moscarelli, Massimo; Musayev, Amir; Norwood, Fiona; Preisig, Martin; Pugliatti, Maura; Rehm, Juergen; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Simon, Roland; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Van den Bergh, Peter; den Bergh, Peter Van; van Os, Jim; Vos, Pieter; Xu, Weili; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Jönsson, Bengt; Olesen, Jes

    2011-10-01

    The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people. To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country. The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple

  19. Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah; Myeda Nik Elyna; Ali Azlan Shah

    2016-01-01

    Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and m...

  20. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  1. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to the pollutor creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced and provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Cost of neonatal care.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, S; Sics, A; Congdon, P

    1988-01-01

    A six month evaluation of the costs of a regional neonatal medical and surgical unit was carried out. The total cost for six months was pounds 970,000 and this covered 4349 inpatient days and 282 admissions. For medical cases the cost ranged from pounds 132 to pounds 27,600 and the mean daily cost for different weight groups ranged from pounds 159 to pounds 274. The average daily cost for regional patients at pounds 258 was greater than for district patients who cost pounds 199. Altogether 23...

  3. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Reuschle, K.; Baier, B.

    2002-01-01

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.) [de

  4. (Lack of) Corticospinal facilitation in association with hand laterality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Lucas; Tremblay, François

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, mental practice strategies have drawn much interest in the field of rehabilitation. One form of mental practice particularly advocated involves judging the laterality of images depicting body parts. Such laterality judgments are thought to rely on implicit motor imagery via mental rotation of one own's limb. In this study, we sought to further characterize the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in hand laterality judgments (HLJ) as performed in the context of an application designed for rehabilitation. To this end, we measured variations in corticospinal excitability in both hemispheres with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) while participants (n = 18, young adults) performed either HLJ or a mental counting task. A third condition (foot observation) provided additional control. We hypothesized that HLJ would lead to a selective MEP facilitation when compared to the other tasks and that this facilitation would be greater on the right than the left hemisphere. Contrary to our predictions, we found no evidence of task effects and hemispheric effects for the HLJ task. Significant task-related MEP facilitation was detected only for the mental counting task. A secondary experiment performed in a subset of participants (n = 6) to further test modulation during HLJ yielded the same results. We interpret the lack of facilitation with HLJ in the light of evidence that participants may rely on alternative strategies when asked to judge laterality when viewing depictions of body parts. The use of visual strategies notably would reduce the need to engage in mental rotation, thus reducing M1 involvement. These results have implications for applications of laterality tasks in the context of the rehabilitation program.

  5. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvani

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD. We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9-10 per group. Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours, sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours, sleep recovery (18 hours, and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours. We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS than WT during the dark (active period but not during the light (rest period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice.

  6. New constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Silva, Maria Z R; Bruno-Moreno, Frederico; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2015-11-01

    Proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. So far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. Osmotin from Carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the Calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. To get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. Two potential osmotin-like proteins in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Plumeria rubra latex were detected by immunological cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies produced against the C. procera latex osmotin (CpOsm) by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot assays. Osmotin-like proteins were not detected in the latex of Thevetia peruviana, Himatanthus drasticus and healthy Carica papaya fruits. Later, the two new osmotin-like proteins were purified through immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-CpOsm immobilized antibodies. Worth noting the chromatographic efficiency allowed for the purification of the osmotin-like protein belonging to H. drasticus latex, which was not detectable by immunoassays. The identification of the purified proteins was confirmed after MS/MS analyses of their tryptic digests. It is concluded that the constitutive osmotin-like proteins reported here share structural similarities to CpOsm. However, unlike CpOsm, they did not exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These results suggest that osmotins of different latex sources may be involved in distinct physiological or defensive events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  8. Mice Lacking Hbp1 Function Are Viable and Fertile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dagmar; Jans, David A.; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest. In somatic cells, HBP1 is classified as a tumour suppressor protein, known to regulate proliferation and senescence. We therefore investigated the possible role of HBP1 in the initiation and maintenance of fetal germ cell G1/G0 arrest using the mouse model. We identified two splice variants of Hbp1, both of which are expressed in XY and XX fetal gonads, but only one of which is localised to the nucleus in in vitro assays. To investigate Hbp1 loss of function, we used embryonic stem (ES) cells carrying a Genetrap mutation for Hbp1 to generate mice lacking Hbp1 function. We found that Hbp1-genetrap mouse mutant germ cells proliferated correctly throughout development, and adult males were viable and fertile. Multiple Hbp1-LacZ reporter mouse lines were generated, unexpectedly revealing Hbp1 embryonic expression in hair follicles, eye and limbs. Lastly, in a model of defective germ cell G1/G0 arrest, the Rb1-knockout model, we found no evidence for Hbp1 mis-regulation, suggesting that the reported RB1-HBP1 interaction is not critical in the germline, despite co-expression. PMID:28107452

  9. Mice Lacking Hbp1 Function Are Viable and Fertile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassy M Spiller

    Full Text Available Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1 is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest. In somatic cells, HBP1 is classified as a tumour suppressor protein, known to regulate proliferation and senescence. We therefore investigated the possible role of HBP1 in the initiation and maintenance of fetal germ cell G1/G0 arrest using the mouse model. We identified two splice variants of Hbp1, both of which are expressed in XY and XX fetal gonads, but only one of which is localised to the nucleus in in vitro assays. To investigate Hbp1 loss of function, we used embryonic stem (ES cells carrying a Genetrap mutation for Hbp1 to generate mice lacking Hbp1 function. We found that Hbp1-genetrap mouse mutant germ cells proliferated correctly throughout development, and adult males were viable and fertile. Multiple Hbp1-LacZ reporter mouse lines were generated, unexpectedly revealing Hbp1 embryonic expression in hair follicles, eye and limbs. Lastly, in a model of defective germ cell G1/G0 arrest, the Rb1-knockout model, we found no evidence for Hbp1 mis-regulation, suggesting that the reported RB1-HBP1 interaction is not critical in the germline, despite co-expression.

  10. Implications of the lack of desiccation tolerance in recalcitrant seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eBerjak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A suite of interacting processes and mechanisms enables tolerance of desiccation and storage (conservation of orthodox seeds in the dry state. While this is a long-term option under optimised conditions, dry orthodox seeds are not immortal, with life spans having been characterised as short, intermediate and long. Factors facilitating desiccation tolerance are metabolic ‘switch-off’ and intracellular dedifferentiation. Recalcitrant seeds lack these mechanisms, contributing significantly to their desiccation sensitivity.Consequently, recalcitrant seeds, which are shed at high water contents, can be stored only in the short-term, under conditions not allowing dehydration. The periods of such hydrated storage are constrained by germination that occurs without the need for extraneous water, and the proliferation of seed-associated fungi. Cryopreservation is viewed as the only option for long-term conservation of the germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. This is not easily achieved, as each of the necessary procedures imposes oxidative damage. Intact recalcitrant seeds cannot be cryopreserved, the common practice being to use excised embryos or embryonic axes as explants. Dehydration is a necessary procedure prior to exposure to cryogenic temperatures, but this is associated with metabolism-linked injury mediated by uncontrolled ROS generation and failing anti-oxidant systems. While the extent to which this occurs can be curtailed by maximising drying rate (flash drying it cannot be completely obviated. Explant cooling for, and rewarming after, cryostorage must necessarily be rapid, to avoid ice crystallisation. The ramifications of desiccation sensitivity are discussed, as are problems involved in cryostorage, particularly those accompanying dehydration and damage consequent upon ice crystallisation. While desiccation sensitivity is a ‘fact’ of seed recalcitrance, resolutions of the difficulties involved germplasm conservation are

  11. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  12. Adherence and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  13. State cost sharing of training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.M.; Flater, D.A.; Hughes, D.R. Sr.; Lubenau, J.O.; Merges, P.J.; Mobley, M.H.; Raglin, K.A.

    1989-08-01

    In March 1988, The Office of Governmental and Public Affairs (GPA) completed a report (NUREG-1311) entitled, ''Funding the NRC Training Program for States.'' This report responded to a Commission's request for study of NRC's long-standing practice of paying the travel and per diem of state personnel who attend NRC sponsored training. In May 1988, the Chairman endorsed the report in most respects but asked for further study of a cost sharing of travel and per diem costs. As a result, the Director of GPA's State, Local and Indian Tribe Programs (SLITP) established a Task Force comprised of representatives from the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., the Agreement States and the NRC to look at ways that the states can share the costs of NRC training, particularly travel and per diem. At the request of the Director, GPA, the Task Force also looked at related cost and quantity issues associated with the NRC training program for state personnel. This report includes a discussion of NRC and state perspectives on the issue of sharing travel and per diem costs, a discussion of options, and recommendations for likely cost savings and quality of training improvement. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Cost analysis of flexible ureterorenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J W; Keeley, F X; Timoney, A

    2004-05-01

    To assess the costs of flexible ureterorenoscopy. Data were collected prospectively for 100 cases using a new flexible ureteroscope (DUR8, Circon ACMI, Stamford, USA), including the indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy, use of laser probes, disposable instrumentation, and the cost and timing of ureteroscope repair. Of the 100 procedures 68 were for stone disease, 21 for known or suspected transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), six were diagnostic only and five were for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. The ureteroscope was repaired after the 29th and 88th cases. The ability of the ureteroscope to deflect was maintained throughout. At the time of purchase the ureteroscope was listed at pound 15 000 and each repair/exchange currently costs pound 4200, thus the total expenditure on the ureteroscope was pound 23 400. Total expenditure on ancillary equipment was pound 28 727, of which pound 22 927 was on disposables and pound 5800 on 10 laser probes. In this series the costs of the ancillary equipment exceeded the purchase and maintenance of the ureteroscope, and we expect this trend to continue in the long term. The advent of more durable ureteroscopes may ultimately reduce the frequency of costly repairs. The cost of disposables should be considered in planning the budget.

  15. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30-70 - Patent costs and technology transfer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology transfer costs. 970.3102-05-30-70 Section 970.3102-05-30-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30-70 Patent costs and technology transfer costs. (a) For management and operating contracts that do not include the clause at 970.5227-3, Technology Transfer Mission, the...

  16. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge....... For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost....

  17. Lack of application of the European Work Time Directive: effects on workload, work satisfaction and burnout among Italian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gnerre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Parliament has excluded hospital physicians from the application of the European Work Time Directive (EWTD, which imposes a maximum workweek of 48 h and compulsory resting periods. This resulted in extended and excessive work time for the category. This paper is aimed at evaluating the impact of this legislation gap, by assessing the presence of excessive work-related stress and risk for burnout syndrome among Italian physicians working in public hospitals. This observational study is based on an on-line survey conducted on a sample of 1925 Italian doctors (covering a wide range of age, work experience and contractual positions from October 2014 to February 2015. The questionnaire included 30 questions concerning their personal and professional life (e.g., assessment of workloads, number of uncomfortable or extra shifts, unused days-off, etc.. On the basis of the results, it can be inferred that the average Italian doctor working in public hospitals is under considerable stress at work with negative consequences on his health. He is exposed to high risk of suffering from sleep disorders and cardiovascular diseases (due to the lack of time for private practice and eating regular meals. Overall, his perception is that his job worsens his quality of life. This study shows the relevance of the risk of burnout among Italian physicians employed in public hospitals due to severe workload and work conditions. The resulting impact on the quality of care and the significant cost involved - both in human and economic terms - calls for significant emergency measures by the Italian health work organization. An important increase and prolonged working time is associated with a worsening of the objective cognitive performance and an increase of clinical risk, but also to an increased risk of diseases for operators and of the burnout syndrome. Our survey shows that lack of application of the EWTD has adverse effects on the quality of life and

  18. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  19. Diurnal cortisol rhythm: Associated with anxiety and depression, or just an indication of lack of energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone; Hansen, Åse Marie; Helene Garde, Anne; Eriksen, Hege Randi

    2015-08-15

    Dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-activity has been associated with low back pain (LBP). The underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, but psychological mechanisms are considered important. In this study we examine the association between psychiatric disorders/symptoms measured with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression, but instead are associated with one dimension of the psychopathology, namely lack of energy. This could help explain the inconsistency in the literature, and it should be explored further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medicare Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare certified institutional providers are required to submit an annual cost report to a Medicare Administrative Contractor. The cost report contains provider...

  1. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  2. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  3. INTOR cost approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de

  4. Cost accounting at GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, R.

    1979-01-01

    The GKSS has a cost accounting system comprising cost type, cost centre and cost unit accounting which permits of a comprehensive and detailed supervision of the accural of costs and use of funds, makes price setting for outside orders possible and provides the necessary data for decision-making and planning. It fulfills the requirement for an ordered accounting system; it is therefore guaranteed that there exists between financial accounts department and cost accounting a proper demarcation and transition, that costs are accounted fully only on the basis of vouchers and only once, evaluation and distribution are unified and the principle of causation is observed. Two employees are engaged in costs and services accounting. Although we strive to effect adaptations as swiftly as possible, and constantly to adapt refinements and supplementary processes for the improvement of the system, this can only occur within the scope of, and with the exactitude necessary for the required information. (author)

  5. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-08-29

    The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.

  6. Poor Workmanship in Construction of Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Othman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most defects in construction projects are due to human error. In other word, we can say that human error happened due to poor performance in workmanship during construction of a building. Poor workmanship in housing construction, and poor management and control of building contractors have contributed to the housing problem. According to research conducted by the Building Research Establishment (BRE, 90% of building failures are due to problems arising in the design and construction stages. These problems include poor communication, inadequate information or failure to check information, inadequate checks and controls, lack of technical expertise and skills, and inadequate feedback leading to recurring errors. The quality issues of low cost housing nowadays begin to arise as there are many complaints about defects in some of the building elements of the house. One of the causes of this condition is due to poor quality of workmanship during construction. This will affect the quality of life of occupants and also giving bad image of the parties involved in the construction of low cost housing. This paper will discuss some variables that related to the causes of poor quality of workmanship in construction projects and some common building defects found at low cost housing.

  7. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.

    2017-04-17

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  8. Magnet costs for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, J.; Krupnick, J.; Hoyer, E.; Paterson, A.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerator is now completed. The numerous conventional magnets required for the booster ring, the storage ring and the low and high energy transfer lines were installed during the last two years. This paper summarizes the various costs associated with the quantity fabrication of selected magnet families. These costs include the costs of prototypes, tooling, coil and core fabrication, assembly and magnetic measurements. Brief descriptions of the magnets and specialized requirements for magnetic measurements are included in order to associate the costs with the relative complexities of the various magnet systems

  9. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste

  10. MACHINERY COSTS AND INFLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Myles J.; Helmers, Glenn A.

    1981-01-01

    This article addresses (1) the differences in machinery cost estimating techniques, particularly for depreciation and opportunity cost, and (2) the necessary modifications in cost estimating techniques to account for the changing monetary base under inflation. The conditions under which capital budgeting and traditional budgeting differ are examined on a before tax and after tax basis, with and without inflation. The variations in cost estimates depending upon techniques, and with and without...

  11. Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Masaeid, H R; al-Mashakbeh, A A; Qudah, A M

    1999-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty class costs, unit property damage cost, as well as police activities and insurance administration costs to accidents of various severity levels was suggested. The loss-of-output, the loss quality of life, the community and family losses, the temporary and permanent losses, and hospitalization and medical treatment costs were estimated in computing the unit cost for fatalities or injuries of different casualty classes. The vehicle repair cost, detention period cost, and public and private costs were accounted for in estimating the unit cost of property damages. The results indicate that the 1996 traffic accidents cost the country about JD 103 million ($US 146.3 million).

  12. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  13. The lack of food intake data and the consequences thereof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-09

    Nov 9, 2010 ... 61 adult Venda men (average 36.6 years) and women (average. 33.3 years) in Tshikundamalema, an isolated rural village. Vorster HH et al23. Potch. N/A. 1992. 39 elderly white men (51-84 years) ..... meat, white meat, mutton/lamb, beef, pork, offal, organ meats, venison, poultry (including ostrich and game ...

  14. Period of onset and lack of clinical manifestation of hepatotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The period of onset of hepatotoxicity varies between cohorts as do their clinical manifestations. Clinical manifestations of hepatotoxicity that have been previously reported include fatal portal hypertension, dress syndrome, and lipodystrophy syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the period of onset and ...

  15. Leaving Teaching: Lack of Resilience or Sign of Agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari; Ulvik, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Alarming numbers of teacher attrition are reported in many countries, including in Norway. Whereas most of the research tells about personal and professional negative experiences which have a harmful impact on teachers' resilience, a different approach is taken in the current paper. Four cases of leavers are purposefully selected because they…

  16. Focus on focus: lack of coherence between systemic and microvascular indices of oedema formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Tusscher, Birkitt; Gudden, Corien; van Vliet, Suus; Smit, Bob; Ince, Can; Boerma, E Christiaan; de Grooth, Harm-Jan S; Elbers, Paul W G

    2017-01-01

    Fluid therapy remains a cornerstone of therapy in shock states. However, fluid overloading ultimately results in oedema formation which is related to excess morbidity and mortality. Handheld microscopes are now frequently used to study the sublingual microcirculation. As a corollary, these devices measure focal distance, or surface to capillary distance. Physiologically, this could represent a microvascular index of oedema formation and could have the potential to guide fluid therapy. This potential tool should be investigated, especially given the frequently reported lack of coherence between systemic and microvascular parameters in the critically ill. Therefore, we set out to assess the correlation between microvascular focal distance and systemic indices of oedema formation, specifically fluid balance and weight gain. Following ex vivo testing of focal distance measurement reliability, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study in patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our university teaching hospital. We determined surface to capillary distance using sidestream dark field (SDF) and incident dark field (IDF) imaging by assessing the focal distance point or object distance range at which a sharp recording could be made. Measurements were performed in post-cardiac surgery patients and in patients following emergency admission at two time points separated by at least several hours. Data on fluid balance, weight and weight gain were collected simultaneously. Sixty patients were included. The focal setting, focus point for SDF and the object distance range for IDF did not differ significantly between time points. Focus was not correlated with difference in fluid balance or weight gain. There is a lack of coherence between surface to capillary distance as determined by SDF or IDF imaging and fluid balance or weight gain. Thus, focal distance as a microvascular index of oedema formation cannot currently be used as a proxy for systemic indices of

  17. Reactor cost driving items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Assuming that the design solutions presently perceived for NET can be extrapolated for use in a power reactor, and using costing experience with present day fusion experiments and with fission power plants, the major components of the cost of a tokamak fusion power reactor are described. The analysis shows the emphasis worth placing on various areas of plant design to reduce costs

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  20. Lack of the RNA chaperone Hfq attenuates pathogenicity of several Escherichia coli pathotypes towards Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Jakobsen, Henrik; Struve, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    as a model for virulence characterization and screening for novel antimicrobial entities. Several E. coli human pathotypes are also pathogenic towards C. elegans, and we show here that lack of the RNA chaperone Hfq significantly reduces pathogenicity of VTEC, EAEC, and UPEC in the nematode model. Thus, Hfq...... is intrinsically essential to pathogenic E. coli for survival and virulence exerted in the C. elegans host.......Escherichia coli is an important agent of Gram-negative bacterial infections worldwide, being one of the leading causes of diarrhoea and urinary tract infections. Strategies to understand pathogenesis and develop therapeutic compounds include the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...

  1. Identification of sulfur volatiles in canned orange juices lacking orange flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Smoot, John M; Rouseff, Russell

    2007-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to understand why some canned orange juices are not perceived as orange juice. Sensory flavor profile data indicated that the primary odor (orthonasal) attributes were tropical fruit/grapefruit, cooked/caramel, musty, and medicine. By comparison fresh-squeezed juice lacked these odor attributes. GC-O analysis found 43 odor-active components in canned juices. Eight of these aroma volatiles were sulfur based. Four of the 12 most intense aroma peaks were sulfur compounds that included methanethiol, 1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and dimethyl trisulfide. The other most intense odorants included 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene (myrcene), octanal, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (homofuraneol), (E)-non-2-enal, (E,E)-deca-2,4-dienal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), and alpha-sinensal. Odorants probably responsible for the undesirable sensory attributes included grapefruit (1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol), cooked [2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), and 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional)], musty [7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene and (E)-non-2-enal], and medicine (2-methoxyphenol). The canned juices also lacked several aldehydes and esters normally found in fresh orange juice.

  2. Cost estimation for decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de; Segabinaze, Roberto de Oliveira; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In the case of research reactors, the limited data that is available tends to provide only overall decommissioning costs, without any breakdown of the main cost elements. In order to address this subject, it is important to collect and analyse all available data of decommissioning costs for the research reactors. The IAEA has started the DACCORD Project focused on data analysis and costing of research reactors decommissioning. Data collection is organized in accordance with the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), developed jointly by the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission. The specific aims of the project include the development of representative and comparative data and datasets for preliminary costing for decommissioning. This paper will focus on presenting a technique to consider several representative input data in accordance with the ISDC structure and using the CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) software developed by IAEA. (author)

  3. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. PMID:25862425

  4. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  5. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hilsenrath PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  6. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  7. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  8. Costing Practices in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    The rising cost of healthcare is a globally pressing concern. This makes detailed attention to the way in which costing is carried out of central importance. This article offers a framework for considering the interdependencies between a dominant element of the contemporary healthcare context, i.......e., Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) systems, and costing practices. DRG-based payment systems strongly influence costing practices in multiple ways. In particular, setting DRG tariffs requires highly standardized costing practices linked with specific skill sets from management accountants and brings other...

  9. Conventional and cogeneration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas must be addressed in the preparation of any feasibility analysis. First is the identification of all cost components, and second is the development of actual cost estimates. In this chapter, the individual cost components are identified and reviewed. Each of them should be considered in the conduct of any feasibility study, for it is the depth to which they are analyzed that is the most significant contributor to the cost of the analysis. The discussion reviews both the operating and the capital cost considerations of cogeneration economics

  10. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  11. The disarmament cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, M.

    1996-01-01

    War is costly. But peace cost is even higher. The destruction of weapons (mines, nuclear weapons, chemical weapons) is much more expensive than their manufacturing. The soldiers demobilization cost is enormous, for instance in Angola, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Zimbabwe the demobilization of 270000 soldiers cost 2.5 10 9 francs. The measures intended to reduce the war risk are also expensive. That is why the arsenal of ex USSR is still intact. Today no international agency is entirely dedicated to peace building. The question is how would cost such an agency? (O.L.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    . The attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls......BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients...

  13. Cost Versus "Cost" of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    It comes as no surprise that the prices being charged for college tuition are out of control. Stories about the staggering price of tuition are commonplace in popular media. Although the supposed explanations for this phenomenon are attributed to issues such as financial aid, lack of government support, and the state of the economy, none seem to…

  14. Financial and Economic Costs of the Elimination and Eradication of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Kim

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa.We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation.The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million than the control scenario ($47 million, intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems.The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance their domestic funding capacity

  15. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  16. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  17. 47 CFR 76.925 - Costs of franchise requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of franchise requirements. 76.925 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.925 Costs of franchise requirements. (a) Franchise requirement costs may include cost increases required by the franchising authority in...

  18. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles; (2) The costs included in the distribution are limited to costs actually incurred by...), part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, relating to contracts with commercial organizations... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907...

  19. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  20. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  1. Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... pump purchasing including gear box, fittings, metre, instal- lation, motor protection costs. In turn, the variable costs of groundwater drilling process per metre of ...... N, PEZON C, POTTER A, REDDY R and SNEHALATHA M. (2011a) Life-cycle costs approach: Costing sustainable services. Briefing Note 1a.

  2. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... semipostal stamps; (5) Costs of stamp sales (including employee salaries and benefits); (6) Costs associated with the withdrawal of the stamp issue from sale; (7) Costs associated with the destruction of unsold... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost offset policy. 551.8 Section 551.8 Postal...

  3. 48 CFR 215.404-71-5 - Cost efficiency factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... loaded labor hours (i.e., cost per labor hour, including all direct and indirect costs) or other... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost efficiency factor... Contract Pricing 215.404-71-5 Cost efficiency factor. (a) This special factor provides an incentive for...

  4. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., quantity, and cost. (ii) Direct labor. Provide a time-phased (e.g., monthly, quarterly) breakdown of labor... estimates. (iii) Allocable direct costs. Indicate how allocable costs are computed and applied, including... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate submission. 100.16 Section...

  5. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  6. Undocumented migrants lack access to pregnancy care and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoli Nicole

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illegal migration is an increasing problem worldwide and the so-called undocumented migrants encounter major problems in access to prevention and health care. The objective of the study was to compare the use of preventive measures and pregnancy care of undocumented pregnant migrants with those of women from the general population of Geneva, Switzerland. Methods Prospective cohort study including pregnant undocumented migrants presenting to the University hospital from February 2005 to October 2006. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit wishing to deliver at the same public hospital during the same time period. Results 161 undocumented and 233 control women were included in the study. Mean ages were 29.4 y (SD 5.8 and 31.1 y (SD 4.8 (p Conclusion Compared to women who are legal residents of Geneva, undocumented migrants have more unintended pregnancies and delayed prenatal care, use fewer preventive measures and are exposed to more violence during pregnancy. Not having a legal residency permit therefore suggests a particular vulnerability for pregnant women. This study underscores the need for better access to prenatal care and routine screening for violence exposure during pregnancy for undocumented migrants. Furthermore, health care systems should provide language- and culturally-appropriate education on contraception, family planning and cervical cancer screening.

  7. Lack of interaction between the peptidomimetic substrates captopril and cephradine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David R; Yee, Shiyin; Bleske, Barry E; Carver, Peggy L; Shea, Michael J; Menon, Sujatha S; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-03-01

    Intestinal peptide transporters, including hPEPT1, facilitate the absorption of cephalosporins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and have been investigated as a means to improve oral drug absorption. Renal peptide transporters including hPEPT2, may also facilitate renal reabsorption of such compounds. In vitro and animal studies suggest that co-administration of peptidomimetic compounds may alter oral pharmacokinetics, although this has not been well studied in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether co-administration of the hPEPT substrates captopril and cephradine alters the oral pharmacokinetics of either agent. Nine healthy male volunteers received a single oral 25-mg dose of captopril, a single oral 500-mg dose of cephradine, or concurrent ingestion of captopril and cephradine in a cross-over manner. Venous blood samples were taken and captopril and cephradine pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental analyses. No significant differences were observed in captopril or cephradine pharmacokinetics when administered together as compared to each agent alone (a marginal decrease in C(max) was observed for both captopril and cephradine during co-administration [5-15%]; however, differences were not statistically significant). The results of our study suggest that hPEPT1 and hPEPT2 are unlikely to contribute to clinically important drug interactions in humans.

  8. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of placenta lacunae and a lack of a clear zone in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shoko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the frequencies of placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are higher in cases of placenta previa compared with those without it. Ultrasonographic findings just before delivery, including placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were prospectively evaluated in consecutive subjects. After collection, a case-control study with 1:5 matched pairs was conducted. The frequencies of ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta. Seventy cases with placenta previa and 350 cases with normal placentas were observed. Five and zero cases with abnormal placental adherence were observed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta, respectively. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 60 and 1.5% of cases with and without the placental adherence (p = 0.001). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were observed in 31.4 and 9.7% of cases with and without placenta previa [odds ratio (OR) 4.2]. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 5.7 and 0.9% of cases with and without placenta previa (OR 7.0). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are frequently observed in placenta previa even when there is no adherence of the placenta. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    of goods or services, bid and supplier evaluation, negotiations, as well as contract and project administration. Administrative activities include processing and dispatching orders, comparing delivery and receipt confirmations, invoice receipt and verification, record-keeping and others. The identified existing and potential failures occurring in the procurement of military assets and affecting the optimization of use of financial resources, include: lack of adequate staff, imprecise legal regulations of procurement, lack of multi-year framework agreements related to the acquisition, insufficient and inadequate market research, incomplete adherence to the existing norms, late placing of funds at the disposal of the procurement service, untimely and inaccurate procurement planning, poor quality technical documentation, disrespect for deadlines, inadequate frequency of purchases, a number of "urgent and confidential procurements,", absence of a system limiting the time of procurement activities, absence of an adequate structure to deal with procurement control, etc. In addition, an integrated information system or a database that would allow access to the data and the analysis of the dynamics of costs would ensure proper assessment of costs of investments in equipping the military with AME.. CONCLUSION Determining AME  life cycle costs should be made at an early phase of asset development because it can repeatedly affect the total amount and cost reduction through project changing. In the cost analysis, it is desirable to use mathematical models and methods developed in the theory and practice to allow accurate calculations of the elements necessary for a cost estimate. The biggest costs occur in the functional competence of logistics which shows that equipping the army must be based on logistic grounds for efficiency and cost saving throughout the life cycle of the asset. The initial cost of assets in relation to the costs that appear at the end of their life cycle

  11. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user's manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user's manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning

  12. Pharmacy led medicine reconciliation at hospital: A systematic review of effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Eman A; Bale, Amanda; Wright, David J; Bhattacharya, Debi

    Transition of patients care between settings presents an increased opportunity for errors and preventable morbidity. A number of studies outlined that pharmacy-led medicine reconciliation (MR) might facilitate safer information transfer and medication use. MR practice is not well standardized and often delivered in combination with other health care activities. The question regarding the effects and costs of pharmacy-led MR and the optimum MR practice is warranted of value. To review the evidence for the effects and costs/cost-effectiveness of complete pharmacy-led MR in hospital settings. A systematic review searching the following database was conducted up to the 13th December 2015; EMBASE & MEDLINE Ovid, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. Studies evaluating pharmacy-led MR performed fully from admission till discharges were included. Studies evaluated non-pharmacy-led MR at only one end of patient care or transfer was not included. Articles were screened and extracted independently by two investigators. Studies were divided into those in which: MR was the primary element of the intervention and labeled as "primarily MR" studies, or MR combined with non-MR care activities and labeled as "supplemented MR" studies. Quality assessment of studies was performed by independent reviewers using a pre-defined and validated tool. The literature search identified 4065 citations, of which 13 implemented complete MR. The lack of evidence precluded addressing the effects and costs of MR. The composite of optimum MR practice is not widely standardized and requires discussion among health professions and key organizations. Research focused on evaluating cost-effectiveness of pharmacy-led MR is lacking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Related factors to lack of implementation of antenatal corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Gutiérrez, América Aime; Olivares-Ramírez, Araceli; Fajardo-Dueñas, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Despite the known benefits of antenatal corticosteroids therapy its use in clinical practice is not generalized. To identify factors related to antenatal corticosteroids non administration. Cross-sectional and descriptive study that included patients admitted to Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca", who had indication for antenatal corticosteroids therapy but did not receive it. Variables: antenatal corticosteroids therapy prescription, factors related to antenatal corticosteroids therapy non administration and lapsed time between diagnosis and birth. Antenatal corticosteroids therapy were not prescribed in 79 (94%) of 84 patients. Main related factors were imminent birth and severe maternal complication. The longer amount of time from diagnosis to birth was before hospitalization (91 vs. 9%, p <0.0005). The biggest and best opportunity for the administration of inducers of fetal lung maturity is during prenatal care, when cases with increased risk of preterm birth are detected.

  14. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeney, J G; O'Bleness, M S; Anderson, N

    2015-01-01

    , these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ(2) = 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10(-5)). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p ....05) of DUF1220 mice and changes in gene expression levels of brain associated with distinct neurological functions and disease. Other changes that met statistical significance include an increase in plasma glucose concentration (as measured by area under the curve, AUC 0-30 and AUC 30-120) in male mutants...... function, and potentially suggests a role in developmental metabolism. Finally, the substantially reduced fecundity we observe associated with KO mice argues that the ancestral DUF1220 domain provides an important biological functionthat is critical to survivability and reproductive success....

  15. 30 CFR 251.13 - Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and certain processing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and information and certain processing costs. 251.13 Section 251.13 Mineral Resources MINERALS... third party for the reasonable costs of processing geophysical information (which does not include cost... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.13 Reimbursement for the costs of reproducing data and information and...

  16. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldie Sue J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and

  17. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hiroshi; Tani, Yuji; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Yokooka, Yuki; Abe, Tamotsu; Sase, Yuji; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-09-30

    Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  18. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  19. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  20. Costs of magnets for large fusion power reactors: Phase I, cost of superconductors for dc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1972-01-01

    Projections are made for dc magnet conductor costs for large fusion power reactors. A mature fusion economy is assumed sometime after 2000 A. D. in which approximately 90,000 MW(e) of fusion reactors are constructed/year. State of the art critical current vs. field characteristics for superconductors are used in these projections. Present processing techniques are used as a basis for the design of large plants sized to produce approximately one-half of the conductor needed for the fusion magnets. Multifilamentary Nb-Ti, Pb-Bi in glass fiber, GE Nb 3 Sn tape, Linde plasma sprayed Nb 3 Sn tape, and V 3 Ga tape superconductors are investigated, together with high purity aluminum cryoconductor. Conductor costs include processing costs [capital (equipment plus buildings), labor, and operating] and materials costs. Conductor costs are compared for two sets of material costs: current (1971 A. D.) costs, and projected (after 2000 A. D.) costs. (U.S.)

  1. Pro-cyclical petroleum investments and cost overruns in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Roy Endré; Lorentzen, Sindre; Oglend, Atle; Osmundsen, Petter

    2017-01-01

    Development projects in the oil industry often have cost overruns. Through analysis of data from Norwegian development projects in the petroleum industry, this paper investigates the common effect of business cycle developments on cost overruns. Lack of capacity and expertise in a tight supplier market yield cost inflation and difficulties in managing projects. Unlike previous analyses of cost overruns, we analyze projects over a long time period to capture the cyclical effects. We document a statistically significant positive relationship between oil price developments and cost overruns, and a positive relationship between changes in number of employees in the sector and cost overruns. We also show that surprises to the oil price during the project implementation having a larger impact on cost overruns than the oil price level itself. Cost overrun ultimately leads to reduced competitiveness for the industry, and we discuss consequences and policy implications for business and society of these cost overruns. - Highlights: • Quantitative study of cost overruns in petroleum projects. • Discussion of the business cycle as a common cost overrun driver. • Oil price development has significant positive effect on cost overruns. • Changes in number of employees in the sector has positive effect on cost overruns.

  2. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors

  3. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habetha Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

  4. Rising population cost for treating people living with HIV in the UK, 1997-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundhiya Mandalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV is increasing in the UK. This study estimated the annual population cost of providing HIV services in the UK, 1997-2006 and projected them 2007-2013. METHODS: Annual cost of HIV treatment for PLHIV by stage of HIV infection and type of ART was calculated (UK pounds, 2006 prices. Population costs were derived by multiplying the number of PLHIV by their annual cost for 1997-2006 and projected 2007-2013. RESULTS: Average annual treatment costs across all stages of HIV infection ranged from £17,034 in 1997 to £18,087 in 2006 for PLHIV on mono-therapy and from £27,649 in 1997 to £32,322 in 2006 for those on quadruple-or-more ART. The number of PLHIV using NHS services rose from 16,075 to 52,083 in 2006 and was projected to increase to 78,370 by 2013. Annual population cost rose from £104 million in 1997 to £483 million in 2006, with a projected annual cost between £721 and £758 million by 2013. When including community care costs, costs increased from £164 million in 1997, to £683 million in 2006 and between £1,019 and £1,065 million in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Increased number of PLHIV using NHS services resulted in rising UK population costs. Population costs are expected to continue to increase, partly due to PLHIV's longer survival on ART and the relative lack of success of HIV preventing programs. Where possible, the cost of HIV treatment and care needs to be reduced without reducing the quality of services, and prevention programs need to become more effective. While high income countries are struggling to meet these increasing costs, middle- and lower-income countries with larger epidemics are likely to find it even more difficult to meet these increasing demands, given that they have fewer resources.

  5. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  6. Lack of Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression on Severe Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMAS ANDRIANTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In human, coronary heart disease causes by severe pathological atherosclerosis. In this study, we established animal model to study atherosclerosis caused by hyperlipidemia. This study therefore was undertaken to define the effect of increasing atherosclerosis risk factor, include body weight as well as age, cholesterol concentration and dietary fat in rabbit chow, and time of treatment. Male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 4 groups; Group I and III were consisted of 2 months rabbit were fed with standard rabbit chow. To introduce atherosclerosis, the chow for Group II was contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% palm oil; whereas the chow for group IV was contained 0.5% cholesterol and 5% coconut oil to induce higher atherosclerotic lesion. Results showed that group II and IV developed hyperlipidemia. However, aortic cholesterol concentration in those groups did not different significantly (P > 0.05. We suggest that low carbohydrate composition in diet, 50% lower compared to the previous researches, was able to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration. This study demonstrated the complex interactions between low carbohydrate diet and cholesterol metabolism and the dramatic effects of reducing atherosclerosis risk factor; however, even though hyperlipidemic condition was achieved, total plasma cholesterol HDL ratio was maintained low.

  7. Potent antioxidant dendrimers lacking pro-oxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A; Upadhaya, Samik K; Nelson, Julie L

    2011-04-15

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants, including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities, may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical-scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens, and electron-donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical-quenching properties. To minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal-chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical-scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme, and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity toward Chinese hamster ovary cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of evidence of pregnancy-induced alloantibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M-C; Rozanski, E A; Hale, A S; Shaw, S P; Cotter, S M

    2009-01-01

    It is controversial whether or not pregnant bitches become sensitized to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Bitches do not develop alloantibodies to RBC antigens during gestation and can be used safely as blood donors. The study group included 35 healthy female dogs with a prior history of 1 (n = 12), 2 (n = 14), or >or= 3 (n = 9) pregnancies. The control group consisted of 15 healthy female dogs without any history of pregnancy. All dogs were blood typed for dog erythrocyte antigens (DEA) 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples and polyclonal antisera. Antibody screening was performed with serum and canine RBC panels of known blood type. An autocontrol and direct antiglobulin test were performed to rule out the presence of autoantibodies. The only alloantibodies identified were those against DEA 7 and the prevalence of anti-DEA 7 alloantibodies was similar in dogs with known history of pregnancy (11.4%) and in the control group (13.3%). These results confirm previous studies and clinical transfusion medicine experience. Naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 alloantibodies have been reported but their clinical relevance has not been shown. Pregnancy does not appear to sensitize dogs to RBC antigens. Consequently, dogs with prior history of pregnancy can be used safely as blood donors. Conversely, no additional pretransfusion compatibility studies would be required should these dogs themselves need to be transfused.

  9. Reduced effectiveness of selection caused by a lack of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Andrea J; Welch, John J; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-04-28

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction is expected to have important consequences for the effectiveness of natural selection. These effects may be evident within genomes, in the form of contrasting patterns of molecular variation and evolution in regions with different levels of recombination. Previous work reveals patterns that are consistent with a benefit of recombination for adaptation at the level of protein sequence: both positive selection for adaptive variants and purifying selection against deleterious ones appear to be compromised in regions of low recombination [1-11]. Here, we re-examine these patterns by using polymorphism and divergence data from the Drosophila dot chromosome, which has a long history of reduced recombination. To avoid confounding selection and demographic effects, we collected these data from a species with an apparently stable demographic history, Drosophila americana. We find that D. americana dot loci show several signatures of ineffective purifying and positive selection, including an increase in the rate of protein evolution, an increase in protein polymorphism, and a reduction in the proportion of amino acid substitutions attributable to positive selection.

  10. Lack of mutual respect in relationship: the endangered partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, Amos A

    2006-11-01

    Violence in a relationship and in a family setting has been an issue of concern to various interest groups and professional organizations. Of particular interest in this article is violence against women in a relationship. While there is an abundance of knowledge on violence against women in general, intimate or partner femicide seems to have received less attention. Unfortunately, the incidence of violence against women, and intimate femicide in particular, has been an issue of concern in the African setting. This article examines the trends of intimate femicide in an African setting in general, and in Botswana in particular. The increase in intimate femicide is an issue of concern, which calls for collective effort to address. This article also examines trends of femicide in Botswana, and the antecedents and the precipitating factors. Some studies have implicated societal and cultural dynamics as playing significant roles in intimate femicide in the African setting. It is believed that the patriarchal nature of most African settings and the ideology of male supremacy have relegated women to a subordinate role. Consequently, respect for women in any relationship with men is lopsided in favor of men and has led to abuse of women, including intimate femicide. Other militating factors in intimate femicide are examined and the implications for counseling to assist the endangered female partner are discussed.

  11. A Cost Element Structure for Defense Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    based upon program char- !/\\ acteristics such as numbers of personnel, frequencies of moves, intensity of program-related business travel , etc. On...travel costs. TDY: Includes transportation and per diem costs incurred for (a) business travel associated with a training , p/c/d, and (b) students

  12. The cost of publishing in Danish astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    I investigate the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale, including all direct publication costs: The figures show how the annual number of publications with authors from Denmark in astronomy journals increased by a factor approximately four during 15 years (Elsevier’s Scopus...

  13. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    while ensuring that given transit time limits for the carried cargo is satisfied, and considering the layover time for containers transshipping between services. Workshift times and cost are included ensuring that changing the port visit time will not introduce an addition cost for the port operations...

  14. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  15. Projected cost comparison of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.; Hu, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of electricity generation costs has been done in the late years through a large co-operation between several organisations. The studies are aiming to provide reliable comparison of electricity generating costs of nuclear and conventional base load power plants. This paper includes the result of the joint IAEA/OECD study published in 1997. (author)

  16. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  17. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  18. Decommissioning costing approach based on the standardised list of costing items. Lessons learnt by the OMEGA computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, Vladimir; Rehak, Ivan; Vasko, Marek; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Pritrsky, Jozef; Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The document 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes' was issues in 1999 by OECD/NEA, IAEA and European Commission (EC) for promoting the harmonisation in decommissioning costing. It is a systematic list of decommissioning activities classified in chapters 01 to 11 with three numbered levels. Four cost group are defined for cost at each level. Document constitutes the standardised matrix of decommissioning activities and cost groups with definition of content of items. Knowing what is behind the items makes the comparison of cost for decommissioning projects transparent. Two approaches are identified for use of the standardised cost structure. First approach converts the cost data from existing specific cost structures into the standardised cost structure for the purpose of cost presentation. Second approach uses the standardised cost structure as the base for the cost calculation structure; the calculated cost data are formatted in the standardised cost format directly; several additional advantages may be identified in this approach. The paper presents the costing methodology based on the standardised cost structure and lessons learnt from last ten years of the implementation of the standardised cost structure as the cost calculation structure in the computer code OMEGA. Code include also on-line management of decommissioning waste, decay of radioactively, evaluation of exposure, generation and optimisation of the Gantt chart of a decommissioning project, which makes the OMEGA code an effective tool for planning and optimisation of decommissioning processes. (author)

  19. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  20. Root development in mice lacking functional tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene: inhibition of acellular cementum formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, W.; vandenBos, T.; Everts, V.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is richly present in developing teeth including the cells of the periodontal ligament. Here, we investigated tooth and root development in mice lacking the TNAP gene. Heterozygous mutants were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory, Animal Resources (Bar

  1. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  2. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  3. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  4. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  5. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W.; Roberts, Christian K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life

  6. Bronchial thermoplasty: reappraising the evidence (or lack thereof).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2014-07-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) involves the application of radiofrequency energy to visible proximal airways to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for severe asthma. This approval was based on the results of the pivotal Asthma Intervention Research (AIR)-2 trial, which is the only randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of BT. The primary end point of the AIR-2 trial was improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The results of the AIR-2 trial have generated enormous interest, controversy, and confusion regarding the true efficacy of BT for severe asthma. Current marketing of BT highlights its use for patients with "severe" asthma, which is interpreted by most practicing clinicians as meaning oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced FEV1 with a poor quality of life. Did the AIR-2 trial include patients with a low FEV1, oral steroid dependence, or frequent exacerbations? Did the trial show efficacy for any of the primary or secondary end points? The FDA approved the device based on the reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. However, were the rates of asthma exacerbations, ED visits, or hospitalizations truly different between the two groups, and was this type of analysis even justified given the original study design? This commentary is designed to specifically answer these questions and help the practicing clinician navigate the thermoplasty literature with confidence and clarity. We carefully dissect the design, conduct, and results of the AIR-2 trial and raise serious questions about the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty.

  7. New close-range photogrammetry method based on grain-lacking object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Zongchun

    2011-08-01

    Close-range photogrammetry is a significant method that can detect size, shape and position of objects for its conveniences and high accuracy. But in some extreme environment, the conventional method is difficult to match the request of measurement for there are still many measurement work can not complete using traditional method. This paper has development a new method to measure the section of objects using the single camera measurement model. In order to achieve the purpose, there are three main parts in this paper. Firstly, two extraction method of laser fringe is presented, their extraction precision and time is compared via extracting laser fringe from images with different Gauss noise. Steger method's precision is higher than curve fitting method. But curve fitting method cost less time than Steger method. Secondly, we have improved the traditional Autobar to adapt the dark measure environment. Considering retro-reflective targets and common black-white targets can not be recognized easily while without strobe light or lack of illumination, the retro-reflective material of traditional Autobar is replaced with LED light to be recognized easily in image without strong flicker when photographing. At last, a simulation experiment is taken to demonstrate the whole measurement process and validate the new single camera measurement model' feasibility. The final results of simulation experiments showed that the newly presented measurement model has its feasibility. This measurement model greatly improves the measurement efficiency and makes the measurement work more flexible.

  8. Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.

  9. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new

  10. Cost model for biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  11. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  12. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  13. Time-driven Activity-based Costing More Accurately Reflects Costs in Arthroplasty Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sina; Ward, Lorrayne; Bozic, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimates derived from traditional hospital cost accounting systems have inherent limitations that restrict their usefulness for measuring process and quality improvement. Newer approaches such as time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) may offer more precise estimates of true cost, but to our knowledge, the differences between this TDABC and more traditional approaches have not been explored systematically in arthroplasty surgery. The purposes of this study were to compare the costs associated with (1) primary total hip arthroplasty (THA); (2) primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA); and (3) three surgeons performing these total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) as measured using TDABC versus traditional hospital accounting (TA). Process maps were developed for each phase of care (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) for patients undergoing primary TJA performed by one of three surgeons at a tertiary care medical center. Personnel costs for each phase of care were measured using TDABC based on fully loaded labor rates, including physician compensation. Costs associated with consumables (including implants) were calculated based on direct purchase price. Total costs for 677 primary TJAs were aggregated over 17 months (January 2012 to May 2013) and organized into cost categories (room and board, implant, operating room services, drugs, supplies, other services). Costs derived using TDABC, based on actual time and intensity of resources used, were compared with costs derived using TA techniques based on activity-based costing and indirect costs calculated as a percentage of direct costs from the hospital decision support system. Substantial differences between cost estimates using TDABC and TA were found for primary THA (USD 12,982 TDABC versus USD 23,915 TA), primary TKA (USD 13,661 TDABC versus USD 24,796 TA), and individually across all three surgeons for both (THA: TDABC = 49%-55% of TA total cost; TKA: TDABC = 53%-55% of TA total cost). Cost

  14. Lives Saved Tool (LiST) costing: a module to examine costs and prioritize interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lori A; Sanders, Rachel; Winfrey, William; Adesina, Adebiyi

    2017-11-07

    Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries. A limited LiST costing module was introduced several years ago, but with gaps in cost types. Updates to inputs have now been added to make the module fully functional for a range of uses. This paper builds on previous work that developed an initial version of the LiST costing module to provide costs for MNCH interventions using an ingredients-based costing approach. Here, we update in 2016 the previous econometric estimates from 2013 with newly-available data and also include above-facility level costs such as program management. The updated econometric estimates inform percentages of intervention-level costs for some direct costs and indirect costs. These estimates add to existing values for direct cost requirements for items such as drugs and supplies and required provider time which were already available in LiST Costing. Results generated by the LiST costing module include costs for each intervention, as well as disaggregated costs by intervention including drug and supply costs, labor costs, other recurrent costs, capital costs, and above-service delivery costs. These results can be combined with mortality estimates to support prioritization of interventions by countries. The LiST costing module provides an option for countries to identify resource requirements for scaling up a maternal, neonatal, and child health program, and to examine the financial impact of different resource allocation strategies. It can be a useful tool for

  15. Lives Saved Tool (LiST costing: a module to examine costs and prioritize interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. Bollinger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries. A limited LiST costing module was introduced several years ago, but with gaps in cost types. Updates to inputs have now been added to make the module fully functional for a range of uses. Methods This paper builds on previous work that developed an initial version of the LiST costing module to provide costs for MNCH interventions using an ingredients-based costing approach. Here, we update in 2016 the previous econometric estimates from 2013 with newly-available data and also include above-facility level costs such as program management. The updated econometric estimates inform percentages of intervention-level costs for some direct costs and indirect costs. These estimates add to existing values for direct cost requirements for items such as drugs and supplies and required provider time which were already available in LiST Costing. Results Results generated by the LiST costing module include costs for each intervention, as well as disaggregated costs by intervention including drug and supply costs, labor costs, other recurrent costs, capital costs, and above-service delivery costs. These results can be combined with mortality estimates to support prioritization of interventions by countries. Conclusions The LiST costing module provides an option for countries to identify resource requirements for scaling up a maternal, neonatal, and child health program, and to examine the financial impact of different

  16. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  17. Lack of glutathione peroxidase-1 facilitates a pro-inflammatory and activated vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpeeta; Yuen, Derek; Huet, Olivier; Pickering, Raelene; Stefanovic, Nada; Bernatchez, Pascal; de Haan, Judy B

    2016-04-01

    A critical early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is vascular inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED). Reactive oxygen species and inflammation are inextricably linked and declining antioxidant defense is implicated in ED. We have previously shown that Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme in the protection against diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. In this study we aimed to investigate mechanisms by which lack of GPx1 affects pro-inflammatory mediators in primary aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) isolated from GPx1 knockout (GPx1 KO) mice. Herein, we demonstrate that lack of GPx1 prolonged TNF-α induced phosphorylation of P38, ERK and JNK, all of which was reversed upon treatment with the GPx1 mimetic, ebselen. In addition, Akt phosphorylation was reduced in GPx1 KO PAECs, which correlated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as compared to WT PAECs. Furthermore, IκB degradation was prolonged in GPx1 KO PAECS suggesting an augmentation of NF-κB activity. In addition, the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) was significantly increased in GPx1 KO PAECs and aortas. Static and dynamic flow adhesion assays showed significantly increased adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to GPx1 KO PAECS and aortas respectively, which were significantly reduced by ebselen treatment. Our results suggest that GPx1 plays a critical role in regulating pro-inflammatory pathways, including MAPK and NF-κB, and down-stream mediators such as VCAM-1, in vascular endothelial cells. Lack of GPx1, via effects on p-AKT also affects signaling to eNOS-derived NO. We speculate based on these results that declining antioxidant defenses as seen in cardiovascular diseases, by failing to regulate these pro-inflammatory pathways, facilitates an inflammatory and activated endothelium leading to ED and atherogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost minimization of generation, storage, and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Lance Douglas; Brodie, Joseph; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the economics of anticipated large-scale changes in the electric system. 86 million different combinations of renewable generation (wind and solar), natural gas, and three storage types (hydrogen storage, electric vehicles equipped with vehicle-to-grid (V2...... cost energy systems. Using today’s costs of conventional and renewable electricity and without adding any externalities, the cost-minimum system includes no renewable generation, but does include EVs. When externalities are included, however, the most cost-effective to system covers 50% of the electric...... load with renewable energy and runs reliably without need for either new conventional generation or purpose-built storage. The three novel energy policy implications of this research are: (1) using today’s cost of renewable electricity and estimates of externalities, it is cost effective to implement...

  19. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Parametric Cost Analysis: A Design Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis uses equations to map measurable system attributes into cost. The measures of the system attributes are called metrics. The equations are called cost estimating relationships (CER's), and are obtained by the analysis of cost and technical metric data of products analogous to those to be estimated. Examples of system metrics include mass, power, failure_rate, mean_time_to_repair, energy _consumed, payload_to_orbit, pointing_accuracy, manufacturing_complexity, number_of_fasteners, and percent_of_electronics_weight. The basic assumption is that a measurable relationship exists between system attributes and the cost of the system. If a function exists, the attributes are cost drivers. Candidates for metrics include system requirement metrics and engineering process metrics. Requirements are constraints on the engineering process. From optimization theory we know that any active constraint generates cost by not permitting full optimization of the objective. Thus, requirements are cost drivers. Engineering processes reflect a projection of the requirements onto the corporate culture, engineering technology, and system technology. Engineering processes are an indirect measure of the requirements and, hence, are cost drivers.

  1. Cost Aspects of Ingest and Normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Archives, and The Royal Library and the State and University Library are in the process of developing a cost model for digital preservation: Each of the functional entities of the OAIS Reference Model are broken down into measurable, cost-critical activities, and formula...... Preservation (CMDP). It then describes how the OAIS functional entity, Ingest, has been included in the model. For institutions basing their digital preservation strategy on migration, a major cost pertaining to Ingest is normalization, a digital migration from production to preservation format and structure...... are being tailored for each of these in order to create a generic tool for estimating the short and long-term costs of digital preservation. This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the costs of digital preservation and describes the method used to develop the Danish Cost Model for Digital...

  2. 85: Representation of the lack of electronic equilibrium in high energy photon beams using modified scatter tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.C.; Drouard, J.; Simonian, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lack of electronic equilibrium in high energy photon beams is significant in the build-up region, at the edge of the beams and at the edge of inhomogeneous structures. The authors propose to use the algorithms based on separation of primary and scatter and to include in the scatter tables a component representing the lack of electronic equilibrium for small depths and small field size. The value and limits of this approach are discussed and illustrated by several examples corresponding to different photon energies in the range 1 to 25 MV. Good agreement between calculations and measurements is obtained in most situations. 6 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Impact of decommissioning on electricity generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, M.J.; Vira, J.

    1987-01-01

    By definition, the levelized decommissioning cost is the weighted average cost that should be charged for each unit of electricity produced through the lifetime of the facility, to precisely cover all the costs that the decommissioning of the facility give rise to. Although the mode in which decommissioning costs enter the electricity rates depends on utility and regulatory practices, the levelization offers a consistent means for estimating the cost impact of decommissioning. An international group of experts, called together under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has prepared estimates on levelized decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants, starting from the cost information provided by some of its Member countries. Three basic strategies for decommissioning were considered, including immediate dismantling and two strategies for deferred dismantling. The Working Group calculated the levelized decommissioning costs for several assumptions on discount rates and reactor lifetimes. The calculations showed that decommissioning has a very small impact on electricity generation cost of a large nuclear power plant. The uncertainties in cost estimates, applicable interest rates or facility operating lifetimes are large but still unlikely to significantly affect this conclusion

  4. Economic costs of rabies post exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Shankaraiah Hardanahalli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The highest financial expenditure for Rabies in any country is the cost of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. The type of vaccine and route of administration, as well as type of immunoglobulin used, all significantly influences the cost of treatment. Aims & Objective: To analyse the direct and indirect cost of the rabies post exposure prophylaxis. Material & Methods: The study was conducted at anti-rabies clinics of Government Hospital, where PEP is provided free of cost and a private medical college hospital, where PEP is provided for a cost. 290 animal bite victims who completed the PEP were included in the study. After obtaining written informed consent from the study subjects, data regarding socio-demographic profile, details of animal bite exposure, cost incurred for PEP i.e, direct and indirect cost were collected. Results were expressed as proportions, median and inter-quartile range (Q1-Q3. Results: The total median cost incurred by the bite victims for PEP in Government hospitals was Rs.585 with Q1-Q3 of Rs.444-725 and the cost spent by the government was Rs. 1031; whereas the total cost incurred in private hospital was Rs.5200 with Q1-Q3 of Rs.4900-5701.Conclusion: PEP has a significant economic burden to the bite victims, especially for poor people living of the developing World.

  5. Direct healthcare cost of schizophrenia - European overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G; Almási, T; Millier, A; Toumi, M; Horváth, M; Kóczián, Kristóf; Götze, Á; Kaló, Z; Zemplényi, A T

    2018-02-01

    To provide an overview on the magnitude of the impact of schizophrenia on the healthcare system in Europe and to gain a better understanding on the most important factors influencing the variation of costs. Studies reporting costs and healthcare utilization among patients with schizophrenia were searched in MEDLINE (via Scopus), EMBASE (via Scopus) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on 19th January 2017. Twenty-three studies, from the 1075 references initially identified, were included in this review. The annual cost per patient ranged from €533 in Ukraine to €13,704 in the Netherlands. Notably drug costs contributed to less than 25% of the direct healthcare cost per patient in every country, which might be explained by similar pharmaceutical prices among countries due to the reference pricing system applied in Europe. Inpatient costs were the largest component of health service costs in the majority of the countries. Despite methodological heterogeneity across studies, four major themes could be identified (age, severity of symptoms, continuation of treatment/persistence, hospitalization) that have substantial impact on the costs of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia represents a substantial cost for the healthcare system in Europe driven by the high cost per patient. Substantial savings could potentially be achieved by increasing investment in the following areas: (1) reducing the number of hospitalizations e.g. by increasing the efficiency of outpatient care; (2) working out interventions targeted at specific symptoms; (3) improving patient persistence and adherence in antipsychotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the cost of worker reproduction via diminished life span in the ant Diacamma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kazuki; Kikuta, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Tomonori

    2012-05-01

    Workers of social Hymenoptera can usually produce male offspring, but rarely do so in the presence of a queen despite the potential individual fitness benefit. Various mechanisms have been hypothesized to regulate worker reproduction, including avoiding the colony-level cost of worker reproduction. However, firm quantitative evidence is lacking to support that hypothesis. Here, we accurately quantified this cost by studying an ant species (Diacamma sp.) in which worker reproduction is rare in the presence of the gamergate (the functional queen). A series of experiments to manipulate worker-gamergate contact revealed that short-term brood-production efficiency is not changed by the presence of worker reproduction. However, when workers reproduce, their average life span is reduced to between 74% and 88% of that in the absence of reproduction, indicating a long-term cost to the colony. In theory, this cost can explain the policing of worker reproduction under a queen-single mating system, but the cost does not appear to be high enough to stop worker reproduction. When contact with the gamergate is lost, it is only the nonreproductive workers whose life span was reduced; the reproductive workers lived as long as nonorphaned workers. We suggest that an increased workload can account for the reduction in life span better than a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Consumption Smoothing and Portfolio Rebalancing: The Effects of Adjustment Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Yosef Bonaparte; Russell Cooper; Guozhong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of portfolio rebalancing and consumption smoothing in the presence of non-convex portfolio adjustment costs. The goal is to understand a household's response to income and return shocks. The model includes the choice of two assets: one riskless without adjustment costs and a second risky asset with adjustment costs. With these multiple assets, a household can buffer some income fluctuations through the asset without adjustment costs and engage in costly portfol...

  8. Cost optimization for buildings with hybrid ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Kun; Lu, Yan

    2018-02-13

    A method including: computing a total cost for a first zone in a building, wherein the total cost is equal to an actual energy cost of the first zone plus a thermal discomfort cost of the first zone; and heuristically optimizing the total cost to identify temperature setpoints for a mechanical heating/cooling system and a start time and an end time of the mechanical heating/cooling system, based on external weather data and occupancy data of the first zone.

  9. Cost of Czochralski wafers as a function of diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Radics, C.; Kachare, A.

    1980-02-01

    The impact of diameter in the range of 10 to 15 cm on the cost of wafers sliced from Czochralski ingots was analyzed. Increasing silicon waste and decreasing ingot cost with increasing ingot size were estimated along with projected costs. Results indicate a small but continuous decrease in sheet cost with increasing ingot size in this size range. Sheet costs including silicon are projected to be $50 to $60/sq m (1980 $) depending upon technique used.

  10. Do Canadian electricity prices reflect costs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    1993-01-01

    In an article by Cairns and Heyes (1993), it is argued that electricity pricing in Canada diverges from cost due to inter-class rate design that results in cross-subsidies, subsidized cost of capital, intra-class rate design that lacks time-of-use pricing, and failure to collect differential rent. Some problems with the key components of the initial assumption that prices diverge from cost are examined. The premise that inter-class rate design results in cross-subsidies may be correct, but is difficult to test since unregulated crown utilities are not required to make the necessary information public. Cairns and Heyes are on firmer ground in their assertion that provincial government backing of utility debts leads to lower costs of capital than would otherwise occur. Quebec and British Columbia governments have recently undertaken revenue collection initiatives justified under the rationale of addressing this situation. However, there are problems with the assumption that lack of time-of-use pricing indicates cost/price divergence, since such pricing is especially relevant in capacity-critical systems. Most hydroelectric systems are energy-critical and time-of-use differentials are not appropriate. Finally, recent evidence suggests reassessing the differential rent assumptions of the 1980s. The economic rents estimated in that period may be more accurately described as windfall rents existing in the short term while markets adjust to erratic fuel prices and cost changes in nuclear and hydro energy. There may be good economic efficiency arguments against short-term rent collection strategies involving erratic price adjustments. 1 ref

  11. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  12. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  13. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  14. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...

  15. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  16. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    , the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  17. Information at a cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robalo, P.; Sayag, R.

    2012-01-01

    The supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it is difficult

  18. Cost Warrior Moneyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    troubleshooting, in addition to the operational maintenance costs such as paying for licenses , implementing information assurance vulnerabil- ity assessments...program the money? That’s Army staff business in the franchise head shed, right? The truth is that we need to know its cost, afford- ability, and

  19. Reducing Lifecycle Sustainment Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    funding is not allocated for its implementation.  Technology Refresh often requires non-recurring engineering investment, but the Working Capital Funds...PRINCIPLES INSTITUTIONAL MYOPIA • DRIVERS: COST, SCHEDULE, PERFORMANCE • ESTIMATE PROGRAM COSTS • INTERPRET DESIGN TRADES • PROGRAM AFFORDABILITY

  20. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  1. Costs and Tariff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of magnitude as construction costs. Proposed Civil Nuclear Liability Bill 2008: Reactor operators liable for accidents; must take insurance for Rs. 100-300 crores. Tariff: Despite all this, NPCIL claims it will not cost customers more than Rs. 4 per unit incl. waste disposal and decommish. It wont be easy. We wish them luck !

  2. Resources and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2005-01-01

    from resources depends on the property rights that he or she holds and on the transaction costs of exchanging, defining, and protecting them. While transaction costs are a major source of value dissipation, reducing such dissipation may create value. Implications for the RBV analysis of sustained...

  3. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  4. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    AbstractWe forge linkages between the economics of property rights (Coase, Demsetz,Cheung, Barzel) and strategic management. Property rights to resources consistof the rights to consume, obtain income from, and alienate these resources.Transaction costs are the costs of exchanging, protecting and...... propositions are derived....

  5. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  6. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  7. Hawaii Bottomfish Cost-Earnings Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery for the 2010 operating year. Data collected include fisher classification,...

  8. USAID IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Chief Information Officer in the Management Bureau of USAID launched initiatives designed for IT cost savings and avoidance. This dataset includes...

  9. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook

  10. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  11. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  12. Hospital cost structure in the USA: what's behind the costs? A business case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Charu; Kumar, Sameer; Ghildayal, Neha S

    2011-01-01

    Hospital costs in the USA are a large part of the national GDP. Medical billing and supplies processes are significant and growing contributors to hospital operations costs in the USA. This article aims to identify cost drivers associated with these processes and to suggest improvements to reduce hospital costs. A Monte Carlo simulation model that uses @Risk software facilitates cost analysis and captures variability associated with the medical billing process (administrative) and medical supplies process (variable). The model produces estimated savings for implementing new processes. Significant waste exists across the entire medical supply process that needs to be eliminated. Annual savings, by implementing the improved process, have the potential to save several billion dollars annually in US hospitals. The other analysis in this study is related to hospital billing processes. Increased spending on hospital billing processes is not entirely due to hospital inefficiency. The study lacks concrete data for accurately measuring cost savings, but there is obviously room for improvement in the two US healthcare processes. This article only looks at two specific costs associated with medical supply and medical billing processes, respectively. This study facilitates awareness of escalating US hospital expenditures. Cost categories, namely, fixed, variable and administrative, are presented to identify the greatest areas for improvement. The study will be valuable to US Congress policy makers and US healthcare industry decision makers. Medical billing process, part of a hospital's administrative costs, and hospital supplies management processes are part of variable costs. These are the two major cost drivers of US hospitals' expenditures that were examined and analyzed.

  13. Cost-identification analysis of total laryngectomy: an itemized approach to hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedhia, Raj C; Smith, Kenneth J; Weissfeld, Joel L; Saul, Melissa I; Lee, Steve C; Myers, Eugene N; Johnson, Jonas T

    2011-02-01

    To understand the contribution of intraoperative and postoperative hospital costs to total hospital costs, examine the costs associated with specific hospital services in the postoperative period, and recognize the impact of patient factors on hospital costs. Case series with chart review. Large tertiary care teaching hospital system. Using the Pittsburgh Head and Neck Organ-Specific Database, 119 patients were identified as having total laryngectomy with bilateral selective neck dissection and primary closure from 1999 to 2009. Cost data were obtained for 112 patients. Costs include fixed and variable costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Mean total hospital costs were $29,563 (range, $10,915 to $120,345). Operating room costs averaged 24% of total hospital costs, whereas room charges, respiratory therapy, laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology accounted for 38%, 14%, 8%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. Median length of stay was 9 days (range, 6-43), and median Charlson comorbidity index score was 8 (2-16). Patients with ≥1 day in the intensive care unit had significantly higher hospital costs ($46,831 vs $24,601, P cost differences with stratification based on previous radiation therapy ($27,598 vs $29,915 with no prior radiation, P = .62) or hospital readmission within 30 days ($29,483 vs $29,609 without readmission, P = .97). This is one of few studies in surgery and the first in otolaryngology to analyze hospital costs for a relatively standardized procedure. Further work will include cost analysis from multiple centers with investigation of global cost drivers.

  14. Cytoplasmic tethering of a RING protein RBCK1 by its splice variant lacking the RING domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Koyanagi, Tomoyoshi; Okajima, Toshihide; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2005-01-01

    RBCC protein interacting with PKC 1 (RBCK1) is a transcription factor belonging to the RING-IBR protein family and has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, possessing both the nuclear export and localization signals within its amino acid sequence. RBCK2, lacking the C-terminal half of RBCK1 including the RING-IBR domain, has also been identified as an alternative splice variant of RBCK1. RBCK2 shows no transcriptional activity and instead it represses the transcriptional activity of RBCK1. Here, we show that RBCK2 is present usually in the cytoplasm containing two Leu-rich regions that presumably serve as a nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, an NES-disrupted RBCK1 that is mostly localized within the nucleus is translocated to the cytoplasm when coexpressed with RBCK2, suggesting that RBCK2 serves as a cytoplasmic tethering protein for RBCK1. We propose a novel and general function of RING-lacking splice variants of RING proteins to control the intracellular localization and functions of the parental RING proteins by forming a hetero-oligomeric complex

  15. Withdrawal, apathy and lack of vigor in late life depression: factorial validity and relationship to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Chan, Alfred C M

    2007-09-01

    Withdrawal, apathy and lack of vigor (WAV) describe a pattern of lack of vitality and dropping of interests and activities in later life, which may or may not indicate depression. This study examines (a) whether the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) contains a measure of this symptom cluster, and if so, (b) whether the presence of WAV leads to more false positive predictions by the GDS. A total of 444 Chinese older persons responded to the GDS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and were independently assessed by psychiatrists for depression and other diagnoses. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that six WAV symptoms formed a distinct cluster on the GDS. WAV was positively correlated with age and MMSE but most other symptom clusters measured on the GDS were not. Nonetheless, the ROC curves were essentially the same, regardless of whether the WAV items were included or not. Further analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff for the GDS without WAV produced fewer false positives, but also missed more true cases, than the full scale. The extent to which false positives become an issue depends on the specific threshold chosen (which entails a tradeoff with sensitivity) rather than the presence of WAV items.

  16. Fertile Prototaxites taiti: a basal ascomycete with inoperculate, polysporous asci lacking croziers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey; Strullu-Derrien, Christine

    2018-02-05

    The affinities of Prototaxites have been debated ever since its fossils, some attaining tree-trunk proportions, were discovered in Canadian Lower Devonian rocks in 1859. Putative assignations include conifers, red and brown algae, liverworts and fungi (some lichenised). Detailed anatomical investigation led to the reconstruction of the type species, P. logani , as a giant sporophore (basidioma) of an agaricomycete (= holobasidiomycete), but evidence for its reproduction remained elusive. Tissues associated with P. taiti in the Rhynie chert plus charcoalified fragments from southern Britain are investigated here to describe the reproductive characters and hence affinities of Prototaxites Thin sections and peels (Pragian Rhynie chert, Aberdeenshire) were examined using light and confocal microscopy; Přídolí and Lochkovian charcoalified samples (Welsh Borderland) were liberated from the rock and examined with scanning electron microscopy. Prototaxites taiti possessed a superficial hymenium comprising an epihymenial layer, delicate septate paraphyses, inoperculate polysporic asci lacking croziers and a subhymenial layer composed predominantly of thin-walled hyphae and occasional larger hyphae. Prototaxites taiti combines features of extant Taphrinomycotina (Neolectomycetes lacking croziers) and Pezizomycotina (epihymenial layer secreted by paraphyses) but is not an ancestor of the latter. Brief consideration is given to its nutrition and potential position in the phylogeny of the Ascomycota.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  18. Cost management in a nuclear operating environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckel, J.K.; Gruber, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated philosophy and program for managing costs in a nuclear operating environment. The ideas presented here are being used by Pennsyvania Power and Light Company (PPandL) at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. Three basic ideas necessary to successful cost management are listed and include: recognize the framework that is needed to ''manage'': treat cost as part of an integrated plan; and apply different techniques to different types of work activities. It is the author's opinion that the technical framework of a successful cost management system must include all work activities but recognize types. Project activities should be managed to a defined scope and authorized cost using a well communicated estimating program, aggressive trending and forecasting, and a change identification process

  19. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha

    2002-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the German Aerospace Center DLR, Cryogenic Solid Propulsion (CSP) is now in its 6th year of R&D. The development proceeds as a joint international university-, small business-, space industry- and professional research effort (Berlin University of Technology / AI: Aerospace Institute, Berlin / Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia / ASTRIUM GmbH, Bremen / Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Berghausen). This paper aims at introducing CSP as a novel type of chemical propellant that uses frozen liquids as Oxygen (SOX) or Hydrogen Peroxide (SH2O2) inside of a coherent solid Hydrocarbon (PE, PU or HTPB) matrix in solid rocket motors. Theoretically any conceivable chemical rocket propellant combination (including any environmentally benign ,,green propellant") can be used in solid rocket propellant motors if the definition of solids is not restricted to "solid at ambient temperature". The CSP concept includes all suitable high energy propellant combinations, but is not limited to them. Any liquid or hybrid bipropellant combination is (Isp-wise) superior to any conventional solid propellant formulation. While CSPs do share some of the disadvantages of solid propulsion (e.g. lack of cooling fluid and preset thrust-time function), they definitely share one of their most attractive advantages: the low number of components that is the base for high reliability and low cost of structures. In this respect, CSPs are superior to liquid propellant rocket motors with whom, they share the high Isp performance. High performance, low cost, low pollution CSP technology could bring about a near term improvement for chemical Earth-to-orbit high thrust propulsion. In the long run it could surpass conventional chemical propulsion because it is better suited for applying High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) than any other mode of propulsion. So far, ongoing preliminary analyses have not shown any insuperable problems in areas of concern, such as

  20. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...