WorldWideScience

Sample records for include container storage

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  3. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  4. Disposal/storage container development experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  5. Transport container storage. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.; Kuehn, H.D.; Schulz, E.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with mandatory licensing procedures and in the framework of quality control for serially produced containers from spheroidal graphite cast iron of quality grade GGG 40, destined to be used in the transport and storage of radioactive materials, each prototype and each production sample of a design is subjected to comprehensive destructive and non-destructive material tests. The data obtained are needed on the one hand to check whether specified, representative material characteristics are observed; on the other hand they are systematically evaluated to update knowledge and technical standards. The Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) has so far examined 528 individual containers (513 production samples and 15 prototypes) of wall thicknesses from 80 millimetres to 500 millimetres in this connection. It has turned out that the measures for quality assurance and quality control as substantiated by a concept of expertise definitely confirm the validity of component test results for production samples. (orig.) [de

  6. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  7. Apparatus for the storage of transport- and storage-containers containing radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns an apparatus for the storage of transport and storage containers containing radioactive fuel elements. For each transport or storage container there is a separate silo-type container of steel, concrete, prestressed concrete or suchlike breakproof and fireproof material, to be placed in the open, that can be opened for removal and placing of the transport or storage container respectively. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  9. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  10. Storage containers for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.; Groh, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system is disclosed for use in the laboratory. This system is composed of the following: a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof; a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate; the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate are sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage

  11. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The container comprises a cask and a cover made of concrete reinforced with metal fibers and closed with a seal poured in a dovetailed annular space provided between the cask and the cover. The seal is made with the material used for the cask [fr

  12. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  13. Storage vessel for radiation contaminated container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Tadatsugu.

    1996-01-01

    In a storage vessel of the present invention, a plurality of radiation contaminated material containing bodies are vertically stacked in a cell chamber. Then, the storage vessel comprises a containing tube for containing a plurality of the containing bodies, cooling coils wound around the containing tube, a cooling medium circulating system connected to the cooling coils and circulating cooling medium, and a heat exchanger interposed to the cooling medium circulating system for removing heat of the cooling medium. Heat of the radioactive material containing bodies is transferred to cooling air and cooling coils by way of the container tube, thereby cooling the containing bodies. By the operation of circulating pumps in a cooling medium circulation system, the cooling medium circulates through a circulation channel comprising a cooling medium transfer pipes, cooling medium branching tubes, cooling coils and the heat exchanger, then heat of the cooling medium is transferred to a heat utilizing system by way of the heat exchanger to attain effective utilization of the heat. In this case, heat can be taken out stably even when the storage amount fluctuates and heat releasing amount is reduced, and improvement of heat transfer promotes the cooling of the containing bodies, which enables minimization of the size of the storage vessel. (T.M.)

  14. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  15. Storage vessel for containing radiation contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuya.

    1995-01-01

    A container pipe and an outer pipe are coaxially assembled integrally in a state where securing spacers are disposed between the container pipe and the outer pipe, and an annular flow channel is formed around the container pipe. Radiation contaminated material-containing body (glass solidified package) is contained in the container pipe. The container pipe and the outer pipe in an integrated state are suspended from a ceiling plug of a cell chamber of a storage vessel, and supporting devices are assembled between the pipes and a support structure. A shear/lug mechanism is used for the supporting devices. The combination of the shear/lug allows radial and vertical movement but restrict horizontal movement of the outer tube. The supporting devices are assembled while visually recognizing the state of the shear/lug mechanism between the outer pipe and the support mechanism. Accordingly, operationability upon assembling the container pipe and the outer pipe is improved. (I.N.)

  16. Deflagration in stainless steel storage containers containing plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1996-02-01

    Detonation of hydrogen and oxygen in stainless steel storage containers produces maximum pressures of 68.5 psia and 426.7 psia. The cylinders contain 3,000 g of PuO 2 with 0.05 wt% and 0.5 wt% water respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen are produced by the alpha decomposition of the water. Work was performed for the Savannah River Site

  17. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  18. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  19. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-04-01

    The need for a shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks is addressed in this report. It is concluded that a shipping and storage container is not required. A recommendation is made to eliminate the requirement for this container because structural support and inerting requirements can be satisfied completely by the cask with a removable basket

  20. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  1. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  2. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  3. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  4. Storage container for radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The interim storage cask for spent fuel elements or the glass moulds for high-level radioactive waste are made up of heat-resistant, reinforced concrete with chambers and highgrade steel lining. Cooling systems with natural air circulation are connected with the chambers. (HP) [de

  5. Storage and transport containers for radioactive medical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a storage and transport container for small-diameter ribbon-like lengths of material including radioactive substances for use in medical treatments, comprising: an exterior shell for radiation shielding metal having top and bottom members of radiation shielding metal integral therewith; radiation shielding metal extending downward from the top of the container and forming a central cavity, the central cavity being separate from the exterior shell material of the container and extending downwardly a distance less than the height of the container; a plurality of small diameter carrier tubes located within the interior of the container and having one end of each tube opening through one side of the container and the other end of such tube opening through the opposite lateral side of the container with the central portion of each tube passing under the central cavity; and a plug of radiation shielding metal removably located in the top the central cavity for shielding the radiation from radiation sources located within the container

  6. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  7. Secondary containment systems for bulk oil storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has conducted site inspections at several onshore bulk oil above ground storage facilities, to ensure that owners follow the spill prevention, control and countermeasure regulations. The four violations which were most frequently cited at these facilities were: (1) lack of a spill prevention plan, (2) lack of appropriate containment equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course, (3) inadequate secondary containment structures, and (4) lack of an adequate quick drainage system in the facility tank loading/unloading area. Suggestions for feasible designs which would improve the impermeability of secondary containment for above ground storage tanks (AST) included the addition of a liner, retrofitting the bottom of an AST with a second steel plate, using a geosynthetic liner on top of the original bottom, installing a leak detection system in the interstitial space between the steel plates, or installing an under-tank liner with a leak detection system during construction of a new AST. 2 refs

  8. Container for storage of environmental incompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggenthaler, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The container consists of a cuboid chamber, closed to five sides, just as the cover made of concrete. Iron mountings for use with lifting gears are coupled with the armouring of the container. The cover is made in such a way that mountings are hidden by the recesses at its borders. Therefore it is possible to stick these boxes. Concrete employed for is enriched with sealing materials of synthetics, the box is painted too. Sensors on the outside ensure telemetering of closeness of the boxes. (J.K.) [de

  9. Storage of platelets: effects associated with high platelet content in platelet storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Sandgren, Per; Sjödin, Agneta; Hultenby, Kjell

    2012-04-01

    A major problem associated with platelet storage containers is that some platelet units show a dramatic fall in pH, especially above certain platelet contents. The aim of this study was a detailed investigation of the different in vitro effects occurring when the maximum storage capacity of a platelet container is exceeded as compared to normal storage. Buffy coats were combined in large-volume containers to create primary pools to be split into two equal aliquots for the preparation of platelets (450-520×10(9) platelets/unit) in SSP+ for 7-day storage in two containers (test and reference) with different platelet storage capacity (n=8). Exceeding the maximum storage capacity of the test platelet storage container resulted in immediate negative effects on platelet metabolism and energy supply, but also delayed effects on platelet function, activation and disintegration. Our study gives a very clear indication of the effects in different phases associated with exceeding the maximum storage capacity of platelet containers but throw little additional light on the mechanism initiating those negative effects. The problem appears to be complex and further studies in different media using different storage containers will be needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  10. Rupture of plutonium oxide storage container, March 13, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-29

    On March 13, 1979, a plutonium oxide storage can ruptured in the 303-C storage facility, which is in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. The facility is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); three PNL staff members were performing the storage operation. No injuries to these staff members resulted from the occurrence. A Class C Investigation Committee was appointed on March 14, 1979, by the Director, PNL. Subsequently, when the loss estimates became available, the Manager, Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), appointed a Class B Investigation Committee in accordance with DOE Manual Chapter 0502. As requested by DOE-RL, the Committee investigated technical elements of the causal sequence and management systems that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. The investigation included: review of the use of the 303-C facilities and the transfer containers; interviews with the involved personnel and their managers; analysis of technical studies related to involved materials and procedures; review of safe operating procedures, radiation work procedures, and transfer requirements applicable to the occurrence; and use of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) and the Events and Causal Factors Charting methods. 15 figs.

  11. Transport and storage container for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelstaedter, R.; Henning, E.; Storch, S.

    1987-01-01

    The container consists of a reinforced concrete wall, which is lined on the outsinde with a steel sheet and on the inside by a steel sheet several times thicker than this steel sheet. A front container opening can be closed by a reinforced concrete lid, which consists of a concrete core. This is surrounded by a lining, a covering and a lost shell. The cover projects beyond the reinforced concrete lid, so that bolts can be introduced in holes equally distributed over the extent of the cover, which can be turned in the threaded holes of threaded anchors, which are fixed on the steel sheet on the side towards the reinforced conrete wall. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Reservoir storage and containment of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, G.J.; White, S.P.; Kissling, W.M. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1995-03-01

    This paper considers the injection of CO{sub 2} into underground reservoirs. Computer models are used to investigate the disposal of CO{sub 2} generated by an 800 MW power station. A number of scenarios are considered, some of which result in containment of the CO{sub 2} over very long time scales and others result in the escape of the CO{sub 2} after a few hundred years.

  13. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  14. Sampling and decontamination plan for the Transuranic Storage Area--1/-R container storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the sampling and decontamination of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-l/-R container storage area and the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 container storage unit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Stored containers from the earthen-covered asphalt pads will be retrieved from the TSA-l/-R and TSA-2 container storage units. Container retrieval will be conducted under the TSA retrieval enclosure, a fabricated steel building to be constructed over the earthen-covered pad to provide containment and weather protection. Following container retrieval, the TSA retrieval enclosure will be decontaminated to remove radioactive and hazardous contamination. The underlying soils will be sampled and analyzed to determine whether any contaminated soils require removal

  15. Design of double containment canister cask storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Oohama, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kawakami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from Japanese LWR will be stored as recycled-fuel-resources in interim storage facilities. The concrete cask storage system is one of important forms for the spent fuel interim storage. In Japan, the interim storage facility will be located near the coast, therefore it is important to prevent SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) caused by sea salt particles and to assure the containment integrity of the canister which contains spent fuels. KEPCO, NFT and OCL have designed the double containment canister cask storage system that can assure the long-term containment integrity and monitor the containment performance without storage capacity decrease. Major features of the combined canister cask system are shown as follows: This system can survey containment integrity of dual canisters by monitoring the pressure of the gap between canisters. The primary canister has dual lids sealed by welding. The secondary canister has single lid tightened by bolts and sealed by metallic gaskets. The primary canister is contained in the transport cask during transportation, and the gap between the primary canister and the transport cask is filled with He gas. Under storage condition in the concrete cask, the primary canister is contained in the secondary canister, and the gap between these canisters is filled with helium gas. Hence this system can prevent the primary canister to contact sea salt particle in the air and from SCC. Decrease of cooling performance because of the double canister is compensated by fins fitted on the secondary canister surface. Then, this system can prevent the decrease of storage capacity determined by the fuel temperature limit. This system can assure that the primary canister will keep intact for long term storage. Therefore, in the case of pressure down of the gap between canisters, it can be considered that the secondary canister containment is damaged, and the primary canister will be transferred to another secondary canister at the

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.P.; Spry, M.J.; Stanisich, S.N.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for clean closure of the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. Descriptions of the location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the units are included. The units will be closed by removing waste containers in storage, and decontamination structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  17. Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit RCRA closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodman, D.W.; Spry, M.J.; Nolte, E.P.; Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plans for closure of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the unit are described. Future plans for the unit include incorporating the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 pad into a TSA retrieval enclosure along with the TSA-1 and TSAR pads, and closure of the portion of the TSA-2 pad under the Air Support Weather Shield (ASWS-2). This plan addresses closure of the ASWS-2 by decontaminating structures and equipment that may have contacted the waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all closure activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  18. Storage chamber for container of radiation-contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Masahide.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a storage chamber for containing radiation-contaminated materials in containing tubes and having cooling fluids circulated at the outer side of the containing tubes. The storage chamber comprises a gas supply means connected to the inside of the container tube for supplying a highly heat-conductive gas and a gas exhaustion means for discharging the gas present in the container tube. When containing vessels for radiation-contaminated materials are contained in the container tube, the gases present inside of the container tube is exhausted by means of the gas exhaustion means, and highly heat conductive gases are filled from the gas supply means to the space between the container tube and the containing vessels for the radiation-contaminated materials. When the temperature of the highly heat conductive gas is elevated due to the heat generation of the radiation-contaminated materials, the container tube is heated, and then cooled by the cooling fluid at the outer side of the container tube. In this case, the heat of the radiation-contaminated material-containing vessels is removed by the heat conduction by the highly heat conductive gas to reduce temperature gradient between the containing vessels and the containing tube. This can enhance the cooling effect. (T.M.)

  19. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  20. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-01-01

    A shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks may be required but requirements for protection of the irradiated rods and radioactive contamination have not been finalized. This report documents the various possibilities for the container depending on the final requirements

  1. Reliability evaluation of containments including soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1985-12-01

    Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability assessment of containment structures are examined. The probability-based method for reliability evaluation of nuclear structures developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is extended to include soil-structure interaction effects. In this method, reliability of structures is expressed in terms of limit state probabilities. Furthermore, random vibration theory is utilized to calculate limit state probabilities under random seismic loads. Earthquake ground motion is modeled by a segment of a zero-mean, stationary, filtered Gaussian white noise random process, represented by its power spectrum. All possible seismic hazards at a site, represented by a hazard curve, are also included in the analysis. The soil-foundation system is represented by a rigid surface foundation on an elastic halfspace. Random and other uncertainties in the strength properties of the structure, in the stiffness and internal damping of the soil, are also included in the analysis. Finally, a realistic reinforced concrete containment is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method. For this containment, the soil-structure interaction effects on; (1) limit state probabilities, (2) structural fragility curves, (3) floor response spectra with probabilistic content, and (4) correlation coefficients for total acceleration response at specified structural locations, are examined in detail. 25 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Hierarchical Energy Management of Microgrids including Storage and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage (BES and demand response (DR are considered to be promising technologies to cope with the uncertainty of renewable energy sources (RES and the load in the microgrid (MG. Considering the distinct prediction accuracies of the RES and load at different timescales, it is essential to incorporate the multi-timescale characteristics of BES and DR in MG energy management. Under this background, a hierarchical energy management framework is put forward for an MG including multi-timescale BES and DR to optimize operation with the uncertainty of RES as well as load. This framework comprises three stages of scheduling: day-ahead scheduling (DAS, hour-ahead scheduling (HAS, and real-time scheduling (RTS. In DAS, a scenario-based stochastic optimization model is established to minimize the expected operating cost of MG, while ensuring its safe operation. The HAS is utilized to bridge DAS and RTS. In RTS, a control strategy is proposed to eliminate the imbalanced power owing to the fluctuations of RES and load. Then, a decomposition-based algorithm is adopted to settle the models in DAS and HAS. Simulation results on a seven-bus MG validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Quality assurance measures for spent fuel shipping and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Roedel, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality assurance measures are to be applied in production and operation to ensure the approved fuel-element-container design specifications. The authors concentrate on the official regulations pertaining to the application of a quality assurance system, on the compliance with design specifications ensured by certified manufacturing tests and in-service inspections. For nodular-cast-iron container bodies, the authors demonstrate the procedure by presenting the contents of the materials data sheet characterizing the material, and the production and test sequence plan for container casting. In addition, they state the quality assurance requirements for interim-storage containers which transgress those stipulated for shipping containers. (orig.) [de

  4. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  5. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864...

  6. Pricing Scheme of Ocean Carrier for Inbound Container Storage for Assistance of Container Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pricing scheme of ocean carrier for inbound container storage so as to assist container supply chain finance. In this paper, how an ocean carrier should set price of inbound container storage to the customer while facing the contract from the container terminal operator is first analyzed. Then, two different contract systems, the free-time contract system which is widely used in practice and the free-space contract system which is newly developed recently, are considered. In the two different contract systems, inbound container storage pricing models are constructed, and accordingly optimal solution approaches for the ocean carrier are provided. For comparison purpose, some numerical experiments for the two different contract systems are conducted to investigate the effects of the container terminal operator’s decision on the system outcomes. Numerical experiments show that (1 the carrier is more flexible in the free-space contract system and can receive more profit by using the free-storage-space as a pooling storage system and (2 the free-space contract system benefits both the carrier in profit and the busy terminal in traffic control.

  7. Thermal Performance of the Storage Brick Containing Microencapsulated PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Gyu

    1998-02-01

    The utilization of microencapsulated phase change materials(PCMs) provides several advantages over conventional PCM application. The heat storage system, as well as heat recovery system, can be built to a smaller size than the normal systems for a given thermal cycling capacity. This microencapsulated PCM technique has not yet been commercialized, however. In this work sodium acetate trihydrate(CH 3 COONa · 3H 2 O) was selected for the PCM and was encapsulated. This microencapsulated PCM was mixed with cement mortar for utilization as a floor heating system. In this experiment performed here the main purpose was to investigate the thermal performance of a storage brick with microencapsulated PCM concentration. The thermal performance of this storage brick is dependent on PCM concentration, flow rate and cooling temperature of the heat transfer fluid, etc. The results showed that cycle time was shortened as the PCM content was increased and as the mass flow rate was increased. The same effect was obtained when the cooling temperature was decreased. For each thermal storage brick the overall heat transfer coefficient(U-value) was constant for a 0% brick, but was increased with time for the bricks containing microencapsulated PCM. For the same mass flow rate, as the cooling temperature decreased, the amount of heat withdrawn increased, and in particular a critical cooling temperature was found for each thermal storage brick. The average effectiveness of each thermal storage brick was found to be approximately 48%, 51% and 58% respectively

  8. Seismic analysis of liquid storage container in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengming; He Shuyan; Xu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seismic analysis of liquid storage containers is always difficult in the seismic design of nuclear reactor equipment. The main reason is that the liquid will generate significant seismic loads under earthquake. These dynamic liquid loads usually form the main source of the stresses in the container. For this kind of structure-fluid coupling problem, some simplified theoretical methods were usually used previously. But this cannot satisfy the requirements of engineering design. The Finite Element Method, which is now full developed and very useful for the structural analysis, is still not mature for the structure-fluid coupling problem. This paper introduces a method suitable for engineering mechanical analysis. Combining theoretical analysis of the dynamic liquid loads and finite element analysis of the structure together, this method can give practical solutions in the seismic design of liquid storage containers

  9. Internal Corrosion Analysis of Model 9975 Packaging Containing Pu or PuO2 During Shipping and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormelker, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed an internal corrosion analysis of the Model 9975 packaging assembly containing either Pu or PuO2 for storage in K Reactor under ambient conditions for a period of 12 years. The 12-year storage period includes two years for shipping and up to ten years for storage

  10. Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Zribi, Akram; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the storage stability of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in different containers such as clear and dark glass bottles, polyethylene (PE) and tin containers. The different oil samples were stored under light at room temperature. Quality parameters monitored during a 6-month-storage period included: acidity, peroxide value (PV), spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), chlorophyll and carotene pigments, fatty acids and sterol compositions, total phenols, Rancimat induction time as well as sensory evaluation. Tin containers and dark glass bottles recorded the lowest oxidation values. In addition, oil packed in tin containers and dark glass bottles showed better physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics than that stored in clear glass bottles and PE containers. A significant decrease (p containers. Such results proved that the storage of oil in tin containers and dark glass bottles appeared most adequate, and showed a gradual loss of quality during storage, especially in PE containers and clear glass bottles. This study has shown that the best packaging materials for the commercial packing of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil are tin containers and dark glass bottles.

  11. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  12. Care and handling of container plants from storage to outplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Nursery plants are in a period of high risk from the time they leave the protected environment of the nursery to when they are outplanted. During handling and shipping, nursery stock may be exposed to many damaging stresses, including extreme temperatures, desiccation, mechanical injuries, and storage molds. This is also the period of greatest financial risk, because...

  13. Corrosion behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Feron, D.; Mazaudier, F.; Terlain, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1μm on steels over 100 years at 100 C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, first developments deal with a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities. (author)

  14. Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-3 container storage unit RCRA closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.; Lodman, D.L.; Spry, M.J.; Poor, K.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-3 container storage unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the unit are described. The unit will be closed by decontaminating structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  15. Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P.; Pryor, W.A.; Ziehlke, K.T.

    1992-07-01

    Isotopically depleted UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF 6 . Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life

  16. Analysis on engineering application of CNP1000 in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Wang Yong; Qiu Jian; Weng Minghui

    2005-01-01

    Based on the basic design of CNP1000 (three loops), which is self-reliance designed by China National Nuclear Cooperation, and investigation results from abroad advanced nuclear power plant design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage tank, this paper describe the system flowsheet, functional requirements, structural design and piping arrangement about In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank. The design takes the lower structural space as the IRWST. Four areas are configured to meet the diverse functional requirements, including depressurization area, water collection area, safety injection and/or containment spray suction area, TSP storage area / reactor cavity flooding holdup tank. Also the paper depict the corresponding analysis and demonstration, such as In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank pressure transient on depressurization area of IRWST, suction and internal flow stream of IRWST, configuration of strains, the addition method and amount of chemical addition, design and engineering applicant of Reactor Cavity Flooding System. All the analysis results show the basic design of IRWST meeting with the Utility Requirement Document's requirements on performance of safety function, setting of overfill passage, overpressure protection, related interference, etc., and show the reliability of Engineering Safety Features being improved for CNP1000 (three loops). Meanwhile, it is demonstrated that the design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank can apply on the future nuclear power plant project in China. (authors)

  17. The storage capacity of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao L.) through giving Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) in the various of storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahay, R. R.; Misrun, S.; Sipayung, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa is plant which it’s seed character is recalcitrant. Giving PEG and using various of storage containers was hoped to increase storage capacity of cocoa seeds as long as period of saving. The reseach was aimed to identify the storage capacity of cocoa seeds through giving PEG in the various of storage containers. Research took place in Hataram Jawa II, Kabupaten Simalungun, Propinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. The method of this research is spit-split plot design with 3 replication. Storage period was put on main plot which was consisted of 4 level, PEG concentration was put on sub plot, consisted of 4 level and storage container was put on the sub sub plot consisted of 3 types. The results showed that until 4 days at storage with 45 % PEG concentration at all storage container, percentage of seed germination at storage can be decreased to be 2.90 %, and can be defensed until 16 days with 45 % PEG concentration at perforated plastic storage container. Percentage of molded seeds and seed moisture content were increased with added period of storage but seed moisture content was increased until 12 days at storage and was decreased at 16 days in storage.

  18. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  19. DATA STORAGE & LOAD BALANCING IN CLOUD COMPUTING USING CONTAINER CLUSTERING

    OpenAIRE

    Trapti Gupta*1 & Abhishek Dwivedi2

    2017-01-01

    At the moment, cloud containers are a hot topic in the IT world in general, and security in particular. The world's top technology companies, including Microsoft, Google and Facebook, all use them. Although it's still early days, containers are seeing increasing use in production environments. Containers promise a streamlined, easy-to-deploy and secure method of implementing specific infrastructure requirements, and they also offer an alternative to virtual machines. The key thing t...

  20. Licensing of spent fuel storage facility including its physical protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajman, V.; Sedlacek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The current spent fuel management policies as practised in the Czech Republic are described, and the conception of the fuel cycle back end is outlined. The general principles and the legislative framework are explained of the licensing process concerning spent fuel interim storage facilities, including the environmental impact assessment component. The history is outlined of the licensing process for the spent fuel storage facility at the Dukovany NPP site, including the licensing of the transport and storage cask. The basic requirements placed on the physical safeguarding of the facility and on the licensing process are given. (J.B.). 13 refs

  1. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ''Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report'' [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel

  2. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  3. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  4. The PEACE PIPE: Recycling nuclear weapons into a TRU storage/shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.; Edstrom, C.; Biddle, K.; Orlowski, R.; Geinitz, R.; Keenan, K.; Rivera, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results of a contract undertaken by the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to fabricate stainless steel ''pipe'' containers for use in certification testing at Sandia National Lab, Albuquerque to qualify the container for both storage of transuranic (TRU) waste at RFETS and other DOE sites and shipping of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The paper includes a description of the nearly ten-fold increase in the amount of contained plutonium enabled by the product design, the preparation and use of former nuclear weapons facilities to fabricate the components, and the rigorous quality assurance and test procedures that were employed. It also describes how stainless steel nuclear weapons components can be converted into these pipe containers, a true ''swords into plowshare'' success story

  5. Development of a container for the transportation and storage of plutonium bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.; Geinitz, R.; Thorp, D.; Rivera, M.

    1998-03-01

    There is a large backlog of plutonium contaminated materials at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, USA. The clean-up of this site requires this material to be packaged in such a way as to allow for efficient transportation to other sites or to a permanent geologic repository. Prior to off-site shipment of the material, it may be stored on-site for a period of time. For this reason, it is desirable to have a container capable of meeting the requirements for storage as well as the requirements for transportation. Most of the off-site transportation is envisioned to take place using the TRUPACT-II Type B package, with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as the destination. Prior to the development of this new container, the TRUPACT-II had a limit of 325 FGE (fissile gram equivalents) of plutonium due to criticality control concerns. Because of the relatively high plutonium content in the material to be transported, transporting 325 FGE per TRUPACT-II is uneconomical. Thus, the purpose of the new containers is to provide criticality control to increase the allowed TRUPACT-II payload and to provide a safe method for on-site storage prior to transport. This paper will describe the analysis and testing used to demonstrate that the Pipe Overpack Container provides safe on-site storage of plutonium bearing materials in unhardened buildings and provides criticality control during transportation within the TRUPACT-II. Analyses included worst-case criticality analyses, analyses of fork-lift time impacts, and analyses of roof structure collapse onto the container. Testing included dynamic crush tests, bare pipe impact tests, a 30-minute totally engulfing pool-fire test, and multiple package impact tests in end-on and side-on orientations

  6. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  7. Quality assurance inspections for shipping and storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Roberts, G.D.; Bryce, J.H. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system suppliers. (Suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users or owners of those packaging and storage systems.) This guide may be used during inspection to determine regulatory compliance with 10 CFR, Part 71, Subpart H; 10 CFR, Part 72, Subpart G; 10 CFR, Part 21; and supplier`s quality assurance program commitments. It was developed to provide a structured, consistent approach to inspections. The guidance therein provides a framework for evaluation of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems quality assurance programs. Inspectors are provided with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts to meet inspection requirements for the particular facility. The method used in the guide treats each activity at a facility as a separate performance element and combines the activities within the framework of an ``inspection tree.``The method separates each performance element into several areas for inspection and identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to qualitatively evaluate each area. This guide also serves as a field manual to facilitate quality assurance inspection activities. This guide replaces an earlier one, NUREG/CR-5717 (Packing Supplier Inspection Guide). This replacement guide enhances the inspection activities for transportation packagings and adds the dry spent fuel storage system quality assurance inspection activities.

  8. Quality assurance inspections for shipping and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Roberts, G.D.; Bryce, J.H.

    1996-04-01

    This is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system suppliers. (Suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users or owners of those packaging and storage systems.) This guide may be used during inspection to determine regulatory compliance with 10 CFR, Part 71, Subpart H; 10 CFR, Part 72, Subpart G; 10 CFR, Part 21; and supplier's quality assurance program commitments. It was developed to provide a structured, consistent approach to inspections. The guidance therein provides a framework for evaluation of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems quality assurance programs. Inspectors are provided with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts to meet inspection requirements for the particular facility. The method used in the guide treats each activity at a facility as a separate performance element and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.''The method separates each performance element into several areas for inspection and identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to qualitatively evaluate each area. This guide also serves as a field manual to facilitate quality assurance inspection activities. This guide replaces an earlier one, NUREG/CR-5717 (Packing Supplier Inspection Guide). This replacement guide enhances the inspection activities for transportation packagings and adds the dry spent fuel storage system quality assurance inspection activities

  9. Maintenance of storage properties of pediatric aliquots of apheresis platelets in fluoroethylene propylene containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Myrup, Andrew; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Wagner, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    Platelet (PLT) aliquots for pediatric use have been shown to retain in vitro properties when stored in gas-impermeable syringes for up to 6 hours. As an alternative, PLT aliquots can be stored for longer periods in containers used for storage of whole blood-derived PLTs. These containers are not available separate from whole blood collection sets and PLT volumes less than 35 mL either have not been evaluated or may be unsuitable for PLT storage. Gas-permeable fluoroethylene propylene (FEP) containers have been used in the storage of cell therapy preparations and are available in multiple sizes as single containers but have not been evaluated for PLT storage. A single apheresis unit was divided on Day 3 into small aliquots with volume ranging from 20 to 60 mL, transferred using a sterile connection device, and stored for an additional 2 days either in CLX (control) or in FEP containers. PLT storage properties of PLTs stored in FEP containers were compared to those stored in CLX containers. Standard PLT in vitro assays were performed (n =6). PLT storage properties were either similar to those of CLX containers or differed by less than 20% excepting carbon dioxide levels, which varied less than 60%. Pediatric PLT aliquots of 20, 30, and 60mL transferred on Day 3 into FEP cell culture containers adequately maintain PLT properties for an additional 2days of storage. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Optimization strategies for cask design and container loading in long term spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    As delays are incurred in implementing reprocessing and in planning for geologic repositories, storage of increasing quantities of spent fuel for extended durations is becoming a growing reality. Accordingly, effective management of spent fuel continues to be a priority topic. In response, the IAEA has organized a series of meetings to identify cask loading optimisation issues in preparation for a technical publication on Optimization Strategies for Cask/Container Loading in Long Term Spent Fuel Storage. This publication outlines the optimisation process for cask design, licensing and utilization, describing three principal groups of optimization activities in terms of relevant technical considerations such as criticality, shielding, structural design, operations, maintenance and retrievability. The optimization process for cask design, licensing, and utilization is outlined. The general objectives for the design of storage casks, including storage casks that are intended to be transportable, are summarized. The nature of optimization within the design process is described. The typical regulatory and licensing process is outlined, focusing on the roles of safety regulations, the regulator, and the designer/applicant in the optimization process. Based on the foregoing, a description of the three principal groups of optimization activities is provided. The subsequent chapters of this document then describe the specific optimization activities within these three activity groups, in each of the several design disciplines

  11. Polymer-directed synthesis of metal oxide-containing nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yiyong; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-12-01

    Metal oxide-containing nanomaterials (MOCNMs) of controllable structures at the nano-scale have attracted considerable interest because of their great potential applications in electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors. Among many structure-directing agents, polymers and macromolecules, including block copolymers (BCPs) and graphene, exhibit distinct advantages in the template-assisted synthesis of MOCNMs. In this feature article, we introduce the controlled preparation of MOCNMs employing BCPs and graphene as structure-directing agents. Typical synthetic strategies are presented for the control of structures and sizes as well as the improvement of physical properties and electrochemical performance of MOCNMs in LIBs and supercapacitors.

  12. Container material and design considerations for storage of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    With the threat of increased burial site restrictions and increased surcharges; the ease with which waste is sent to the burial site has been reduced. For many generators of waste the only alternative after maximizing volume reduction efforts is to store the waste. Even after working through the difficult decision of deciding what type of storage facility to have, the decision of what type of container to store the waste in has to still be made. This paper explores the many parameters that affect not only the material selection but also the design. The proper selection of materials affect the ability of the container to survive the storage period. The material selection also directly affects the design and utilization of the storage facility. The impacts to the facility include the functional aspects as well as its operational cost and liability as related to such things as fire insurance and active environmental control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of many of the common systems such as carbon steel, various coatings, polyethylene, stainless steel, composites and concrete will be discussed and evaluated. Recognizing that the waste is to be disposed of in the future differentiates it from waste that is shipped directly to the disposal site. The stored waste has to have the capability to be handled not only once like the disposal site waste but potentially several times before ultimate disposal. This handling may be by several different systems both at the storage facility and the burial site. Some of these systems due to ALARA considerations are usually remote requiring various interfaces, while not interfering with handling, transportation or disposal operations

  13. Methyllithium-Doped Naphthyl-Containing Conjugated Microporous Polymer with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Li, Gang; Shang, Jin; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen storage is a primary challenge for using hydrogen as a fuel. With ideal hydrogen storage kinetics, the weak binding strength of hydrogen to sorbents is the key barrier to obtain decent hydrogen storage performance. Here, we reported the rational synthesis of a methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer with exceptional binding strength of hydrogen to the polymer guided by theoretical simulations. Meanwhile, the experimental results showed that isosteric heat can reach up to 8.4 kJ mol(-1) and the methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer exhibited an enhanced hydrogen storage performance with 150 % enhancement compared with its counterpart naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer. These results indicate that this strategy provides a direction for design and synthesis of new materials that meet the US Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen storage target. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  15. Mobile heat storage containers and their transport by rail or road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp

    2013-10-15

    Mobile heat storage containers are capable of making a contribution to the meaningful use of energy which is needed for use at a location other than where it originates. The study presented in this report outlines the technology of mobile heat storage and analyses an example of its transport by rail or road. (orig.)

  16. Gas storage cylinder formed from a composition containing thermally exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A gas storage cylinder or gas storage cylinder liner, formed from a polymer composite, containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(exp 2)/g to 2600 m(exp 2)2/g.

  17. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  18. Closure for spent-fuel transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Knackstedt, H.G.; Srostlik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The container has a transport closure and a shielding closure. This shielding closure consists of two pieces (double closure system), which can be fartened to one another like a bayonet fixing. A central motion of rotation is enough to open the closure. It can be done remote-controlled as well as manually. (DG) [de

  19. Quality of water from the pool, original containers and aluminum drums used for storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idjakovic, Z.; Milonjic, S.; Cupic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Results of chemical analyses of water from the pool, including original containers and aluminium drums, for storage of spent nuclear fuel of the research reactor RA at the VINCA Institute and a short survey of the water properties from similar pools of other countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  20. Storage quality of walnut oil containing lycopene during accelerated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaonan; Ma, Zheng Feei; Li, Fang; Zhang, Hongxia; Kong, Lingming; Yang, Zhipan; Xie, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of investigation was to assess the effect of lycopene on the peroxide value, acid value, fatty acids, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of walnut oil. Walnut oil was extracted from Xinjiang walnut variety using cold pressing method. Our study reported that after 45 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C (Schaal oven test), 0.005% lycopene exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect than other addition levels of lycopene. Therefore, under ambient storage conditions, the shelf-life of walnut oil could be extended up to 16 months by 0.005% lycopene. Moreover, 0.005% lycopene added to walnut oil had a significantly higher content of saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, total phenol, reducing ability of the polar and non-polar components than the blank sample (walnut oil without any addition of lycopene). In conclusion, lycopene improved the quality of walnut oil because of its antioxidant effect against lipid oxidation.

  1. Characterization of plutonium-containing materials and storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the weapons complex, plutonium materials are stored in various containers. Some plutonium has been stored for 20 yr or more. The physical and chemical properties of the plutonium material and the containers that hold it are often not well characterized. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 standard sets criteria to which stored material must conform. The 3013 standard regulates materials that hold 50% or greater plutonium, and the other 50% is not specified and is usually unknown. The Materials Identification and Surveillance project is tasked to characterize representative materials and begin to characterize the other 50% and to show that materials can be brought into 3013 criteria conformance through thermal treatments

  2. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  3. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  4. Containment performance of transportable storage casks at 9m drop test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, H. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Araki, K. [Hitachi Zosen Diesel and Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Spent fuel transportable storage casks usually have a double lid closure system, which consists of primary and secondary lids, and gaskets, to keep the containment function during transportation and storage, and to monitor a leakage or containment function during storage. Metal gasket is planning to be used not only during storage but transportation of both before and after storage. As metal gasket will degrade its containment function by creep during storage period of 50 years, relative displacement such as opening and slide displacement between the flange of the containment vessel and the lid should be restricted to a small range. To maintain the containment performance, we provisionally adopted the maximum opening limit of 0.1mm and the maximum slide displacement limit of 3.0mm in the full-scale cask design based on the report of the fundamental experiment on the metal gasket which examines the relation between leakage rate and sealing gap. The purpose of this study is to analyse the behaviour of the sealed parts (lid and vessel body) under 9m-drop impact test conditions and to establish some analytical method to evaluate this behaviour. In this study, the drop test of 1/3scale model of Hitz-B69 cask with the double lids closure system was carried out, the behaviours of the seal part were measured by displacement sensors, and they were compared with the result of the numerical analysis carried out separateley.

  5. Lining materials for waste disposal containment and waste storage facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design characteristics, performance, and materials used to make liners for the waste disposal and storage industry. Liners made of concrete, polymeric materials, compacted clays, asphalt, and in-situ glass are discussed. The use of these liners to contain municipal wastes, hazardous waste liquids, and both low-level and high-level radioactive wastes is presented. Liner permeability, transport, stability, construction, and design are studied. Laboratory field measurements for specific wastes are included. (Contains a minimum of 213 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary

  7. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes or open-quotes tagclose quotes specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A open-quotes high-lowclose quotes protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers

  8. Status of containment integrity studies for continued in-tank storage of Hanford defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Beitel, G.A.; Mercier, P.F.; Moore, E.L.; Vollert, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    Information is provided on the technical studies that have been implemented for evaluating the containment integrity of the single-shell waste storage tanks. The major areas of study are an analysis of storage tank integrity, a failure mode analysis, and storage tank improvements. Evaluations of tank structural integrity include theoretical studies on static and dynamic load responses, laboratory studies on concrete durability, and experimental studies on the potential for exothermic reactions of salt cake. The structural analyses completed to date show that the tanks are in good condition and have a safety margin against overload. Environmental conditions that could cause a loss of durability are limited to the waste chemicals stored (which do not have access to the concrete). Concern that a salt cake exothermic reaction may initiate a loss of containment is not justifiable based on extensive testing completed. A failure mode analysis of a tank liner failure, a sidewall failure, and a dome collapse shows that no radiologic hazard to man results. Storage tank improvement studies completed show that support of a tank dome is achievable. Secondary containment provided by chemical grouts and bentonite clay slurry walls does not appear promising. It is now estimated that the single-shell tanks will be serviceable for the storage of salt cake waste for decades under currently established operating temperature and load limits

  9. Double container system for the transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, F.W.; Pontani, B.; Ernst, E.

    1987-01-01

    The double container system consists of an inner storage container made of steel for the gastight inclusion of the radioactive material to be stored and an outer shielding container which ensures the necessary shielding and mechanical safety in handling and transport. A neutron moderator layer of material containing hydrogen, preferably polyethylene, is present in the annular gap between the outer shielding container and the inner storage container. In order to achieve good shielding with simultaneous very good heat conduction from the inside to the outside, the moderator layer consists of individual polyethylene rings stacked above one another. There is an H profile ring made of heat conducting metal material between each two polyethylene rings. The legs of the H profile ring surround the sides of the two polyethylene rings for fixing it. (orig.) [de

  10. Testing in support of on-site storage of residues in the Pipe Overpack Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-02-01

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. It is desirable to use this same waste packaging for interim on-site storage in non-hardened buildings. To meet the safety concerns for this storage the Pipe Overpack Container has been subjected to a series of tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition to the tests required to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II several tests were performed solely for the purpose of qualifying the container for interim storage. This report will describe these tests and the packages response to the tests. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Radioactive material dry-storage facility and radioactive material containing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Hidetoshi; Kumagaya, Naomi; Ganda, Takao.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a radioactive material dry storage facility which can unify the cooling efficiency of a containing tube and lower the pressure loss in a storage chamber. Namely, a cylindrical body surrounds a first containing tube situated on the side of an air discharge portion among a plurality of containing tubes and forms an annular channel extending axially between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. An air flow channel partitioning member is disposed below a second containing tube situated closer to an air charging portion than the first containing tube. A first air flow channel is formed below the air channel partitioning member extending from the air charging portion to the annular channel. The second air channel is formed above the air channel partitioning member and extends from the air charging portion to the air discharge portion by way of a portion between the second containing tubes and the portion between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. Then, low temperature air can be led from the air charging portion to the periphery of the first containing tube. The effect of cooling the first containing tube can be enhanced. The difference between the cooling efficiency between the second containing tube and the first containing tube is decreased. (I.S.)

  12. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  13. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  14. 76 FR 76434 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, And Products Containing Same including Televisions, DN 2860; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint.

  15. Practice for dosimetry for a self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed with self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators. If followed, these procedures will help to ensure that calibration and testing will be carried out with acceptable precision and accuracy and that the samples processed with ionizing radiation from gamma rays in a self-contained dry-storage irradiator receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. This practice covers dosimetry in the use of dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators, namely self-contained dry storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators (shielded free-standing irradiators). It does not cover underwater pool sources, panoramic gamma-ray sources such as those raised mechanically or pneumatically to irradiate isotropically into a room or through a collimator, nor does it cover self-contained bremsstrahlung x-ray units. The absorbed dose range for the use of the dry-storage self-contained gamma-ray irradiators covered by this practice is typically 1 to 10 5 Gy, depending on the application. The absorbed-dose rate range typically is from 10 -2 to 10 3 Gy/min. This practice describes general procedures applicable to all self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators. For procedures specific to dosimetry in blood irradiation, see ISO/ ASTM Practice 51939. For procedures specific to dosimetry in radiation research on food and agricultural products, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51900. For procedures specific to radiation hardness testing, see ASTM Practice E 1249. For procedures specific to the dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for sterile release programs, see ISO/ASTM Guide 51940. In those cases covered by ISO/ASTM Practices 51939, 51900, 51940, or ASTM E 1249, those standards take precedence. In addition, this practice does not cover absorbed-dose rate calibrations of radiation protection instrumentation

  16. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    DOE's Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ''roadmap'' format

  17. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  18. Surveillance Report on SAVY-4000 and Hagan Nuclear Material Storage Containers for FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oka, Jude M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    In accordance with the SAVY-4000 Surveillance Plan [1] and DOE M441.1-1 requirements, storage container surveillance continued through fiscal year 2017 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Surveillance items for the year consisted of 8 SAVY-4000 storage containers, 8 Hagan containers, and 39 SAVY-4000 transfer containers. The SAVY-4000 surveillance items ranged in age from 1 year to 5.6 years and the Hagan containers ranged in age from 6.3 years to 17.6 years. The surveillance containers for this year were selected primarily to better understand the extent of corrosion of the stainless steel components of the containers. Accelerated aging studies indicate that the O-ring and filter components of the SAVY-4000 will last at least 40 years under LANL storage conditions. However, the observation of corrosion on the inside of SAVY-4000 and Hagan surveillance containers has shifted the emphasis to understanding both the nature and the extent of corrosion on the stainless steel body. The restriction on handling soluble residues greater than 500 grams continued this year, delaying the surveillance of some items that was scheduled in earlier surveillance plans.

  19. Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment (HTRE)-3 Container Storage Unit Resource Conservation Recovery Act closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spry, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the closure of the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The unit's location, size, history, and current status are described. The document also summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning efforts performed in 1983 and provides an estimate of,waste residues remaining in the HTRE-3 assembly. A risk evaluation was performed that demonstrates that the residue does not pose a hazard to public health or the environment. Based on the risk evaluation, it is proposed that the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit be closed in its present condition, without further decontamination or removal activities

  20. Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategy including energy storage losses

    OpenAIRE

    Avula, Chinni Venkata Ramana R.; Oechtering, Tobias J.; Månsson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategies proposed in the literature so far make some ideal assumptions such as instantaneous control without delay, lossless energy storage systems etc. In this paper, we present a one-step-ahead predictive control strategy using Bayesian risk to measure and control privacy leakage with an energy storage system. The controller estimates energy state using a three-circuit energy storage model to account for steady-state energy losses. With numerical exp...

  1. Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veirs, D. Kirk; Morris, John S.; Spearing, Dane R.

    2000-07-01

    Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1,2 For example, temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250 °C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250 °C in the storage container with no other material present would result in a pressure of 412 psia, which is limited by the amount of water. The pressure due to the water can be substantially reduced due to interactions with the stored material. Studies of the adsorption of water by PuO2 and surface interactions of water with PuO2 show that adsorption of 0.5 wt.% of water is feasible under many conditions and probable under high humidity conditions.4,5,6 However, no data are available on the vapor pressure of water over plutonium dioxide containing materials that have been exposed to water.

  2. Radiation resistant and decontaminable coatings for shipping, interim storage and repository storage casks containing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.

    1995-02-01

    All the Corrobesch-DF-Nukelar coatings - black, yellow, blue, red and white - have been excellently decontaminable without and after radiation exposure with 3x10 5 Gy, despite the slightly higher absorbed dose rate applied at KFA Juelich (DIN 55 991 requires ≤1.0 KGy/h). After a further increase to 3x10 6 Gy in the absorbed dose, with an absorbed dose rate up to 1.0 KGy/h conforming to the standard, the coatings black, yellow, blue were still excellent in their decontamination behavior. After exposure to 10 7 Gy all coatings irradiated at Gammaster in their irradiation room (150 m 3 ) with permanent air changes and at absorbed dose rates of 0.9-1.0 KGy/h have been well decontaminable, and the coatings irradiated at KFA Juelich in the 10 l vessel with discontinuous air changes and variable absorbed dose rate (0.22-2.7 KGy/h) have still been fairly well decontaminable only. To be able to evaluate possible changes occurring upon 10 7 Gy radiation exposure, the test specimens were exposed to the action of chemicals according to DIN 55 991 as well as to decontamination cleansing solutions. Different discolorations, very small reductions in brilliancy, and sometimes minor deteriorations in surface hardness occurred. Detrimental visible changes, e.g. bubble and crack formation, swelling, detachment from the base, etc., have not been found for any of the coatings. These results for the test specimens irradiated at Gammaster are identical with the results for the test specimens irradiated at KFA Juelich, except minor deviations. Contrary to expectations, Corrobesch-DF-Nuklear has proved to be a coating material, which, although it consists of organic base material, nevertheless tolerates radiation exposures without visible damage, i.e. conditions under which only electrodeposited nickel coatings have appeared appropriate until now. This means that application of Corrobesch-Nuklear-DF allows the costs of coating of fuel element shipping and storage casks to be reduced

  3. 77 FR 42764 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, & Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order against certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing the same including televisions, imported by respondents MediaTek Inc. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan and Zoran Corporation of Sunnyvale, California.

  4. A comparative analysis of storage and retrieval equipment at a container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, I.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In designing container terminals one have to consider the choice for a certain type of storage and retrieval equipment by performing a feasibility and economic analysis. In this paper, we compare, by means of a simulation study, the performance of manned straddle carriers and automated stacking

  5. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container. 864.9900 Section 864.9900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That...

  6. Characterization during storage and dissolution of Solid dispersions containing furosemide and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, T.; Müllertz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid dispersions containing furosemide and various amounts of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were prepared by spray drying to investigate if the physical stability of amorphous furosemide during storage and dissolution could be improved by formulating the drug as a solid dispersion. All...

  7. Leucoreduced platelet concentrates in additive solution: an evaluation of filters and storage containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.; Pietersz, R.; Reesink, H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AND OBJECTIVE: Buffy coat (BC) pooling sets are integrated systems, consisting of a pooling bag, a filter and a platelet storage container, for the production of leucoreduced platelet concentrates (LR-PCs) from pooled BCs. It was our aim to compare various pooling sets that are currently

  8. TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN 3013 CONTAINERS IN K AREA MATERIAL STORAGE (KAMS) FACILITY USING REGRESSION METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N

    2008-01-01

    3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004. These containers are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials such as PuO2 for 50 years. DOT shipping packages such as the 9975 are used to store the 3013 containers in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE-STD-3013-2004 requires that a comprehensive surveillance program be set up to ensure that the 3013 container design parameters are not violated during the long term storage. To ensure structural integrity of the 3013 containers, thermal analyses using finite element models were performed to predict the contents and component temperatures for different but well defined parameters such as storage ambient temperature, PuO 2 density, fill heights, weights, and thermal loading. Interpolation is normally used to calculate temperatures if the actual parameter values are different from the analyzed values. A statistical analysis technique using regression methods is proposed to develop simple polynomial relations to predict temperatures for the actual parameter values found in the containers. The analysis shows that regression analysis is a powerful tool to develop simple relations to assess component temperatures

  9. Containers for short-term storage of nuclear materials at the Los Alamos plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.; Gladson, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for the past 18 yr has stored nuclear samples for archiving and in support of nuclear materials research and processing programs. In the past several years, a small number of storage containers have been found in a deteriorated condition. A failed plutonium container can cause personnel contamination exposure and expensive physical area decontamination. Containers are stored in a physically secure radiation area vault, making close inspection costly in the form of personnel radiation exposure and work time. A moderate number of these containers are used in support of plutonium processing and must withstand daily handling abuse. A 2-yr evaluation of failed containers and those that have shown no deterioration has been conducted. Based on that study, a program was established to formalize our packing methods and materials and standardize the size and shape of containers that are used for short-term use. A standardized set of containers was designed, evaluated, tested, and procured for use in the facility. This paper reviews our vault storage problems, shows some failed containers, and presents our planned solutions to provide safe and secure containment of nuclear materials

  10. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  11. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  12. Retrospective search on biomass harvesting techniques including materials handling and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    This literature search covers the period 1977 to date. The harvesting, materials handling and storage of the following materials: wood; crops and crop residues; peat; sugar cane; reeds, grasses and fers; algae and jojoba shrubs are covered.

  13. Risk ranking of LANL nuclear material storage containers for repackaging prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H; Jordan, Hans; Hoffman, Jenifer A; Eller, P Gary; Balkey, Simon

    2007-05-01

    Safe handling and storage of nuclear material at U.S. Department of Energy facilities relies on the use of robust containers to prevent container breaches and subsequent worker contamination and uptake. The U.S. Department of Energy has no uniform requirements for packaging and storage of nuclear materials other than those declared excess and packaged to DOE-STD-3013-2000. This report describes a methodology for prioritizing a large inventory of nuclear material containers so that the highest risk containers are repackaged first. The methodology utilizes expert judgment to assign respirable fractions and reactivity factors to accountable levels of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A relative risk factor is assigned to each nuclear material container based on a calculated dose to a worker due to a failed container barrier and a calculated probability of container failure based on material reactivity and container age. This risk-based methodology is being applied at LANL to repackage the highest risk materials first and, thus, accelerate the reduction of risk to nuclear material handlers.

  14. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2002-01-01

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified

  15. The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Kane J.

    2000-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation

  16. Sealing behavior of Container Closure Systems under Frozen Storage Conditions: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Serum Rubber Stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger

    2018-03-15

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in the assessment of suitable vial/stopper combinations for storage and shipment of frozen drug products. Considering that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of butyl rubber stoppers used in Container Closure Systems (CCS) is between -55°C to -65°C, a storage or shipment temperature of a frozen product below the Tg of the rubber stopper, may require special attention, since below the Tg the rubber becomes more plastic-like and loses its elastic (sealing) characteristics. Thus they risk maintaining Container Closure Integrity (CCI). Given that the rubber regains its elastic properties and reseals after rewarming to ambient temperature, leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are transient and the CCI methods used at room temperature conditions are unable to confirm CCI in the frozen state. Hence, several experimental methods have been developed in recent years in order to evaluate CCI at low temperatures. Finite Element (FE) simulations were applied in order to investigate the sealing behaviour of rubber stoppers for the drug product CCS under frozen storage conditions. FE analysis can help reducing the experimental design space and thus number of measurements needed, as they can be used as an ad-on to experimental testing. Several scenarios have been simulated including the effect of thermal history, rubber type, storage time, worst case CCS geometric tolerances and capping pressure. The results of these calculations have been validated with experimental data derived from laboratory experiments (CCI at low temperatures), and a concept for tightness has been developed. It has been concluded that FE simulations have the potential to become a powerful predictive tool towards a better understanding of the influence of cold storage on the rubber sealing properties (and hence on CCI) when dealing with frozen drug products. Copyright © 2018, Parenteral Drug Association.

  17. The macronutrients in human milk change after storage in various containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Huei; Lin, Ming-Chih

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage, freezing, and thawing, that are performed by lactating working mothers and breast milk banks. We evaluated the impact of various containers on the nutrient concentrations in human milk. A total of 42 breast milk samples from 18 healthy lactating mothers were collected. A baseline macronutrient concentration was determined for each sample. Then, the breast milk samples were divided and stored in nine different commercial milk containers. After freezing at -20°C for 2 days, the milk samples were thawed and analyzed again. A midinfrared human milk analyzer (HMA) was used to measure the protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents. There was a significant decrease in the fat content following the storage, freezing, and thawing processes, ranging from 0.27-0.30 g/dL (p=0.02), but no significant decrease in energy content (p=0.069) was noted in the nine different containers. There were statistically significant increases in protein and carbohydrate concentrations in all containers (p=0.021 and 0.001, respectively), however there were no significant differences between the containers in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, or energy contents. Human milk, when subjected to storage, freezing, and thawing processes, demonstrated a significant decrease in fat content (up to 9% reduction) in various containers. It is better for infants to receive milk directly from the mother via breastfeeding. More studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of milk storage on infant growth and development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  19. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  20. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and carbon containing alloys

  1. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  2. Disposal of TRU Waste from the PFP in pipe overpack containers to WIPP Including New Security Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and cleanup of the DOE complex. As part of the cleanup and closure of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford site, the nuclear material inventory was reviewed to determine the appropriate disposition path. Based on the nuclear material characteristics, the material was designated for stabilization and packaging for long term storage and transfer to the Savannah River Site, or a decision for discard was made. The discarded material was designated as waste material and slated for disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Prior to preparing any residue wastes for disposal at the WIPP, several major activities need to be completed. As detailed a processing history as possible of the material including origin of the waste must be researched and documented. A technical basis for termination of safeguards on the material must be prepared and approved. Utilizing process knowledge and processing history, the material must be characterized, sampling requirements determined, acceptable knowledge package and waste designation completed prior to disposal. All of these activities involve several organizations including the contractor, DOE, state representatives and other regulators such as EPA. At PFP, a process has been developed for meeting the many, varied requirements and successfully used to prepare several residue waste streams including Rocky Flats incinerator ash, hanford incinerator ash and Sand, Slag and Crucible (SS and C) material for disposal. These waste residues are packed into Pipe Overpack Containers for shipment to the WIPP

  3. Digital Forensics Formats: Seeking a Digital Preservation Storage Container Format for Web Archiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhyong Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss archival storage container formats from the point of view of digital curation and preservation, an aspect of preservation overlooked by most other studies. Considering established approaches to data management as our jumping off point, we selected seven container format attributes that are core to the long term accessibility of digital materials. We have labeled these core preservation attributes. These attributes are then used as evaluation criteria to compare storage container formats belonging to five common categories: formats for archiving selected content (e.g. tar, WARC, disk image formats that capture data for recovery or installation (partimage, dd raw image, these two types combined with a selected compression algorithm (e.g. tar+gzip, formats that combine packing and compression (e.g. 7-zip, and forensic file formats for data analysis in criminal investigations (e.g. aff – Advanced Forensic File format. We present a general discussion of the storage container format landscape in terms of the attributes we discuss, and make a direct comparison between the three most promising archival formats: tar, WARC, and aff. We conclude by suggesting the next steps to take the research forward and to validate the observations we have made.

  4. Changes in polyphenol profile of dried apricots containing SO2 at various concentrations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Melek; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Changes in polyphenols have important effects on the quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO 2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO 2 kg -1 ) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time. Even the lowest SO 2 concentration (451 mg kg -1 ) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during the entire storage period. However, while SO 2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 mg SO 2 kg -1 . Although the major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg kg -1 ), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455-1508 mg kg -1 ), followed by epicatechin (0-426.8 mg kg -1 ), rutin (148.9-477.3 mg kg -1 ), ferulic acid (23.3-55.3 mg kg -1 ) and gallic acid (2.4-43.6 mg kg -1 ). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706-2324 mg kg -1 ). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO 2 kg -1 and stored at 30 °C. To produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ∼2000 mg SO 2 kg -1 should be used. Low storage temperature (<30 °C) was not necessary for the protection of polyphenols. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Maximum overpressure in gastight containers of the storage and transport of dangerous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, H.

    1977-11-01

    For a design of containers suitable under safety aspects for the transport and storage of dangerous liquids the maximum overpressure to be expected is an important value. The fundamentals for the determination of the internal pressure are pointed out for the simplified model of a rigid (i.e. not elastically or plastically deforming) and gastight container. By assuming of extreme storage and transport conditions (e.g. for the maximum liquid temperatures due to sun radiation) the figures of the maximum overpressure are calculated for about hundred liquids being of practical interest. The results show a significant influence of the compression of air in the ullage space caused by liquid expansion due to temperature rise (compression effect), particularly for liquids with a higher boiling point. The influence of the solubility of air in the liquid on the internal pressure can be neglected under the assumed transport conditions. The estimation of the volume increase of the container due to the effect of the internal pressure leads to the limitation, that the assumption of a rigid container is only justified for cylindrical and spherical steel tanks. The enlargement of the container volume due to a heating of the container shell does play no significant roll for all metal containers under the assumed conditions of storage and transport. The results obtained bear out essentially the stipulations for the test pressure and the filling limits laid down in the older German regulations for the transport of dangerous liquids in rail tank waggons and road tank vehicles without pressure relief valves. For the recently fixed and internationally harmonized regulations for tankcontainers the considerations and the results pointed out in this paper give rise to a review. (orig.) [de

  6. Lab-scale experiment of a closed thermochemical heat storage system including honeycomb heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fopah-Lele, Armand; Rohde, Christian; Neumann, Karsten; Tietjen, Theo; Rönnebeck, Thomas; N'Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Osterland, Thomas; Opel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale thermochemical heat storage reactor was developed in the European project “thermal battery” to obtain information on the characteristics of a closed heat storage system, based on thermochemical reactions. The present type of storage is capable of re-using waste heat from cogeneration system to produce useful heat for space heating. The storage material used was SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Due to agglomeration or gel-like problems, a structural element was introduced to enhance vapour and heat transfer. Honeycomb heat exchanger was designed and tested. 13 dehydration-hydration cycles were studied under low-temperature conditions (material temperatures < 100 °C) for storage. Discharging was realized at water vapour pressure of about 42 mbar. Temperature evolution inside the reactor at different times and positions, chemical conversion, thermal power and overall efficiency were analysed for the selected cycles. Experimental system thermal capacity and efficiency of 65 kWh and 0.77 are respectively obtained with about 1 kg of SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Heat transfer fluid recovers heat at a short span of about 43 °C with an average of 22 °C during about 4 h, acceptable temperature for the human comfort (20 °C on day and 16 °C at night). System performances were obtained for a salt bed energy density of 213 kWh·m 3 . The overall heat transfer coefficient of the honeycomb heat exchanger has an average value of 147 W m −2  K −1 . Though promising results have been obtained, ameliorations need to be made, in order to make the closed thermochemical heat storage system competitive for space heating. - Highlights: • Lab-scale thermochemical heat storage is designed, constructed and tested. • The use of honeycomb heat exchanger as a heat and vapour process enhancement. • Closed system (1 kg SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O) able to give back 3/4 of initial thermal waste energy. • System storage capacity and thermal efficiency are respectively 65 kWh and 0.77.

  7. Modifications to an existing waste containment structure at Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez-Restrepo, A.; Darby, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), located near Lewiston, New York, is an interim waste containment facility for low-level radioactive waste. The facility was completed in 1986 and is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The waste containment structure (WCS) at NFSS is approximately 297 m (975 ft) long and 137 m (450 ft) wide and reaches a maximum height of 10.4 m (34 ft). The peripheral slopes rise at an angle of 3:1 (h:v) for a width of about 16.8 m (55 ft), where the inclination decreases to 7.5%. The apex of the pile is higher at the south end, sloping about 1.2 m (4 ft) to the north. The interim layered cap consists of 0.9 m (3 ft) of clay overlain by 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil. The uppermost 15 cm (6 in.) of soil was loosely compacted to permit the development of a grass cover. In the summer of 1991, approximately 2,677 m 3 (3,500 yd 3 ) of additional contaminated soil and material in temporary storage elsewhere at NFSS was incorporated into the WCS. To accommodate the waste, a portion of the cap roughly centered with the pile [including 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil and 0.6 m (2 ft) of clay cap] was removed from an area 99 m (325 ft) long and 58.5 m (192 ft) wide, leaving a minimum of 0.3 m (I ft) of clay over the old waste as a radiation and radon barrier. The newly incorporated waste forms a layer 0.6 m (2 ft) thick, replacing the clay portion of the excavated cap. The waste is contained laterally by the old cap and sealed by a new cap, which also consists of 0.9 m (3 ft) of compacted clay and 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil. A transition zone about 6.1 m (20 ft) wide feathers the new cap to the old cap (see Fig. 3). Except for the uppermost 10.5 to 15.2 cm (4 to 6 in.) of vegetated topsoil, the excavated cap materials were stockpiled and reused in constructing the new cap. Additional material required to complete cap construction was imported from

  8. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements

  9. Modelling and Metaheuristic for Gantry Crane Scheduling and Storage Space Allocation Problem in Railway Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gantry crane scheduling and storage space allocation problem in the main containers yard of railway container terminal is studied. A mixed integer programming model which comprehensively considers the handling procedures, noncrossing constraints, the safety margin and traveling time of gantry cranes, and the storage modes in the main area is formulated. A metaheuristic named backtracking search algorithm (BSA is then improved to solve this intractable problem. A series of computational experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm under some randomly generated cases based on the practical operation conditions. The results show that the proposed algorithm can gain the near-optimal solutions within a reasonable computation time.

  10. Criticality study of the storage of radioactive waste containing 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couasnon, O.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the conditions of storage of nuclear waste drums containing 350 g of 235 U (per drum). This study is valid for a square pitch stacking of cylindrical drums whose height/diameter ratio does not exceed 3. The reflector effect of concrete is taken into account. This study defines a conservative case that can be used under any hypothesis of moderation, of radiation coupling between drums and of fissile material density. (A.C.)

  11. Manufacture and inspection of metal containers for the storage of waste contaminated with caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.J.D.; Moreira, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Several stages are described of the design and manufacture of a prototype unit and 15 metal cylindrical containers for the storage of contaminated waste generated by the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987. The tasks involved technicians from the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) of Belo Horizonte and the co-authors, who conducted inspections in the period between 10 March 1993 and 18 May 1993 at the foundry in Goiania. (author)

  12. 77 FR 1505 - Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on November 30, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. of Austin, Texas. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,467,455 (``the `455 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders.

  13. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. Methods A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Results Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Conclusions Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  14. Evaluation of Big Data Containers for Popular Storage, Retrieval, and Computation Primitives in Earth Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K.; Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Huang, T.; Duffy, D.; Yang, C. P.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Data containers are infrastructures that facilitate storage, retrieval, and analysis of data sets. Big data applications in Earth Science require a mix of processing techniques, data sources and storage formats that are supported by different data containers. Some of the most popular data containers used in Earth Science studies are Hadoop, Spark, SciDB, AsterixDB, and RasDaMan. These containers optimize different aspects of the data processing pipeline and are, therefore, suitable for different types of applications. These containers are expected to undergo rapid evolution and the ability to re-test, as they evolve, is very important to ensure the containers are up to date and ready to be deployed to handle large volumes of observational data and model output. Our goal is to develop an evaluation plan for these containers to assess their suitability for Earth Science data processing needs. We have identified a selection of test cases that are relevant to most data processing exercises in Earth Science applications and we aim to evaluate these systems for optimal performance against each of these test cases. The use cases identified as part of this study are (i) data fetching, (ii) data preparation for multivariate analysis, (iii) data normalization, (iv) distance (kernel) computation, and (v) optimization. In this study we develop a set of metrics for performance evaluation, define the specifics of governance, and test the plan on current versions of the data containers. The test plan and the design mechanism are expandable to allow repeated testing with both new containers and upgraded versions of the ones mentioned above, so that we can gauge their utility as they evolve.

  15. Evaluation of Container Closure System Integrity for Frozen Storage Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Nikoloff, Jonas; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, drug product for parenteral administration is stored in a frozen state (e.g., -20 °C or -80 °C), particularly during early stages of development of some biotech molecules in order to provide sufficient stability. Shipment of frozen product could potentially be performed in the frozen state, yet possibly at different temperatures, for example, using dry ice (-80 °C). Container closure systems of drug products usually consist of a glass vial, rubber stopper, and an aluminum crimped cap. In the frozen state, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of commonly used rubber stoppers is between -55 and -65 °C. Below their Tg, rubber stoppers are known to lose their elastic properties and become brittle, and thus potentially fail to maintain container closure integrity in the frozen state. Leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are likely to be transient, yet, can possibly risk container closure integrity and lead to microbial contamination. After thawing, the rubber stopper is supposed to re-seal the container closure system. Given the transient nature of the possible impact on container closure integrity in the frozen state, typical container closure integrity testing methods (used at room temperature conditions) are unable to evaluate and thus confirm container closure integrity in the frozen state. Here we present the development of a novel method (thermal physical container closure integrity) for direct assessment of container closure integrity by a physical method (physical container closure integrity) at frozen conditions, using a modified He leakage test. In this study, different container closure systems were evaluated with regard to physical container closure integrity in the frozen state to assess the suitability of vial/stopper combinations and were compared to a gas headspace method. In summary, the thermal physical container closure integrity He leakage method was more sensitive in detecting physical container closure

  16. Cast iron transport, storage and disposal containers for use in UK nuclear licensed sites - 59412

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Ductile Cast Iron Containers of the types GCVI (UK trademark -GNS YELLOW BOX R ) and MOSAIK R have been in use in Germany for transport, storage and disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) for more than two decades. In 2009 a number of containers of these types were delivered to various Magnox sites as so called pathfinders to test their suitability for Magnox waste streams. The results were encouraging. Therefore the Letter of Compliance (LoC) procedure was started to prove the suitability of packages using these types of containers for the future UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and a conceptual Letter of Compliance (cLoC) was obtained from RWMD in 2010. Waste stream specific applications for Interim Stage Letters of Compliance (ILoC) for a number of waste streams from different Magnox sites and from the UK's only pressurised water reactor, Sizewell B are currently being prepared and discussed with RWMD. In order to achieve a package suitable for interim storage and disposal the contents of a Ductile Cast Iron Container only has to be dried. Mobile drying facilities are readily available. Containers and drying facilities form a concerted system

  17. A Method of Dynamic Extended Reactive Power Optimization in Distribution Network Containing Photovoltaic-Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wu; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    The grid-integration of Photovoltaic-Storage System brings some undefined factors to the network. In order to make full use of the adjusting ability of Photovoltaic-Storage System (PSS), this paper puts forward a reactive power optimization model, which are used to construct the objective function based on power loss and the device adjusting cost, including energy storage adjusting cost. By using Cataclysmic Genetic Algorithm to solve this optimization problem, and comparing with other optimization method, the result proved that: the method of dynamic extended reactive power optimization this article puts forward, can enhance the effect of reactive power optimization, including reducing power loss and device adjusting cost, meanwhile, it gives consideration to the safety of voltage.

  18. Improvements in or relating to storage or shipping containers for fragile objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A storage or shipping container for fragile objects such as pellets for use in a laser fusion chamber is described. It comprises a base, a stem having a reduced tip in which a pellet can be mounted and a frangible bulb (glass or plastic) adapted to fit over the stem and be sealed on the base. Protective material (fluid or gas) can be introduced into the bulb. The space within the sealed capsule between the stem and the bulb can be filled with an appropriate gas, solid or liquid to reduce chemical reaction or vibration. A modified container allows several small pellets to be stored or shipped. Several of the containers described can be placed inside a second container which has recesses to take their bases and the surrounding space filled with viscous liquid or solid such as paraffin to reduce shock. (U.K.)

  19. Long time storage containers for spent fuels and vitrified wastes: synthesis of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziat, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of the studies relatives to the containers devoted to the long time spent fuels storage and vitrified wastes packages. These studies were realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The first part is devoted to the presentation of the studies. The container sizing studies which constitute the first containment barrier are then presented. The material choice and the closed system are also detailed. The studies were validate by the realization of containers models and an associated demonstration program is proposed. A synthesis of the technical and economical studies allowed to determine the components and operation costs. (A.L.B.)

  20. CASKS (Computer Analysis of Storage casKS): A microcomputer based analysis system for storage cask design review. User's manual to Version 1b (including program reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.F.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.; Mok, G.C.

    1995-02-01

    CASKS (Computer Analysis of Storage casKS) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent-fuel storage casks. The bulk of the complete program and this user's manual are based upon the SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) program previously developed at LLNL. A number of enhancements and improvements were added to the original SCANS program to meet requirements unique to storage casks. CASKS is an easy-to-use system that calculates global response of storage casks to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions. This provides reviewers with a tool for an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. CASKS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests

  1. Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tank including hydrodynamic interaction by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.T.; Ting, K.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)

  2. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  4. Corrosion of metal and polymer containers for use in PCM cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oró, Eduard; Miró, Laia; Barreneche, Camila; Martorell, Ingrid; Farid, Mohammed M.; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The corrosion of materials in contact with some low temperature PCM is studied. ► Copper and carbon steel must be avoided when using the PCM tested. ► Aluminium is not recommended with the tested PCM. ► Stainless steel 316 is recommended when in contact with the tested PCM. ► PP, PS, PET, and HDPE are not affected by a process of degradation by the tested PCM. - Abstract: Transport and storage of low temperature sensitive products is an issue worldwide due to changes of the lifestyle and population increase. In the recent years, thermal energy storage (TES) using phase change materials (PCMs) is being highly studied and developed for cold storage applications. Furthermore, the PCM are normally encapsulated in containers and added in the available systems, usually in food processes. Therefore safety constraints as the compatibility of the PCM with other materials have to take into account. Hence the main goal of the paper is to study the corrosion effect of different metals and polymer materials in contact with some PCM used in low temperature applications. Results show that copper and carbon steel must be avoided as PCM containers, and aluminium is not recommended; stainless steel 316 is recommended when in contact with the tested PCM. Moreover, PP, PS, PET, and HDPE are not affected by a process of degradation and are also compatible with the PCM studied

  5. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  6. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste containers for storage at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.; Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B ampersand W's role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  8. Quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 and cinnamon ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the quality and storage characteristics of yogurt containing antifungal-active lactic acid bacteria (ALH, Lacobacillus sakei ALI033 isolated from kimchi and cinnamon ethanol extract. The starter was used for culture inoculation (1.0 % commercial starter culture YF-L812 and ALH. Results The antifungal activity of cinnamon extracts was observed in treatments with either cinnamon ethanol extracts or cinnamon methanol extracts. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon extract during fermentation at 40 °C were as follows. The pH was 4.6 after only 6 h of fermentation. Titratable acidity values were maintained at 0.8 % in all treatment groups. Viable cell counts were maintained at 4 × 109 CFU/mL in all groups except for 1.00 % cinnamon treatment. Sensory evaluations of fermented milk sample made with ALH and 0.05 % cinnamon ethanol extract were the highest. Changes in fermented milk made with ALH and cinnamon ethanol extract during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were as follows. In fermented milk containing ALH and cinnamon ethanol extracts, the changes in pH and titratable acidity were moderate and smaller compared with those of the control. Viable cell counts were maintained within a proper range of 108 CFU/mL. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the overgrowth of fermentation strains or post acidification during storage can be effectively delayed, thereby maintaining the storage quality of yogurt products in a stable way, using cinnamon ethanol extract, which exhibits excellent antifungal and antibacterial activity, in combination with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.

  9. Potential mechanisms for corrosion and stress corrosion cracking failure of 3013 storage containers composed of 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolman, D.G.; Butt, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of 316 stainless steel (SS) storage container materials is a potential problem for radioactive waste disposition. Container materials will be exposed to significant ionizing radiation, elevated temperatures, embrittling and/or alloying agents (e.g., gallium), chloride-containing compounds (as much as 20 wt% Cl or Cl - ), oxidizing compounds, and a limited quantity of moisture. Additionally, containers will contain welds that have heterogeneous composition due to solute segregation and that may retain significant residual stress. All of the above-listed environmental and material conditions have been shown to be deleterious to material integrity under certain conditions. Unfortunately, the precise conditions within each container and environment is unknown and may vary widely from container to container. Thus, no single test or set of tests will be able mimic the broad range of storage container conditions. Additionally, material behavior cannot be predicted because the synergistic effects of temperature, time, chloride, moisture, sensitization, weldments, salt formation, etc., have not been fully studied. The complexity and uncertainty of storage conditions precludes any detailed recommendations. This document attempts to detail selected previous studies and to suggest some general guidelines for storage of radioactive waste. Because of the voluminous research in this area, this review cannot be considered to be comprehensive. Readers are directed to references that contain detailed reviews of particular processes for more information. Note that the effect of gallium on the degradation of SS storage containers has been discussed elsewhere and will not be discussed here

  10. Novel Carbon (C)-Boron (B)-Nitrogen (N)-Containing H2 Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shih-Yuan [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Giustra, Zachary X. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Osenar, Paul [Protonex Technology Corporation, Southborough, MA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    The following summarizes the research conducted for DOE project DE-EE0005658 “Novel Carbon(C)-Boron(B)-Nitrogen(N)-Containing H2 Storage Materials”. This work focused in part on the continued study of two materials identified from the preceding project DE-FG360GO18143 (“Hydrogen Storage by Novel CBN Heterocycle Materials”) as lead candidates to meet the DOE technical targets for either vehicular or non-automotive hydrogen storage applications. Specifically, a room-temperature liquid, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentane (B), and a high H2 capacity solid, 1,2-BN-cyclohexane (J), were selected for further characterization and performance optimization. In addition to these compounds, the current project also aimed to prepare several new materials predicted to be disposed towards direct reversibility of H2 release and uptake, a feature deemed critical to achieving efficient recycling of spent fuel end products. To assist in the rational design of these and other next-generation materials, this project undertook to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen release from established compounds (mainly B and J) using a combined experimental/computational approach. Among this project’s signature accomplishments, the preliminary synthetic route to B was optimized for production on decagram scale. With such quantities of material available, its performance in powering an actual 30 W proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack was tested and found to be identical to that of facility H2. Despite this positive proof-of-concept achievement, however, further consideration of neat B as a potential hydrogen storage material was abandoned due to evidence of thermal instability. Specifically, mass spectrometry-coupled thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-MS) revealed significant H2 release from B to initiate at 50 °C, well below the 60 °C minimum threshold set by the DOE. This result prompted a more extensive investigation in the decomposition mechanism of B vis-à-vis that of J, which

  11. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  12. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  13. Automatic generation control with thyristor controlled series compensator including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Padhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic performance of Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-units thermal–thermal power system with the consideration of Reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Time delay. Initially, the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The superiority of DE is demonstrated by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA. After that performance of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC has been investigated. Further, a TCSC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters.

  14. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-01-01

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design and performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  16. Activities in support of licensing Ontario Hydro's Dry Storage Container for radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.M.; Lee, H.P.; Nadeau, E.; Taralis, D.; Sauve, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Dry Storage Container (DSC) is being developed by Ontario Hydro for the on-site storage and possible future transportation of used fuel. The DSC is essentially rectangular in shape with outer dimensions being approximately 3.5 m (H) x 2.1 m (W) x 2.2 m (L) and has a total weight of approximately 68 Mg when loaded with used fuel. The container cavity is designed to accommodate four standard fuel modules (each module contains 96 CANDU fuel bundles). The space between inner and outer steel linear (each about 12.7 mm thick) is filled with high-density reinforced shielding concrete (approximately 500 mm thick). Foam-core steel-lined impact limiters will be fitted around the container during transportation to provide impact protection. In addition, an armour ring will be installed around the flanged closure weld (inside the impact limiter) to provide protection from accidental pin impact. Testing and impact analyses have demonstrated that the DSC was able to withstand a 9 m top corner drop and a 1 m drop onto a cylindrical pin (at the welded containment flange) without compromising the structural integrity of the DSC. Thermal analysis of the DSC during simulated fire accident conditions has shown that at the end of the fire, the exterior wall and interior cavity wall temperatures were 503degC and 78degC, respectively. The maximum fuel sheath temperature predicted was 137degC which was below the maximum allowable temperature for the fuel. The FD-HEAT code used for this analysis was validated through a heat conduction test of an actual DSC wall section. (J.P.N.)

  17. Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, C.T.

    1983-12-27

    The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

  18. Direct conversion of plutonium-containing materials to borosilicate glass for storage or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    A new process, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), has been invented for the direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, and residue into borosilicate glass. The glass should be acceptable for either the long-term storage or disposition of plutonium. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into homogeneous glass (1) simplifies safeguards and security; (2) creates a stable chemical form that meets health, safety, and environmental concerns; (3) provides an easy storage form; (4) may lower storage costs; and (5) allows for future disposition options. In the GMODS process, mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids containing plutonium are fed directly into a glass melter where they are directly converted to glass. Conventional glass melters can accept materials only in oxide form; thus, it is its ability to accept materials in multiple chemical forms that makes GMODS a unique glass making process. Initial proof-of-principle experiments have converted cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials to glass. Significant technical uncertainties remain because of the early nature of process development

  19. Simulation and Experimental Validation of Electromagnetic Signatures for Monitoring of Nuclear Material Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aker, Pamela M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that the low frequency electromagnetic (EM) response of a sealed metallic container interrogated with an encircling coil is a strong function of its contents and can be used to form a distinct signature which can confirm the presence of specific components without revealing hidden geometry or classified design information. Finite element simulations have recently been performed to further investigate this response for a variety of configurations composed of an encircling coil and a typical nuclear material storage container. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulated and measured impedance signatures of electrically conducting spheres placed inside an AT-400R nuclear container. Simulations were used to determine the effects of excitation frequency and the geometry of the encircling coil, nuclear container, and internal contents. The results show that it is possible to use electromagnetic models to evaluate the application of the EM signature technique to proposed versions of nuclear weapons containers which can accommodate restrictions imposed by international arms control and treaty verification legislation

  20. Hydrogen storage of catalyst-containing activated carbon fibers and effect of surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikpyo Hong; Seong Young Lee; Kyung Hee Lee; Sei Min Park

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The hydrogen storage capacities of many kind of carbon nano materials have been reported with possibility and improbability. It is reported that specific surface area of carbon nano material has not a close relation to hydrogen storage capacity. This result shows that there is difference between specific surface area measured by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and direct measurement of adsorption with hydrogen and suggests that the carbon material with relatively low specific surface area can have high hydrogen storage capacity when they have effective nano pore. In this study, petroleum based isotropic pitch was hybridized with several kinds of transitional metal base organometallic compound solved with organic solvent and spun by electro-spinning method. The catalyst-dispersed ACFs were prepared and characterized and hydrogen storage capacity was measured. The effect of surface modification of ACFs by physical and chemical treatment was also investigated. Experimental: The isotropic precursor pitch prepared by nitrogen blowing from naphtha cracking bottom oil was hybridized with transitional metal based acetyl acetonates and spun by solvent electro-spinning. Tetrahydrofuran and quinoline were used as solvent with various mixing ratio. High voltage DC power generator which could adjust in the range of 0-60000 V and 2 mA maximum current was used to supply electrostatic force. At the solvent electro-spinning, solvent mixing ratio and pitch concentration, voltage and spinning distance were varied and their influences were investigated. The catalyst-dispersed electro-spun pitch fibers were thermal stabilized, carbonized and activated by conventional heat treatment for activated carbon fiber. Prepared fibers were observed by high resolution SEM and pore properties were characterized by Micromeritics ASAP2020 model physi-sorption analyzer. Hydrogen storage capacities were measured by equipment modified from Thermo Cahn TherMax 500 model high pressure

  1. Intelligent Heuristic Techniques for the Optimization of the Transshipment and Storage Operations at Maritime Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Expósito-Izquierdo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main contributions of the Ph.D. thesis of Christopher Exp\\'osito-Izquierdo. This thesis seeks to develop a wide set of intelligent heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms aimed at solving some of the most highlighted optimization problems associated with the transshipment and storage of containers at conventional maritime container terminals. Under the premise that no optimization technique can have a better performance than any other technique under all possible assumptions, the main point of interest in the domain of maritime logistics is to propose optimization techniques superior in terms of effectiveness and computational efficiency to previous proposals found in the scientific literature when solving individual optimization problems under realistic scenarios. Simultaneously, these optimization techniques should be enough competitive to be potentially implemented in practice. }}

  2. Dry oxidation behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Terlain, A.; Bertrand, N.; Gauvain, D.

    2004-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. Two complementary approaches for modelling dry oxidation have been considered. First, basic models following simple analytical laws from classical oxidation theories have been adjusted on the apparent activation energy of oxidation deduced from experimental data. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. Second, a numerical model able to take in consideration several mechanisms controlling the oxide scale growth is under development. Several preliminary results are presented. (authors)

  3. The performance of polymer containers used for the storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of polymeric materials after exposure to radiation and acidic aqueous solutions provides a basis for the evaluation of failure mechanisms affecting these materials. The work evaluated the importance of the combined effects of aqueous solution diffusion, radiation exposure, and temperature on the mechanical performance, diffusion profile and molecular structure of polymeric materials. This work demonstrated that the dose rate is an extremely important factor since low dose rates have been shown to result in an increase in stress at yield (15 - 20%) over the times studied, whereas higher dose rates reduced stress at yield as discussed above. Irradiation of both Nylon 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Nylon 6,6 at dose rates of 37 and 56 kGy/hr resulted in an initial decrease in the stress at yield and subsequent recovery. Irradiation at 20 kGy/hr resulted in an initial increase in stress at yield and a continued increase throughout the aging time. It is suggested that polyamide 6,6 may be considered an acceptable material for the fabrication of storage containers for Low Level Radioactive Waste. Similarly, semi-aromatic polyamide 6,6, with its greater resistance to the combined effects of solution diffusion and radiation exposure, may be considered an acceptable material for the fabrication of containers for the storage of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Finally, these results provide further explanation of the results obtained for materials such as polycarbonate, which has been previously determined to be viable candidates for the storage of High Level Radioactive Waste. (author)

  4. The performance of polymer containers used for the storage of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the performance of polymeric materials after exposure to radiation and acidic aqueous solutions provides a basis for the evaluation of failure mechanisms affecting these materials. The work evaluated the importance of the combined effects of aqueous solution diffusion, radiation exposure, and temperature on the mechanical performance, diffusion profile and molecular structure of polymeric materials. This work demonstrated that the dose rate is an extremely important factor since low dose rates have been shown to result in an increase in stress at yield (15 - 20%) over the times studied, whereas higher dose rates reduced stress at yield as discussed above. Irradiation of both Nylon 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Nylon 6,6 at dose rates of 37 and 56 kGy/hr resulted in an initial decrease in the stress at yield and subsequent recovery. Irradiation at 20 kGy/hr resulted in an initial increase in stress at yield and a continued increase throughout the aging time. It is suggested that polyamide 6,6 may be considered an acceptable material for the fabrication of storage containers for Low Level Radioactive Waste. Similarly, semi-aromatic polyamide 6,6, with its greater resistance to the combined effects of solution diffusion and radiation exposure, may be considered an acceptable material for the fabrication of containers for the storage of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Finally, these results provide further explanation of the results obtained for materials such as polycarbonate, which has been previously determined to be viable candidates for the storage of High Level Radioactive Waste. (author)

  5. Safety assessment of a dry storage container drop into irradiated fuel bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Oh, D.; Arguner, D.; Lei, Q.M.; Kulpa, T.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In Pickering nuclear stations, Dry Storage Containers (DSCs) are employed to transfer used (irradiated) fuel from an irradiated fuel bay to a dry storage facility for interim storage. Each DSC is wet-loaded in the bay water with 4 fuel modules containing up to a total of 384 used fuel bundles that have been out of the reactor core for at least 10 years. Once the DSC is fully loaded, the crane in the bay raises the DSC for spray-wash such that the bottom of the DSC is never more than 2 m above the bay water surface. This paper presents a safety assessment of consequences of an unlikely event that a fully loaded DSC is accidentally dropped into an irradiated fuel bay from the highest possible elevation. Experiments and analyses performed elsewhere show that the DSC drop-generated shock waves will not threaten the structural integrity of an irradiated fuel bay. Therefore, this assessment only assesses the potential damage to the spent fuel bundles in the bay due to pressure transients generated by an accidental DSC drop. A bounding estimate approach has been used to calculate the upper limit of the pressure pulse and the resulting static and dynamic stresses on the fuel sheath. The bounding calculations and relevant experimental results demonstrate that an accidental drop of a fully loaded DSC into an irradiated fuel bay will not cause additional failures of the main fuel inventories stored in modules in the bay water, thus no consequential release of fission products into the bay water. (author)

  6. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel–aluminium containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebec, A., E-mail: andrej.rebec@zag.si [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Fire Laboratory and Fire Engineering, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolšek, J. [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Fire Laboratory and Fire Engineering, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plešec, P. [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Laboratory for the Efficient Use of Energy, Renewables, and Acoustics, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages are discussed. • Hazard of structural collapse of steel–aluminium containers of LFO is analysed. • Experiments were performed for determination of heat radiation from LFO pool fires. • Elasto-plastic material data were derived with tests for 3xxx and 6xxx aluminium. • High-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium is discussed. - Abstract: Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel–aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300 cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium.

  7. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, R; Popa, B; Popa, F; Zachia-Zlatea, D

    2010-01-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  8. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, R; Popa, B [Faculty of Power Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, sect. 6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Popa, F [Institute for Hydropower Studies and Design, 5-7 Vasile Lascar, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020491 (Romania); Zachia-Zlatea, D, E-mail: bogdan.popa@rosha.r [Hidroelectrica S.A., 3 Constantin Nacu, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  9. Analysis of factors influencing the reliability of retrievable storage canisters for containment of solid high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, W.J.; Seefeldt, W.B.; Steindler, M.J.

    1976-08-01

    The reliability of stainless steel type 304L canisters for the containment of solidified high-level radioactive wastes in the glass and calcine forms was studied. A reference system, drawn largely from information furnished by Battelle Northwest Laboratories and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company is described. Operations include filling the canister with the appropriate waste form, interim storage at a reprocessing plant, shipment in water to a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), interim storage at the RSSF, and shipment to a final disposal facility. The properties of stainless steel type 304L, fission product oxides, calcine, and glass were reviewed, and mechanisms of corrosion were identified and studied. The modes of corrosion important for reliability were stress-corrosion cracking, internal pressurization of the canister by residual impurities present, intergranular attack at the waste-canister interface, and potential local effects due to migration of fission products. The key role of temperature control throughout canister lifetime is considered together with interactive effects. Methods of ameliorating adverse effects and ensuring high reliability are identified and described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented

  10. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  11. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  12. Multilayer Protective Coatings for High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Michael

    Corrosion-based failures of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) storage containers are potentially hazardous due to a possible release of radionuclides through cracks in the canister due to corrosion, especially for above-ground storage (i.e. dry casks). Protective coatings have been proposed to combat these premature failures, which include stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen-diffusion cracking, among others. The coatings are to be deposited in multiple thin layers as thin films on the outer surface of the stainless steel waste basket canister. Coating materials include: TiN, ZrO2, TiO2, Al 2O3, and MoS2, which together may provide increased resistances to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as act as a barrier to hydrogen diffusion. The focus of this research is on the corrosion resistance and characterization of single layer coatings to determine the possible benefit from the use of the proposed coating materials. Experimental methods involve electrochemical polarization, both DC and AC techniques, and corrosion in circulating salt brines of varying pH. DC polarization allows for estimation of corrosion rates, passivation behavior, and a qualitative survey of localized corrosion, whereas AC electrochemistry has the benefit of revealing information about kinetics and interfacial reactions that is not obtainable using DC techniques. Circulation in salt brines for nearly 150 days revealed sustained adhesion of the coatings and minimal weight change of the steel samples. One-inch diameter steel coupons composed of stainless steel types 304 and 316 and A36 low alloy carbon steel were coated with single layers using magnetron sputtering with compound targets in an inert argon atmosphere. This resulted in very thin films for the metal-oxides based on low sputter rates. DC polarization showed that corrosion rates were very similar between bare and coated stainless steel samples, whereas a statistically significant decrease in uniform corrosion was measured on coated

  13. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  14. Thermal analyses of SRS Pu storage cans inside BNFL 3013 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.K.

    1999-10-01

    Plutonium metal is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) using different storage can configurations. The temperatures at different locations in the storage configuration play an important role in designing and configuring different storage arrangements. The present work consists of calculating temperatures at different locations in two different storage configurations

  15. Design report for the interim waste containment facility at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive residues from pitchblende processing and thorium- and radium-contaminated sand, soil, and building rubble are presently stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York. These residues and wastes derive from past NFSS operations and from similar operations at other sites in the United States conducted during the 1940s by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and subsequently by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The US Department of Energy (DOE), successor to MED/AEC, is conducting remedial action at the NFSS under two programs: on-site work under the Surplus Facilities Managemnt Program and off-site cleanup of vicinity properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. On-site remedial action consists of consolidating the residues and wastes within a designated waste containment area and constructing a waste containment facility to prevent contaminant migration. The service life of the system is 25 to 50 years. Near-term remedial action construction activities will not jeopardize or preclude implementation of any other remedial action alternative at a later date. Should DOE decide to extend the service life of the system, the waste containment area would be upgraded to provide a minimum service life of 200 years. This report describes the design for the containment system. Pertinent information on site geology and hydrology and on regional seismicity and meteorology is also provided. Engineering calculations and validated computer modeling studies based on site-specific and conservative parameters confirm the adequacy of the design for its intended purposes of waste containment and environmental protection

  16. Frequency participation by using virtual inertia in wind turbines including energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Huang, Yu; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    With the increase of wind generation penetration, power fluctuations and weak inertia may attempt to the power system frequency stability. In this paper, in order to solve this problem, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind turbine...... (WT) and battery unit (BU). A central controller forecasts wind speed and determines system operation states to be sent to the local controllers. These local controllers include MPPT, virtual inertia, and pitch control for the WT; and power control loops for the BU. The proposed approach achieve...

  17. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  18. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  19. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  20. Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) steel-containment-vessel and floodwater-storage-tank structural-dynamics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendts, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Inertance (vibration) testing of two significant vessels at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) facility, located near Kahl, West Germany, was recently completed. Transfer functions were obtained for determination of the modal properties (frequencies, mode shapes and damping) of the vessels using two different test methods for comparative purposes. One of the vessels tested was the steel containment vessel (SCV). The SCV is approximately 180 feet high and 65 feet in diameter with a 1.2-inch wall thickness. The other vessel, called the floodwater storage tank (FWST), is a vertically standing vessel approximately 40 feet high and 10 feet in diameter with a 1/2-inch wall thickness. The FWST support skirt is square (in plan views) with its corners intersecting the ellipsoidal bottom head near the knuckle region

  1. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  2. 77 FR 40637 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises and General Security... Assistance on May 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon...

  3. 75 FR 69471 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises, Ontonagon, MI... to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon, Michigan. The... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill. The Department has...

  4. 77 FR 53234 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... respondents, including Avaya of Basking Ridge, New Jersey; Cisco Consumer Products LLC of Irvine, California, Cisco Systems International B.V. of the Netherlands, Cisco-Linksys LLC of Irvine, California (collectively, ``Cisco''); Hewlett-Packard Co. (``HP'') of Palo Alto, California; and Extreme Networks, Inc...

  5. Spallation impact analysis of plutonium storage container at K-Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 100-pound concrete block falls 55-foot from ceiling spallation upon the top of the 9975 shipping package. This finite element analysis aims to evaluate the dynamic impact from the spallation upon the packaging. The geometric configuration of the packaging is meticulously modeled in detail. However, the drum is eliminated and the fiberboard with radius greater than 5.6 inches is conservatively omitted. The primary containment vessel and 3013 container were not included to simplify the model. The concrete block is modeled as a rigid body. The material properties are conservatively selected. The final results indicate that the secondary containment vessel is intact during this spallation impact. Consequently the primary containment vessel and 3013 container would not experience damage and containment is maintained. The secondary containment vessel protects the primary containment vessel from the dynamic impact. The top fiberboard is compressed from 3.5 inches to 0.875 inches will eventually recover to 1.8 inches according to tests performed at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  6. Facility for the storage of spent, heat-emitting and container-enclosed nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.

    1987-01-01

    Patent for facility for the storage of spent, heat-emitting and container-enclosed nuclear reactor fuel assemblies, which are arranged within a building in a horizontal position and are cooled by a gas stream, whereby the building has a storage and a loading zone, characterized by the fact that pallet trucks arranged one above the other in a row and such that an interspace is left for the receiving positions for the containers, the the pallet trucks can be moved along rails that extend between two side walls arranged opposite to one another in the storage zone, that the storage zone can be loaded and unloaded by opening located in these two side walls, and that the gas stream only circulates within the building

  7. Impact simulation of liquid-filled containers including fluid-structure interaction--Part 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.

    1993-01-01

    In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validations of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained

  8. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  9. RCRA Facilities Assessment (RFA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, container storage accumulation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) remedial action strategy is based on a memorandum from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in which EPA elected to enforce regulatory requirements for ORNL through its amended Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority. This report, which completes the requirements of II.A.1 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit, identifies areas near the point of waste generation in which wastes are accumulated before they are transferred into the permitted waste storage facilities. In includes background information on each area and an assessment of the need for further remedial attention. The waste accumulation areas described in this addendum bear identification numbers indicative of the WAGs of which they are a part. Waste accumulation areas that are located inside a building and in which there is no potential for releases to the environment are not included in this report

  10. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  11. Use of organic precursors and graphenes in the controlled synthesis of carbon-containing nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shubin; Bachman, Robert E; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-15

    The development of high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells, is an important step on the road to alternative energy technologies. Carbon-containing nanomaterials (CCNMs), defined here as pure carbon materials and carbon/metal (oxide, hydroxide) hybrids with structural features on the nanometer scale, show potential application in such devices. Because of their pronounced electrochemical activity, high chemical and thermal stability and low cost, researchers are interested in CCNMs to serve as electrodes in energy-related devices. Various all-carbon materials are candidates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices. Furthermore, carbon-based hybrid materials, which consist of a carbon component with metal oxide- or metal hydroxide-based nanostructures, offer the opportunity to combine the attractive properties of these two components and tune the behavior of the resulting materials. As such, the design and synthesis of CCNMs provide an attractive route for the construction of high-performance electrode materials. Studies in these areas have revealed that both the composition and the fabrication protocol employed in preparing CCNMs influence the morphology and microstructure of the resulting material and its electrochemical performance. Consequently, researchers have developed several synthesis strategies, including hard-templated, soft-templated, and template-free synthesis of CCNMs. In this Account, we focus on recent advances in the controlled synthesis of such CCNMs and the potential of the resulting materials for energy storage or conversion applications. The Account is divided into four major categories based on the carbon precursor employed in the synthesis: low molecular weight organic or organometallic molecules, hyperbranched or cross-linked polymers consisting of aromatic subunits, self-assembling discotic molecules, and graphenes. In each case

  12. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  13. Update on ASME rules for spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste storage containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph S. Hill III; Foster, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, a new Code Case, N-717, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) was published. The Code Case provides rules for construction of containments used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste. The Code Case has been incorporated into Section III of the Code as Division 3, Subsection WC, Class SC Storage Containments, and will be published in the 2005 Addenda. This paper provides an informative background and insight for these rules to provide Owners, regulators, designers, and fabricators with a more comprehensive understanding of the technical basis for these rules. (authors)

  14. Manipulation technology optimization for the interim storage of HAW transport and storage containers; Optimierung der Handhabungstechnik zur Zwischenlagerung von HAW-Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmrich, Uwe; Krueger, Michael; Schulze, Hartmut [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The handling of high-level radioactive waste transport and storage containers from reprocessing plants is determined by the cask configuration and the radiation protection measures with respect to the safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory and shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. The new of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M was designed for higher radioactive inventories, the heat generation is has rarely been changed with respect to the former design. The essential structural modifications are shock absorbers that have to be demounted before storage in the interim storage facility Gorleben. Due to public acceptance forcings the ALARA principle is not the only basis for manipulation technology optimizations, the minimization of dose rate for the operational personnel is of increasing importance. The authors describe the optimizations and the resulting dose reductions.

  15. Studies of corrosion in metallic container for storage of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azkarate, I.; Madina, V.; Insausti, M.

    1999-01-01

    The metallic container is one of the most important barriers that, along with engineered and natural barriers, will isolate high level nuclear waste in saline and granite geological formations from the geosphere. However, general and localized corrosion modes such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), pitting, crevice corrosion and hydrogen damage can be active under disposal conditions, so the corrosion behaviour of the metal container material must be carefully studied. Several metals and their alloys have been proposed for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers including carbon steels, stainless steels, titanium and titanium alloys and copper and copper-base alloys. Carbon steels and copper alloys are considered for the two rock formations, titanium is considered for salt environments and the stainless steel only in the case of a granite formation. (Author)

  16. Radon in air concentrations arising from storage of articles containing radium or thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, M.; Gooding, M.

    2006-01-01

    A major component of public and occupational radiation exposure worldwide arises from the inhalation of radon and thoron gases, produced during the decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium respectively. Whilst radon and thoron exposures are normally associated with the natural environment, there may also be a risk associated with sources, manufactured articles and waste produced through refining and concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material. Sources and articles manufactured from refined uranium do not normally give rise to the release of radon as the uranium progeny are largely removed during production and, if removed, will take thousands of years to reach full equilibrium with the uranium parent isotopes. Exposure to radon -222 ( 222 Rn) may, however, arise in areas where the uranium-238 ( 238 U) daughter radium-226 ( 226 Ra) is concentrated, for example in the form of sources, luminous articles or low-specific activity (LSA) scale. Exposure to radon- 220 ( 220 Rn), otherwise known as thoron, may occur in areas where thorium isotopes are concentrated, for example as manufactured laboratory thorium compounds. This paper explores the issues affecting radon and thoron release from manufactured articles containing uranium and thorium and their progeny. A methodology is provided for the calculation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in air concentrations likely to arise as a result of the storage and use of articles containing radium-226 ( 226 Ra) or thorium-232 ( 232 Th). The methodology provided in the document allows derivation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and the radon exposure rate in circumstances where the ventilation rate and volume of the facility can be reliably estimated and the quantities of 226 Ra or 232 Th held are known. A critical variable in the calculation is the release fraction (i.e. the proportion of radon generated that is release to atmosphere), and this paper considers methods for estimating this parameter

  17. Conditioning of spent fuel assemblies from the Rossendorf RFR research reactor in transport and storage containers of the type CASTOR MTR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Hofmann, G.

    1994-09-01

    Most of the spent fuel assemblies are temporarily stored in the flooded fuel ponds AB 1 and AB 2 of the RFR, and some are still in the reactor core. The conditioning task described here is part of the RFR spent fuel management concept and covers the safe emplacement of the spent fuel elements in the CASTOR MTR 2 shipping containers and the sealing of the containers in compliance with the nuclear licence issued for the conditioning task. The transfer of the spent fuel assemblies from the present wet storage conditions to the dry storage conditions in the CASTOR MTR 2 containers is done by a mobile manipulation equipment consisting essentially of the transfer sluice gate and a transfer container. Subsequent to conditioning, the shipping containers are to be transported to a licensed intermediate storage facility to await their transport to a national radwaste repository. The technical handling tools for the transfer and manipulation are briefly described, as well as the process steps involved, putting emphasis on the detailed description of processes and the accompanying time frame, so that the conditioning task can be incorporated into the work plan of the entire project. The report further presents the EDP concept established for the task, including the required data archivation and documentation. (orig.) [de

  18. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2017-03-02

    The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (a w ), total number of microorganisms (TNM), psychrotrophs (P), number of yeast and molds (NYM), colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The pH and a w values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  19. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (aw, total number of microorganisms (TNM, psychrotrophs (P, number of yeast and molds (NYM, colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The pH and aw values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  20. Advanced local dose rate calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP for plutonium nitrate storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron- und Gamma dose rate calculations were performed for the storage containers filled with plutonium nitrate of the MOX fabrication facility of Siemens. For the particle transport calculations the Monte Carlo Code MCNP 4.2 was used. The calculated results were compared with experimental dose rate measurements. It can be stated that the choice of the code system was appropriate since all aspects of the many facettes of the problem were well reproduced in the calculations. The position dependency as well as the influence of the shieldings, the reflections and the mutual influences of the sources were well described by the calculations for the gamma and for the neutron dose rates. However, good agreement with the experimental results on the gamma dose rates could only be reached when the lead shielding of the detector was integrated into the geometry modelling of the calculations. For some few cases of thick shieldings and soft gamma ray sources the statistics of the calculational results were not sufficient. In such cases more elaborate variance reduction methods must be applied in future calculations. Thus the MCNP code in connection with NGSRC has been proven as an effective tool for the solution of this type of problems. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400

  2. Effects of Edible Films Containing Procyanidin on the Preservation of Pork Meat during Chilled Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Jin Young; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Seong, Pil-Nam; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities and pH values of pork loin wrapped in film containing procyanidins (0.1% and 0.3%) generally increased (p<0.05) with storage time. VBN and TBARS levels, and total bacterial and Escherichia coli (E. coli) counts, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the procyanidin groups. In particular, procyanidins strongly inhibited TBARS formation. Thus, our findings suggest that edible film impregnated with procyanidins inhibits lipid oxidation and microbial growth, thereby enhancing the quality and shelf life of pork meat.

  3. Control of stress corrosion cracking in storage tanks containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Rideout, S.P.; Donovan, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste, at the Savannah River Plant is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Cases of cracking have been observed in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 that were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh waste, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specified ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. Tanks designed and built since 1960 have been made of steels with greater resistance to stress corrosion; these tanks have also been heat treated after fabrication to relieve residual stresses from construction operations. Temperature limits are also specified to protect against stress corrosion at elevated temperatures

  4. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Appendiks 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  5. ICECON: a computer program used to calculate containment back pressure for LOCA analysis (including ice condenser plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The ICECON computer code provides a method for conservatively calculating the long term back pressure transient in the containment resulting from a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) for PWR plants including ice condenser containment systems. The ICECON computer code was developed from the CONTEMPT/LT-022 code. A brief discussion of the salient features of a typical ice condenser containment is presented. Details of the ice condenser models are explained. The corrections and improvements made to CONTEMPT/LT-022 are included. The organization of the code, including the calculational procedure, is outlined. The user's manual, to be used in conjunction with the CONTEMPT/LT-022 user's manual, a sample problem, a time-step study (solution convergence) and a comparison of ICECON results with the results of the NSSS vendor are presented. In general, containment pressure calculated with the ICECON code agree with those calculated by the NSSS vendor using the same mass and energy release rates to the containment

  6. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  7. CODE ACCEPTANCE OF A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR STORAGE CONTAINMENTS (REISSUE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannel, G.R.; Grant, G.J.; Hill, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions require a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure-welding technologies (fusion welding) are not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, and distortion due to weld shrinkage. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) experience less degradation in the heat affected zones than do fusion welds. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials containers, the FSW process can

  8. Optimal fuzzy logic-based PID controller for load-frequency control including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters

  9. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  10. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  11. Storage container of radium source newly manufactured for trial for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the uterine cervix, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki; Sasaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    1977-01-01

    To decrease exposure dose from radium source to operators during the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix, new-type storage container was manufactured and its usefullness was discussed. The new-type container manufactured for trial houses radium source, for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix, connecting with TAO-type applicator for afterloading. TLD 1200 Type was used for measurement of radiation dose, and radium 50 mCi was used per one case. The obtained results were as follows: Using the new-type container, 45-60% decrease of exposure dose in the hands and fingers and 44% decrease in the body were obtained. The exposure dose of persons engaged in work of radiotherapy for one week was only 2.2% of the maximum permissible exposure dose, The time treating radium source was shortened to 50% by using the new-type container, and the shortening of that time was a great factor of countermeasures for decreasing exposure dose to operators. From above-mentioned results, the new-type storage container can be put sufficiently to practical use as a storage container of radium source for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix (when using TAO type afterloading method). (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. BE (fuel element)/ZL (interim storage facility) module. Constituents of the fuel BE data base for BE documentation with respect to the disposal planning and the support of the BE container storage administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, V.; Deutsch, S.; Busch, V.; Braun, A.

    2012-01-01

    The securing of spent fuel element disposal from German nuclear power plants is the main task of GNS. This includes the container supply and the disposal analysis and planning. Therefore GNS operates a data base comprising all in Germany implemented fuel elements and all fuel element containers in interim storage facilities. With specific program modules the data base serves an optimized repository planning for all spent fuel elements from German NPPS and the supply of required data for future final disposal. The data base has two functional models: the BE (fuel element) and the ZL (interim storage) module. The contribution presents the data structure of the modules and details of the data base operation.

  13. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs.

  14. Increased container-breeding mosquito risk owing to drought-induced changes in water harvesting and storage in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Brendan J; Kay, Brian H; Darbro, Jonathan M; Hurst, Tim P

    2013-12-01

    Extended drought conditions in south-east Queensland during the early 2000s have resulted in a culture of water harvesting and legislated water restrictions. Aedes notoscriptus is a container-breeding mosquito vector of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses. From 2008-2009, the larval habitats and seasonal abundance of domestic container-breeding mosquitoes were recorded from three suburbs of Brisbane. A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was administered to householders. A low-cost, desktop methodology was used to predict the proportion of shaded premises compared with front-of-property estimates. We highlight changes in the frequency of container categories for A. notoscriptus as a response to human behavioural changes to drought. Garden accoutrements, discarded household items and water storage containers accounted for 66.2% (525/793) of positive containers and 77.5% (73 441/94 731) of all immature mosquitoes. Of all household premises surveyed, 52.6% (550/1046) contained rainwater tanks and 29.4% (308/1046) harvested water in other containers, contrasting with a previous 1995 survey where neither category was observed. Both Premise Condition Index and shade directly correlated with positive premises. Human response to drought has resulted in new habitats for domestic container-breeding mosquitoes. This recent trend of prolific water storage is similar to earlier years (1904-1943) in Brisbane when Aedes aegypti was present and dengue epidemics occurred.

  15. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One such package would store lightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97/degree/C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350/degree/C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97/degree/C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350/degree/C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep-related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97/degree/C for the full 1000-yr analysis period

  16. Presence of Aedes and Anopheles mosquito larvae is correlated to bacteria found in domestic water-storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Louise K J; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Bertilsson, Stefan; Terenius, Olle

    2018-06-01

    Water-storage containers are common in households where access to water is scarce and often act as breeding sites for vector mosquitoes. Bacteria in these containers may be important for attracting or repelling ovipositing mosquitoes. We hypothesized that bacterial community composition in water-storage containers would represent either inhibitory or suitable environmental conditions for mosquito larvae. To investigate this, we characterized the bacterial community composition in water-storage containers and correlated these communities to Aedes and Anopheles larval densities. Water samples were collected over two years from 13 containers in an Indian village and analyzed by high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Comparisons of bacterial community composition between water with and without mosquito larvae showed that Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae were more common (P < 0.05) in absence of larvae, while Lachnospiraceae, Synechococcaceae, Alcaligenaceae and Cryomorphaceae were more common (P < 0.05) in presence of larvae. Indicator analysis identified operational taxonomic units designated as CL500-29 marine group (Acidimicrobiaceae) and FukuN101 (Microbacteriaceae) for absence and presence of larvae, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of which bacteria, directly or indirectly, can be linked to absence or presence of mosquitoes around households and set the basis for potential measures to be taken against these vector mosquitoes.

  17. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  18. High polymer-based composite containers for the disposal/storage of high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, I.

    2001-01-01

    Spent fuel disposal is one of the hottest topics in nuclear news, getting considerable amount of media coverage around the world. Canada as well as many other countries with nuclear electric generation plants has therefore been pushed to develop policy on this issue. One of the proposed and most widely supported strategies is to dispose of this so-called waste permanently in deep underground vaults. Through the use of engineered barriers including vault seals, vault composition, backfill and sophisticated containers this radioactive matter is isolated from the natural environment. According to a design developed by Atomic Energy of Canada, the seclusion must be maintained for approximately 500 years, which is a representative length of time it takes for the radioactive elements to decay to natural background levels. The purpose of the current study is to determine the feasibility of using poly(ether ether ketone), an advanced polymer, and continuous carbon fibre in a consolidated composite as a principal container component. Feasibility was determined by simulating the ultimate radioactive environment that the containers will be exposed to by exposing test specimens to neutron and gamma radiation fields at various temperatures (20 o C - 75 o C) for a variety of time intervals. (author)

  19. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1991-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. On such package would store tightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97 degrees C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350 degrees C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97 degrees C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350 degrees C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep- related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97 degrees C for the full 10000-yr analysis period. For the 4.74-kW load, the peak cladding temperature rises to just below the 350 degrees C limit about 4 years after emplacement. If the packages are stored using the spacing specified in the Site Characterization Plan (15 ft x 126 ft), a maximum of 4.1 kW per container may be stored. If the 0.05-m-thick void between the container and the borehole wall is filled with loosely packed bentonite, the peak cladding temperature rises more than 40 degrees C above the allowed cladding limit. In all cases the dominant heat transfer mode between container components is thermal radiation

  20. Space-sharing Strategy for Building Dynamic Container Yard Storage Considering Uncertainty on Number of Incoming Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurminarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AEC (Asian Economic Community leads to demand increase at ports in Indonesia. This increasing demand is followed by operational efficiency at the port as well. In fact, ports in Indonesia have an average dwell time for 5 days. One of the causes of this long dwell time is container transfer inefficiencies during loading process. In this research, we will focus in yard management and increasing land utilization. To increase the land utilization, we develop the space-sharing concept to reduce the initial space needed for a given workload. Since the ships arrivals are also varying, this concept will be possible. We develop the concept by adding uncertainty on number of incoming containers at operational level as the determining factor in planning a shared yard area. We propose a simulation approach to evaluate strategies in making yard template.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  2. Characteristics of water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge formed during drinking water treatment, including C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Hongdi; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-03-15

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low. However, due to the damage of algal cells to some extent, the DOM and MC levels increased significantly for storage time longer than 4 days; the production of C-, N-DBPs also increased. There were also obvious differences in the characteristics of the DW from sludges generated with different coagulant species. Due to the better protective effect of FeCl 3 and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) flocs, the DOM and MC levels and the production of C-, N-DBPs in the DW with FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulation were lower than those with AlCl 3 coagulation, even though the sludges were stored for the same amount of time. Furthermore, because of the formation of Al and Fe hydroxides, precipitated onto the surface of flocs, the soluble Al and Fe in the DW decreased with increased storage time, especially in the first four days. Overall, this study revealed the trends in variation of DW quality for cyanobacteria-containing sludges formed with different coagulants, then FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulants are recommended and sludge should be treated or disposed of within 4 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing 125Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity

  4. Energy, The Storage Challenge. Better Batteries Included. Running Hot and Cold. A Tank-full of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Hait, Jean-Francois; Demarthon, Fabrice; Brault, Pascal; Dollet, Alain; Py, Olivier; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Gonbeau, Danielle; Simon, Patrice; Pourcelly, Gerald; Latroche, Michel; Rango, Patricia de; Miraglia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    To secure its future and that of the planet, humanity must find alternatives to oil. But this vital transition toward renewable energy (currently the subject of a national debate in France), is highly dependent on the development of efficient storage solutions. Today's technologies make it relatively easy to produce electricity, heat, and even hydrogen, but their long-term storage remains a daunting scientific and technical challenge-a high priority for CNRS researchers

  5. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  6. Sensitivity of human peripheral lymphocyte chromosomes to various X-ray doses and subsequent storage in Plexiglass or glass containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.; Bulanova, M.; Geogieva, I.

    1979-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether chromosomal aberrations produced in vitro by various X-ray doses in human lymphocytes were affected by post-irradiation storage of the blood in plastic or glass containers. Following X-ray doses of up to 400 R, the yields of cells with aberrations and the incidence of dicentrics, rings, interstitial deletions, symmetrical changes and chromosome fragments increased with dose. After storage of the irradiated lymphocytes in either Plexiglass or glass, the values for exchange aberrations, deletions and aberrant cells were compared. The only statistically significant difference was a slight increase in the percentage of aberrant cells stored in the plastic containers at the 400 R dose level. It was concluded that plastics appear to have a sensitizing effect on the genetic structure of the peripheral lymphocyte and thus the use of this material to store blood in biological dosimetry studies should be discouraged. (U.K.)

  7. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  8. Design, construction and mounting of a container for transportation and storage of a closed plutonium glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, G.; Insegna, M.A.; Mathot, S.R.; Munoz, C.; Orlando, O.S.; Salguero, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of confining a closed chemistry glove box (with reference to papers: 'Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha Laboratory' and 'Disconnection and transportation of a closed plutonium glove box to a controlled zone'), it was necessary to design and construct a container to assure transportation from its location (a controlled zone) up to a definitive storage place capable of supporting its posterior confinement. (Author) [es

  9. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States); MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed

  10. Operation and maintenance of spent fuel storage and transportation casks/containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Member States have a growing need for casks for spent fuel storage and transportation. A variety of casks has been developed and is in use at an increasing number of sites. This has resulted in an accumulation of experience that will provide valuable information for other projects in spent fuel management. This publication provides a comprehensive review of information on the cask operation and maintenance associated with spent fuel storage. It draws upon generic knowledge from industrial experience and applications and is intended to serve as a basis for better planning and implementation in future projects

  11. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (pbread crumbs during storage.

  12. Evaporation of liquefied natural gas in conditions of compact storage containers heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgozhayeva, D. S.

    2014-08-01

    Identical by its power, but located in different parts of the external surface of the tank, the heating sources are different intensity heat transfer modes is heating up, respectively, times of vapour pressure rise to critical values. Developed mathematical model and method of calculation can be used in the analysis of conditions of storage tanks for liquefied gases.

  13. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  14. Latent heat storage by silica-coated polymer beads containing organic phase change materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feczkó, T.; Trif, L.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 132, July (2016), s. 405-414 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : latent heat storage * phase change materials * porous beads by suspension polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  15. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    Hydrogen storage for practical applications is under intense scrutiny worldwide since hopes are prevalent of being able to use hydrogen as energy vector in a continually difficult time in terms of having access to clean and affordable energy in the world. Hydrogen can be stored in compressed or l...

  16. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Ping; Yu, Chao-Chieh

    2012-11-06

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin.

  17. A container for storage and disposal of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Butler, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A unique concept for corrosion-resistant containers for storing and disposing of low-level radioactive, mixed and toxic wastes has been developed. The strength and low cost of carbon steel has been combined with the corrosion and abrasion resistance of a proprietary combination of polymers to provide an inexpensive alternative to currently available waste containers. The initial development effort has focused on a 55-gallon container, the B and W ECOSAFE-55 tm . However, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) can develop a family of ECOSAFE waste containers using this technology to accommodate user-preferred configurations and volumes. The containers will be capable of accepting a wide range of low-level radioactive (LLRW) and industrial waste forms. Basic engineering design analyses and functional tests were performed to show compliance of the container with transportation functional requirements. These tests and analyses, along with chemical resistance tests, qualify the container for use in storing a wide range of radioactive and chemical wastes. For the container to be licensed for use as a high-integrity container in shallow land, low-level radioactive waste burial facilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires certain tests and analyses to demonstrate that container gross physical properties and identity can be maintained for 300 years. This paper describes the container concept in generic terms and provides information on the initial, ECOSAFE-55 container design, testing and engineering analysis efforts

  18. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  19. Rapid storage and retrieval of genomic intervals from a relational database system using nested containment lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Laura K; Sivley, R Michael; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of genomic annotations based on range intervals is necessary, given the amount of data produced by next-generation sequencing studies. The indexing strategies of relational database systems (such as MySQL) greatly inhibit their use in genomic annotation tasks. This has led to the development of stand-alone applications that are dependent on flat-file libraries. In this work, we introduce MyNCList, an implementation of the NCList data structure within a MySQL database. MyNCList enables the storage, update and rapid retrieval of genomic annotations from the convenience of a relational database system. Range-based annotations of 1 million variants are retrieved in under a minute, making this approach feasible for whole-genome annotation tasks. Database URL: https://github.com/bushlab/mynclist.

  20. Spray polyurea coatings as containment liners in coal slurry storage ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, J.W.; Loomis, R.; Roehm, F.T. [Willamette Valley Co., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Mohave Generating Station was built in the early 1970`s in response to the shortage of oil due to the OPEC boycott. Coal/water slurry from the Black Mesa Pipeline is used to generate energy at the plant. Eight storage ponds, each about 175,000 square feet, were built in the mid to late 1970`s to insure a constant supply of slurry to feed the generating units. This paper describes the application of POLYQuik{trademark} P400 spray polyurea coating to the Marcona Pond, a coal slurry storage area at Southern California Edison`s Mohave Generating Station. The coating forms an impermeable barrier to prevent water loss and contamination of subgrade soils. The use of these coatings reduces facility downtime and liner replacement costs, offering a cost savings over the life of the pond.

  1. Criticality analysis of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) fuel storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, J S [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    The ACPR fuel storage rack is a water moderated steel frame assembly with aluminum guide tubes and grid plates. The rack has a capacity for 90 fuel elements - 10 rows of 9 elements each. A section, four inches wide, in the center of the rack is reserved for a neutron source and detectors. Quarter-inch boral plate separates each row of fuel elements from its adjacent row(s). The storage rack was analyzed by generating cell-disadvantaged cross sections for the fuel element rows so that the rows could be treated as homogeneous regions in slab geometry. The rack could then be described in one dimension as a series of parallel slab regions with buckling corrections for the uniform width and height of the rows. The DTF-4 code (S{sub N} transport theory) and 16 energy group cross sections were used for the neutron transport calculations yielding a multiplication factor k{sub eff} = 0.446. Further calculations were performed on the fully loaded storage array to assess its subcriticality on the basis of geometry alone, i.e., without taking credit for any burnable or removable poisons such as the boral plates. For these calculations the boral plates were replaced with water and the multiplication factor increased markedly, k{sub eff} = 0.945. Criticality guides (e.g., ANSI N16.5, February 1973) indicate that computed neutron multiplication factors for storage arrays should be <0.95 using validated computational techniques. To demonstrate conclusively that the 0.95 limit is satisfied on the basis of geometry alone, additional calculations (e.g., three dimensional Monte Carlo) or experimental verification may be necessary since there has been no attempt to estimate the error introduced by the one- dimensional model or the cross section. (author)

  2. Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela García, José Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent control scheme for DC voltage regulationin a DC micro-grid integrating photovoltaic (PV) generation, energy storage and electric loads. The maximum power generation of the PV panel is followed using the incremental conductance (IC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm while a high-performance local linear controller (LLC)is developed for the DC voltage control in the micro-grid.The LLC, as a data-driven control strategy, controls the bidirectional c...

  3. Criticality analysis of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) fuel storage container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    The ACPR fuel storage rack is a water moderated steel frame assembly with aluminum guide tubes and grid plates. The rack has a capacity for 90 fuel elements - 10 rows of 9 elements each. A section, four inches wide, in the center of the rack is reserved for a neutron source and detectors. Quarter-inch boral plate separates each row of fuel elements from its adjacent row(s). The storage rack was analyzed by generating cell-disadvantaged cross sections for the fuel element rows so that the rows could be treated as homogeneous regions in slab geometry. The rack could then be described in one dimension as a series of parallel slab regions with buckling corrections for the uniform width and height of the rows. The DTF-4 code (S N transport theory) and 16 energy group cross sections were used for the neutron transport calculations yielding a multiplication factor k eff = 0.446. Further calculations were performed on the fully loaded storage array to assess its subcriticality on the basis of geometry alone, i.e., without taking credit for any burnable or removable poisons such as the boral plates. For these calculations the boral plates were replaced with water and the multiplication factor increased markedly, k eff = 0.945. Criticality guides (e.g., ANSI N16.5, February 1973) indicate that computed neutron multiplication factors for storage arrays should be <0.95 using validated computational techniques. To demonstrate conclusively that the 0.95 limit is satisfied on the basis of geometry alone, additional calculations (e.g., three dimensional Monte Carlo) or experimental verification may be necessary since there has been no attempt to estimate the error introduced by the one- dimensional model or the cross section. (author)

  4. Evaluation of retrieval activities and equipment for removal of containers from the transuranic storage area retrieval enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannister, R.; Rhoden, G.; Davies, G.B.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1970, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has accepted over 55,000 cubic meters of Transuranic contaminated hazardous waste for interim storage. The waste has been neatly stored in ''cell'' configurations on adjoining, above ground asphalt pads at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). A number of reports have been supplied for review and comment describing the methodology and equipment proposed for retrieval of drums and boxes from a storage facility at the INEL site. The contract for this review requires two main issues to be addressed. First, the adequacy of equipment and methodology for the retrieval of containers which have been breached, lost structural integrity, or are otherwise damaged, Second, to review the strategies and equipment for retrieval of intact waste containers. These issues are presented in the following report along with additional detail in the methodology to complete the description of the operations required for retrieval under most operational scenarios. The documentation reviewed is considered to be at an interim stage and is therefore expected to be subject to the development of the methodology from the existing level of detail with input from the facility operators. This review aims to anticipate some of this development by providing suggested detailed methods of retrieval and equipment for both normal and abnormal operations

  5. Nuclear-criticality safety analysis of the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant birdcage-type containers for intraplant storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowiak, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant birdcage-type containers include a family of cubic (20-, 24-, and 30-inch) open-framed containers used for the in-house storage and transfer of unirradiated enriched uranium metal. This paper provides insight into the nuclear criticality safety analysis for birdcage usage. All credible contingencies (abnormal events) were analyzed and proven safe (subcritical) in accordance with the requirements and procedures of nuclear criticality safety standards. Examples of the contingencies considered in the analysis include, but are not limited to, full water reflection of any single uranium mass loading, double batching of a loading, water moderation, and misuse of the birdcage. These and other applicable contingencies determine the maximum uranium mass for the 20- and 24-inch birdcages, which is 20 and 28 kilograms, respectively. The maximum number of birdcages stored at one location and the storage array configuration are also determined by the credible contingencies. Stacking restrictions for birdcage storage are three high for the 20-inch birdcage and two high for the 24-inch birdcage. A maximum size for square-based arrays is ten feet by ten feet. Any number of these arrays may be used provided a twelve-foot separation is maintained between each array. Such a storage arrangement results in a floor utilization of 0.42 birdcages per square foot. Better floor utilization, i.e., more birdcages per square foot, is possible with other array configurations that are not square-based. Physical as well as administrative controls, procedures, training, and audits are used to ensure these basic criteria are observed. 1 table

  6. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC

  7. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki [‘Materials - Technologies’ Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, Universidad País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pza Europa 1, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, Centro, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos (Brazil); Oyanguren, Patricia [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Galante, María J., E-mail: galant@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC.

  8. Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

  9. Development and storage studies of high density macrocapsules containing Lactobacillus spp. strains as nutritional supplement in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astesana, Diego M; Zimmermann, Jorge A; Frizzo, Laureano S; Zbrun, María V; Blajman, Jesica E; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero-Scharpen, Analía; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Soto, Lorena P

    2018-03-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different production methodologies of probiotic macrocapsules with high bacterial densities destined to lactating calves. Three types of capsules containing Lactobacillus casei DSPV318T and Lactobacillus plantarum DSPV354T were prepared from an overnight culture in whey medium: (1) mixing the culture with calcium alginate and then, reincubating the capsules in whey (RC); (2) concentrating the biomass by centrifugation and mixing the pellet with calcium alginate (CC) at different concentrations with respect to the initial culture (5X and 12.5X); (3) CC with cryoprotectants: whey permeate (Per) and glycerol (Gly). Chitosan coating was evaluated. Capsules were freeze-dried and viability was assessed before freezing, after freeze-drying and every two weeks for 84 days of storage at room temperature, 4°C and -20°C. CC showed higher cell densities than RC. Storage temperature affected viability: greater viability at lower temperature. Moreover, the effect of temperature was influenced by other factors, such as capsule coating, culture neutralization and cryoprotectants. Coating improved viability at room temperature; however no effect was observed at 4°C. Culture neutralization allowed greater survival during storage. Cryoprotectants improved viability during freezing, but they also generated a positive or negative effect depending on storage temperature. The best results were: at refrigeration Gly12.5X exhibited counts above 10 9 CFU/capsule until day 70 and Per12.5X until day 56 of storage and at -20°C Gly12.5X showed counts above 10 9 CFU/capsule until the end of the study (84 days). A 10 9 CFU capsule is the daily dose per calf which would facilitate the administration of this probiotic inoculum to field animals. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Report on the performance monitoring system for the interim waste containment at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is an interim storage site for low-level radioactive waste, established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Lewiston, New York. The waste containment structure for encapsulating low-level radioactive waste at the NFSS has been designed to minimize infiltration of rainfall, prevent pollution of groundwater, preclude formation of leachate, and prevent radon emanation. Accurately determining the performance of the main engineered elements of the containment structure will be important in establishing confidence in the ability of the structure to retain the wastes. For this purpose, a waste containment performance monitoring system has been developed to verify that these elements are functioning as intended. The key objective of the performance monitoring system is the early detection of trends that could be indicative of weaknesses developing in the containment structure so that corrective action can be taken before the integrity of the structure is compromised. Consequently, subsurface as well as surface monitoring techniques will be used. After evaluating several types of subsurface instrumentation, it was determined that vibrating wire pressure transducers, in combination with surface monitoring techniques, would satisfactorily monitor the parameters of concern, such as water accumulation inside the containment facility, waste settlement, and shrinkage of the clay cover. Surface monitoring will consist of topographic surveys based on predetermined gridlines, walkover surveys, and aerial photography to detect vegetative stress or other changes not evident at ground level. This report details the objectives of the performance monitoring system, identifies the elements of the containment design whose performance will be monitored, describes the monitoring system recommended, and outlines the costs associated with the monitoring system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Assessment of furnaces including fuel storage facilities according to the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, G.; Ott, H.; Wunderlich, O.; Mair, K.

    1990-01-01

    Existing quantities of substances pursuant to Annex II of the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance in furnaces or in fuel storage facilities do not present a general hazard for fireplaces fired with coal, wood, heavy and light fuel oil within the meaning of the Accident Ordinance. In case of a fire in a storage facility for black coal, brown coal, untreated wood, light and heavy fuel oil, a general hazard on account of the release of developed substances is obviously excluded. Dispersion calculations pursuant to VDI 3783 have shown that concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, nickel, cobalt and mercury compounds in the vicinity of the fire source are so small that a general hazard can be excluded. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Stabilization and control of tie-line power flow of microgrid including wind generation by distributed energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M.G.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    High penetration of wind generation in electrical microgrids causes fluctuations of tie-line power flow and significantly affects the power system operation. This can lead to severe problems, such as system frequency oscillations, and/or violations of power lines capability. With proper control, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) integrated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to significantly enhance the dynamic security of the power system. This paper proposes the use of a SMES system in combination with a DSTATCOM as effective distributed energy storage (DES) for stabilization and control of the tie-line power flow of microgrids incorporating wind generation. A new detailed model of the integrated DSTATCOM-SMES device is derived and a novel three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed control schemes is fully validated using MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  13. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers

  14. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P 

  15. Thermal and shielding layout of the transport and storage container Asse TB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, W.; Muth, M.; Gross, S.; Pfeifer, S.; Kolditz, H.

    1985-01-01

    A large spectrum has been devoted to the general questions of the thermal and radiological calculations, the nuclide content of the different types of waste and to the layout of an optimum transport container. This also concerns the considerations in case of fire, since upon inserting a transport container into a mine particular importance is attached to the possible liberation of toxic materials under these circumstances. It was possible to construct a transport container with a weight less than 10 t in such a way that it is suitable to transport and store the planned vitrified HLW according to DWK-specifications in a final repository borehole. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Plugging Effects on Depressurization Time in Dry Storage Containers with Pinhole Breaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, Andrew M.; LOYALKA, SUDARSHAN K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2006-01-01

    As continuation on previous work, we now examine the effect that aerosol deposition may have on plugging pinhole breaches in spent fuel containers. A model is developed considering only diffusive settling

  17. Design, Fabrication and Testing of the MICOM-ISU Shipping and Storage Container

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilreath, Jason

    1997-01-01

    .... This is an unpainted, welded, controlled breathing, aluminum container. It is a low base design with an internal cradle system that is mounted to the base via four stainless steel cable or flex mounts...

  18. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  19. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  20. A fracture mechanics safety concept to assess the impact behavior of ductile cast iron containers for shipping and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzke, H.; Roedel, R.; Droste, B.

    1994-01-01

    Within the scope of the German licensing procedures for shipping and storage containers for radioactive materials made of ductile cast iron, BAM performs approval design tests including material tests to ensure the main safety goals of shielding, leaktightness and subcriticality under ''Type B accident conditions''. So far the safety assessment concept of BAM is based essentially on the experimental proof of container strength by prototype testing under most damaging test conditions in connection with complete approval design tests, and has been developed especially for cylindrical casks like CASTOR- and TN-design. In connection with the development of new container constructions such as ''cubic cast containers'', and the fast developments in the area of numerical calculation methods, there is a need for a more flexible safety concept especially considering fracture mechanics aspects.This paper presents the state of work at BAM for such an extended safety concept for ductile cast iron containers, based on a detailed brittle fracture safe design proof. The requirements on stress analysis (experimental or numerical), material properties, material qualification, quality assurance provisions and fracture mechanics safety assessment, including well defined and justified factors of safety, are described. ((orig.))

  1. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  2. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  3. Non-destructive evaluation of nuclear material storage container integrity using an acoustic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.F.; Pechersky, M.J.; Raju, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    A non-intrusive method for determining the gas mixture in a sealed container using acoustics has been conceived. Analysis has shown that it is possible to both excite the acoustic resonance of the gas cavity, and detect when resonance occurs from the outside surface of the container. The resonant frequency of the acoustic cavity is dependent on the molecular weight of the gas that fills it. A change in the mixture of gases within the cavity alters the gas molecular weight and can produce a detectable change in the resonant frequency of the cavity. This concept provides a method of monitoring and/or analyzing the gas mixture in a sealed container without taking physical samples. An advantage of this technique is that it eliminates safety and contamination risks associated with breaching a pressure boundary and taking a sample of potentially hazardous gases in order to monitor or analyze the mixture

  4. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Modeling property evolution of container materials used in nuclear waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Moe; Sun, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Container materials under irradiation for a long time will raise high energy in the structure to generate critical structural damage. This study investigated what kind of mesoscale microstructure will be more resistant to radiation damage. Mechanical properties evolution during irradiation was modeled using statistical continuum mechanics. Preliminary results also showed how to achieve the desired microstructure with higher resistance to radiation.

  6. Analysis to the criticality the storage and containers to the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.

    1998-01-01

    Presently analysis the criticality the warehouses and containers the nuclear fuels in Juragua nuclear power plant the property multiplicity determined in these system and it is verified that for the geometry and operation conditions defined in the design as well as in accidents situations, the arrangement the fuel stays subcritical with an appropriate margin

  7. PFP vault operations containers for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function

  8. The Container Tree Nursery Manual: Volume 7, Seedling processing, storage, and outplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese; Diane L. Haase

    2010-01-01

    This manual is based on the best current knowledge of container nursery management and should be used as a general reference. Recommendations were made using the best information available at the time and are, therefore, subject to revision as more knowledge becomes available. Much of the information in this manual was primarily developed from information on growing...

  9. CASTOR registered HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B.

    2004-01-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR registered HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR registered HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR registered HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be considered. For the CASTOR

  10. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; University of California, Riverside, CA; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this paper, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance–voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Finally, our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  11. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  12. Fracture mechanics aspects in the safe design of ductile iron shipping and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Bounin, D.

    1996-01-01

    Containers made of ductile cast iron provide a safe method for transport of radioactive material. Contrary to widespread opinion ductile cast iron is a very tough material and can be manufactured in heavy sections. The containers are designed to withstand the very high impact loads of accidents like free drops onto unyielding targets. The design is based on postulated undetected crack-like flaws at the highest stressed location. Design must show that applied stress intensities are smaller than fracture toughness and no crack initiation and therefore also no crack propagation can occur. The design procedure followed in this paper is given in a new guideline still being drafted by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  13. Experimental validation of control strategies for a microgrid test facility including a storage system and renewable generation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The paper is aimed at describing and validating some control strategies in the SYSLAB experimental test facility characterized by the presence of a low voltage network with a 15 kW-190 kWh Vanadium Redox Flow battery system and a 11 kW wind turbine. The generation set is connected to the local...... network and is fully controllable by the SCADA system. The control strategies, implemented on a local pc interfaced to the SCADA, are realized in Matlab-Simulink. The main purpose is to control the charge/discharge action of the storage system in order to present at the point of common coupling...... the desired power or energy profiles....

  14. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  15. Development of a re-brazeable containment system for special nuclear material storage and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Stephens, J.J.; Walker, C.A.; Hosking, F.M.; Curlee, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a novel means of closing and sealing small type B radioactive material transport packages for surface or air transport as governed by 10CFR71 or NUREG-0360 has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This method is a controlled brazing process that may be used to attach and seal a closure lid to a containment vessel and then remove it at a later time. The process may be performed multiple times without the need for special preparations of the braze joint. A number of advantages for utilization of this technique have been determined. A brazed seal has integrity at high temperatures for better protection in accident or abnormal environments. A properly designed joint has essentially the same strength as the parent metal. A closure that is brazed, therefore, will no longer be the anticipated point of failure for a broad range of accident environments. This technique will allow the containment vessel design to be optimized with a lighter, more uniform wall thickness throughout. Finally, with a well defined process for sealing, mechanical inspection, leak testing, and then reopening at a later time, automation of the process is relatively straightforward and the overall system should be as easy to use as one that utilizes elastomeric seals for containment

  16. Ensuring preservation of nuclear materials at RT plant storage facilities by upgrading physical protection, containment (TID) and TV surveillance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The upgrading of nuclear material (NM) physical protection system of storage facilities for plutonium dioxide has been carried out in the frame of contract between Sandia National Laboratories and PA Mayak. The implementation of this project is of great importance for ensuring the preservation of NM in storage. The project envisages a complex approach to the solution of the task: the use of engineered fences, detection means, observation devices, access and control thereof for the personnel; the organization of security force in such way that to give a possibility to take adequate and purposeful actions towards possible adversaries. The design includes upgrading the system for physical protection through the introduction of modern, efficient engineering devices for security, integrated system for access control and security, the system for TV surveillance [ru

  17. High polymer composites for containers for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Vui, V.T.; Legault, J.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of using polymeric composite materials as an alternative to metals in the design of a nuclear waste disposal container was examined. The disposal containers would be stored in deep underground vaults in plutonic rock formations within the Canadian Shield for several thousands of years. The conditions of disposal considered in the evaluation of the polymeric composite materials were based on the long-term disposal concept proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Four different composites were considered for this work, all based on boron fibre as reinforcing material, imbedded in polymeric matrices made of polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Devcon 10210 epoxy, and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Both PS and PMMA were determined as unsuitable for use in the fabrication of the storage container because of thermal failure. This was determined following thermal analysis of the materials in which heat transfer calculations yielded the temperature of the container wall and of the surroundings resulting from the heat generated by the spent nuclear fuel stored inside the container. In the case of the PS, the temperature of the container, the buffer and the backfill would exceed the 100 degrees C imposed in the AECL's proposal as the maximum allowable. In the case of the PMMA, the 100 degrees temperature is too close to the glass transition temperature of this material (105 degrees C) and would cause structural degradation of the container wall. The other two materials present acceptable thermal characteristics for this application. An important concern for polymeric materials in such use is their resistance to radiations. The Devcon 10210 epoxy has been the object of research at the Royal Military College in the past years and fair, but limited, resistance to both neutrons and gamma radiation has been demonstrated, with the evidence of increased mechanical strength when subjected to moderate doses. Provided that the container wall could be

  18. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  20. Closure for container, especially for the storage and transport of radioactive and/or toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuester, K.; Peters, R.

    1988-01-01

    The closure consists of a rotating valve in a housing which is rotatable around its axis and provided with a boring vertical to its circumference. For loading and unloading the boring can be aligned with the feeding shaft of the container by turning the rotating valve. The rotating valve exhibits a closed hollow roll. At both ends the boring is made up of a guide tube crossing the hollow roll in a radial direction and ending in the jacket of the hollow roll. A radial stand shaft with open ending in the jacket of the hollow roll is provided. The shaft is inserted into a recess covering part of the hollow roll jacket and its walls are connected with the jacket of the guide tube. By this closure it is possible to obtain a minimum overall height and optimum shielding without additional measures. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Preparation and characterization of macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pengju; Lu, Lixin; Qiu, Xiaolin; Tang, Yali; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the comprehensive evaluation of promising composite macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) with calcium alginate gels as the matrix material. Macrocapsules containing microcapsules were fabricated by piercing-solidifying incuber method. Two kinds of microcapsules with n-tetradecane as core material, UF (urea-formaldehyde) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) respectively as shell materials were prepared initially. For application concerns, thermal durability and mechanical property of macrocapsules were investigated by TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) and Texture Analyser for the first time, respectively. The results showed excellent thermal stability and the compressive resistance of macrocapsules was sufficient for common application. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared microcapsules and macrocapsules were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FT-IR (fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy method. Phase change behaviors and thermal durability of microcapsules and macrocapsules were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In order to improve latent heat of composite microcapsules, the core-shell weight ratio of tetradecane/UF shell microcapsules was chosen as 5.5:1 which obtained the phase change enthalpy of 194.1 J g −1 determined by DSC. In conclusion, these properties make it a feasible composite in applications of textile, building and cold-chain transportation. - Highlights: • We improved the phase change enthalpy with a higher core-shell ratio. • Urea-formaldehyde was firstly used as a shell material in the composite. • Mechanical and thermal durability property of the macrocapsules was firstly investigated in our work.

  2. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  3. Storage of Buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets prepared by the novel TACSI system and stored in plastic containers with different gas permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, P; Hild, M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-11-01

    The novel TACSI system is designed for automated preparation of platelets (PLTs) from pooled buffy coats (BCs). One TACSI device will handle 6 units at the same time. The aim of our in vitro study is to investigate the effects of using this automated equipment with subsequent storage in two different plastic containers and to compare these results with PLTs prepared by the OrbiSac system. Buffy-coat-derived PLTs (n=8) were prepared by using the TACSI system, including storage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based plastic containers with di, n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) (TACSI R) and BTHC (TACSI T)-based plasticizers. As a reference, the OrbiSac System was used to prepare PLTs (n=8) with subsequent storage in a PVC plastic container with a citrate-based plasticizer (BTHC). In total, 16 TACSI and eight reference units, supplied by approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+, were analysed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in PLT counts, LDH, mean platelet volume (MPV) and adenosine triphosphate between the groups was detected. Glucose was lower (P6·8 (day 7) and swirling remained at the highest level (score=2) for all units throughout storage. Platelets prepared by the TACSI system with subsequent storage in two different PVC-based plastic containers were equivalent to reference PLTs with regard to in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Development of a high integrity container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzworth, R.E.; Chapman, R.L.; Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    The EPICOR II ion exchange system used to decontaminate approximately 1900 m 3 of contaminated water in the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building (AFHB) generated 50 highly loaded and 22 lesser loaded organic resin liners. The 22 lesser loaded resins were shipped to a commercial disposal site, but the highly loaded liners have been stored on the island since their generation. One highly loaded liner, or prefilter, was shipped to Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) in May, 1981 as part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Three Mile Island Information and Examination Program. The prefilter is being characterized to determine the behavior of the waste form with respect to time and the internal environment and to provide an information base for use in management and regulatory decisions relative to the storage, processing, and disposal of these wastes. Due to the unique characteristics of these wastes, the US DOE is sponsoring programs, such as the BCL Sorbent Experiments Program, to evaluate their characteristics and to provide a High Integrity Container (HIC) Development Program which would improve waste suitability for disposal at a land burial facility. This paper addresses regulatory considerations, establishment of design criteria, proposed design concepts, system demonstration, and status of the HIC Development Program for storage, transportation, and disposal of high specific activity, low level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II as typified by EPICOR II ion exchange media and liners

  5. Physical and mechanical characterization of gypsum boards containing phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver-Ramírez, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the design and manufacture of a gypsum board which, despite its 45 % wt content of phase change materials, meets the minimum physical and mechanical requirements laid down in the legislation on gypsum plasters (Spanish and European standard UNE EN 13279 and Spanish specifications for gypsum acceptance, RY 85. Under this design, a one-metre square, 1.5-cm thick board contains 4.75 kg of PCM, much more than in any prior drylining (the maximum attained to date is 3 kg per m2. The mechanical and physical characteristics of this new composite were previously improved with two joint-action additives: polypropylene fibres and melamine formaldehyde as a dispersing agent. In the 20-30 ºC temperature range, a gypsum board 1.5 cm thick containing this percentage of PCMs can store five times more thermal energy than conventional plasterboard of the same thickness, and the same amount of energy as half-foot hollow brick masonry.

    En esta investigación se ha diseñado y fabricado un panel de escayola que incorpora un 45% en peso de material de cambio de fase, manteniendo las propiedades físicas y mecánicas exigidas en la normativa de aplicación para yesos de construcción (UNE EN 13279 y referencias a la RY 85. Así, un panel de 1,0 m2 y 1,5 cm de espesor, contiene 4,75 kg de PCM, cantidad muy superior a la conseguida hasta la fecha (3 kg/m2. Para ello se ha mejorado previamente sus prestaciones mecánicas y físicas mediante adiciones binarias: fibras de polipropileno y dispersión de melanina formaldehído. Este porcentaje es capaz de almacenar en 1,5 cm de espesor cinco veces la energía térmica de un panel de cartón yeso con el mismo espesor y la misma cantidad que una fábrica de 1/2 pie de ladrillo hueco, en el rango de temperaturas próximas a la de confort (20-30 ºC.

  6. An optimal hydrogen control analysis for the in-containment refueling storage tank (IRWST) of the Korean next generation reactor (KNGR) containment under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Chul, Lee; Hee-Jin, Ko; Se-Won, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Under severe accidents that a large amount of hydrogen is expected to release, the In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) air space has more worse condition with respect to the hydrogen control since, as one of hydrogen source compartment, normally it is separated from the other compartments and has relatively small volume. The hydrogen concentrations in the IRWST gas space, when the hydrogen was directly released into this area, were analyzed using the MAAP4 code in order to investigate if locally very high concentrations could be reduced so that inadvertent detonation or detonation-to-deflagration (DDT) in this area might be prevented. For this purpose, the thermo-hydraulic and combustion phenomena being capable of occurring in the IRWST were also considered. As a result of numerical calculations with 12-compartment containment model, the time duration that the flammable gas mixture was formed was greatly decreased via oxygen-starved or steam-rich conditions, although instantaneously peak concentration itself could not be avoided. Moreover, if the diffusion flame or steam stripping can be occurred in the IRWST, it was expected to have more chance to control the hydrogen in the IRWST gas space. After the hydrogen finished to be rapidly released, the hydrogen in this area could be controlled by the PARs' hydrogen depletion and by igniter's deliberate burning. Especially, the review on the analyses for two typical, but most probable sequences of quite a different hydrogen release modes gives an insight that the flammable gas mixture in the IRWST can be avoid by rapid depressurization operation, which is recommendable for being implemented into accident management program. (authors)

  7. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.31 Inspection and... maintenance program must include procedures to assure that Type B packages are shipped and maintained in...

  8. The decontamination of soft-plated nickel surfaces compared to alternative surface materials used in radioactive transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicky, H.U.; Bedenig, D.O.; Bohringer, I.M.; Petrik, F.

    1983-01-01

    Surfaces of raw, nickel-plated, and epoxy-coated spheroidal graphite cast iron, together with stainless steel, were contaminated with a modified fission product solution then conditioned by heat treatment. This was followed by a variety of simple decontamination techniques. It was shown that the ease of removal of contaminations similar to those expected on a dry storage container surface is significantly affected by the roughness of the surface. The raw cast iron surface was virtually impossible to significantly decontaminate. Highest decontamination factors were obtained on nickel-plated and epoxy-painted surfaces using steam/detergent mixtures. Stainless steel only performed well in a polished condition. In a supplementary irradiation experiment, scanning electron microscopy indicated visible decomposition of an epoxy-painted surface at a gamma dose of 3.1 X 10 6 Gy (3.1 X 10 8 rad). A nickel-plated surface did not undergo any visible changes at the same dose

  9. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification

  12. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials

  13. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  14. Thermo-economic optimization of the impact of renewable generators on poly-generation smart-grids including hot thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Greco, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a poly-generation grid including thermal storage and renewable generators. ► We analyze the impact of random renewable generators on the grid performance. ► We carry out the grid optimization using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. ► We present the importance of the storage system to optimize the RES impact. - Abstract: In this paper, the impact of not controllable renewable energy generators (wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels) on the thermo-economic optimum performance of poly-generation smart grids is investigated using an original time dependent hierarchical approach. The grid used for the analysis is the one installed at the University of Genoa for research activities. It is based on different prime movers: (i) 100 kWe micro gas turbine, (ii) 20 kWe internal combustion engine powered by gases to produce both electrical and thermal (hot water) energy and (iii) a 100 kWth adsorption chiller to produce cooling (cold water) energy. The grid includes thermal storage tanks to manage the thermal demand load during the year. The plant under analysis is also equipped with two renewable non-controllable generators: a small size wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels. The size and the management of the system studied in this work have been optimized, in order to minimize both capital and variable costs. A time-dependent thermo-economic hierarchical approach developed by the authors has been used, considering the time-dependent electrical, thermal and cooling load demands during the year as problem constraints. The results are presented and discussed in depth and show the strong interaction between fossil and renewable resources, and the importance of an appropriate storage system to optimize the RES impact taking into account the multiproduct character of the grid under investigation.

  15. Performance monitoring report for the Niagara Falls Storage Site Waste Containment Structure, Lewiston, New York: Calendar year 1987 and January--June of 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, J.A.; Johnson, R.T.; Stanley, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    A performance monitoring program has been developed for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) Waste Containment Structure (WCS). The WCS contains soils contaminated with residual radioactive materials, rubble, and radioactive residues removed from various areas of the NFSS and vicinity properties during remedial action conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) from 1982 through 1986. The NFSS is a part of the DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The purpose of the performance monitoring program is to verify that the WCS main engineering elements are functioning to minimize infiltration of rainfall; prevent pollution of groundwater; preclude formation of leachate; and prevent radon emanation. This report presents the findings of performance monitoring conducted at the WCS during calendar year 1987, and January through June of 1988. the data received during the initial performance monitoring period in 1986 (Ref. 3) established a baseline for interpretation contained in this report. The period covered by this report has been expanded to include 6 months in 1988 because the impact of the winter is most evident in the spring growing season. 5 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Process for introducing radioactive articles into a transport and/or storage container and transporting and/or storing the container and later extraction of the article from the container, and container for transporting and/or storing radioactive articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The articles, for example fuel elements, are introduced into the container and the remaining space inside the container is filled with lead, a salt or a mixture of salts of eutectic composition, which freezes at ambient temperature. This makes dry transport possible. To extract the fuel elements, it is sufficient to heat the container, which softens the protective and shielding material. The salt or mixture of salts is suitable for thermal conduction. (DG) [de

  17. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Reis DERCELI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate (COP10 with RelyX ARC (RX after mechanical cycling (MC and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8 according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h or 60 days (60 d, and the performance (MC+FS or not (only FS of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Results The obtained FS (MPa values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  18. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  19. Effects of time, temperature, and storage container on the growth of Fusarium species: implications for the worldwide Fusarium keratitis epidemic of 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, John D; Elder, B Laurel; Khamis, Harry J; Warwar, Ronald E

    2011-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of time, temperature, and container properties on the ability of ReNu with MoistureLoc (ReNuML; contains the antimicrobial agent alexidine) to inhibit growth of Fusarium species. ReNu with MoistureLoc was stored in its Bausch & Lomb (Rochester, New York) plastic or similarly sized glass containers for 1 and 4 weeks at room temperature, 42°C, and 56°C, and then tested for its ability to inhibit growth of 7 Fusarium isolates. ReNu with MoistureLoc stored in glass containers for 1 or 4 weeks at all 3 temperatures demonstrated no significant fungistatic deterioration. However, ReNuML stored at 56°C in its Bausch & Lomb plastic container demonstrated a statistically significant fungistatic deterioration compared with room temperature storage in its original plastic container or with glass container storage at any temperature. When exposed to elevated storage temperature, it appears that an interaction between ReNuML and its Bausch & Lomb plastic container adversely affects the fungistatic properties of ReNuML, which could have contributed to the Fusarium keratitis epidemic of 2004 through 2006.

  20. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks

  1. Impact simulation of liquid-filled containers including fluid-structure interaction--Part 2: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.

    1993-01-01

    In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validation of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained

  2. Comparative assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Aedes aegypti larvae and water from domestic water storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Nsa; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2014-08-24

    Domestic water storage containers constitute major Aedes aegypti breeding sites. We present for the first time a comparative analysis of the bacterial communities associated with Ae. aegypti larvae and water from domestic water containers. The 16S rRNA-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to identify and compare bacterial communities in fourth-instar Ae. aegypti larvae and water from larvae positive and negative domestic containers in a rural village in northeastern Thailand. Water samples were cultured for enteric bacteria in addition to TTGE. Sequences obtained from TTGE and bacterial cultures were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for analyses. Significantly lower OTU abundance was found in fourth-instar Ae. aegypti larvae compared to mosquito positive water samples. There was no significant difference in OTU abundance between larvae and mosquito negative water samples or between mosquito positive and negative water samples. Larval samples had significantly different OTU diversity compared to mosquito positive and negative water samples, with no significant difference between mosquito positive and negative water samples. The TTGE identified 24 bacterial taxa, belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and TM7 (candidate phylum). Seven of these taxa were identified in larval samples, 16 in mosquito positive and 13 in mosquito negative water samples. Only two taxa, belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, were common to both larvae and water samples. Bacilli was the most abundant bacterial class identified from Ae. aegypti larvae, Gammaproteobacteria from mosquito positive water samples, and Flavobacteria from mosquito negative water samples. Enteric bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were sparsely represented in TTGE, but were isolated from both mosquito positive and negative water samples by selective culture. Few bacteria from water samples were

  3. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  4. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  5. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Final report for PSO projekt; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Slutrapport for PSO-projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jens

    2006-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  6. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900

  7. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  8. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  9. Arrangement and statistics of storage containers of spent fuel for assemblies of the SFP of NPP-L V, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Vargas A, A. F.; Amador C, C.

    2014-10-01

    This work presents the determination of assemblies of the spent fuel pool (SFP) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) which are candidates to be assigned to storage containers of independent spent fuel, with the objective of liberating decay heat and to have more space in the SFP, for the store of retired assemblies of the reactors in future reloads of NPP-L V, besides that the removed assemblies of the SFP should be stored in specific containers to guarantee the physical safety of them, as well as the radiological protection to the population and the environment. The design of the containers considered in this work is to store a maximum of 69 assemblies; it has a thermal capacity of 26 kilowatts and allows storing assemblies with a minimum of 5 years of have been extracted of the reactor core. Is considered that in 2016 start the storage of the spent assemblies on the containers, the candidates assemblies to store cover from the first reload in 1991, until the assemblies deposited in the SFP in the 14 reload in 2010; therefore in 2016, such assemblies will have fulfilled with the criteria of 5 years of have been removed of the Reactor, also the 69 assemblies assigned to each container will have a resulting decay heat that does not exceed the thermal capacity of the container, but that in great percentage approximates to the same one, and this way to take full advantage of their storage capacity and thermal capacity for each container. This work also contains the arrangement to accommodate the assemblies in the containers; such arrangement is constituted by areas according to the decay heat of each assembly. (Author)

  10. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  11. Inhibition of biofilm formation on the surface of water storage containers using biosand zeolite silver-impregnated clay granular and silver impregnated porous pot filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budeli, Phumudzo; Moropeng, Resoketswe Charlotte; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy; Momba, Maggie Ndombo Benteke

    2018-01-01

    Development of biofilms occurring on the inner surface of storage vessels offers a suitable medium for the growth of microorganisms and consequently contributes to the deterioration of treated drinking water quality in homes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two point-of-use technologies (biosand zeolite silver-impregnated clay granular (BSZ-SICG) filter and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP) filter) deployed in a rural community of South Africa could inhibit the formation of biofilm on the surface of plastic-based containers generally used by rural households for the storage of their drinking water. Culture-based methods and molecular techniques were used to detect the indicator bacteria (Total coliforms, faecal coliform, E. coli) and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae) in intake water and on the surface of storage vessels containing treated water. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to visualize the development of biofilm. Results revealed that the surface water source used by the Makwane community was heavily contaminated and harboured unacceptably high counts of bacteria (heterotrophic plate count: 4.4-4.3 Log10 CFU/100mL, total coliforms: 2.2 Log10 CFU/100 mL-2.1 Log10 CFU/100 mL, faecal coliforms: 1.9 Log10 CFU/100 mL-1.8 Log10 CFU/100 mL, E. coli: 1.7 Log10 CFU/100 mL-1.6 Log10 CFU/100 mL, Salmonella spp.: 3 Log10 CFU/100 mL -8 CFU/100 mL; Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae had 1.0 Log10 CFU/100 mL and 0.8 Log10 CFU/100 mL respectively). Biofilm formation was apparent on the surface of the storage containers with untreated water within 24 h. The silver nanoparticles embedded in the clay of the filtration systems provided an effective barrier for the inhibition of biofilm formation on the surface of household water storage containers. Biofilm formation occurred on the surface of storage plastic vessels containing drinking water treated with the SIPP filter between 14 and 21 days, and on those

  12. Inhibition of biofilm formation on the surface of water storage containers using biosand zeolite silver-impregnated clay granular and silver impregnated porous pot filtration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropeng, Resoketswe Charlotte; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy; Momba, Maggie Ndombo Benteke

    2018-01-01

    Development of biofilms occurring on the inner surface of storage vessels offers a suitable medium for the growth of microorganisms and consequently contributes to the deterioration of treated drinking water quality in homes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two point-of-use technologies (biosand zeolite silver-impregnated clay granular (BSZ-SICG) filter and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP) filter) deployed in a rural community of South Africa could inhibit the formation of biofilm on the surface of plastic-based containers generally used by rural households for the storage of their drinking water. Culture-based methods and molecular techniques were used to detect the indicator bacteria (Total coliforms, faecal coliform, E. coli) and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae) in intake water and on the surface of storage vessels containing treated water. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to visualize the development of biofilm. Results revealed that the surface water source used by the Makwane community was heavily contaminated and harboured unacceptably high counts of bacteria (heterotrophic plate count: 4.4–4.3 Log10 CFU/100mL, total coliforms: 2.2 Log10 CFU/100 mL—2.1 Log10 CFU/100 mL, faecal coliforms: 1.9 Log10 CFU/100 mL—1.8 Log10 CFU/100 mL, E. coli: 1.7 Log10 CFU/100 mL—1.6 Log10 CFU/100 mL, Salmonella spp.: 3 Log10 CFU/100 mL -8 CFU/100 mL; Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae had 1.0 Log10 CFU/100 mL and 0.8 Log10 CFU/100 mL respectively). Biofilm formation was apparent on the surface of the storage containers with untreated water within 24 h. The silver nanoparticles embedded in the clay of the filtration systems provided an effective barrier for the inhibition of biofilm formation on the surface of household water storage containers. Biofilm formation occurred on the surface of storage plastic vessels containing drinking water treated with the SIPP filter between 14 and 21 days, and on

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  14. Transfer of radioactivity of HSA-containing samples of /sup 125/I insulin preparations during their storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopoldova, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague

    1982-10-01

    In /sup 125/I insulin preparations, preserved in the form of lyophilized solutions with human serum albumin, the transfer of radioactivity from the insulin molecules to the higher molecular weight fractions was observed. After one month storage this transfer corresponded to 7% of the total radioactivity and it increased proportionally to the length of the storage of iodinated preparations under simultaneous decrease of their biological activity. The results obtained with stored /sup 125/I insulin preparations and these preparations irradiated with external gamma-source were compared and discussed.

  15. Guide for the preparation of applications for licenses for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. Second proposed Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, N.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to provide assistance to applicants and licensees in preparing applications for new licenses, license amendments, and license renewals for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. These irradiators are constructed so that the sealed sources and the material being irradiated are contained in a shielded volume and there is no external radiation beam during the use of the irradiator. The radioisotopes most commonly used for these irradiators are cobalt-60 and cesium-137

  16. Relationship between Aedes aegypti production and occurrence of Escherichia coli in domestic water storage containers in rural and sub-urban villages in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Nsa; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Lenhart, Audrey; Stenström, Thor Axel; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Overgaard, Hans J

    2013-06-01

    In a cross-sectional survey in one rural and one suburban village each in Thailand and Laos the relationship between Aedes aegypti production and Escherichia coli contamination in household water storage containers was investigated. Entomological and microbiological surveys were conducted in 250 and 239 houses in Thailand and Laos, respectively. Entomological indices across all four villages were high, indicating a high risk for dengue transmission. Significantly more Ae. aegypti pupae were produced in containers contaminated with E. coli as compared to those that were not, with the odds of Ae. aegypti infested containers being contaminated with E. coli ranging from two to five. The level of E. coli contamination varied across container classes but contamination levels were not significantly associated with the number of pupae produced. We conclude that the observed relationship between Ae. aegypti production and presence of E. coli in household water storage containers suggests a causal relationship between dengue and diarrheal disease at these sites. How this relationship can be exploited for the combined and cost-effective control of dengue and diarrheal diseases requires further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditioning of cladding waste for long-term storage by press compaction and encapsulation in lead containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de

    1986-01-01

    The conditioning of compacted cladding waste has been based on the concept of a corrosion-resistant containment. The technique of press compaction in remote operation conditions has been demonstrated. Detailed specifications of the design of the container are discussed in the report. Testing procedures for the different containment parts have been developed and applied. The remote welding techniques of the stainless steel and lead-based parts of the containment have been investigated and reliable procedures are reported. A technique for remote leak-testing of welded containers is described. The report contains a series of pictures documenting the entire conditioning concept, starting from the dissolver basket at the reprocessing stage up to the final disposal container

  18. Numerical Heat Transfer Studies of a Latent Heat Storage System Containing Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Hosseinizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer enhancement in the latent heat thermal energy storage system through dispersion of nanoparticle is reported. The resulting nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCM exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity in comparison to the base material. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and some other parameters such as natural convection are studied in terms of solid fraction and the shape of the solid-liquid phase front. It has been found that higher nanoparticle volume fraction result in a larger solid fraction. The present results illustrate that the suspended nanoparticles substantially increase the heat transfer rate and also the nanofluid heat transfer rate increases with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. The increase of the heat release rate of the NEPCM shows its great potential for diverse thermal energy storage application.

  19. Effect of Chitosan Coating Containing Active Agents on Microbial Growth, Rancidity and Moisture Loss of Meatball During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto, Yudi; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Edible coatings based on chitosan were applied on meatball product in order to preserve quality during storages atambient and refrigeration temperatures. To improve its efficacy, chitosan coatings were incorporated with garlic oil0.2%, potassium sorbate 0.1 % and nisin 51,000 IU. The qualities of meatball assessed were total microbial growth, TBA value and percentage of moisture loss. All chitosan coatings suppressed microbial growth in meatball and strong- ly revealed when stored at refriger...

  20. Organic-Carbon Sequestration in Soil/Sediment of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain - Data; Landscape Distribution, Storage, and Inventory; Accumulation Rates; and Recent Loss, Including a Post-Katrina Preliminary Analysis (Chapter B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Buell, Gary R.; Britsch, Louis D.; McGeehin, John P.; Robbins, John A.; Wrenn, John H.; Dillon, Douglas L.; Fries, Terry L.; Morehead, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil/sediment of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) in southeastern Louisiana is rich in organic carbon (OC). The MRDP contains about 2 percent of all OC in the surface meter of soil/sediment in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Environments within the MRDP differ in soil/sediment organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rate, storage, and inventory. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) develop a database for OC and bulk density for MRDP soil/sediment; and (2) estimate SOC storage, inventory, and accumulation rates for the dominant environments (brackish, intermediate, and fresh marsh; natural levee; distributary; backswamp; and swamp) in the MRDP. Comparative studies were conducted to determine which field and laboratory methods result in the most accurate and reproducible bulk-density values for each marsh environment. Sampling methods included push-core, vibracore, peat borer, and Hargis1 sampler. Bulk-density data for cores taken by the 'short push-core method' proved to be more internally consistent than data for samples collected by other methods. Laboratory methods to estimate OC concentration and inorganic-constituent concentration included mass spectrometry, coulometry, and loss-on-ignition. For the sampled MRDP environments, these methods were comparable. SOC storage was calculated for each core with adequate OC and bulk-density data. SOC inventory was calculated using core-specific data from this study and available published and unpublished pedon data linked to SSURGO2 map units. Sample age was estimated using isotopic cesium (137Cs), lead (210Pb), and carbon (14C), elemental Pb, palynomorphs, other stratigraphic markers, and written history. SOC accumulation rates were estimated for each core with adequate age data. Cesium-137 profiles for marsh soil/sediment are the least ambiguous. Levee and distributary 137Cs profiles show the effects of intermittent allochthonous input and/or sediment resuspension. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data gave the most

  1. Container/Closure Integrity Testing and the Identification of a Suitable Vial/Stopper Combination for Low-Temperature Storage at -80 {degrees}C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Brigitte; Werner, Uwe; Kort, Alexander; Glowienka, Rene; Wehnes, Engelbert; Duncan, Derek

    2012-01-01

    It was recently found that after storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with rubber stoppers, a phenomenon was revealed which had not been observed before with other viral products stored at -20 °C: overpressure in the vials. As this phenomenon poses a serious safety problem for medical personnel as well as for the product itself, an investigation was initiated to identify the root cause of the overpressure. After exclusion of possible root causes (differences in air temperature or atmospheric air pressure during filling and quality control testing, outgassing from the formulation buffer) the remaining hypothesis involved a possible container closure integrity issue at low temperature. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of many rubber stopper formulations are in the range -55 to -70 °C. At storage temperatures below T(g), the rubber stopper loses its elastic properties and there is a risk that the seal integrity of the vial could be compromised. Loss of seal integrity of the vials near storage temperatures of -80 °C would result in an ingress of cold dense gas into the vial headspace. After removal of the vials from storage at -80 °C, the rubber stoppers could regain their elastic properties and the vials would quickly reseal, thereby trapping the ingressed gas, which leads to overpressure in the vial headspace. Nondestructive laser-based headspace analysis was used to investigate the maintenance of container closure integrity as a function of the filling and capping/crimping process, storage and transport conditions, and vial/stopper designs. This analytical method is based on frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and can be used for noninvasive headspace measurements of headspace pressure and headspace gas composition. Changes in the vial headspace composition and/or pressure are a clear marker for vials that have lost container closure integrity. After storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with

  2. A highly efficient silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance: a promising candidate for optical memory storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-12-10

    Diarylethene compounds are potential candidates for applications in optical memory storage systems and photoswitchable molecular devices; however, they usually show low photocycloreversion quantum yields, which result in ineffective erasure processes. Here, we present the first highly efficient photochromic silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance. The photochemical quantum yields for photocyclization and photocycloreversion of the compound are found to be high and comparable to each other; the latter of which is rarely found in diarylethene compounds. These would give rise to highly efficient photoswitchable material with effective writing and erasure processes. Incorporation of the silole moiety as a photochromic dithienylethene backbone also was demonstrated to enhance the thermal stability of the closed form, in which the thermal backward reaction to the open form was found to be negligible even at 100 °C, which leads to a promising candidate for use as photoswitchable materials and optical memory storage.

  3. Fundamental study on the melting process of crushed ice in a heat storage container; Chikunetsu sonai ni takuwaeta saihyo no yukai ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanadori, M; Kobori, H [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Y [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    This report deals with heat transfer in the melting process of crushed ice filling in a ice/water heat storage container. Volumetric heat transfer rate and melting end-time are measured when rectangular-type, small-stone-type and particle-type ice in the container are melted by circulation hot water. Melting end-time of small-stone-type ice is the shortest and that of particle-type ice is the latest. Volumetric heat transfer rate of small-stone-type ice and rectangular-type ice is larger than that of particle-type ice. The flow rate of circulation hot water throwing in container through a inlet pipe influences remarkably on heat transfer rate. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Sampling and Analysis of the Headspace Gas in 3013 Type Plutonium Storage Containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jay M.; Berg, John M.; Hill, Dallas D.; Worl, Laura A.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites have packaged approximately 5200 3013 containers to date. One of the requirements specified in DOESTD-3013, which specifies requirements for packaging plutonium bearing materials, is that the material be no greater than 0.5 weight percent moisture. The containers are robust, nested, welded vessels. A shelf life surveillance program was established to monitor these cans over their 50 year design life. In the event pressurization is detected by radiography, it will be necessary to obtain a head space gas sample from the pressurized container. This technique is also useful to study the head space gas in cans selected for random destructive evaluation. The atmosphere is sampled and the hydrogen to oxygen ratio is measured to determine the effects of radiolysis on the moisture in the container. A system capable of penetrating all layers of a 3013 container assembly and obtaining a viable sample of the enclosed gas and an estimate of internal pressure was designed.

  5. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  6. Manufacture of pooled platelets in additive solution and storage in an ELX container after an overnight warm temperature hold of platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhumaidan, Hiba; Cheves, Tracey; Holme, Stein; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2011-10-01

    The processing of whole blood-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to a platelet concentrate and platelet-poor plasma is currently performed within 8 hours to comply with the requirements to manufacture fresh frozen plasma. Maintaining PRP at room temperature for a longer period can have the advantage of shifting the completion of component manufacture onto day shifts. Pairs of ABO-identical prepooled platelets were manufactured by the PRP method, using the current approach with platelet storage in a CLX HP container (Pall Medical, Covina, CA) and plasma, or a novel approach with an 18- to a 24-hour room temperature hold of the PRP and the manufacture of pooled platelets in a glucose-containing additive solution (AS) and storage in a new ELX container (Pall Medical). Standard in vitro assays were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. The results showed that the AS platelets in ELX have in vitro characteristics that are equivalent or superior to those of the standard product.

  7. 7 CFR 205.307 - Labeling of nonretail containers used for only shipping or storage of raw or processed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT... of destination or the container labeling specifications of a foreign contract buyer: Provided, That...

  8. Use of computational fluid dynamics codes for safety analysis of nuclear reactor systems, including containment. Summary report of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Safety analysis is an important tool for justifying the safety of nuclear power plants. Typically, this type of analysis is performed by means of system computer codes with one dimensional approximation for modelling real plant systems. However, in the nuclear area there are issues for which traditional treatment using one dimensional system codes is considered inadequate for modelling local flow and heat transfer phenomena. There is therefore increasing interest in the application of three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes as a supplement to or in combination with system codes. There are a number of both commercial (general purpose) CFD codes as well as special codes for nuclear safety applications available. With further progress in safety analysis techniques, the increasing use of CFD codes for nuclear applications is expected. At present, the main objective with respect to CFD codes is generally to improve confidence in the available analysis tools and to achieve a more reliable approach to safety relevant issues. An exchange of views and experience can facilitate and speed up progress in the implementation of this objective. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) believed that it would be advantageous to provide a forum for such an exchange. Therefore, within the framework of the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents of the NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, the IAEA and the NEA agreed to jointly organize the Technical Meeting on the Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes for Safety Analysis of Reactor Systems, including Containment. The meeting was held in Pisa, Italy, from 11 to 14 November 2002. The publication constitutes the report of the Technical Meeting. It includes short summaries of the presentations that were made and of the discussions as well as conclusions and

  9. Long-Term Dry Storage of High Burn-Up Spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Fuel in TAD (Transportation, Aging, and Disposal) Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-12-01

    A TAD canister, in conjunction with specially-designed over-packs can accomplish the functions of transportation, aging, and disposal (TAD) in the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Industrial dry cask systems currently available for SNF are licensed for storage-only or for dual-purpose (i.e., storage and transportation). By extending the function to include the indefinite storage and perhaps, eventual geologic disposal, the TAD canister would have to be designed to enhance, among others, corrosion resistance, thermal stability, and criticality-safety control. This investigative paper introduces the use of these advanced iron-based, corrosion-resistant materials for SNF transportation, aging, and disposal.The objective of this investigative project is to explore the interest that KAERI would research and develop its specific SAM coating materials for the TAD canisters to satisfy the requirements of corrosion-resistance, thermal stability, and criticality-controls for long-term dry storage of high burn-up spent PWR fuel

  10. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  11. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  12. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  13. CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH/GNB, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be

  14. Ultrafine Nanocrystalline CeO2@C-Containing NaAlH4 with Fast Kinetics and Good Reversibility for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Ke; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2015-12-21

    A nanocrystalline CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite is successfully synthesized in situ by hydrogenating a NaH-Al mixture doped with CeO2@C. Compared with NaAlH4 , the as-prepared CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite, with a minor amount of excess Al, exhibits significantly improved hydrogen storage properties. The dehydrogenation onset temperature of the hydrogenated [NaH-Al-7 wt % CeO2@C]-0.04Al sample is 77 °C lower than that of the pristine sample because of a reduced kinetic barrier. More importantly, the dehydrogenated sample absorbs ∼4.7 wt % hydrogen within 35 min at 100°C and 10 MPa of hydrogen. Compositional and structural analyses reveal that CeO2 is converted to CeH2 during ball milling and that the newly formed CeH2 works with the excess of Al to synergistically improve the hydrogen storage properties of NaAlH4. Our findings will aid in the rational design of novel catalyst-doped complex hydride systems with low operating temperatures, fast kinetics, and long-term cyclability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Fokker-Planck treatment of stochastic particle motion within the framework of a fully coupled 6-dimensional formalism for electron-positron storage rings including classical spin motion in linear approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Mais, H.; Ripken, G.

    1991-12-01

    In the following report we investigate stochastic particle motion in electron-positron storage ring in the framework of a Fokker-Planck treatment. The motion is described by using the canonical variables χ, p χ , z, p z , σ = s - cxt, p σ = ΔE/E 0 of the fully six-dimensional formalism. Thus synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations are treated simultaneously taking into account all kinds of coupling (synchro-betatron coupling and the coupling of the betatron oscillations by skew quadrupoles and solenoids). In order to set up the Fokker-Planck equation, action-angle variables of the linear coupled motion are introduced. The averaged dimensions of the bunch, resulting from radiation damping of the synchro-betatron oscillations and from an excitation of these oscillations by quantum fluctuations, are calculated by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The surfaces of constant density in the six-dimensional phase space, given by six-dimensional ellipsoids, are determined. It is shown that the motion of such an ellipsoid under the influence of external fields can be described by six generating orbit vectors which may be combined into a six-dimenional matrix B(s). This 'bunch-shape matrix', B(s), contains complete information about the configuration of the bunch. Classical spin diffusion in linear approximation has also been included so that the dependence of the polarization vector on the orbital phase space coordinates can be studied and another derivation of the linearized depolarization time obtained. (orig.)

  16. Simulation of the heat transfer of a irradiated fuel storage container with code CFD STAR- CCM+; Simulacion de la transferencia de calor de un contenedor de almacenamiento de combustible irradiado con el codigo CFD STAR-CCM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera matalla, J. E.; Hernandez Gomez, J.; Riverala Gurruchaga, J.

    2012-07-01

    Irradiated fuel has become an object of interest in the industry by the importance of ensuring its safety during long periods of storage time. New containers, stores, methods and codes will be used to ensure a suitable cooling and residual heat removal, and secure the safety of fuel elements in dry storage. The codes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) have great potential to help in design of containers and stores, improving thermal-hydraulic performance and the extraction of heat generated.

  17. Process for the manufacture of a close internal liner for a transport and/or storage container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, W.; Brendel, K.; Schlich, E.; Srestlik, P.

    1984-01-01

    The floor and flange are inserted in the container body. The metal jacket rolled to the final dimension, which is provided with an axial slot, is positioned by pressing the slot together between the floor and the flange, and is then stress-relieved. The jacket is welded to the floor and the flange. The slot is covered by a suitable metal strip and this is welded to the jacket. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  19. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  20. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadykto, B.A. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Nizhni Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  4. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadykto, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  5. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  6. Predictive evaluation of pharmaceutical properties of direct compression tablets containing theophylline anhydrate during storage at high humidity by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuta; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideji; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline anhydrate (TA) in tablet formulation is transformed into monohydrate (TH) at high humidity and the phase transformation affected dissolution behavior. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIR) method is applied to predict the change of pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets during storage at high humidity. The tablet formulation containing TA, lactose, crystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate was compressed at 4.8 kN. Pharmaceutical properties of TA tables were measured by NIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, dissolution test and tablet hardness. TA tablet was almost 100% transformed into TH after 24 hours at RH 96%. The pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets, such as tablet hardness, 20 min dissolution amount (D20) and increase of tablet weight (TW), changed with the degree of hydration. Calibration models for TW, tablet hardness and D20 to predict the pharmaceutical properties at high-humidity conditions were developed on the basis of the NIR spectra by partial least squares regression analysis. The relationships between predicted and actual measured values for TW, tablet hardness and D20 had straight lines, respectively. From the results of NIR-chemometrics, it was confirmed that these predicted models had high accuracy to monitor the tablet properties during storage at high humidity.

  7. Group 4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  8. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packers employ used poultry crates for shipment of fresh vegetables, including cabbage and celery. Salmonella organisms are commonly present on dressed poultry and in excreta and fluid exudates from dressed birds. Thus wooden crates in which dressed poultry has been iced and packed are potential sources of...

  9. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  10. Difference in the Dissolution Behaviors of Tablets Containing Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) Depending on Pharmaceutical Formulation After Storage Under High Temperature and Humid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekuma, Yoh; Ishizaka, Haruka; Sumi, Masato; Sato, Yuki; Sugawara, Mitsuru

    Storage under high temperature and humid conditions has been reported to decrease the dissolution rate for some kinds of tablets containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as a disintegrant. The aim of this study was to elucidate the properties of pharmaceutical formulations with PVPP that cause a decrease in the dissolution rate after storage under high temperature and humid conditions by using model tablets with a simple composition. Model tablets, which consisted of rosuvastatin calcium or 5 simple structure compounds, salicylic acid, 2-aminodiphenylmethane, 2-aminobiphenyl, 2-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid or 4.4'-biphenol as principal agents, cellulose, lactose hydrate, PVPP and magnesium stearate as additives, were made by direct compression. The model tables were wrapped in paraffin papers and stored for 2 weeks at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH). Dissolution tests were carried out by the paddle method in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 16th edition. Model tablets with a simple composition were able to reproduce a decreased dissolution rate after storage at 40°C/75% RH. These tablets showed significantly decreased water absorption activities after storage. In the case of tablets without lactose hydrate by replacing with cellulose, a decreased dissolution rate was not observed. Carboxyl and amino groups in the structure of the principal agent were not directly involved in the decreased dissolution. 2-Benzylaniline tablets showed a remarkably decreased dissolution rate and 2-aminobiphenyl and 2-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid tablets showed slightly decreased dissolution rates, though 4,4'-biphenol tablets did not show a decrease dissolution rate. We demonstrated that additives and structure of the principal agent were involved in the decreased in dissolution rate for tablets with PVPP. The results suggested that one of the reasons for a decreased dissolution rate was the inclusion of lactose hydrate in tablets. The results also indicated that compounds as principal agents with low

  11. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This document, Volume 6 Book 1, contains information on design studies of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Topics include materials handling; processing; support systems; support utilities; spent fuel; high-level waste and alpha-bearing waste storage facilities; and field drywell storage

  12. Design, fabrication, installation and shielding integrity testing of source storage container for automatic source movement system used in TLD calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Baskar, S.; Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Jayshree, C.P.; Choudry, Shreelatha

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-art TLD laboratory has been commissioned in January 2000 at Radiological Safety Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). The laboratory provides personnel monitoring service to 2000 occupational workers from Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facilities. The laboratory has been accredited by the Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) since year 2002. The laboratory has exclusive facility for the calibration of the TLD cards. As apart of accreditation procedure and taking into account of geometry effect, the dose rate at the card position is determined by the accreditation authorities by using graphite chamber (secondary or national standard instrument) and often re estimated by a condenser R meter (M/s Victoreen, Germany) by our laboratory. As per the regulatory requirement, the exposure protocols should be automated. Towards this an automatic source movement system has been augmented in the calibration facility. By using the system, the source will be brought to the irradiation position by pneumatically and exposures will be terminated by counter, timer and triggering system. To accomplish this task a lead container has been designed, fabricated and mounted at the beneath of the calibration table for the storage of source. As per the automation process, a lead container for the source storage has been designed and installed beneath to the Calibration Table. The container was designed to hold a 3Ci 137 Cs source, but present activity of the source is 1.2Ci. Hence, the shielding integrity was tested with higher active source (1.7Ci 60 Co). The dose rate measured outside on the circumference of the container at the middle of the source is found to be the same as calculated using QAD CGGP calculations. The top plug is so designed to avoid inadvertent upward movement of the source. Though, the shielding was not adequate on top of the top plug, however it does

  13. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  15. Physicochemical stability of carfilzomib (Kyprolis®) containing solutions in glass vials, ready-to-administer plastic syringes and infusion bags over a 28-day storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Krämer, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Centralized aseptic preparation of ready-to-administer carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions in plastic syringes and polyolefine (PO) infusion bags needs profound knowledge about the physicochemical stability in order to determine the beyond-use-date of the preparations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of carfilzomib solution marketed as Kyprolis® powder for solution for infusion. Reconstituted solutions and ready-to-administer preparations of Kyprolis® stored under refrigeration (2-8℃) or at room temperature (25℃) were analyzed at predetermined intervals over a maximum storage period of 28 days. Chemical stability of carfilzomib was planned to be determined with a stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Physicochemical stability was planned to be determined by visual inspection of clarity and color as well as pH measurement. The study results show that reconstituted carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions are stable in glass vials as well as diluted solutions in plastic syringes and PO infusion bags over a period of at least 28 days when stored light protected under refrigeration. When stored at room temperature, reconstituted and diluted carfilzomib solutions are physicochemically stable over 14 days and 10 days, respectively. The physicochemical stability of carfilzomib infusion solutions allows cost-saving pharmacy-based centralized preparation of ready-to-administer preparations.

  16. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  17. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  18. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  20. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations

  1. Submersible energy storage apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccartney, J.F.; Rowe, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A submersible energy storage apparatus for an electrical power source is provided which includes an electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly and a fuel cell. The electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly includes a hydrogen container and an oxygen container wherein each container has a gas outlet and is capable of containing feed water as well as hydrogen and oxygen gases respectively. An electrolysis cell is provided which has a hydrogen outlet, an oxygen outlet and a feed water inlet. The hydrogen outlet is located in the hydrogen container, the oxygen outlet is located in the oxygen container, and the feed water inlet is located in one of the containers. Each of the containers has an opening to the submersible environment so as to be pressure responsive thereto. A barrier device is provided in association with the opening in each container for isolating the feed water in the container from water in the submersible environment. The fuel cell is operatively connected to the hydrogen and oxygen containers, and the electrical power source is operatively connected to the electrolysis cell. With this arrangement the electrolysis cell is capable of utilizing power from the power source during low electrical energy demand, and the fuel cell is capable of utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen gases for generating electricity during high demand periods

  2. Studies of corrosion in metallic container for storage of high level radioactive wastes; Estudios de corrosion de materiales metalicos para capsulas de almacenamiento de residuos de alta actividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azkarate, I; Madina, V; Insausti, M

    1999-11-01

    The metallic container is one of the most important barriers that, along with engineered and natural barriers, will isolate high level nuclear waste in saline and granite geological formations from the geosphere. However, general and localized corrosion modes such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), pitting, crevice corrosion and hydrogen damage can be active under disposal conditions, so the corrosion behaviour of the metal container material must be carefully studied. Several metals and their alloys have been proposed for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers including carbon steels, stainless steels, titanium and titanium alloys and copper and copper-base alloys. Carbon steels and copper alloys are considered for the two rock formations, titanium is considered for salt environments and the stainless steel only in the case of a granite formation. (Author)

  3. Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Brown, Andrew S; van der Veen, Adriaan M H

    2016-01-01

    The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  5. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhouri, F M; Casari, A C A; Martelli, S M; Mariano, M; Soldi, V; Yamashita, F; Mei, L H Innocnentini

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits

  6. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Analysis of a system containing a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.; Daling, P.M.; Faletti, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    This addendum report extends the original study of the estimated radiation doses to the public and to workers resulting from transporting spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power reactor stations through the federal waste management system (FWMS), to a system that contains a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The system concepts and designs utilized herein are consistent with those used in the original study (circa 1985--1987). Because the FWMS design is still evolving, the results of these analyses may no longer apply to the design for casks and cask handling systems that are currently being considered. Four system scenarios are examined and compared with the reference No-MRS scenario (all spent fuel transported directly from the reactors to the western repository in standard-capacity truck and rail casks). In Scenarios 1 and 2, an MRS facility is located in eastern United States and ships either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters. In Scenarios 3 and 4, an MRS facility is located in the western United States and ship either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters

  7. Diagnosis of fluorine damage. II. Estimation of fluorine-containing emission by demonstration of the storage of fluorine in the cortex of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampadius, F

    1960-01-01

    The thorium titration method was employed for estimating the fluorine content of the cortex. The question as to what fluorine content in the bark is to be regarded as natural has not yet been exactly established. Various indications in the literature lead to the assumption that the storage in the bark of cortex of the trees from an area without fluorine-containing emissions gave <0.2 mg. F/100 ml. distillate in all samples. This fluorine content was initially taken as the limit for the natural fluorine content of the cortex. The investigation of the fluorine content of the cortex extended only to the bark and was calculated in mg. of F in 5 g. of air-dry ground bark. The results show a clear relation between the quantity of fluorine stored in the bark and the distance of the point of sampling from the source of emission and its disposition to it. With high fluorine emission and unfavorable wind conditions in the affected area, fluorine was found in considerable quantities in the bark at places quite a long way from the source of emission. The qualitative estimation of the fluorine content of gassed leaves and needles by the crystal precipitation method, and the quantitative estimation of the fluorine content of gassed bark by the thorium titration method led to results that were in good agreement, so it was possible in this way to define the area in which damage may occur with reliable accuracy.

  8. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  9. Long-term liquid storage and reproductive evaluation of an innovative boar semen extender (Formula12®) containing a non-reducing disaccharide and an enzymatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Carla; Bianchera, Annalisa; Bettini, Ruggero; Buschini, Annamaria; Marchi, Laura; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia; Sabbioni, Alberto; Righi, Federico; Mazzoni, Claudio; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    There are no reports of saccharolytic enzymes being used in the preparation of formulations for animal semen extenders. In the present study, the use of an innovative semen extender (Formula12 ® ) in the long-term liquid storage of boar semen at 17°C was evaluated. The formulation included use of a disaccharide (sucrose) as the energy source precursor coupled to an enzymatic agent (invertase). The innovative extender was evaluated and compared in vitro to a commercial extender (Vitasem LD ® ) for the following variables: Total Motility (TM), Forward Progressive Motility (FPM), sperm morphology, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and chromatin instability. Boar sperm diluted in Formula12 ® and stored for 12 days at 17°C maintained a commercially acceptable FPM (>70%). Using the results from the in vitro study, an AI field trial was performed. A total of 170 females were inseminated (135 with Formula12 ® and 35 with Vitasem LD ® ). The pregnancy rates were 97.8% compared with 91.4%, and the farrowing rates were 96.3% compared with 88.6% when Formula12 ® and Vitasem LD ® were used, respectively. The mean number of piglets born/sow were 14.92±0.46 compared with 13.83±0.70, and the number of piglets born alive/sow were 14.07±0.46 compared with 12.12±0.70 (Pextender allowed for meeting the metabolic requirements of boar sperm during storage at 17°C. It is suggested that there was a beneficial effect on fertilizing capacity of boar sperm in the female reproductive tract with use of these technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bruce used fuel dry storage project evolution from Pickering to Bruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R E [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada). Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A

    1997-12-31

    Additional fuel storage capacity is required at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, which otherwise would soon fill up all its pool storage capacity. The recommended option was to use a dry storage container similar to that at Pickering. The changes made to the Pickering type of container included: fuel to be stored in trays; the container`s capacity increased to 600 bundles; the container`s lid to be changed to a metal one; the single concrete lid to be changed to a double metal lid system; the container not to be transportable; the container would be dry-loaded. 7 figs.

  11. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  12. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  13. LiH thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  14. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an 125 I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function

  15. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  16. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jessica R; Davis, Stephen D; Rivard, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10(10) histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an (125)I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function ratio between the current

  17. Amino acids 16-275 of minute virus of mice NS1 include a domain that specifically binds (ACCA)2-3-containing DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, M; Pintel, D J

    1998-11-10

    GST-NS1 purified from Escherichia coli and insect cells binds double-strand DNA in an (ACCA)2-3-dependent fashion under similar ionic conditions, independent of the presence of anti-NS1 antisera or exogenously supplied ATP and interacts with single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. An amino-terminal domain (amino acids 1-275) of NS1 [GST-NS1(1-275)], representing 41% of the full-length NS1 molecule, includes a domain that binds double-strand DNA in a sequence-specific manner at levels comparable to full-length GST-NS1, as well as single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. The deletion of 15 additional amino-terminal amino acids yielded a molecule [GST-NS1(1-275)] that maintained (ACCA)2-3-specific double-strand DNA binding; however, this molecule was more sensitive to increasing ionic conditions than full-length GST-NS1 and GST-NS1(1-275) and could not be demonstrated to bind single-strand nucleic acids. A quantitative filter binding assay showed that E. coli- and baculovirus-expressed GST-NS1 and E. coli GST-NS1(1-275) specifically bound double-strand DNA with similar equilibrium kinetics [as measured by their apparent equilibrium DNA binding constants (KD)], whereas GST-NS1(16-275) bound 4- to 8-fold less well. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of three adjacent drywells (each containing a 0.6 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterzuber, R.; Hanson, J.P.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel Adjacent Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site utilizing three nearly identical pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies each having a decay heat level of approximately 0.6 kW. Each fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in an instrumented near-surface drywell storage cell for thermal testing. Each fuel assembly was sealed inside a 14-in. diam, 168-in.-long stainless steel canister and attached to a concrete-filled, 20-in.-diam, 34-in.-long, shield plug. The canister assembly was then placed in a carbon steel drywell liner which had been grouted into a hole drilled in the soil adjacent to E-MAD. The three drywells were located 25 feet apart in a linear array. Thermocouples, provided to measure canister, liner and soil temperatures, were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and drywell liner and were attached to plastic pipes which were grouted into holes in the soil. Temperatures from the three drywells and the adjacent soil were recorded throughout the Adjacent Drywell Test. Drywell thermal data showed virtually no thermal interaction between adjacent drywells. However, peak temperatures reached by the three drywells did show a fairly significant difference. Peak canister and drywell liner temperatures were reached in August 1981 for all three drywells. The two previously unused drywells responded similarly with peak canister and liner temperatures reaching 199 0 F and 158 0 F, respectively. Comparable peak temperatures for the third drywell which had previously contained spent fuel for nearly 21 months prior to the Adjacent Drywell Test reached 210 0 F for the canister and 169 0 F for the drywell liner. This difference is attributed to a decrease in soil thermal conductivity caused by the dryout of soil around the drywell used for previous spent fuel testing

  19. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.J.; Ochoa, R.; Fritz, K.D.; Craig, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  20. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  1. 3D analysis of thermo-fluid dynamics of a dry storage fuel container in stationary conditions; Analisis 3D de la termo-fluidodinamica de un contenedor de almacenamiento en seco de combustible en condiciones estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, J.; Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2012-07-01

    Dry storage containers must ensure the cooling of the fuel housing. Compliance with this requirement is of huge importance to preserve the integrity of spent fuel. In this sense, the thermo-fluid dynamics of containers is a point to consider in safety studies of this storage system. The aim of this work is to achieve a three-dimensional model of thermo-fluid dynamics of the HI-STORM 100S container using Fluent code. In addition to the fundamental characterization of the device, we have studied the impact of design variations associated with the input and output channels air. In the future, the model presented here will provide a basis for analysis of transient and accidental conditions.

  2. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  3. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  5. Effect of Plant Antimicrobial Agents Containing Marinades on Storage Stability and Microbiological Quality of Broiler Chicken Cuts Packed with Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, H-L; Maukonen, J; Honkapää, K; Storgårds, E; Quirin, K-W; Yang, B; Saarela, M

    2017-10-01

    The food industry, including the meat industry, is currently looking for natural preservatives to prevent the growth of harmful microbes in foods. The potential of plant-derived antimicrobial extracts to increase the shelf life and to delay the microbiological spoilage of marinated broiler chicken cuts in modified atmosphere packages during cold storage was investigated in this study. We evaluated the impact of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Finnish sea buckthorn berries and lingonberries and supercritical CO 2 -extracted herbal extracts from an antimicrobial blend and oregano leaves on the shelf life of broiler meat. The commercial antimicrobial blend extract and the oregano extract inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta in the marinated samples. The antimicrobial blend extract also reduced the growth of psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, whereas the sea buckthorn and lingonberry extracts did not. Only minor antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae by all the extracts was observed. Plate count analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that LAB, which are the major spoilage group in marinated modified atmosphere-packaged poultry products, were not significantly affected by the berry extracts studied. During this shelf-life study, LAB isolates of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were identified in the marinated samples. Antimicrobial blends and oregano leaf extracts can act as antimicrobial agents in marinade blends, although tailoring of the dose is needed because of their strong taste. Further studies for exploiting synergistic effects of plant extracts could contribute to the development of potential and more effective antimicrobial blends. Studies are needed in meat matrices and in product applications to demonstrate the efficacy of these compounds.

  6. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  7. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  8. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  9. Bruce used fuel dry storage project evolution from Pickering to Bruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Additional fuel storage capacity is required at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, which otherwise would soon fill up all its pool storage capacity. The recommended option was to use a dry storage container similar to that at Pickering. The changes made to the Pickering type of container included: fuel to be stored in trays; the container's capacity increased to 600 bundles; the container's lid to be changed to a metal one; the single concrete lid to be changed to a double metal lid system; the container not to be transportable; the container would be dry-loaded. 7 figs

  10. Effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, container oxygen barrier and storage conditions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of raw unpeeled almond kernels (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Stamatios F; Riganakos, Kyriakos A; Kontominas, Michael G

    2011-03-15

    The present study investigated the effect of irradiation, active and modified atmosphere packaging, and storage conditions on quality retention of raw, whole, unpeeled almonds. Almond kernels were packaged in barrier and high-barrier pouches, under N(2) or with an O(2) absorber and stored either under fluorescent lighting or in the dark at 20 °C for 12 months. Quality parameters monitored were peroxide value, hexanal content, colour, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds. Of the sensory attributes colour, texture, odour and taste were evaluated. Peroxide value and hexanal increased with dose of irradiation and storage time. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids during storage with a parallel increase of saturated fatty acids. Volatile compounds were not affected by irradiation but increased with storage time indicating enhanced lipid oxidation. Colour parameters of samples remained unaffected immediately after irradiation. For samples packaged under a N(2) , atmosphere L and b values decreased during storage with a parallel increase of value a resulting to gradual product darkening especially in irradiated samples. Non-irradiated almonds retained acceptable quality for ca. 12 months stored at 20 °C with the O(2) absorber irrespective of lighting conditions and packaging material oxygen barrier. The respective shelf life for samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy was 12 months packaged in PET-SiOx//LDPE irrespective of lighting conditions and 12 months for samples irradiated at 3 kGy packaged in PET-SiOx//LDPE stored in the dark. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  12. Storage of long lived solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarde, P.D.; Agarwal, K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gandhi, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Long lived solid waste, generated during the fuel cycle mainly includes high level vitrified waste product, high level cladding hulls and low and intermediate level alpha wastes. These wastes require storage in specially designed engineered facilities before final disposal into deep geological repository. Since high-level vitrified waste contain heat generating radionuclides, the facility for their storage is designed for continuous cooling. High level cladding hulls undergo volume reduction by compaction and will be subsequently stored. (author)

  13. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  14. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  15. Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides ( 239 Pu)

  16. Evaluation of the criticality of a concrete container for storage of spent fuel in dry with MCNP; Evaluacion de la criticidad de un contenedor de concreto para almacenamiento de combustible gastado en seco con MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J. V.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: vicente.xolocostli@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    A main concern exists inside the nuclear power plants in operation around the world that is the with respect to the storage capacity of the spent fuel, due to the useful life of the plant and the storage capacity in the spent fuel pool. In diverse countries is believed that one of the best alternatives for the spent fuel is the reprocessing of the same one since exists a great quantity of fissile material that can be profitable as the Pu-239, but even so the costs for the reprocessing continue being high, what limits taking this process to great scale. Is for that reason the importance of the containers for storage of spent fuel in dry which has had a great apogee in the last years, since they represent an alternative to store the spent fuel before making a decision on the reprocessing of the same one or the final disposal. In this work an evaluation of the criticality of a concrete container for storage of spent fuel in dry commercially available is made, and which is useful for fuel assemblies type PWR like BWR, in our case only the type BWR is considered. For the analysis of the evaluation was used the code MCNP5, considering the characteristics of the concrete container according to the available data, although the type of fuel assembly is BWR one of the models of the ABB company was considered with which the comparative of the results is made. The made calculations were carried out considering the inundation of the gap that exist and the external cavity, being this the most extreme condition to arrive to the criticality or in the case of happening an accident to have the filtration of the water toward the space of the gap. (author)

  17. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  18. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  19. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  20. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  1. AT-400A Type B transportation and storage package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockrell, G.D.; Franklin, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for the AT-400A container which will meet the requirements for the transportation and long-term storage of plutonium pits. The AT-400A was designed by a joint effort between Sandia National Labs, Los Alamos National Labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Mason and Hanger Silas Mason Co., Inc.. The paper will outline the problems and impact on the design of the container necessitated by the need to meet DOT TYPE B transportation requirements and undefined requirements for the interim and long-term storage of pits. Areas covered will include: (1) determining the storage requirements, (2) surveillance program for interim storage, and (3) impact of storage requirements on the containment vessel and inner fixturing design

  2. Development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials - Further investigations (EBER II). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao, L.; Droste, B.

    2002-01-01

    Further stress analyses were carried out in the second part of the process. Material damping was calculated on the basis of an analysis of shock wave propagation in cast iron. The container structure was modelled better than before. The focus was on the safety assessment concept. For detecting cracks in geometrically complex container sections, static and dynamic fracture-mechanical numeric calculations of a crack in a groove and in the mid of a container wall were carried out. The results were verified for specific applications for which solutions are already available. The results were integrated in simple diagrams for safety assessment. The safety assessment concept was verified in a case study on a fractured prototype container of defined material quality. It was shown that stress can be reduced by constructional improvements (deeper grooves, bottom ridge). (orig.) [de

  3. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  4. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  6. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  7. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  8. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  9. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  10. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  11. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Antioxidative Fish Skin Peptide or Fish Skin Peptide-loaded Nanoliposomes during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jing-Jing; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soojin; Choi, Mi-Jung; Cho, Youngjae

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP.

  12. High polymer-based composites for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage or disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedema, I.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This study considers the application of PEEK and continuous graphite fibre composite as the principal component in a high level nuclear waste disposal container. The ultimate radioactive environment to which the containers will be exposed has been simulated using a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor and a specialized heated irradiation chamber. Doses of up to 1 MGy were given to samples in combination with elevated temperatures (15{sup o}C to 75{sup o}C), which induced mechanical and chemical changes in the material. Mechanically, the composite and virgin polymer samples were minimally affected, rarely deviating beyond one standard deviation of the properties of unirradiated samples. Molecularly, crosslinking between adjacent polymer chains in the amorphous region is the primary observed phenomenon as a consequence of the radiation treatment. This effect is diminished with the application of heat during irradiation. Slight changes in crystallinity were also noted through molecular rearrangement, beginning with slight increases at lower radiation doses, and then minor decreases are noted with larger doses ({approx}10{sup 6} Gy). It is also shown in this study that the rate of radiation effects that is typical in this polymer is dependent on the temperature of irradiation. The results confirm that polymer-based composite materials, such as the PEEK/graphite fibre material studied here, are excellent candidates for the fabrication of the containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  13. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  14. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falci, F.P.; Smith, M.L.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of storing, transporting, and disposing of spent fuel using a single package has obvious advantages. Coupling this concept with using contaminated scrap metal from the EM Complex will help reduce a significant portion of waste that would otherwise need to be packaged, stored, and disposed of as low level radioactive waste. Assuming a material of cost of $1 per pound for 800,000 tons of metal needed for universal containers, the potential material cost savings from manufacturing these containers from what would otherwise be a waste product is about $1.5 billion. Clearly, this concept is novel and has significant obstacles that need to be addressed and overcome; particularly in the regulatory arena. However, the potential benefits warrant the evaluation of the proposal on several fronts. DOE OCRWM should seriously consider the universal cask concept for management of spent fuel. DOE EM should pursue the development of melting contaminated scrap for the manufacture of casks. Finally, EM and OCRWM should cooperate on the evaluation of using EM contaminated scrap metal for the manufacture of universal casks for OCRWM spent fuel

  16. Antioxidant activities of the synthesized thiol-contained peptides derived from computer-aided pepsin hydrolysis of yam tuber storage protein, dioscorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Liu, Ju-Chi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2013-06-01

    Our previous report showed that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibit radical scavenging activities; however, the functions of these peptic hydrolases are still under investigation. In this study, the thiol-containing peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of dioscorin, namely, KTCGNGME (diotide1), PPCSE (diotide2), CDDRVIRTPLT (diotide3), KTCGY (diotide4), and PPCTE (diotide5) were synthesized to compare their antioxidant activities with GSH and/or carnosine by examining hydroxyl radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance spectrometry, anti-low-density lipoprotein peroxidation, anti-AAPH-induced hemolysis, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity. We found that while all the synthesized diotides showed antioxidant activity, diotide4 exhibited the highest levels. Moreover, all diotides (100 μM) showed protective effects against methylglyoxal-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell death. These results suggest that thiol-containing diotides derived from dioscorin hydrolysis exhibit antioxidant activities and reveal the benefits of yam tuber as an antioxidant-rich food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  18. Helium effects on tritium storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, I.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-01-01

    For ten years French Tritium laboratories have been using metal hydride storage beds with LaNi 4 Mn for process gas (HDT mixture) absorption, desorption and for both short and long term storage. This material has been chosen because of its low equilibrium pressure and of its ability to retain decay helium 3 in its lattice. Aging effects on the thermodynamic behavior of LaNi 4 Mn have been investigated. Aging, due to formation of helium 3 in the lattice, decreases the desorption isotherm plateau pressure and shifts the α phase to the higher stoichiometries. Life time of the two kinds of tritium (and isotopes) storage vessels managed in the laboratory depends on these aging changes. The Tritium Long Term Storage (namely STLT) and the hydride storage vessel (namely FSH 400) are based on LaNi 4 Mn even though they are not used for the same applications. STLT contains LaNi 4 Mn in an aluminum vessel and is designed for long term pure tritium storage. The FSH 400 is composed of LaNi 4 Mn included within a stainless steel container. This design is aimed at storing low tritium content mixtures (less than 3% of tritium) and for supplying processes with HDT gas. Life time of the STLT can reach 12 years. Life time of the FSH 400 varies from 1.2 years to more than 25 years depending on the application. (authors)

  19. Helium effects on tritium storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysan, I.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J. [CEA Valduc, Service HDT, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    For ten years French Tritium laboratories have been using metal hydride storage beds with LaNi{sub 4}Mn for process gas (HDT mixture) absorption, desorption and for both short and long term storage. This material has been chosen because of its low equilibrium pressure and of its ability to retain decay helium 3 in its lattice. Aging effects on the thermodynamic behavior of LaNi{sub 4}Mn have been investigated. Aging, due to formation of helium 3 in the lattice, decreases the desorption isotherm plateau pressure and shifts the {alpha} phase to the higher stoichiometries. Life time of the two kinds of tritium (and isotopes) storage vessels managed in the laboratory depends on these aging changes. The Tritium Long Term Storage (namely STLT) and the hydride storage vessel (namely FSH 400) are based on LaNi{sub 4}Mn even though they are not used for the same applications. STLT contains LaNi{sub 4}Mn in an aluminum vessel and is designed for long term pure tritium storage. The FSH 400 is composed of LaNi{sub 4}Mn included within a stainless steel container. This design is aimed at storing low tritium content mixtures (less than 3% of tritium) and for supplying processes with HDT gas. Life time of the STLT can reach 12 years. Life time of the FSH 400 varies from 1.2 years to more than 25 years depending on the application. (authors)

  20. Surface decontamination in the old storage shed number 99 of the General Plan of IPEN/CNEN-SP, containing production equipment of natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6), aiming at its decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio C. de; Cambises, Paulo B.S.; Paiva, Julio E. de; Paiva, Julio E. de; Silva, Teresina M.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the steps adopted in the operation planned for the decontamination of surfaces in the old storage shed number 99 the general layout of the Energy Research and Nuclear IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, and contained various types of equipment originating from production hexafluoride natural uranium (UF6). This operation involved the planning, training of operators of the facility, analysis of workplaces and radiometric surveys for monitoring of external radiation and surface contamination. The training involved the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for individual monitoring of contamination outside of the body. Were also established rules for the transport of radioactive materials in the internal and external facility and release of material and sites already decontaminated

  1. On-site concrete cask storage system for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Haelsig, R.T.; Kent, J.D.; Schmoker, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described of storing spent nuclear fuel assemblies including the steps of: transferring the fuel assemblies from a spent-fuel pool to a moveable concrete storage cask located outside the spent-fuel pool; maintaining a barrier between the fuel and the concrete in the cask to prevent contamination of the concrete by the fuel; maintaining the concrete storage cask containing the spent-fuel on site at the reactor complex for some predetermined period; transferring the fuel assemblies from the concrete storage cask to a shipping container; and, recycling the concrete storage cask

  2. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, N.

    2006-10-01

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  3. Surveillance of sealed containers with plutonium oxide materials (ms163)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worl, Laura; Berg, John; Ford, Doris; Martinez, Max; McFarlan, Jim; Morris, John; Padilla, Dennis; Rau, Karen; Smith, Coleman; Veirs, Kirk; Hill, Dallas; Prenger, Coyne

    2000-07-01

    DOE is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials destined for long-term storage include metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard, where the packaging consists of two nested, welded, stainless steel containers. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the 3013 standard at both full- and small-scale capacities (2.4 liter and 0.005 liter, respectively), Figures 1 and 2. The containers are designed to maintain the volume to material mass ratio while allowing the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time.

  4. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  5. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  6. Cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential platform for any option to be chosen later as an endpoint for spent fuel management. In view of such a circumstance, the most imminent service required for the spent fuel management worldwide is to provide adequate storage for the future spent fuel inventory arising either from the continued operation of nuclear power plants or from the removal of spent fuel in preparation for plant decommissioning. While the bulk of the global inventory of spent fuel are still stored in AR pools, dry storage has become a prominent alternative especially for newly built AFR facilities, with more than 17,000 t HM already stored in dry storage facilities worldwide. Storage in cask under inert conditions has become the preferred option, given the advantages including passive cooling features and modular mode of capacity increase. In terms of economics, dry storage is particularly propitious for long-term storage in that operational costs are minimized by the passive cooling features. The trend toward dry storage, especially in cask type, is likely to continue with an implication that and the supply will closely follow the increasing demand for storage by incremental additions of casks to the effect of minimizing cost penalty of the idle capacities typical of pool facilities. A variety of storage systems have been developed to meet specific requirements of different reactor fuels and a large number of designs based on these generic technologies are now available for the spent fuel containers (horizontal, vertical etc) and storage facilities. Multi-purpose technologies (i.e. a single technology for storage, transportation and disposal) have also been studied. Recent concern on security measures for protection of spent fuel has prompted a consideration on the possibility of placing storage facility underground. The future evolution of requirements and technologies will bring important impacts on cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage.

  7. Cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Interim storage is an essential platform for any option to be chosen later as an endpoint for spent fuel management. In view of such a circumstance, the most imminent service required for the spent fuel management worldwide is to provide adequate storage for the future spent fuel inventory arising either from the continued operation of nuclear power plants or from the removal of spent fuel in preparation for plant decommissioning. While the bulk of the global inventory of spent fuel are still stored in AR pools, dry storage has become a prominent alternative especially for newly built AFR facilities, with more than 17,000 t HM already stored in dry storage facilities worldwide. Storage in cask under inert conditions has become the preferred option, given the advantages including passive cooling features and modular mode of capacity increase. In terms of economics, dry storage is particularly propitious for long-term storage in that operational costs are minimized by the passive cooling features. The trend toward dry storage, especially in cask type, is likely to continue with an implication that and the supply will closely follow the increasing demand for storage by incremental additions of casks to the effect of minimizing cost penalty of the idle capacities typical of pool facilities. A variety of storage systems have been developed to meet specific requirements of different reactor fuels and a large number of designs based on these generic technologies are now available for the spent fuel containers (horizontal, vertical etc) and storage facilities. Multi-purpose technologies (i.e. a single technology for storage, transportation and disposal) have also been studied. Recent concern on security measures for protection of spent fuel has prompted a consideration on the possibility of placing storage facility underground. The future evolution of requirements and technologies will bring important impacts on cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

  8. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  10. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  11. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  12. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  13. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  14. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  15. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE STORED DUST-LIKE ZINC AND IRON CONTAINING WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Lytaeva

    2017-05-01

    On the basis of laboratory research and field observations of the environmental components in the impact area of the storage of dust-like zinc and iron containing wastes, the article describes regularities of formation of hydrogeochemical halos of contamination by heavy metals and iron. Results include also the description of changes in physico-chemical groundwater composition under the storage area.

  17. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  18. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  19. Procedure for the determination of gap and base ground surface configurations beneath the bottom plate of storage tanks using neutron gauging inspection techniques : including radiation safety procedure and emergency procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    1993-01-01

    The procedure is intended for the neutron gauging inspection of gap between the bottom plate and the foundation of bulk storage tanks, which potentially exhibit uneven sinking of the bottom plate and the foundation. Its describes the requirements for the performance of neutron back scattered inspection techniques (or radiometric non-destructive evaluation techniques), using an isotopic neutron source associated with neutron detecting systems, to detect and size the gap between the bottom plate and the foundations as well as to quantify the presence of hydrogenous materials (e.g. oil or water) underneath the bottom plate. This procedure is not only outline the requirements for the neutron gauging inspection, but also describes the requirements which shall be taken into account in formulating the radiation safety and emergency procedures for the neutron gauging inspection works

  20. Dry storage developments in France build on CASCAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Giraud, C.

    1992-01-01

    The CASCAD dry store, located at CEA's research centre at Cadarache, stores spent fuel from the EL4 heavy water reactor and the Osiris research reactor. The design was based on the following criteria: Storage period. Interim storage is provided for 50 years. Containment. The fuel is contained by a multiple barrier system consisting of: the fuel canister (primary barrier); the sealed stainless steel storage well; and the storage building which includes a ventilation system to provide dynamic containment during handling operations. The fuel is loaded into canisters at the reactor site to avoid contamination in the storage building. The integrity of the primary barrier is periodically monitored by sampling of air from the storage well. Cooling. The storage wells are cooled by a natural convection system that maintains the temperature of the fuel below its stated limit and the temperature of the concrete below 80 o C. Criticality. Criticality incidents are prevented by static design measures such as maintaining a minimum pitch between storage wells and providing sufficient storage well diameter. Radiation protection. Radiation shielding limits the maximum equivalent dose rate for operating personnel to less than 25μSv/h at the handling cell floor and the wall adjoining the control room, and to less than 7.5μSv/h at the outside walls of the storage building. Cannister design. The canister must resist corrosion caused by condensation as well as pressure due to radiolytic gases. The canister must also withstand a drop of up to 10m without losing its integrity. The design has now been adapted to accommodate light reactor fuels and is known as CASCAD+. (Author)

  1. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  2. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  3. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  4. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  5. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  6. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  8. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  10. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  11. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  12. Meeting the regulatory challenges of mixed waste storage and monitoring: A novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Dennis; Shaw, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to providing safe storage of Remote Handled TRU Mixed Waste that is required to meet the EPA double liner and leachate collection system standards. This system, known as the 'Environmental Vault Liner', also allows a cost effective means of complying with the EPA's inspection requirements per 40 CFR 265.170, Use and Management of Containers. This approach is modular in nature, allowing additional storage capacity to be added on a demand basis, thereby eliminating significant upfront costs associated with large storage facilities built on estimated needs over many years. It reduces the financial and technical risks associated with large storage construction projects, allows modifications to new Liners put into service based on changing regulations and technologies. The Environmental Vault Liner offers additional benefits including easy waste retrieval, a 300 year design life, continuous below ground liquid detection and monitoring, replaceable instrumentation, inert (Nitrogen) atmosphere for container storage, continuous air monitoring, and remote visual container inspections. (author)

  13. Multi-purpose container technologies for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel is an integral part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel management resides in the back end of the fuel cycle, and is not revenue producing as electric power generation is. It instead results in a cost associated power generation. It is a major consideration in the nuclear power industry today. Because technologies, needs and circumstances vary from country to country, there is no single, standardized approach to spent fuel management. The projected cumulative amount of spent fuel generated worldwide by 2010 will be 330 000 t HM. When reprocessing is accounted for, that amount is likely to be reduced to 215 000 t HM, which is still more than twice as much as the amount now in storage. Considering the limited capacity of at-reactor (AR) storage, various technologies are being developed for increasing storage capacities. At present, many countries are developing away-from-reactor (AFR) storage in the form of pool storage or as dry storage. Further these AFR storage systems may be at-reactor sites or away-from-reactor sites (e.g. centrally located interim storage facilities, serving several reactors). The dry storage technologies being developed are varied and include vaults, horizontal concrete modules, concrete casks, and metal casks. The review of the interim storage plans of several countries indicates that the newest approaches being pursued for spent fuel management use dual-purpose and multi-purpose containers. These containers are envisaged to hold several spent fuel assemblies, and be part of the transport, storage, and possibly geological disposal systems of an integrated spent fuel management system

  14. Annual Report: Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  15. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  16. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  17. Lysosomal storage diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos R.; Gahl, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain a variety of different hydrolases. A genetic deficiency in the enzymatic activity of one of these hydrolases will lead to the accumulation of the material meant for lysosomal degradation. Examples include glycogen in the case of Pompe disease, glycosaminoglycans in the case of the mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteins in the cases of the oligosaccharidoses, and sphingolipids in the cases of Niemann-Pick disease types A and B, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sometimes, the lysosomal storage can be caused not by the enzymatic deficiency of one of the hydrolases, but by the deficiency of an activator protein, as occurs in the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. Still other times, the accumulated lysosomal material results from failed egress of a small molecule as a consequence of a deficient transporter, as in cystinosis or Salla disease. In the last couple of decades, enzyme replacement therapy has become available for a number of lysosomal storage diseases. Examples include imiglucerase, taliglucerase and velaglucerase for Gaucher disease, laronidase for Hurler disease, idursulfase for Hunter disease, elosulfase for Morquio disease, galsulfase for Maroteaux-Lamy disease, alglucosidase alfa for Pompe disease, and agalsidase alfa and beta for Fabry disease. In addition, substrate reduction therapy has been approved for certain disorders, such as eliglustat for Gaucher disease. The advent of treatment options for some of these disorders has led to newborn screening pilot studies, and ultimately to the addition of Pompe disease and Hurler disease to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PMID:29152458

  18. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  19. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  20. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  1. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, H L

    2007-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  2. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  3. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, M.K.; Fettel, W.; Gunther, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility

  4. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  5. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  6. ISABELLE [Intersecting Storage Accelerators with the adjective belle] physics prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of reports on physics prospects at a 200 x 200-GeV proton intersecting storage ring facility (Isabelle or ISA). General topics of papers included are: machine-related topics, general purpose detectors, strong interaction experiments, weak and electromagnetic interaction experiments, and other exotic ideas

  7. Method of storing the fuel storage pot in a fuel storage tank for away-from-reactor-storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Jun-ichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contact of sodium in the away-from-reactor-storage fuel storage tank with sodium in a fuel storage pool having radioactivity ana always retain clean state therein. Method: Sodium is filled in a container body of the away-from-reactor-storage fuel storage tank, and a conduit, a cycling pump, and cooling means are disposed to form a sodium coolant cycling loop. The fuel storage pool is so stored in the container body that the heat of the pool is projected from the liquid surface of the sodium in the container. Therefore, the sodium in the container is isolated from the sodium in the pool containing strong radioactivity to prevent contact of the former sodium from the latter sodium. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  9. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  11. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  12. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  13. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E; Huber, A; Metzger, J W

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  14. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  15. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  16. Arrangement and statistics of storage containers of spent fuel for assemblies of the SFP of NPP-L V, Unit 1; Arreglo y estadistica de contenedores de almacenamiento de combustible gastado para los ensambles de la ACG de la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Vargas A, A. F.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work presents the determination of assemblies of the spent fuel pool (SFP) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) which are candidates to be assigned to storage containers of independent spent fuel, with the objective of liberating decay heat and to have more space in the SFP, for the store of retired assemblies of the reactors in future reloads of NPP-L V, besides that the removed assemblies of the SFP should be stored in specific containers to guarantee the physical safety of them, as well as the radiological protection to the population and the environment. The design of the containers considered in this work is to store a maximum of 69 assemblies; it has a thermal capacity of 26 kilowatts and allows storing assemblies with a minimum of 5 years of have been extracted of the reactor core. Is considered that in 2016 start the storage of the spent assemblies on the containers, the candidates assemblies to store cover from the first reload in 1991, until the assemblies deposited in the SFP in the 14 reload in 2010; therefore in 2016, such assemblies will have fulfilled with the criteria of 5 years of have been removed of the Reactor, also the 69 assemblies assigned to each container will have a resulting decay heat that does not exceed the thermal capacity of the container, but that in great percentage approximates to the same one, and this way to take full advantage of their storage capacity and thermal capacity for each container. This work also contains the arrangement to accommodate the assemblies in the containers; such arrangement is constituted by areas according to the decay heat of each assembly. (Author)

  17. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R. [Hitachi Zosen Diesel and Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication.

  18. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. High security container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.J.-M.; Monsterleet, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns containments, vessels or tanks for containing and protecting products or installations of various kinds, to be called by the general denomination 'containers'. Such products can be, inter alia, liquids such as natural gas, ammonia, vinyle chloride and hydrocarbons. Far from just forming simple means of storage, the containers used for this must now be capable of withstanding fire, sabotage for instance rocket fire, even impacts from aircraft, earthquakes and other aggressions of the same kind. The particular object of this invention is to create a container withstanding all these various agressions. It must also be considered that this container can not only be used for storing products or materials but also for enclosing particularly dangerous or delicate installations, such as nuclear or chemical reactors [fr

  1. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  2. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  3. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from property descriptions. Cadastral features contained in the data set include real property boundary lines, rights-of-way boundaries, property dimensions, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from...

  5. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  6. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  7. Dry spent fuel storage facility at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, R.; Stoev, M.; Davis, N.; Thomas, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSF) is financed by the Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund (KIDSF) which is managed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). On behalf of the Employer, the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, a Project Management Unit (KPMU) under lead of British Nuclear Group is managing the contract with a Joint Venture Consortium under lead of RWE NUKEM mbH. The scope of the contract includes design, manufacturing and construction, testing and commissioning of the new storage facility for 2800 VVER-440 spent fuel assemblies at the KNPP site (turn-key contract). The storage technology will be cask storage of CONSTOR type, a steel-concrete-steel container. The licensing process complies with the national Bulgarian regulations and international rules. (authors)

  8. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end

  9. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  10. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  11. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  12. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  13. Special storage of leaking fuel at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Janos; Szőke, L.; Burján, T.; Lukács, R.; Hózer, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the activities related with spent, hermetic as well as leaking fuel handling and storage, including: Spent fuel pool; Transportation criteria for the spent fuel assemblies and Interim spent fuel dry storage; Short-term storage in the spent fuel pool; Identification of the leaking assemblies by the TS-device; Present conception of Identification, handling of the leaking FAs; Modified transport procedure for the leaking FAs; Calculation of solved activity inside the leaking fuel rod; Solved activity limit values for the leaking FAs; Long-term storage in the interim spent Fuel dry storage are presented. At the end authors’ concluded that: 1) The leaking FA can be transported to the interim dry storage together with the other spent fuel assemblies in the transport container. 2) The transport-documentation of the leaking FA has to contain: isotope inventory, calculated solved activity values of the failed FA and the quantity of failed fuel rods. 3) Performing three leakage tests of the identified leaking FA before the transportation in the 5FP. it is useful to decrease the solved activity concentration inside the leaking FA and give additional information about the extent of the leakage. 4) We can calculate simply the solved activity of the leaking FA. 5) The modified transport procedure will have to be authorized. 6) The radiological effects of the leaking FA are negligible relative to the natural background radiation

  14. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  15. Armazenamento de sementes de arroz e milho em diferentes embalagens e localidades paulistas Storage of rice and corn seeds in different containers and localities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Razera

    1986-01-01

    -resistant plastic bag. The seeds were then maintained under non-controlled room temperature conditions in the localities of Campinas and Ubatuba, both in the State of São Paulo, and tested for moisture content at every three month interval for a period of 36 months. The seeds stored at Ubatuba deteriorated faster than those stored at Campinas, mainly when packed in water vapor permeable containers. For example, at Campinas, rice seeds held in cloth bags maintained seed germination higher than 80% up to 15 months, while those at Ubatuba did so only up to 6 months. Packing seeds in 0.25 mm thick plastic films was advantageous, mainly at Ubatuba where the germination of the corn seeds, for example, was null after 15 months when held in the other containers, and 97.5% when held in the plastic films. The packages made with cloth, paper, and 5 x 5 and 5 x 6 woven plastic gave similar results for the preservation of seed germination and vigor. This indicated the great difficulty, or even the impossibility of storing seeds in warm and humid areas, like Ubatuba, unless the storage temperature and/or relative humidity are controlled, or seed moisture is reduced to relatively low levels (10-11% or less and seeds are packed in a moisture-resistant container. The water vapor permeable containers showed to be adequate to mantain seed viability and vigor in regions with more favorable climate.

  16. Characterization and storage of liquid wastes containing {sup 125}Iodine in the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources - IPEN; Caracterização e armazenamento de rejeitos líquidos contendo Iodo-125 no Laboratório de Produção de fontes para braquiterapia - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vitória S.; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: vitoria.carvalho@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive sources of Iodine-125 for medical applications have been developed at the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) to meet the growing demand for medical applications such as brachytherapy. A dedicated laboratory is already being implemented at IPEN. Part of the processes involved in the production of sealed sources generate radioactive wastes that despite the short half-life (<100 days) have radioactive activity above the levels of exemption established by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Therefore, these wastes should receive appropriate treatment and storage until they reach the levels of release into the environment. This work aims to determine the volumes of the liquid wastes generated during the production stages of the sources, as well as to propose a temporary storage system for such wastes. The applied methodology consisted in determining the volumes of wastes generated in each production cell according to the manufacturing steps. After that, activities and activity concentrations were calculated for each container used for temporary storage inside the production laboratory. The total volume stored for one year in the temporary storage, as well as the rate of entry and exit of the liquid wastes were calculated according to the source production demand and the decay time of the radionuclide, respectively. The main results showed that the time required to reach sanitary sewage disposal values is within the period of operation of the facility. The total volume generated is also within the facility's temporary storage capacity.

  17. USING POLYMERIC HYDROGEN GETTERS TO PREVENT COMBUSTIBLE ATMOSPHERES DURING INTERIM SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) of WSRC has recently installed the capability to perform both non-destructive and destructive examination of 3013 containers of Pu oxide in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. The containers will be opened and the oxide will be sampled for analysis. The remaining bulk oxide must then be safely stored in a non-3013-compliant configuration. Available processing equipment and controls cannot prevent the oxide from adsorbing moisture during this process. Subsequent radiolysis of moisture during storage may generate combustible quantities of gases while waiting final processing, and satisfying DOE Interim Safe Storage Criteria (ISSC) would require that storage containers be vented at impractical frequencies. With support from an independent National Laboratory, WSRC/NMM has demonstrated that a commercial hydrogen getter material will effectively prevent the accumulation of combustible gas concentrations. A project overview, including storage requirements and strategies, as well as getter technology, current test results, and anticipated future developments will be addressed

  18. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  19. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  20. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.