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Sample records for include common ions

  1. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  2. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  3. Nonlinear waves in electron–positron–ion plasmas including charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle are investigated. It is shown that depending on the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle, the numerical solutions exhibit waveforms that are ...

  4. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  5. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, R S [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III).

  6. Track structure for low energy ions including charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2002-01-01

    The model and development is described of a new generation of Monte Carlo track structure codes. The code LEAHIST simulates full slowing down of low-energy proton history tracks in the range 1 keV-1 MeV and the code LEAHIST simulates low-energy alpha particle history tracks in the range 1 keV-8 MeV in water. All primary ion interactions are followed down to 1 keV and all electrons to 1 eV. Tracks of secondary electrons ejected by ions were traced using the electron code KURBUC. Microdosimetric parameters derived by analysis of generated tracks are presented. (author)

  7. Nonlinear waves in electron–positron–ion plasmas including charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... The introduction of the Poisson equation increased the Mach number required to generate the waveforms but the driving electric field E0 was reduced. The results are compared with satellite observations. Keywords. Nonlinear waves; low frequency; ion-acoustic waves. PACS Nos 52.35.Qz; 52.35.Fp; 52.35 ...

  8. Fusion channel of pd charge - symmetric ion including photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, R.

    2007-01-01

    The charge- symmetric pseudo nucleus pd is formed in the cascade processes in the muon catalyzed fusion. The nuclear fusion in pdμ ion can be considered in the photon field. For the spin states of pd (L=0) system, employing a new space wave function of three-body, the matrix element M1 proportional to S s∼ (πα 2 m p dω 3 )/[3(2S p d+1)m p 2 ]I 3 HeIM1Ipd ; 0 , S ∼ >I 2 (1) and the fusion rate λ Sp d γ =(S sp d/παm p d) ρ p dμ , ρ p dμ ∫I Ψ p dμ(R → = 0 , r → ) I 2 dr→ (2) for its ground state are calculated. The used wave function is introduced in the form of Ψ p dμ(r → , R → ) = Ρ (R){ξ dγ τ - 1/2 (γ , γ ' )xexp(-I γr → +γ ' R → I )+ξ dβ η - 1/2(β , β ' )xexp(-Iβr → + β ' R → I )}χ 0 ,0(R)Y 0 ,0. (3) The nuclear wave function χ 0 ,0(R)Y 0 ,0 is numerically calculated considering Wood-Saxon potential in the total Hamiltonian of the mentioned system. The good behavior of Ρ(R) is caused that our works are easily done in a short computation time. This function is linear from R =0 to 2.2x10 - 10 cm and then, is limited to 0.7068. The constant parameters of nuclear potential are obtained as well as those of the introduced wave function, when the boundary conditions are satisfied in our calculations. Notice that the notations (R → , r → ) are Jacobean coordinates. The radiative pd fusion rates for the two spin states in the pdμ mesic molecule are found to be λ 1 /2 γ 0.42μs - 1 and λ 3 / 2 γ = 0.13μs - 1, close to experimental data

  9. IGUN-A program for the simulation of positive ion extraction including magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    IGUN is a program for the simulation of positive ion extraction from plasmas. It is based on the well known program EGUN for the calculation of electron and ion trajectories in electron guns and lenses. The mathematical treatment of the plasma sheath is based on a simple analytical model, which provides a numerically stable calculation of the sheath potentials. In contrast to other ion extraction programs, IGUN is able to determine the extracted ion current in succeeding cycles of iteration by itself. However, it is also possible to set values of current, plasma density, or ion current density. Either axisymmetric or rectangular coordinates can be used, including axisymmetric or transverse magnetic fields

  10. igun - A program for the simulation of positive ion extraction including magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1992-04-01

    igun is a program for the simulation of positive ion extraction from plasmas. It is based on the well known program egun for the calculation of electron and ion trajectories in electron guns and lenses. The mathematical treatment of the plasma sheath is based on a simple analytical model, which provides a numerically stable calculation of the sheath potentials. In contrast to other ion extraction programs, igun is able to determine the extracted ion current in succeeding cycles of iteration by itself. However, it is also possible to set values of current, plasma density, or ion current density. Either axisymmetric or rectangular coordinates can be used, including axisymmetric or transverse magnetic fields.

  11. Comparison of single-ion molecular dynamics in common solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Chaudhari, M. I.; Rempe, S. B.

    2018-06-01

    Laying a basis for molecularly specific theory for the mobilities of ions in solutions of practical interest, we report a broad survey of velocity autocorrelation functions (VACFs) of Li+ and PF6- ions in water, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and acetonitrile solutions. We extract the memory function, γ(t), which characterizes the random forces governing the mobilities of ions. We provide comparisons controlling for the effects of electrolyte concentration and ion-pairing, van der Waals attractive interactions, and solvent molecular characteristics. For the heavier ion (PF6-), velocity relaxations are all similar: negative tail relaxations for the VACF and a clear second relaxation for γ (t ), observed previously also for other molecular ions and with n-pentanol as the solvent. For the light Li+ ion, short time-scale oscillatory behavior masks simple, longer time-scale relaxation of γ (t ). But the corresponding analysis of the solventberg Li+(H2O)4 does conform to the standard picture set by all the PF6- results.

  12. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Mourembou

    Full Text Available Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing.DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7% children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%, which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8% and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6. Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤ 5, 6-10 and 11-15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called "DEUX". Mansonella sp. "DEUX" was detected only in febrile children.Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. "DEUX" and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans.

  13. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  14. Quantum optics including noise reduction, trapped ions, quantum trajectories, and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Orszag, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This new edition gives a unique and broad coverage of basic laser-related phenomena that allow graduate students, scientists and engineers to carry out research in quantum optics and laser physics. It covers quantization of the electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, atom-field interaction models, resonance fluorescence, quantum theory of damping, laser theory using both the master equation and the Langevin theory, the correlated emission laser, input-output theory with applications to non-linear optics, quantum trajectories, quantum non-demolition measurements and generation of non-classical vibrational states of ions in a Paul trap. In this third edition, there is an enlarged chapter on trapped ions, as well as new sections on quantum computing and quantum bits with applications. There is also additional material included for quantum processing and entanglement. These topics are presented in a unified and didactic manner, each chapter is accompanied by specific problems and hints to solutions to...

  15. Including Students with Disabilities in Common Non-Summative Assessments. NCEO Brief. Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive large-scale assessments have become the norm in states across the U.S. Participation rates of students with disabilities in these assessments have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. As consortia of states move toward the development and implementation of assessment systems that include both non-summative assessments and…

  16. [Common benign breast tumors including fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumors, and papillary lesions: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendifallah, S; Canlorbe, G

    2015-12-01

    To provide guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (CNGOF), based on the best evidence available, concerning common benign breast tumors: fibroadenoma (FA), phyllodes breast tumors (PBT), and papillary lesions (BPL). Bibliographical search in French and English languages by consultation of PubMed, Cochrane and international databases. In case of percutaneous biopsy diagnosis of FA, clinico-radiologic and pathologic discordance or complex FA or proliferative lesions or atypia with FA, a family history of cancer, it seems legitimate to discuss management in a multidisciplinary meeting. When surgery is proposed for FA, periareolar compared to direct incision is associated with more insensitive nipple but better aesthetic results (LE4). When surgery is proposed for FA, indirect incision is preferable for better cosmetic results (Grade C). Techniques of percutaneous destruction or resection can be used (Grade C). The WHO classification distinguishes three categories of phyllodes tumors (PBT): benign (grade 1), borderline (grade 2) and malignant (grade 3). For grade 1 PBT, the risk of local recurrence after surgical excision increases when PBT lesion is in contact with surgical limits (not in sano). After in sano resection, there is no correlation between margin size and the risk of recurrence (LE4). For grade 2 PBT, local recurrence after surgical excision increases for margins under 10mm margins (LE4). For grade 1-2 PBT, in sano excision is recommended. For grade 2 PBT, 10-mm margins are recommended (Grade C). No lymph node evaluation or neither systematic mastectomy is recommended (Grade C). Breast papillary lesion (BPL) without atypia, complete resection of radiologic signal is recommended (Grade C). For BPL with atypia, complete excisional surgery is recommended (Grade C). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. OCV Hysteresis in Li-Ion Batteries including Two-Phase Transition Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Roscher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between batteries' state of charge (SOC and open-circuit voltage (OCV is a specific feature of electrochemical energy storage devices. Especially NiMH batteries are well known to exhibit OCV hysteresis, and also several kinds of lithium-ion batteries show OCV hysteresis, which can be critical for reliable state estimation issues. Electrode potential hysteresis is known to result from thermodynamical entropic effects, mechanical stress, and microscopic distortions within the active electrode materials which perform a two-phase transition during lithium insertion/extraction. Hence, some Li-ion cells including two-phase transition active materials show pronounced hysteresis referring to their open-circuit voltage. This work points out how macroscopic effects, that is, diffusion limitations, superimpose the latte- mentioned microscopic mechanisms and lead to a shrinkage of OCV hysteresis, if cells are loaded with high current rates. To validate the mentioned interaction, Li-ion cells' state of charge is adjusted to 50% with various current rates, beginning from the fully charged and the discharged state, respectively. As a pronounced difference remains between the OCV after charge and discharge adjustment, obviously the hysteresis vanishes as the target SOC is adjusted with very high current rate.

  18. Reliability analysis of the auxiliary feedwater system of Angra-1 including common cause failures using the multiple greek letter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin.

    1996-05-01

    The use of redundancy to increase the reliability of industrial systems make them subject to the occurrence of common cause events. The industrial experience and the results of safety analysis studies have indicated that common cause failures are the main contributors to the unreliability of plants that have redundant systems, specially in nuclear power plants. In this Thesis procedures are developed in order to include the impact of common cause failures in the calculation of the top event occurrence probability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System in a typical two-loop Nuclear Power Plant (PWR). For this purpose the Multiple Greek Letter Model is used. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Hybrid (Vlasov-Fluid) simulation of ion-acoustic solitons chain formation including trapped electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behjat, E.; Aminmansoor, F.; Abbasi, H. [Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P. O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Disintegration of a Gaussian profile into ion-acoustic solitons in the presence of trapped electrons [H. Hakimi Pajouh and H. Abbasi, Phys. Plasmas 15, 082105 (2008)] is revisited. Through a hybrid (Vlasov-Fluid) model, the restrictions associated with the simple modified Korteweg de-Vries (mKdV) model are studied. For instance, the lack of vital information in the phase space associated with the evolution of electron velocity distribution, the perturbative nature of mKdV model which limits it to the weak nonlinear cases, and the special spatio-temporal scaling based on which the mKdV is derived. Remarkable differences between the results of the two models lead us to conclude that the mKdV model can only monitor the general aspects of the dynamics, and the precise picture including the correct spatio-temporal scales and the properties of solitons should be studied within the framework of hybrid model.

  20. Nonlinear waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas including charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugemana, A.; Moolla, S.; Lazarus, I. J.

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic waves in a magnetized, three-component plasma consisting of hot electrons, hot positrons and warm ions have been investigated. The electrons and positrons are assumed to have Boltzmann density distributions while the motion of the ions are governed by fluid equations. The system is closed with the Poisson equation. This set of equations is numerically solved for the electric field. The effects of the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle are investigated. It is shown that depending on the driving electric field, ion temperature, positron density, ion drift, Mach number and propagation angle, the numerical solutions exhibit waveforms that are sinusoidal, sawtooth and spiky. The introduction of the Poisson equation increased the Mach number required to generate the waveforms but the driving electric field E 0 was reduced. The results are compared with satellite observations.

  1. Dynamics of beam-driven Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves including electrostatic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of Langmuir waves and ion-acoustic waves stimulated by a hot electron beam in an initially homogeneous plasma is investigated numerically in time, position, and wave number space. Quasilinear interactions between the beam particles and Langmuir waves, nonlinear interactions between the Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves through Langmuir decay processes, and spontaneous emission are taken into account in the kinetic theory employed. For illustrative parameters of those in the solar wind near 1 a.u., nonlinear Langmuir decays are observed to transfer the beam-driven Langmuir waves rapidly out of resonance. The scattered Langmuir waves then undergo further decays, moving sequentially toward small wave numbers, until decay is kinematically prohibited. The main features of the evolution of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are spatially inhomogeneous. The scattered Langmuir spectra increase and eventually reach or exceed the beam-driven Langmuir spectra at a given spatial location (except in regions where further decays proceed). The ion-acoustic waves are relatively weak and subject to damping at the later stages of their evolution. The development of fine structures in the product Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are observed, due to depletion of their energy by decay and dominant damping effects, respectively. The propagation of the beam is essentially unaffected by the operation of the decay process. The decay process is thus slaved to the primary beam-plasma evolution, as assumed in previous studies. A variation of the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature is found to affect not only the ion-acoustic wave levels through effects on the damping rate, but also the dynamics of decay via effects on the decay rate. The latter was not addressed in previous studies. Furthermore, spontaneous emission of ion-acoustic waves is found to affect the dynamics of decay, thus its inclusion is necessary to correctly model the Langmuir and ion-acoustic spectra

  2. One common structural peculiarity of the Solar system bodies including the star, planets, satellites and resulting from their globes rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different latitudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable more cheap launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou is better than Baikonur). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a single rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature. But according to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with an opposing tendency also begin to act. At Earth the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls, Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develops where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur. Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers (Fig. 1) as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminished). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault

  3. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  4. Bifurcation analysis for ion acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma including trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Atteya, A.

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear ion acoustic wave propagation in a strongly coupled plasma composed of ions and trapped electrons has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (mKdV-Burgers) equation. To solve this equation in case of dissipative system, the tangent hyperbolic method is used, and a shock wave solution is obtained. Numerical investigations show that, the ion acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force, the trapped electrons and the viscosity coefficients. Applying the bifurcation theory to the dynamical system of the derived mKdV-Burgers equation, the phase portraits of the traveling wave solutions of both of dissipative and non-dissipative systems are analyzed. The present results could be helpful for a better understanding of the waves nonlinear propagation in a strongly coupled plasma, which can be produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped electrons [1], and also in neutron stars or white dwarfs interior.

  5. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: importance of chromate adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Amanda H; Arai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The results of this study highlight new information about the large quantity of adsorbed Cr(VI) surface complexes at the magnetite-water interface. It has implications for predicting the long-term stability of Cr at the magnetite-water interface.Graphical abstractEffects of background anions (sulfate and nitrate) on the Cr(VI) surface coverage at the magnetite-water interface at pH 4 and 9.

  6. A new method of analysis of peroxydisulfate using ion chromatography and its application to the simultaneous determination of peroxydisulfate and other common inorganic ions in a peroxydisulfate matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul E; Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2011-01-21

    A new method for the determination of peroxydisulfate using ion chromatography has been developed. Elution of peroxydisulfate was effected by isocratic elution using 200 mM NaOH at 40°C. A modification of the method using gradient elution was able to simultaneously determine other common inorganic ions (nitrate, nitrite, sulfate and chloride) down to significantly low concentrations in a peroxydisulfate matrix. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 0.5-5%, for peak areas and ion was 0.2 ppm and for the other ions were ≤2×10(-2) ppm. The calibration curves were linear with slope and intercepts close to 1 and 0, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix influences on the determination of common ions by using ion chromatography part 1--determination of inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Lyko, Aleksandra; Kurzyca, Iwona

    2012-07-01

    Ion chromatography is the most popular instrumental analytical method used for the determination of anions and cations in water and wastewater. Isocratic ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is frequently used in laboratories carrying out routine analyses of inorganic anions. The paper presents the results of the research into the influence of selected inorganic anions dominant in environmental samples (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)) on the possibility of simultaneous determination of F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-) with the application of this most popular ion chromatography type in standard separation conditions. Four Dionex and four Metrohm anion-exchange columns were tested in standard separation conditions recommended by their manufacturers with both standard solutions and environmental samples with complex matrix.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk

    2013-01-01

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H] - for TNT and DNT or [M] ·- . for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO] - . These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  10. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

  11. Improvement in the assessment of direct and facilitated ion transfers by electrochemically induced redox transformations of common molecular probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min; Gan, Shiyu; Zhong, Lijie

    2012-01-01

    A new strategy based on a thick organic film modified electrode allowed us, for the first time, to explore the voltammetric processes for a series of hydrophilic ions by electrochemically induced redox transformations of common molecular probes. During the limited time available for voltammetry, ...

  12. Proposal for a common nomenclature for fragment ions in mass spectra of lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauling, Josch K; Hermansson, Martin; Hartler, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry-based lipidomics have in recent years prompted efforts to standardize the annotation of the vast number of lipid molecules that can be detected in biological systems. These efforts have focused on cataloguing, naming and drawing chemical structures of intact lipid...... molecules, but have provided no guidelines for annotation of lipid fragment ions detected using tandem and multi-stage mass spectrometry, albeit these fragment ions are mandatory for structural elucidation and high confidence lipid identification, especially in high throughput lipidomics workflows. Here we...... propose a nomenclature for the annotation of lipid fragment ions, describe its implementation and present a freely available web application, termed ALEX123 lipid calculator, that can be used to query a comprehensive database featuring curated lipid fragmentation information for more than 430...

  13. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  14. Tarantula toxins use common surfaces for interacting with Kv and ASIC ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanchan; Zamanian, Maryam; Bae, Chanhyung; Milescu, Mirela; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Tilley, Drew C; Sack, Jon T; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J

    2015-05-07

    Tarantula toxins that bind to voltage-sensing domains of voltage-activated ion channels are thought to partition into the membrane and bind to the channel within the bilayer. While no structures of a voltage-sensor toxin bound to a channel have been solved, a structural homolog, psalmotoxin (PcTx1), was recently crystalized in complex with the extracellular domain of an acid sensing ion channel (ASIC). In the present study we use spectroscopic, biophysical and computational approaches to compare membrane interaction properties and channel binding surfaces of PcTx1 with the voltage-sensor toxin guangxitoxin (GxTx-1E). Our results show that both types of tarantula toxins interact with membranes, but that voltage-sensor toxins partition deeper into the bilayer. In addition, our results suggest that tarantula toxins have evolved a similar concave surface for clamping onto α-helices that is effective in aqueous or lipidic physical environments.

  15. Characterization Of Commonly Encountered Explosives Using Highfield Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry Coupled With Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    symptoms depending on the relative concentration, even leading to death.32 2.4. Instrument Settings Both positive and negative ions can be formed...Detection Technology, pp. 619-633, 1992. 7. Osorio, Celia ; Gomez, Lewis M.; Hernandez, Samuel P.; Castro, Miguel E., Time-of- flight Mass Spectroscopy...vol. 15, pp. 1950-1952. 34. Federal Facilities Assessment Branch, Public Health Assessment, US Army Umatilla Depot Activity, Centers for Disease

  16. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  17. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  18. Calculation of extracted ion beam particle distribution including within-extractor collisions from H-alpha Doppler shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Kim, Jinchoon; In, Sang Ryul; Jeong, Seung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Prototype long pulse ion sources are being developed and tested toward the goal of a deuterium beam extraction of 120 keV/65 A. The latest prototype source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator and a four-grid copper accelerator system with multicircular apertures of 568 holes. To measure the angular divergence and the ion species of the ion beam, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for a Doppler-shifted H-alpha lights was set up at the end of a gas-cell neutralizer. But the OMA data are very difficult to analyze due to a large background level on the top of the three energy peaks (coming from H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). These background spectra in the OMA signals seem to result from partially accelerated ion beams in the accelerator. Extracted ions could undergo a premature charge exchange as the accelerator column tends to have a high hydrogen partial pressure from the unused gas from the plasma generator, resulting in a continuous background of partially accelerated beam particles at the accelerator exit. This effect is calculated by accounting for all the possible atomic collision processes and numerically summing up three ion species across the accelerator column. The collection of all the atomic reaction cross sections and the numerical summing up will be presented. The result considerably depends on the background pressure and the ion beam species ratio (H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). This effect constitutes more than 20% of the whole particle distribution. And the energy distribution of those suffering from collisions is broad and shows a broad maximum in the vicinity of the half and the third energy region

  19. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  20. Nonlinear evolution of a three dimensional longitudinal plasma wavepacket in a hot plasma including the effect of its interaction with an ion-acoustic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.P.; Sihi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming amplitudes as slowly varying functions of space and time and using perturbation method three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are obtained for the nonlinear evolution of a three dimensional longitudinal plasma wave packet in a hot plasma including the effect of its interaction with a long wavelength ion-acoustic wave. These three equations are used to derive the instability conditions of a uniform longitudinal plasma wave train including the effect of its interaction both at resonance and nonresonance, with a long wavelength ion-acoustic wave. (author)

  1. A common agenda of global challenges. Japan and U.S. pool resources to tackle global issues including population and HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective is a bilateral partnership established in 1993 between the US and Japan to address important global challenges of the 21st century such as global health and human development, including population and HIV/AIDS, global stability, protection of the global environment, and the advancement of science and technology. On the fifth anniversary of the agenda, representatives of the Japan and the US governments, international organizations, and private sectors discussed ways to further promote US-Japan cooperation under the agenda at a meeting held in Tokyo during March 12-13. Participants of the Common Agenda Open Forum also reviewed efforts made by Japan and the US under the agenda to address population and the environment. Forum participants focused upon developing new ideas for future cooperation between the governments, the private sector, and other nations, especially in the areas of health and the environment. The meeting was jointly organized by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Department of State. Attention was also given during talks to diminishing international assistance budgets worldwide.

  2. Ion microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, J.N.; Long, J.V.P.

    1977-01-01

    An ion microprobe is described that has an ion extraction arrangement comprising two separate paths for ions and electrons diverging from a common point. A cone shaped or pyramidal guard electrode surrounds each path the apex angles being equal and coinciding with the said point. The guard electrodes are positioned to lie tangentially to each other and to a planar surface including the said point. An aperture is provided for the two paths at the apexes of both guard electrodes, and electrical connections between the guard electrodes enable the same potential to be applied to both guard electrodes. Means are provided for generating oppositely polarised electric fields within the guard electrodes, together with means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the common point without suffering astigmatism. The means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the said point includes an ion gun for directing an ion beam along one of the paths and means to provide an axial accelerating field there along. Optical viewing means are also provided. Existing designs enable only ions or electrons, but not both, to be extracted at any one time. (U.K.)

  3. Trapping of dilute ion components in wells and double wells in higher equatorial magnetic regions: A kinetic theory including collisions, varying background and additional fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, Alf H.

    2001-08-01

    The component of the ambipolar field along the magnetic field B, though weak, may, acting together with the gravitational field, give rise to along-B ''ambipolar wells'' where light ions (test particles) in the ionosphere in equatorial regions are trapped. We also take into account magnetic field wells, especially in cases when the along-B velocity of test particles are much less than the transverse-B velocities. For heavy ions, or, for light ions high up, when the ambipolar trap ceases to function, the along-B ambipolar- and gravitational field effects may combine with the magnetic field trap to form a double well for the along-B movement of test particles. The magnetic field trap and its contribution to the double well may be nearly stationary for particles obeying the same velocity condition as above even when collisional effects between the test particles and the background plasma are incorporated. Ions trapped in wells like this, may ''feel'' a varying background, for instance because of Earth rotation, that may be incorporated as time-variation of parameters in the along-B motion. An along-B kinetic equation for groups of test particles is solved both for the case of simple wells and for double wells, including time-varying collisional coefficients and additional fields, and in some cases analytic solutions are obtained. Peculiar along-B distribution functions may arise due to the time-dependency of coefficients and to various combinations of collision- and field parameter values. In particular ''breathing'' distributions that alternate between wide and narrow forms in phase-space may arise, and also distributions where strange attractors may play some role.

  4. Intense light-ion beams provide a robust, common-driver path toward ignition, gain, and commercial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Cook, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Intense light-ion beams are being developed for investigations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This effort has concentrated on developing the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) at Sandia as a driver for ICF target experiments, on design concepts for a high-yield, high-gain Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), and on a comprehensive system study of a light-ion beam-driven commercial fusion reactor (LIBRA). Reports are given on the status of design concepts and research in these areas. (author)

  5. Wave-packet continuum-discretization approach to ion-atom collisions including rearrangement: Application to differential ionization in proton-hydrogen scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we develop a wave-packet continuum-discretization approach to ion-atom collisions that includes rearrangement processes. The total scattering wave function is expanded using a two-center basis built from wave-packet pseudostates. The exact three-body Schrödinger equation is converted into coupled-channel differential equations for time-dependent expansion coefficients. In the asymptotic region these time-dependent coefficients represent transition amplitudes for all processes including elastic scattering, excitation, ionization, and electron capture. The wave-packet continuum-discretization approach is ideal for differential ionization studies as it allows one to generate pseudostates with arbitrary energies and distribution. The approach is used to calculate the double differential cross section for ionization in proton collisions with atomic hydrogen. Overall good agreement with experiment is obtained for all considered cases.

  6. Structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel pore reveals essential gating elements and an outer ion binding site common to eukaryotic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, David; Findeisen, Felix; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Arrigoni, Cristina; Wong, Stephanie; Nurva, Shailika Reddy; Loussouarn, Gildas; Minor, Daniel L

    2014-01-23

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are central elements of cellular excitation. Notwithstanding advances from recent bacterial NaV (BacNaV) structures, key questions about gating and ion selectivity remain. Here, we present a closed conformation of NaVAe1p, a pore-only BacNaV derived from NaVAe1, a BacNaV from the arsenite oxidizer Alkalilimnicola ehrlichei found in Mono Lake, California, that provides insight into both fundamental properties. The structure reveals a pore domain in which the pore-lining S6 helix connects to a helical cytoplasmic tail. Electrophysiological studies of full-length BacNaVs show that two elements defined by the NaVAe1p structure, an S6 activation gate position and the cytoplasmic tail "neck", are central to BacNaV gating. The structure also reveals the selectivity filter ion entry site, termed the "outer ion" site. Comparison with mammalian voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) selectivity filters, together with functional studies, shows that this site forms a previously unknown determinant of CaV high-affinity calcium binding. Our findings underscore commonalities between BacNaVs and eukaryotic voltage-gated channels and provide a framework for understanding gating and ion permeation in this superfamily. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4@PDA core-shell microspheres functionalized with various metal ions: A systematic comparison of commonly-used metal ions for IMAC enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiebing; Sun, Xueni; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Duan, Gengli

    2018-02-01

    Metal ions differed greatly in affinity towards phosphopeptides, and thus it is essential to systematically compare the phosphopeptides enrichment ability of different metal ions usually used in the IMAC techniques. In this work, for the first time, eight metal ions, including Nb 5+ , Ti 4+ , Zr 4+ , Ga 3+ , Y 3+ , In 3+ , Ce 4+ , Fe 3+ , were immobilized on the polydopamine (PDA)-coated Fe 3 O 4 (denoted as Fe 3 O 4 @PDA-M n+ ), and systematically compared by the real biosamples, in addition to standard phosphopeptides. Fe 3 O 4 microspheres were synthesized via the solvothermal reaction, followed by self-polymerization of dopamine on the surface. Then through taking advantage of the hydroxyl and amino group of PDA, the eight metal ions were easily adhered to the surface of Fe 3 O 4 @PDA. After characterization, the resultant Fe 3 O 4 @PDA-M n+ microspheres were applied to phosphopeptides enrichment based on the binding affinity between metal ions and phosphopeptides. According to the results, different metal ions presented diverse phosphopeptides enrichment efficiency in terms of selectivity, sensitivity and the enrichment ability from real complex samples, and Fe 3 O 4 @PDA-Nb 5+ and Fe 3 O 4 @PDA-Ti 4+ showed obvious advantages of the phosphopeptides enrichment effect after the comparison. This systematic comparison may provide certain reference for the use and development of IMAC materials in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR A COMMON ACCELERATION MECHANISM FOR ENRICHMENTS OF {sup 3}He AND HEAVY IONS IN IMPULSIVE SEP EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Glenn M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Nitta, Nariaki V. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Dept/A021S, B/252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Wiedenbeck, Mark E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Innes, Davina E., E-mail: glenn.mason@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: nitta@lmsal.com, E-mail: mark.e.wiedenbeck@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: innes@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We have surveyed the period 1997–2015 for a rare type of {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) event, with enormously enhanced values of the S/O ratio, that differs from the majority of {sup 3}He-rich events, which show enhancements of heavy ions increasing smoothly with mass. Sixteen events were found, most of them small but with solar source characteristics similar to other {sup 3}He-rich SEP events. A single event on 2014 May 16 had higher intensities than the others, and curved Si and S spectra that crossed the O spectrum above ∼200 keV nucleon{sup −1}. Such crossings of heavy-ion spectra have never previously been reported. The dual enhancement of Si and S suggests that element Q / M ratio is critical to the enhancement since this pair of elements uniquely has very similar Q / M ratios over a wide range of temperatures. Besides {sup 3}He, Si, and S, in this same event the C, N, and Fe spectra also showed curved shape and enhanced abundances compared to O. The spectral similarities suggest that all have been produced from the same mechanism that enhances {sup 3}He. The enhancements are large only in the high-energy portion of the spectrum, and so affect only a small fraction of the ions. The observations suggest that the accelerated plasma was initially cool (∼0.4 MK) and was then heated to a few million kelvin to generate the preferred Q / M ratio in the range C–Fe. The temperature profile may be the distinct feature of these events that produces the unusual abundance signature.

  9. Peptide binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes, and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John; English, A. Michelle; Wriston, Amanda; Hoof, Ilka; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in SIV/HIV research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to AIDS, compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting that they may be a better model for HIV. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism(s) accounting for these kinetics remains unclear. The study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide binding motifs, provides valuable information for measuring cellular immune response...

  10. High thermal performance lithium-ion battery pack including hybrid active–passive thermal management system for using in hybrid/electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel Li-ion battery pack design including hybrid active–passive thermal management system is presented. The battery pack is suitable for using in hybrid/electric vehicles. Active part of the hybrid thermal management system uses distributed thin ducts, air flow and natural convection as cooling media while the passive part utilizes phase change material/expanded graphite composite (PCM/EG) as cooling/heating component to optimize the thermal performance of the proposed battery pack. High melting enthalpy of PCM/EG composite together with melting of PCM/EG composite at the temperature of 58.9 °C remains the temperature distribution of the battery units in the desired temperature range (below 60 °C). The temperature and voltage distributions in the proposed battery pack design consisting of battery units, distributed thin ducts and PCM/EG composite are calculated by numerical solving of the related partial differential equations. Simulation results obtained by writing M-files code in Matlab environment and plotting the numerical data are presented to validate the theoretical results. A comparison between the thermal and physical characteristics of the proposed battery pack and other latest works is presented that explicitly proves the battery pack performance. - Highlights: • Novel Li-ion battery pack including active and passive thermal management systems. • The battery pack has high thermal performance for ambient temperatures until 55 °C. • Uniform temperature and voltage distributions. • The maximum observed temperature in each battery unit is less than other works. • The maximum temperature dispersion in each battery is less than other works

  11. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in common lower limb conditions: a systematic review including quantification of patient-rated pain reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Whiteley, Rodney; Tzavara, Alexander; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in treating Achilles tendinopathy (AT), greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), patellar tendinopathy (PT) and proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT). Systematic review. Randomised and non-randomised studies assessing ESWT in patients with AT, GTPS, MTSS, PT and PHT were included. Risk of bias and quality of studies were evaluated. Moderate-level evidence suggests (1) no difference between focused ESWT and placebo ESWT at short and mid-term in PT and (2) radial ESWT is superior to conservative treatment at short, mid and long term in PHT. Low-level evidence suggests that ESWT (1) is comparable to eccentric training, but superior to wait-and-see policy at 4 months in mid-portion AT; (2) is superior to eccentric training at 4 months in insertional AT; (3) less effective than corticosteroid injection at short term, but ESWT produced superior results at mid and long term in GTPS; (4) produced comparable results to control treatment at long term in GTPS; and (5) is superior to control conservative treatment at long term in PT. Regarding the rest of the results, there was only very low or no level of evidence. 13 studies showed high risk of bias largely due to methodology, blinding and reporting. Low level of evidence suggests that ESWT may be effective for some lower limb conditions in all phases of the rehabilitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Electrophysiological heterogeneity of pacemaker cells in the rabbit intercaval region, including the SA node: insights from recording multiple ion currents in each cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Tsutsui, Kenta; Ziman, Bruce; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells, including cells of the sinoatrial node, are heterogeneous in size, morphology, and electrophysiological characteristics. The exact extent to which these cells differ electrophysiologically is unclear yet is critical to understanding their functioning. We examined major ionic currents in individual intercaval pacemaker cells (IPCs) sampled from the paracristal, intercaval region (including the sinoatrial node) that were spontaneously beating after enzymatic isolation from rabbit hearts. The beating rate was measured at baseline and after inhibition of the Ca 2+ pump with cyclopiazonic acid. Thereafter, in each cell, we consecutively measured the density of funny current ( I f ), delayed rectifier K + current ( I K ) (a surrogate of repolarization capacity), and L-type Ca 2+ current ( I Ca,L ) using whole cell patch clamp . The ionic current densities varied to a greater extent than previously appreciated, with some IPCs demonstrating very small or zero I f . The density of none of the currents was correlated with cell size, while I Ca,L and I f densities were related to baseline beating rates. I f density was correlated with I K density but not with that of I Ca,L . Inhibition of Ca 2+ cycling had a greater beating rate slowing effect in IPCs with lower I f densities. Our numerical model simulation indicated that 1) IPCs with small (or zero) I f or small I Ca,L can operate via a major contribution of Ca 2+ clock, 2) I f -Ca 2+ -clock interplay could be important for robust pacemaking function, and 3) coupled I f - I K function could regulate maximum diastolic potential. Thus, we have demonstrated marked electrophysiological heterogeneity of IPCs. This heterogeneity is manifested in basal beating rate and response to interference of Ca 2+ cycling, which is linked to I f . NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the present study, a hitherto unrecognized range of heterogeneity of ion currents in pacemaker cells from the intercaval region is demonstrated

  13. Monte-Carlo simulation of heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis data to include the effects of large angle plural scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Franich, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) is becoming widely used to study a range of problems in materials science, however there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. Major impediments are the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100nm) layers of very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering a fast FORTRAN version of TRIM has been adapted to simulate the spectrum of backscattered and recoiled ions reaching the detector. Two problems have been initially investigated. In the first, the detector is positioned beyond the critical angle for single scattering from a pure vanadium target where traditional slab analysis would not predict any scattered yield. In the second, a thin Au layer on a Si substrate is modelled for two different thicknesses of the substrate to investigate the effect of the substrate chosen. The use of multiple processors enabled the acquisition of statistically reasonable simulation spectra for scattered and recoiled ions. For each target modelled, 10 9 incident ions were tracked. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental measurements performed using ToF-E HIERDA at Lucas Heights and show good agreement except in the long tails due to Plural Scattering

  14. Models including electron correlation in relation to Fock's proposed expansion of the ground-state wave function of He-like atomic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, M. L.; March, N. H.; Nieto, L. M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, ES-47011 Valladolid, Spain and Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, BE-2020 Antwerp, Belgium and Department of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, ES-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Here attention is first drawn to the importance of gaining insight into Fock's early proposal for expanding the ground-state wave function for He-like atomic ions in hyperspherical coordinates. We approach the problem via two solvable models, namely, (i) the s-term model put forth by Temkin [Phys. Rev. 126, 130 (1962)] and (ii) the Hookean atom model proposed by Kestner and Sinanoglu [Phys. Rev. 128, 2687 (1962)]. In both cases the local kinetic energy can be obtained explicitly in hyperspherical coordinates. Separation of variables occurs in both model wave functions, though in a different context in the two cases. Finally, a k-space formulation is proposed that should eventually result in distinctive identifying characteristics of Fock's nonanalyticities for He-like atomic ions when both electrons are close to the nucleus.

  15. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  16. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac and its common counter-ions in less than 1 minute using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Gimenes, Denise T; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; do Lago, Claudimir L; Richter, Eduardo M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and simultaneous determination of diclofenac (DCF) and its common counter-ions (potassium, sodium, and diethylammonium) using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D). On the basis of a single electropherogram (about 50 s), the proposed method allows the determination of the stoichiometry, absolute quantification and evaluation of the degradation degree of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (DCF). A linear working range from 100 to 500 μmol/L was obtained for all analytes in an equimolar TRIS/TAPS (10 mmol/L) solution as the background electrolyte as well as adequate LOD (7, 6, 7, and 10 μmol/L for K(+) , Na(+) , diethylammonium, and DCF, respectively). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and spray form) with similar results to those achieved by HPLC (DCF) or flame photometry (K and Na) at a 95% confidence level. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Identification of novel mutations including a double mutation in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy by a targeted sequencing approach using the Ion Torrent PGM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Hong; Song, Yindi; Feng, Yue; Ding, Xiaoxue; Pang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yunmei; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Jiahuan; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-06-01

    Inherited cardiomyopathy is the major cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and heart failure (HF). The disease is associated with extensive genetic heterogeneity; pathogenic mutations in cardiac sarcomere protein genes, cytoskeletal protein genes and nuclear envelope protein genes have been linked to its etiology. Early diagnosis is conducive to clinical monitoring and allows for presymptomatic interventions as needed. In the present study, the entire coding sequences and flanking regions of 12 major disease (cardiomyopathy)-related genes [namely myosin, heavy chain 7, cardiac muscle, β (MYH7); myosin binding protein C, cardiac (MYBPC3); lamin A/C (LMNA); troponin I type 3 (cardiac) (TNNI3); troponin T type 2 (cardiac) (TNNT2); actin, α, cardiac muscle 1 (ACTC1); tropomyosin 1 (α) (TPM1); sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit (SCN5A); myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow (MYL2); myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, α (MYH6); myosin, light chain 3, alkali, ventricular, skeletal, slow (MYL3); and protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit  (PRKAG2)] in 8 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and in 8 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were amplified and then sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) system. As a result, a novel heterozygous mutation (MYH7, p.Asn885Thr) and a variant of uncertain significance (TNNT2, p.Arg296His) were identified in 2 patients with HCM. These 2 missense mutations, which were absent in the samples obtained from the 200 healthy control subjects, altered the amino acid that was evolutionarily conserved among a number of vertebrate species; this illustrates that these 2 non-synonymous mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of HCM. Moreover, a double heterozygous mutation (PRKAG2, p.Gly100Ser plus MYH7, p.Arg719Trp) was identified in a patient with severe familial HCM, for the first time to the best of our

  18. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  19. Common Hemoglobin Variants in Southern Taiwan and Their Effect on the Determination of HbA1c by Ion-exchange High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Chu

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: The existence of Hb variants may result in false HbA1c measurement. The possible presence of spuriously low HbA1c levels or abnormal HPLC chromatograms by using ion-exchange methods should be kept in mind.

  20. Maxwell-Stefan based modelling of ion exchange systems containing common species (Cd"2"+, Na"+) and distinct sorbents (ETS-4, ETS-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, P. F.; Aniceto, J. P. S.; Silva, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium(II) is a toxic hazardous cation, whose presence in the environment causes great concern because of its bioaccumulation in organisms and bio amplification along food chain. Hence, the removal of cadmium compounds from industrial waters and wastewaters is particularly essential, which requires intensive experimental and modelling studies to deal with the problem. In this work, the ion exchange of Cd"2"+ ions from aqueous solution using microporous titanosilicates (ETS-4 and ETS-10) has been modelled using adapted Maxwell-Stefan equations for the ions transport inside the sorbent particles. The fundamentals of the Maxwell-Stefan equations along with correlations for the convective mass transfer coefficients have been used with advantage to reduce the number of model parameters. In the whole, the model was able to represent successfully the kinetic behaviour of 11 independent and very distinct curves of both studied systems (Cd2"+"/Na"+/ETS-4 and Cd"2"+/Na"+/ ETS-10). The predictive capability of the model has been also shown, since several uptake curves were accurately predicted with parameters fitted previously to different sets of experimental data.

  1. Contribution to the systemic study of energetic systems including electrochemical devices: Bond Graph formalism applied to modelling fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries and sun-racer; Contribution a l'etude systemique de dispositifs energetiques a composants electrochimiques. Formalisme Bond Graph applique aux piles a combustible, accumulateurs lithium-ion, vehicule solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisset, R.

    2004-04-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of electric power conversion systems including electrochemical devices. A systemic approach draws advantage of the unified Bond Graph formalism in order to model every component as well as the whole system. A state of the art of electrochemical devices for decentralized electric energy generation and storage put emphasis on common phenomena with the aim of developing 'system oriented' generic models. Solid Oxide and Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (SOFC, PEMFC), as well as Lithium Ion batteries, have been modelled through an efficient work with electrochemistry specialists. These models involve an explicit representation, at a macroscopic level, of conversion and irreversible phenomena linked to the chemical reaction and coupled together both in the hydraulic, chemical, thermodynamic, electric and thermal fields. These models are used to study the modularity of the components, particularly the electric and thermal imbalances in the series and parallel fuel cells associations. The systemic approach is also applied to the study of architectures and energy management of electric power generating units involving PEMFC and battery or super-capacitors storage. Different working conditions for the fuel cells are defined and studied, consisting in either voltage or current or power imposed by means of the storage and static converters environment. Identification of parameters and working tests are performed on specially developed test benches so as to validate theoretical results. At last, the method is applied to study a 'sun-racer', an original complex system with embedded photovoltaic generator, electrochemical storage and brush-less wheel motor, wholly modelled in order to compare various energy management onboard the solar vehicle 'Solelhada'. (author)

  2. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  3. IONS: Identification of Orthologs by Neighborhood and Similarity-an Automated Method to Identify Orthologs in Chromosomal Regions of Common Evolutionary Ancestry and its Application to Hemiascomycetous Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seret, Marie-Line; Baret, Philippe V

    2011-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis is widely used to infer gene function and study genome evolution and requires proper ortholog identification across different genomes. We have developed a program for the Identification of Orthologs in one-to-one relationship by Neighborhood and Similarity (IONS) between closely related species. The algorithm combines two levels of evidence to determine co-ancestrality at the genome scale: sequence similarity and shared neighborhood. The method was initially designed to provide anchor points for syntenic blocks within the Génolevures project concerning nine hemiascomycetous yeasts (about 50,000 genes) and is applicable to different input databases. Comparison based on use of a Rand index shows that the results are highly consistent with the pillars of the Yeast Gene Order Browser, a manually curated database. Compared with SYNERGY, another algorithm reporting homology relationships, our method's main advantages are its automation and the absence of dataset-dependent parameters, facilitating consistent integration of newly released genomes.

  4. tOrAH QUOtAtIONs COmmON tO PHILO OF ALeXANDrIA AND tHe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the intention of this contribution to investigate the text form of the LXX torah quotations that overlap between the works of Philo of Alexandria and the Acts of the Apostles. It forms part of a larger project which investigates the common use of a possible Old Greek Version by both Philo and the New testament. six cases.

  5. IONS: Identification of Orthologs by Neighborhood and Similarity—an Automated Method to Identify Orthologs in Chromosomal Regions of Common Evolutionary Ancestry and its Application to Hemiascomycetous Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seret, Marie-Line; Baret, Philippe V.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis is widely used to infer gene function and study genome evolution and requires proper ortholog identification across different genomes. We have developed a program for the Identification of Orthologs in one-to-one relationship by Neighborhood and Similarity (IONS) between closely related species. The algorithm combines two levels of evidence to determine co-ancestrality at the genome scale: sequence similarity and shared neighborhood. The method was initially designed to provide anchor points for syntenic blocks within the Génolevures project concerning nine hemiascomycetous yeasts (about 50,000 genes) and is applicable to different input databases. Comparison based on use of a Rand index shows that the results are highly consistent with the pillars of the Yeast Gene Order Browser, a manually curated database. Compared with SYNERGY, another algorithm reporting homology relationships, our method’s main advantages are its automation and the absence of dataset-dependent parameters, facilitating consistent integration of newly released genomes. PMID:21918595

  6. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  7. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  8. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fracti...

  9. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  10. NetMHCIIpan-3.0, a common pan-specific MHC class II prediction method including all three human MHC class II isotypes, HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita; Rasmussen, Michael; Blicher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules play an important role in cell-mediated immunity. They present specific peptides derived from endosomal proteins for recognition by T helper cells. The identification of peptides that bind to MHCII molecules is therefore of great importa......MHCIIpan-3.0 method is the first pan-specific predictor covering all HLA class II molecules with known sequences including HLA-DR, HLA-DP, and HLA-DQ. The NetMHCpan-3.0 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.0....

  11. Study on the identification of organic and common anions in the pyrohydrolysis distillate of mixed uranium-plutonium carbide for the interference free determination of chlorine and fluorine by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Mishra, Vivekchandra Guruprasad; Das, Mrinal Kanti; Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Sawant, Ramesh Mahadeo [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radioanalytical Chemistry Div.; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry and Isotope Group

    2014-07-01

    Identification of various soluble organic acids formed during the pyrohydrolysis of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide [(U,Pu)C] was carried out using ion chromatography. This has significant importance as the soluble organic acids can cause severe interferences during the ion chromatography separation and determination of Cl{sup -} and F{sup -} in the pyrohydrolysis distillate of (U,Pu)C. Determination of Cl and F is important in the chemical quality control of nuclear materials as these two elements can cause corrosion and hence, their concentrations in all nuclear materials are restricted to certain specified values. Since the pyrohydrolysis distillates contain both inorganic and organic acid anions, for the sake of separating and identifying organic acid anions from the common inorganic anions, three independent isocratic elutions using varying concentrations of NaOH eluent were employed for the separation of weakly, moderately and strongly retained anions. It was observed that pyrohydrolysis of (U,Pu)C also produced soluble organic acids as in the case of nitric acid dissolution of UC. The present investigation revealed the presence of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, oxalic acid anions in the pyrohydrolysis distillate of (U,Pu)C in trace or ultra-trace concentrations. The presence of each organic acid identified in the chromatogram was confirmed with spike addition as well as by separating them by capillary electrophoresis method. The presence of lower aliphatic acids viz. formic and acetic acids was reconfirmed by carrying out an independent separation with tetraborate eluent. It is suggested that nitric acid being formed during pyrohydrolysis could be responsible for the formation of organic acids. Based on the findings, an ion chromatography separation method has been proposed for the interference-free determination of chloride and fluoride in pyrohydrolysis distillate of (U,Pu)C. (orig.)

  12. Ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with dual detection of the conductivity and spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of common inorganic anionic species and cations in river and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of common inorganic anionic species (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), phosphate and silicate) and cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) were conducted using an ion-chromatography system with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry in tandem. The separation of ionic species on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was accomplished using a mixture of 100 mM ascorbic acid and 4 mM 18-crown-6 as an acidic eluent (pH 2.6), after which the ions were detected using a conductivity detector. Subsequently, phosphate and silicate were analyzed based on derivatization with molybdate and spectrophotometry at 700 nm. The detection limits at S/N = 3 ranged from 0.11 to 2.9 µM for analyte ionic species. This method was applied to practical river water and wastewater with acceptable criteria for the anion-cation balance and comparisons of the measured and calculated electrical conductivity, demonstrating the usefulness of the present method for water quality monitoring.

  13. Business and Commerce, We maintain a "Common Place" point layer which includes business names and locations across the county. This data layer is tied to our address points., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Business and Commerce dataset current as of 2013. We maintain a "Common Place" point layer which includes business names and locations across the county. This data...

  14. Optical effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The review concerns the effects of ion implantation that specifically relate to the optical properties of insulators. Topics which are reviewed include: ion implantation, ion range and damage distributions, colour centre production by ion implantation, high dose ion implantation, and applications for integrated optics. Numerous examples are presented of both diagnostic and industrial examples of ion implantation effects in insulators. (U.K.)

  15. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  16. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  17. Irradiation hardening of Fe–9Cr-based alloys and ODS Eurofer: Effect of helium implantation and iron-ion irradiation at 300 °C including sequence effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintze, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bergner, F., E-mail: f.bergner@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Hernández-Mayoral, M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kögler, R.; Müller, G.; Ulbricht, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Single-beam, dual-beam and sequential iron- and/or helium-ion irradiations are widely accepted to emulate more application-relevant but hardly accessible irradiation conditions of generation-IV fission and fusion candidate materials for certain purposes such as material pre-selection, identification of basic mechanisms or model calibration. However, systematic investigations of sequence effects capable to critically question individual approaches are largely missing. In the present study, sequence effects of iron-ion irradiations at 300 °C up to 5 dpa and helium implantations up to 100 appm He are investigated by means of post-irradiation nanoindentation of an Fe9%Cr model alloy, ferritic/martensitic 9%Cr steels T91 and Eurofer97 and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer. Different types of sequence effects, both synergistic and antagonistic, are identified and tentative interpretations are suggested. It is found that different accelerated irradiation approaches have a great impact on the mechanical hardening. This stresses the importance of experimental design in attempts to emulate in-reactor conditions. - Highlights: • The single-beam He-ion implantations do not give rise to significant hardening. • The single-beam Fe-ion irradiations give rise to significant hardening, ΔH{sub Fe}. • Hardening due to sequential He-/Fe-ion irradiation is smaller than ΔH{sub Fe}. • Hardening due to simultaneous He-/Fe-ion irradiation is larger than ΔH{sub Fe}. • The He–Fe synergism for ODS-Eurofer is less pronounced than for Eurofer97.

  18. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  19. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  20. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  1. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  2. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  3. Ions and light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 3: Ions and Light discusses how ions are formed by electron impact, ion-molecule reactions, or electrical discharge. This book discusses the use of light emitted by excited molecules to characterize either the chemistry that formed the excited ion, the structure of the excited ion, or both.Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the extension of the classical flowing afterglow technique to include infrared and chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection. This text then examines the experiments involving molecules that ar

  4. Ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, Erhard; Melchert, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Collisions between ions belong to the elementary processes occurring in all types of plasmas. In this article we give a short overview about collisions involving one-electron systems. For collisions involving multiply-charged ions we limit the discussion to one specific quasi-one-electron system. (author)

  5. Long-wavelength limit of the static structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion and generalized Bhatia-Thornton formalism: Molecular dynamics study of molten mixture Ag(Br0.7I0.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitrian, Vicente; Trullas, Joaquim; Silbert, Moises

    2008-01-01

    The relation between thermodynamic properties and the long-wavelength limit of the structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion is derived. While the long-wavelength limit of the partial structure factors for binary ionic systems is directly related to the isothermal compressibility, for ternary ionic systems it is shown that it is also related to the mean square thermal fluctuation in the relative concentration of the non-common ions. This result leads to a generalization of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism. From the local fluctuations in the total number-density, charge-density, and relative concentration, six static structure factors, and the corresponding spatial correlation functions, are defined. By introducing three complementary structure factors, it is possible to describe either these mixtures as a system of cations and anions irrespective of the species of the non-common ions, or solely the binary subsystem of the non-common ions. The generalized structure factors and their long-wavelength limits are illustrated by molecular dynamics simulation results of the molten mixture Ag(Br 0.7 I 0.3 ). The mixture retains the charge order characteristic of pure molten monovalent salts and the topological order observed in monovalent ionic melts in which the cations are smaller than the anions, while the main trends of the anionic chemical order are those of simple binary alloys. The long-wavelength fluctuations in the local relative concentration are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the short-range interactions between the non-common ions

  6. Long-wavelength limit of the static structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion and generalized Bhatia-Thornton formalism: Molecular dynamics study of molten mixture Ag(Br{sub 0.7}I{sub 0.3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitrian, Vicente [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, Edifici B4-B5, Despatx B4-204, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Trullas, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, Edifici B4-B5, Despatx B4-204, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: quim.trullas@upc.edu; Silbert, Moises [School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7QF (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The relation between thermodynamic properties and the long-wavelength limit of the structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion is derived. While the long-wavelength limit of the partial structure factors for binary ionic systems is directly related to the isothermal compressibility, for ternary ionic systems it is shown that it is also related to the mean square thermal fluctuation in the relative concentration of the non-common ions. This result leads to a generalization of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism. From the local fluctuations in the total number-density, charge-density, and relative concentration, six static structure factors, and the corresponding spatial correlation functions, are defined. By introducing three complementary structure factors, it is possible to describe either these mixtures as a system of cations and anions irrespective of the species of the non-common ions, or solely the binary subsystem of the non-common ions. The generalized structure factors and their long-wavelength limits are illustrated by molecular dynamics simulation results of the molten mixture Ag(Br{sub 0.7}I{sub 0.3}). The mixture retains the charge order characteristic of pure molten monovalent salts and the topological order observed in monovalent ionic melts in which the cations are smaller than the anions, while the main trends of the anionic chemical order are those of simple binary alloys. The long-wavelength fluctuations in the local relative concentration are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the short-range interactions between the non-common ions.

  7. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  8. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  9. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplin, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long established. A recent development is the computerized aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the voltage decay inversion, and an established voltage switching technique, were compared and shown to be of similar shape. Air conductivities calculated by integration were: 5.3±2.5 and 2.7±1.1 fSm -1 , respectively, with conductivity determined to be 3 fSm -1 by direct measurement at a constant voltage. Applications of the relaxation potential inversion method include air ion mobility spectrum retrieval from historical data, and computation of ion mobility spectra in planetary atmospheres

  10. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels....... A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct...... characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion...

  11. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  12. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals/13 Need a glossary? |Becoming familiar with medical terminology relating to the visual system may also prove helpful, especially when talking to medical professionals and reading about ... Glossary of Eye Terminology , which lists common terms that eye doctors use ...

  14. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  15. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  16. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  17. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  18. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  19. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  20. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  1. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  2. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  3. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  4. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  5. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  6. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  7. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  8. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  9. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Metal ion transporters and homeostasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, N

    1999-01-01

    Transition metals are essential for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. Aberrations in the cellular metal ion concentrations may lead to cell death and severe diseases. Metal ion transporters play a major role in maintaining the correct concentrations of the various metal ions in the different cellular compartments. Recent studies of yeast mutants revealed key elements in metal ion homeostasis, including novel transport systems. Several of the proteins discover...

  11. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  12. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  13. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and ... RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy | Sitemap Our Family Of Sites ... Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var ...

  14. Simultaneous and Sequential MS/MS Scan Combinations and Permutations in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T; Szalwinski, Lucas J; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Methods of performing precursor ion scans as well as neutral loss scans in a single linear quadrupole ion trap have recently been described. In this paper we report methodology for performing permutations of MS/MS scan modes, that is, ordered combinations of precursor, product, and neutral loss scans following a single ion injection event. Only particular permutations are allowed; the sequences demonstrated here are (1) multiple precursor ion scans, (2) precursor ion scans followed by a single neutral loss scan, (3) precursor ion scans followed by product ion scans, and (4) segmented neutral loss scans. (5) The common product ion scan can be performed earlier in these sequences, under certain conditions. Simultaneous scans can also be performed. These include multiple precursor ion scans, precursor ion scans with an accompanying neutral loss scan, and multiple neutral loss scans. We argue that the new capability to perform complex simultaneous and sequential MS n operations on single ion populations represents a significant step in increasing the selectivity of mass spectrometry.

  15. Characterization of a Distributed Plasma Ionization Source (DPIS) for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltman, Melanie J.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert; Blanchard, William C.; Ewing, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.

  16. In situ MeV ion beam analysis of ceramic surfaces modified by 100-400 keV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes use of the in situ ion beam analysis facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the study of irradiation effects in ceramic materials. In this facility, an analytical beamline of 3 MV tandem accelerator and an irradiation bean-dine of 200 kV ion implanter are connected at 60 degrees to a common target chamber. This facility provides a fast, efficient, and quantitative measurement tool to monitor changes of composition and crystallinity of materials irradiated by 100-400 keV ions, through sequential measurement of backscattering events of MeV ions combined with ion channeling techniques. We will describe the details of the in situ ion beam analysis and ion irradiation and discuss some of the important issues and their solutions associated with the in situ experiment. These issues include (1) the selection of axial ion channeling direction for the measurement of radiation damage; (2) surface charging and charge collection for data acquisition; (3) surface sputtering during ion irradiation; (4) the effects of MeV analytical beam on the materials; and (5) the sample heating effect on ion beam analysis

  17. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  18. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  19. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  20. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  1. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  2. Heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpakchieva, R.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  3. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  4. Air ions and aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4 endash 1.8 nm. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  6. Other applications of ion microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the analytical and non-analytical applications of ion microbeams. The analytical applications considered include:-fusion research, environmental studies, ion implantations and criminology, and each is briefly discussed. Non-analytical applications in which nuclear microprobes have been used include:-thickness and uniformity measurements, energy loss radiography, channelling contrast, tomography, topography, ion implantation, and detector testing, and these are also discussed. (UK)

  7. Cluster Ions and Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, R.; Turco, R. P.

    We investigate the properties and possible roles of naturally occurring ions under at- mospheric conditions. Among other things, the formation of stable charged molecular clusters represents the initial stages of aerosol nucleation [e.g., Keesee and Castle- man, 1982], while the conversion of vapor to aggregates is the first step in certain atmospheric phase transitions [e.g. Hamill and Turco, 2000]. We analyze the stability and size distributions of common ionic clusters by solving the differential equations describing their growth and loss. The necessary reaction rate coefficients are deter- mined using kinetic and thermodynamic data. The latter are derived from direct labo- ratory measurements of equilibrium constants, from the classical charged liquid drop model applied to large aggregates (i.e., the Thomson model [Thomson, 1906]), and from quantum mechanical calculations of the thermodynamic potentials associated with the cluster structures. This approach allows us to characterize molecular clusters across the entire size range from true molecular species to larger aggregates exhibiting macroscopic behavior [D'Auria, 2001]. Cluster systems discussed in this talk include the proton hydrates (PHs) and nitrate-water and nitrate-nitric acid series [D'Auria and Turco, 2001]. These ions have frequently been detected in the stratosphere and tropo- sphere [e.g., Arnold et al., 1977; Viggiano and Arnold, 1981]. We show how the pro- posed hybrid cluster model can be extended to a wide range of ion systems, including non-proton hydrates (NPHs), mixed-ligand clusters such as nitrate-water-nitric acid and sulfate-sulfuric acid-water, as well as more exotic species containing ammonia, pyridine and other organic compounds found on ions [e.g., Eisele, 1988; Tanner and Eisele, 1991]. References: Arnold, F., D. Krankowsky and K. H. Marien, First mass spectrometric measurements of posi- tive ions in the stratosphere, Nature, 267, 30-32, 1977. D'Auria, R., A study of ionic

  8. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A [Albuquerque, NM; Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM; Linker, Kevin L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  9. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  10. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  11. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  12. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  13. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  14. Ion implantation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.L.; Hicks, W.W.; Keller, J.H.; McKenna, C.M.; Siermarco, J.A.; Mueller, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to ion bombardment or implantation apparatus. It comprises an apparatus for bombarding a target with a beam of ions, including an arrangement for measuring the ion beam current and controlling the surface potential of the target. This comprises a Faraday cage formed, at least in part, by the target and by walls adjacent to, and electrically insulated from, the target and surrounding the beam. There is at least one electron source for supplying electrons to the interior of the Faraday cage and means within the cage for blocking direct rectilinear radiation from the source to the target. The target current is measured and combined with the wall currents to provide a measurement of the ion beam current. The quantity of electrons supplied to the interior of the cage can be varied to control the target current and thereby the target surface potential. (U.K.)

  15. Electrostatic ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)

  16. Determination of Nd3+ Ions in Solution Samples by a Coated Wire Ion-Selective Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coated wire electrode (CWE using 5-(methylsulfanyl-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (MPT as an ionophore has been developed as a neodymium ion-selective sensor. The sensor exhibits Nernstian response for the Nd3+ ions in the concentration range of 1.0×10−6-1.0×10−2 M with detection limit of 3.7×10−7 M. It displays a Nernstian slope of 20.2±0.2 mV/decade in the pH range of 2.7–8.1. The proposed sensor also exhibits a fast response time of ∼5 s. The sensor revealed high selectivity with respect to all common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including members of the lanthanide family other than Nd3+. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Nd(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the Nd3+ ions concentration in water solution samples.

  17. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  18. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  19. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  20. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  1. Ion beam texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture was created by sputter-etching a surface while simultaneously sputter-depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion-beam source was used to perform the texturing process on samples as large as 3-cm diameter. Textured surfaces have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, stainless steel, Au, and Ag. A number of texturing parameters are studied including the variation of texture with ion-beam powder, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  2. Cornell electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Beebe, E.N.; Janson, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) for the production of low energy, multiply charged ion beams to be used in atomic physics experiments has been designed and constructed. An external high perveance electron gun is used to launch the electron beam into a conventional solenoid. Novel features of the design include a distributed sputter ion pump to create the ultrahigh vacuum environment in the ionization region of the source and microprocessor control of the axial trap voltage supplies

  3. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  4. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  5. Heavy ion beam factory for material science based on the KEK digital accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ken, E-mail: takayama@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Adachi, Toshikazu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Arai, Teruo; Arakawa, Dai [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Asao, Hiroyuki [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Barata, Yuji; Harada, Shinya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Iwata, Taiki; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kwakubo, Tadamichi; Kubo, Tomio [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Leo, Kwee Wah [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Liu, Xingguaung [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mochiki, Koichi [Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Munemoto, Naoya [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okada, Yoshihito [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Okamura, Katsuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The KEK digital accelerator (DA) is an alternative to high-voltage electrostatic accelerators and conventional cyclotrons and synchrotrons, which are commonly used as swift heavy ion beam drivers. Compared with conventional accelerators, KEK-DA is capable of delivering a wider variety of ion species with various energies, as a result of its intrinsic properties. It is expected to serve as a heavy ion beam factory for research in materials science. Plans for its utilization include unique application programs, such as laboratory-based space science using virtual cosmic rays, heavy-ion mutagenesis in microorganisms, deep ion implantation, and modification of materials, which may be categorized into systematic studies of the spatial and temporal evolution of the locally and highly excited states of materials.

  6. Characterization techniques for ion bombarded insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter gives a comprehensive review of the experimental methods for the analysis of ion-bombarded insulators including optical and structural methods, resonance, energetic ion methods, and surface techniques. 48 refs.; 34 figs

  7. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Target design at LLL for heavy ion fusion power production is discussed, including target development and beam-target interaction. The energy conversion chamber design, which utilizes a liquid lithium blanket, is described. Ion beam transport theory is discussed

  8. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  9. Planetary Ions at Mercury: Unanswered Questions After MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We will discuss the key open questions relating to planetary ions, including the behavior of recently created photoions, the near absence of Ca+ / K+ in MESSENGER ion measurements, and the role of ion sputtering in the system.

  10. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  11. Are neutral loss and internal product ions useful for top-down protein identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaijie; Yu, Fan; Fang, Houqin; Xue, Bingbing; Liu, Yan; Li, Yunhui; Tian, Zhixin

    2017-05-08

    Neutral loss and internal product ions have been found to be significant in both peptide and protein tandem mass spectra and they have been proposed to be included in database search and for protein identification. In addition to common canonical b/y ions in collision-based dissociation or c/z ions in electron-based dissociation, inclusion of neutral loss and internal product ions would certainly make better use of tandem mass spectra data; however, their ultimate utility for protein identification with false discovery rate control remains unclear. Here we report our proteome-level utility benchmarking of neutral loss and internal product ions with tandem mass spectra of intact E. coli proteome. Utility of internal product ions was further evaluated at the protein level using selected tandem mass spectra of individual E. coli proteins. We found that both neutral loss and internal products ions do not have direct utility for protein identification when they were used for scoring of P Score; but they do have indirect utility for provision of more canonical b/y ions when they are included in the database search and overlapping ions between different ion types are resolved. Tandem mass spectrometry has evolved to be a state-of-the-art method for characterization of protein primary structures (including amino acid sequence, post-translational modifications (PTMs) as well as their site location), where full study and utilization tandem mass spectra and product ions are indispensable. This primary structure information is essential for higher order structure and eventual function study of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  13. Ion implantation: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, R.N.; Subramanyam, K.

    1975-10-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing controlled amounts of dopants into target substrates, and has been successfully used for the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices. Ion implantation is superior to other methods of doping such as thermal diffusion and epitaxy, in view of its advantages such as high degree of control, flexibility, and amenability to automation. This annotated bibliography of 416 references consists of journal articles, books, and conference papers in English and foreign languages published during 1973-74, on all aspects of ion implantation including range distribution and concentration profile, channeling, radiation damage and annealing, compound semiconductors, structural and electrical characterization, applications, equipment and ion sources. Earlier bibliographies on ion implantation, and national and international conferences in which papers on ion implantation were presented have also been listed separately

  14. Ion acoustic waves in one- and two-negative ion species plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Ryuta; Shindo, Masako; Yoshimura, Shinji; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2001-01-01

    Ion acoustic waves in multi-ion plasmas including two negative ion species are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Numerically, the kinetic dispersion relation in two-negative ion plasmas is investigated. There are three modes of the ion acoustic waves in two-negative ion plasmas. In an Ar + -F - -SF 6 - plasma, only one of the three modes is dominant, regardless of the values of the electron and the ion temperatures. In a Xe + -F - -SF 6 - plasma, on the other hand, two modes can be important for a certain range of the electron-ion temperature ratio. The results also imply the possibility of the coexistence of the fast mode and the slow mode in one-negative ion plasmas. Experimentally, ion acoustic waves are observed in an Ar + -F - -SF 6 - plasma and are found to show a mode transition that agrees with the theoretical prediction for one of the three ion acoustic modes

  15. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  16. Thermal responsive ion selectivity of uranyl peroxide nanocages: an inorganic mimic of K{sup +} ion channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yunyi; Sun, Xinyu; Liu, Tianbo [Department of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-06-06

    An actinyl peroxide cage cluster, Li{sub 48+m}K{sub 12}(OH){sub m}[UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2})(OH)]{sub 60} (H{sub 2}O){sub n} (m∼20 and n∼310; U{sub 60}), discriminates precisely between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions when heated to certain temperatures, a most essential feature for K{sup +} selective filters. The U{sub 60} clusters demonstrate several other features in common with K{sup +} ion channels, including passive transport of K{sup +} ions, a high flux rate, and the dehydration of U{sub 60} and K{sup +} ions. These qualities make U{sub 60} (a pure inorganic cluster) a promising ion channel mimic in an aqueous environment. Laser light scattering (LLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies revealed that the tailorable ion selectivity of U{sub 60} clusters is a result of the thermal responsiveness of the U{sub 60} hydration shells. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Thermal responsive ion selectivity of uranyl peroxide nanocages. An inorganic mimic of K{sup +} ion channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yunyi; Sun, Xinyu; Liu, Tianbo [Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences

    2016-06-06

    An actinyl peroxide cage cluster, Li{sub 48+m}K{sub 12}(OH){sub m}[UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2})(OH)]{sub 60} (H{sub 2}O){sub n} (m∼20 and n∼310; U{sub 60}), discriminates precisely between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions when heated to certain temperatures, a most essential feature for K{sup +} selective filters. The U{sub 60} clusters demonstrate several other features in common with K{sup +} ion channels, including passive transport of K{sup +} ions, a high flux rate, and the dehydration of U{sub 60} and K{sup +} ions. These qualities make U{sub 60} (a pure inorganic cluster) a promising ion channel mimic in an aqueous environment. Laser light scattering (LLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies revealed that the tailorable ion selectivity of U{sub 60} clusters is a result of the thermal responsiveness of the U{sub 60} hydration shells.

  18. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  19. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  20. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  1. Secondary ion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Saha-Langmuir equation that describes the equilibrium emission process, surface ionization, has also been used to describe ion yields observed in the non-equilibrium emission process, sputtering. In describing sputtering, it is probably best to include the potential due to an image charge in the expression for negative as well as positive ion yield and to treat the work function and the temperature as parameters having limited physical significance. Arguments are presented to suggest that sputtered material is not emitted from a plasma. (Auth.)

  2. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  3. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  4. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  5. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  6. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  7. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  8. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  9. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  10. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  11. New experimental initiatives using very highly charged ions from an 'electron beam ion trap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    A short review of the experimental program in highly-charged heavy ion physics conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility is presented. The heavy-ion research, involving ions up to fully stripped U 92+ , includes precision x-ray spectroscopy and lifetime studies, electron impact ionization and excitation cross section measurements. The investigations of ion-surface interactions following the impact of high-Z highly charged ions on surfaces are aimed to study the neutralization dynamics effecting the ion and the response of the surface as well. (author)

  12. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Kasahara

    Full Text Available The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage.

  13. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  14. Steady-State Ion Beam Modeling with MICHELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petillo, John

    2003-10-01

    There is a need to efficiently model ion beam physics for ion implantation, chemical vapor deposition, and ion thrusters. Common to all is the need for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of volumetric ion sources, ion acceleration, and optics, with the ability to model charge exchange of the ion beam with a background neutral gas. The two pieces of physics stand out as significant are the modeling of the volumetric source and charge exchange. In the MICHELLE code, the method for modeling the plasma sheath in ion sources assumes that the electron distribution function is a Maxwellian function of electrostatic potential over electron temperature. Charge exchange is the process by which a neutral background gas with a "fast" charged particle streaming through exchanges its electron with the charged particle. An efficient method for capturing this is essential, and the model presented is based on semi-empirical collision cross section functions. This appears to be the first steady-state 3D algorithm of its type to contain multiple generations of charge exchange, work with multiple species and multiple charge state beam/source particles simultaneously, take into account the self-consistent space charge effects, and track the subsequent fast neutral particles. The solution used by MICHELLE is to combine finite element analysis with particle-in-cell (PIC) methods. The basic physics model is based on the equilibrium steady-state application of the electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) approximation employing a conformal computational mesh. The foundation stems from the same basic model introduced in codes such as EGUN. Here, Poisson's equation is used to self-consistently include the effects of space charge on the fields, and the relativistic Lorentz equation is used to integrate the particle trajectories through those fields. The presentation will consider the complexity of modeling ion thrusters.

  15. Governing for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  16. Experimental methods in radioactive ion-beam target/ion source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Murray, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TIS) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies, and a gas flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this article, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam plasma target/ion source developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive- and negative-ion extraction modes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. Ion-ion collisions and ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowat, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Improved understanding of fundamental ion-ion interactions is expected to emerge from research carried out with ion storage rings. In this short survey the significant advantages and unique features that make stored ions useful targets for collision experiments are reviewed and discussed. It is pointed out that improvements to existing ion-ion experiments, as well as qualitatively new experiments, should occur over the next few years as ion storage rings become available for atomic physics. Some new experiments are suggested which are difficult if not impossible with present-day technology, but which seem feasible at storage rings facilities. (orig.)

  18. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  19. Heavy ion medical accelerator, HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam is undoutedly suitable for the cancer treatment. The supriority of the heavy ions over the conventional radiations including protons and neutrons comes mainly from physical characteristics of a heavy particle with multiple charges. A straggling angle due to a multiple Coulomb scattering process in a human body is small for heavy ions, and the small scattering angle results in a good dose localization in a transverse direction. An ionization ratio of the heavy ion beam makes a very sharp peak at the ends of their range. The height of the peak is higher for the heavier ions and shows excellent biomedical effects around Ne ions. In order to apply heavy ion beams to cancer treatment, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been constructed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The accelerator complex consists of two ion sources, two successive linac tanks, a pair of synchrotron rings, a beam transport system and an irradiation system. An operation frequency is 100 MHz for two linacs, and the ion energy is 6.0 MeV/u at the output end of the linac. The other four experimental rooms are prepared for basic experiments. The synchrotron accelerates ions up to 800 MeV/u for a charge to mass ratio of 1/2. The long beam transport line provides two vertical beams in addition with two horizontal beams for the treatment. The three treatment rooms are prepared one of which is equipped with both horizontal and vertical beam lines. The whole facility will be open for all scientists who have interests in the heavy ion science as well as the biophysics. The conceptual design study of HIMAC started in 1984, and the construction of the accelerator complex was begun in March 1988. The beam acceleration tests of the injector system was successfully completed in March of this year, and tests of the whole system will be finished throughout this fyscal year. (author)

  20. Ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ion beam analysis is an accelerator application area for the study of materials and the structure of matter; electrostatic accelerators of the Van de Graaff or Dynamitron type are often used for energies up to a few MeV. Two types of machines are available - the single-ended accelerator type with higher beam currents and greater flexibility of beam management, or the tandem accelerator, limited to atomic species with negative ions. The accelerators are not generally installed at specialist accelerator laboratories and have to be easy to maintain and simple to operate. The most common technique for industrial research is Rutherford Back Scattering Spectrometry (RBS). Helium ions are the preferred projectiles, since at elevated energies (above 3 MeV) nuclear resonance scattering can be used to detect photons associated with target molecules containing elements such as carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. Due to the large amount of available data on nuclear reactions in this energy range, activation analysis (detecting trace elements by irradiating the sample) can be performed with charged particles from accelerators over a wider range of atoms than with the conventional use of neutrons, which is more suited to light elements. Resonance reactions have been used to detect trace metals such as aluminium, titanium and vanadium. Hydrogen atoms are vital to the material performance of several classes of materials, such as semiconductors, insulators and ceramics. Prudent selection of the projectile ion aids the analysis of hydrogen composition; the technique is then a simple measurement of the emitted gamma radiation. Solar cell material and glass can be analysed in this way. On a world-wide basis, numerous laboratories perform ion beam analysis for research purposes; considerable work is carried out in cooperation between scientific laboratories and industry, but only a few laboratories provide a completely commercial service

  1. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  2. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  3. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  4. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  5. Ion Chromatography Applications in Wastewater Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater analysis is an important area in analytical and environmental chemistry. It can be performed with both the classic wet methods and instrumental techniques. The development of new methods, and modification of the existing ones, constitute a major task for researchers. Ion chromatography plays a predominant role in ion determinations with the instrumental methods. It offers several advantages over the conventional methods, such as simultaneous determinations of alkali and alkaline earth cations and ammonia. Ammonium ions cannot be determined by spectroscopic methods. Ion chromatography has been accepted world-wide as a reference method for analyzing anions and cations in water and wastewater due to the fact that it enables the replacement of several individual wet chemistry methods for common ions with one instrumental technique. The following article describes the principles of ion chromatography, such as stationary phases, eluents, detectors, and sample preparation methods. Moreover, the applications of ion chromatography in wastewater analyses and international standards are presented.

  6. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  7. Clues From Pluto's Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Nearly a year ago, in July 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft passed by the Pluto system. The wealth of data amassed from that flyby is still being analyzed including data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument. Recent examination of this data has revealedinteresting new information about Plutos atmosphere and how the solar wind interacts with it.A Heavy Ion TailThe solar wind is a constant stream of charged particles released by the Sun at speeds of around 400 km/s (thats 1 million mph!). This wind travels out to the far reaches of the solar system, interacting with the bodies it encounters along the way.By modeling the SWAP detections, the authors determine the directions of the IMF that could produce the heavy ions detected. Red pixels represent IMF directions permitted. No possible IMF could reproduce the detections if the ions are nitrogen (bottom panels), and only retrograde IMF directions can produce the detections if the ions are methane. [Adapted from Zirnstein et al. 2016]New Horizons data has revealed that Plutos atmosphere leaks neutral nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide molecules that sometimes escape its weak gravitational pull. These molecules become ionized and are subsequently picked up by the passing solar wind, forming a tail of heavy ions behind Pluto. The details of the geometry and composition of this tail, however, had not yet been determined.Escaping MethaneIn a recent study led by Eric Zirnstein (Southwest Research Institute), the latest analysis of data from the SWAP instrument on board New Horizons is reported. The team used SWAPs ion detections from just after New Horizons closest approach to Pluto to better understand how the heavy ions around Pluto behave, and how the solar wind interacts with Plutos atmosphere.In the process of analyzing the SWAP data, Zirnstein and collaborators first establish what the majority of the heavy ions picked up by the solar wind are. Models of the SWAP detections indicate they are unlikely

  8. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  9. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  10. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  11. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  12. Ion channels in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets.

  13. Ion-solid interactions for materials modification and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ila, D.; Cheng, Y.T.; Harriott, L.R.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Topics ranged from the very fundamental ion-solid interactions to the highly device-oriented semiconductor applications. Highlights of the symposium featured in this volume include: nanocrystals in insulators, plasma immersion ion implantation. Focused ion beams, molecular dynamics simulations of ion-surface interactions, ion-beam mixing of insulators, GeV ion irradiation, electro-optical materials, polymers, tribological materials, and semiconductor processing. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  14. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Palinkas, J. [University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  15. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  16. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated in the DOE complex is stored in tanks at several sites, but predominantly it is found at the Hanford reservation. Much of the material has been exposed to high pHs, consequently the waste exists in a complex, poorly understood mixture of solids, gels and solutions. The final waste remediation plan may involve chemical separation of fractions and a suitable, well developed molecular chemistry basis for performing these separations is not available. Indeed, the fundamental chemical behavior of most radioactive nuclides in basic media is not known. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element species in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3 -, CO3 2-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study. The experimental agenda includes: 1. Studies of the speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic solutions wit h and without common counterions; 2. Preparations of new multifunctional ligands that may act as strong, ion-specific chelators for Sr and/or Ln ions in basic media; and 3. Studies of the coordination and dissolution behavior of oxide-hydroxide species, as well as in insoluble sols, gels, and precipitates in combination with new chelating ligands. It is anticipated that this coordination chemistry will facilitate the design of advanced separation schemes required for handling the complex waste matrices found at the Hanford HLW facility

  17. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  18. Therapeutic approaches to genetic ion channelopathies and perspectives in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the human genome more than 400 genes encode ion channels, which are transmembrane proteins mediating ion fluxes across membranes. Being expressed in all cell types, they are involved in almost all physiological processes, including sense perception, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, secretion, immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation. Due to the widespread tissue distribution of ion channels and their physiological functions, mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits, or their interacting proteins, are responsible for inherited ion channelopathies. These diseases can range from common to very rare disorders and their severity can be mild, disabling, or life-threatening. In spite of this, ion channels are the primary target of only about 5% of the marketed drugs suggesting their potential in drug discovery. The current review summarizes the therapeutic management of the principal ion channelopathies of central and peripheral nervous system, heart, kidney, bone, skeletal muscle and pancreas, resulting from mutations in calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride ion channels. For most channelopathies the therapy is mainly empirical and symptomatic, often limited by lack of efficacy and tolerability for a significant number of patients. Other channelopathies can exploit ion channel targeted drugs, such as marketed sodium channel blockers. Developing new and more specific therapeutic approaches is therefore required. To this aim, a major advancement in the pharmacotherapy of channelopathies has been the discovery that ion channel mutations lead to change in biophysics that can in turn specifically modify the sensitivity to drugs: this opens the way to a pharmacogenetics strategy, allowing the development of a personalized therapy with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. In addition, the identification of disease modifiers in ion channelopathies appears an alternative strategy to discover novel druggable targets.

  19. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  20. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  1. ION GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  2. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Antinori, Federico

    2001-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  3. Heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Colliding two heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies allows to create in the laboratory a bulk system with huge density, pressure and temperature and to study its properties. It is estimated that in Pb-Pb collisions at CERN-SPS we reach over an appreciable volume an energy density which exceeds by more than a factor 20 that of normal nuclear matter. At such densities, the hadrons are so closely packed that they interpenetrate; novel physics phenomena are expected to appear. QCD predicts that under such conditions a phase transition from a system composed of colourless hadrons to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) should occur. A rich ultrarelativistic heavy-ion physics programme is under way both at BNL-AGS and at CERN-SPS since 1986. The results obtained so far have led CERN to officially announce evidence for a new state of matter last year. A long-range programme of heavy-ion physics at higher energies is under way (BNL-RHIC) and in preparation (CERN-LHC). These lectures are meant as an introduction to the phy...

  4. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  5. Ion funnel device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Harrer, Marques B.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-11-21

    An ion funnel device is disclosed. A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source. A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.

  6. Ion optics for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of ion-optic devices used in particle accelerators, including electrostatic lenses, magnetic quadrupoles, and deflecting magnets. Tube focusing in dc accelerators is also treated, and a novel scheme for shaping the electrodes to produce strong focusing is described. The concepts of emittance (phase space) and emittance conservation are briefly discussed. Chromatic and spatial aberrations are introduced, and it is shown how they can be calculated and sometimes substantially reduced. Some examples are given

  7. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    variations of ion traps, including (1) the cylindrically symmetric 3D ring trap; (2) the linear trap with a combination of cavity QED; (#) the symmetric...concepts of quantum information. The major demonstration has been the test of a Bell inequality as demonstrated by Rowe et al. [50] and a decoherence...famous physics experiment [62]. Wolfgang Paul demonstrated a similar apparatus during his Nobel Prize speech [63]. This device is hyperbolic- parabolic

  8. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Allan, G L; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S J; Day, J P [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  9. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  10. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  11. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  12. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  13. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  14. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  15. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C60r+ (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C60 collisions: II. Dependence on collisional processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a quantitative comparison of our experimental data for the asymmetrical fission (AF) and neutral evaporation of the C 60 molecule under proton impact (part I) is made with data published by other authors and often obtained in rather different collisional systems. The comparison with multicharged ions for which more quantitative data are available is focused on. It is demonstrated that size distributions of fragments, averaged fragment sizes, branching ratios between AF and evaporation or between AF channels, are common to all the collisional systems. Differences only appear when the comparison includes the undissociated stable fullerene ion signals

  16. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  17. Ion beam modification of solids ion-solid interaction and radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Wesch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the method of ion beam modification of solids in realization, theory and applications in a comprehensive way. It provides a review of the physical basics of ion-solid interaction and on ion-beam induced structural modifications of solids. Ion beams are widely used to modify the physical properties of materials. A complete theory of ion stopping in matter and the calculation of the energy loss due to nuclear and electronic interactions are presented including the effect of ion channeling. To explain structural modifications due to high electronic excitations, different concepts are presented with special emphasis on the thermal spike model. Furthermore, general concepts of damage evolution as a function of ion mass, ion fluence, ion flux and temperature are described in detail and their limits and applicability are discussed. The effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on structural modifications of solids such as damage formation, phase transitions and amorphization is reviewed for ins...

  18. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  19. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  20. Hidden ion population: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential

  1. Ion currents in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents an experimental and modelling investigation into ion formation in diesel engines, its uses in the field of engine performance and emissions prediction and the mechanisms by which these uses are made possible. Ion sensors have been employed in engines for a variety of purposes, including estimation of air-fuel ratio, start of combustion and in-cylinder pressure, detection of knock, misfire and combustion resonance, prediction of soot formation, and control of spark ...

  2. Compositional changes during ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    Ion irradiation initiates several processes that can alter the composition of the target. This presentation provides an overview of our current understanding of these kinetics processes, which include implantation, sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion, and radiation-induced segregation. The latter two effects can alter the target composition to depths that are substantially greater than the projected ion range. 45 refs., 8 figs

  3. Saturation of ion-acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Gradov, O.M.

    1985-01-01

    The time evolution of ion-acoustic turbulence is investigated taking into consideration both the scattering of electrons and the induced scattering of waves by the ions. The growth rate of the ion-acoustic turbulence is studied as the function of the wave number, including the long-wave ion sound excitations. It is shown that the relaxation of the ion-acoustic turbulence leads to the quasistationary noise distributions, which are the products of distributions according to the wave number and to the angle. The spectra conform to the stationary theory. (D.Gy.)

  4. Two-dimensional ion effects in relativistic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    In relativistic diodes, ions are emitted from the anode plasma. The effects and properties of these ions are studied via a two-dimensional particle simulation code. The space charge of these ions enhances the electron emission, and this additional current (including that of the ions, themselves) aids in obtaining superpinched electron beams for use in pellet fusion studies. (U.S.)

  5. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... interventions in children with chronic kidney disease, hypertension and nephrotic syndrome. ... is atretic and the kidney is non-functional. A MCDK is .... kidney. Manifestations of unilateral PUJO include abdominal pain,.

  6. Disscusion on the common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Negri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this interview taken shortly after the launch of the Italian translation of the Commonwealth, Antonio Negri, besides discussing details of his collaboration with Michael Hardt, addresses the most important topics of the book, which could remain unclear for the readers. He gives a wide range of answers for the questions on, for example, importance of revision and revitalization of seventeenth century’s categories, what does it mean to be a communist today, elaboration of the thesis of real subsumption. He also stresses the significance of the struggle over the common and processes of its institutionalization for contemporary revolutionary politics and faces criticism of the conception of immaterial and biopolitical labour.

  7. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  8. Common cause failures of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1978-01-01

    The common cause failure is defined as a multiple failure event due to a common cause. The existence of common failure causes may ruin the potential advantages of applying redundancy for reliability improvement. Examples relevant to large mechanical components are presented. Preventive measures against common cause failures, such as physical separation, equipment diversity, quality assurance, and feedback from experience are discussed. Despite the large number of potential interdependencies, the analysis of common cause failures can be done within the framework of conventional reliability analysis, utilizing, for example, the method of deriving minimal cut sets from a system fault tree. Tools for the description and evaluation of dependencies between components are discussed: these include the model of conditional failure causes that are common to many components, and evaluation of the reliability of redundant components subjected to a common load. (author)

  9. Modeling Common-Sense Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    This paper presents a methodology for efficient synthesis of dynamical model simulating a common-sense decision making process. The approach is based upon the extension of the physics' First Principles that includes behavior of living systems. The new architecture consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-base and incorporating it in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions.

  10. Glioblastoma cancer stem cell lines express functional acid sensing ion channels ASIC1a and ASIC3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yuemin; Bresenitz, Pia; Reska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Acidic microenvironment is commonly observed in tumour tissues, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive and lethal brain tumour in adults. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal voltage-insensitive sodium channels, which are sensors of extracellular protons. Here we studied...

  11. Compact ion accelerator source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  12. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  13. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Simulating the performance of a distance-3 surface code in a linear ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Colin J.; Li, Muyuan; Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Wu, Yukai; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Duan, Luming; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the feasibility of implementing a small surface code with 9 data qubits and 8 ancilla qubits, commonly referred to as surface-17, using a linear chain of 171Yb+ ions. Two-qubit gates can be performed between any two ions in the chain with gate time increasing linearly with ion distance. Measurement of the ion state by fluorescence requires that the ancilla qubits be physically separated from the data qubits to avoid errors on the data due to scattered photons. We minimize the time required to measure one round of stabilizers by optimizing the mapping of the two-dimensional surface code to the linear chain of ions. We develop a physically motivated Pauli error model that allows for fast simulation and captures the key sources of noise in an ion trap quantum computer including gate imperfections and ion heating. Our simulations showed a consistent requirement of a two-qubit gate fidelity of ≥99.9% for the logical memory to have a better fidelity than physical two-qubit operations. Finally, we perform an analysis of the error subsets from the importance sampling method used to bound the logical error rates to gain insight into which error sources are particularly detrimental to error correction.

  16. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  17. Ion source and injector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    This is a survey of low energy accelerators which inject into proton linacs. Laboratories covered include Argonne, Brookhaven, CERN, Chalk River, Fermi, ITEP, KEK, Rutherford, and Saclay. This paper emphasizes complete injector systems, comparing significant hardware features and beam performance data, including recent additions. There is increased activity now in the acceleration of polarized protons, H + and H - , and of unpolarized H - . New source development and programs for these ion beams is outlined at the end of the report. Heavy-ion sources are not included

  18. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1990-10-01

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on neutral gas atoms, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is able of accurate predictions

  19. 29 CFR 779.221 - “Common control” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units.” The meaning of “common control” is discussed comprehensively in part 776 of this chapter. ... Or Common Control § 779.221 “Common control” defined. Under the definition the “enterprise” includes all related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The word...

  20. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  1. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  2. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  3. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  4. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clear at first but might thicken and turn yellow or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing Coughing Decreased appetite Irritability Difficulty sleeping Trouble ...

  5. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  6. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  7. Superconducting ECR ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Saxena, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to cover the entire mass range of the elements across the periodic table, an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme, consisting of a superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting resonator cavities has been proposed. The 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source system has already been commissioned and being operated periodically at FOTIA beam hall. This source is capable of delivering ion beams right from proton to uranium with high currents and high charge states over a wide mass range (1/7 ≤ q/m ≤ 1/2) across the periodic table, including U"3"4"+ (q/m∼1/7) with 100 pna yield. The normalized transverse beam emittance from ECR source is expected to be <1.0 pi mm mrad. ECR ion sources are quite robust, making them suitable for operating for weeks continuously without any interruption

  8. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  9. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, 301B Still Gym, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hubaud, A.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, J.T., E-mail: vaughey@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: • Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. • Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. • Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  10. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  11. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  12. Tailoring magnetism by light-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J; Ravelosona, D; Samson, Y

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their reduced dimensions, the magnetic properties of ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers, e.g. magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling, often depend strongly on the surface and interface structure. In addition, chemical composition, crystallinity, grain sizes and their distribution govern the magnetic behaviour. All these structural properties can be modified by light-ion irradiation in an energy range of 5-150 keV due to the energy loss of the ions in the solid along their trajectory. Consequently the magnetic properties can be tailored by ion irradiation. Similar effects can also be observed using Ga + ion irradiation, which is the common ion source in focused ion beam lithography. Examples of ion-induced modifications of magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling are presented. This review is limited to radiation-induced structural changes giving rise to a modification of magnetic parameters. Ion implantation is discussed only in special cases. Due to the local nature of the interaction, magnetic patterning without affecting the surface topography becomes feasible, which may be of interest in applications. The main patterning technique is homogeneous ion irradiation through masks. Focused ion beam and ion projection lithography are usually only relevant for larger ion masses. The creation of magnetic feature sizes below 50 nm is shown. In contrast to topographic nanostructures the surrounding area of these nanostructures can be left ferromagnetic, leading to new phenomena at their mutual interface. Most of the material systems discussed here are important for technological applications. The main areas are magnetic data storage applications, such as hard magnetic media with a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy or patterned media with an improved signal to noise ratio and magnetic sensor elements. It will be shown that light-ion irradiation has many advantages in the design of new material properties and in the fabrication technology of

  13. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  14. Surface negative ion production in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Negative ion sources and the mechanisms for negative ion production are reviewed. Several classes of sources with surface origin of negative ions are examined in detail: surface-plasma sources where ion production occurs on the electrode in contact with the plasma, and ''pure surface'' sources where ion production occurs due to conversion or desorption processes. Negative ion production by backscattering, impact desorption, and electron- and photo-stimulated desorption are discussed. The experimental efficiencies of intense surface negative ion production realized on electrodes contacted with hydrogen-cesium or pure hydrogen gas-discharge plasma are compared. Recent modifications of surface-plasma sources developed for accelerator and fusion applications are reviewed in detail

  15. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  16. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  17. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  18. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  19. A model for the numerical simulations of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1986-05-01

    We present a complete set of equations for the numerical simulation of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas. The model includes the full geometry of the tokamak equilibrium, full parallel dispersion, and perpendicular dispersion to second order in the Larmor radius. It is therefore capable of describing correctly ion cyclotron damping at the fundamental and first harmonic, as well as mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave and/or the shear Alfven wave, depending on the heating scenario. It includes also electron magnitude pumping and Landau damping, the latter to lowest order in msub(e)/msub(i). Relying on the knowledge gained from slab and ray tracing analysis, we also situate with respect to this standard model some of the further approximations which are commonly encountered in the literature. Finally, two procedures for the numerical solution of the standard model are proposed. (orig.)

  20. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  1. Surface ionization ion source with high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Lin Zhizhou; Yu Lihua; Zhan Rongan; Huang Guojun; Wu Jianhua

    1986-04-01

    The working principle and structure of a surface ionization ion source with high current is described systematically. Some technological keypoints of the ion source are given in more detail, mainly including: choosing and shaping of the material of the surface ionizer, heating of the ionizer, distributing of working vapour on the ionizer surface, the flow control, the cooling problem at the non-ionization surface and the ion optics, etc. This ion source has been used since 1972 in the electromagnetic isotope separator with 180 deg angle. It is suitable for separating isotopes of alkali metals and rare earth metals. For instance, in the case of separating Rubidium, the maximum ion current of Rbsup(+) extracted from the ion source is about 120 mA, the maximum ion current accepted by the receiver is about 66 mA, the average ion current is more than 25 mA. The results show that our ion source have advantages of high ion current, good characteristics of focusing ion beam, working stability and structure reliability etc. It may be extended to other fields. Finally, some interesting phenomena in the experiment are disccused briefly. Some problems which should be investigated are further pointed out

  2. Modeling the effects of ion dose and crystallographic symmetry on the morphological evolution of embedded precipitates under thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun-Dar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We model the faceted precipitates formation by post-implantation annealing. •The anisotropic interfacial energy and diffusion kinetics play crucial roles. •The evolutions of faceted precipitates, including Ostwald ripening, are revealed. •The mechanism of the nucleation and growth is based on the atomic diffusion. •The effects of ion dose and crystallographic symmetry are also investigated. -- Abstract: Thermal annealing is one of the most common techniques to synthesize embedded precipitates by ion implantation process. In this study, an anisotropic phase field model is presented to investigate the effects of ion dose and crystallographic symmetry on the morphological formation and evolution of embedded precipitates during post-implantation thermal annealing process. This theoretical model provides an efficient numerical approach to understand the phenomenon of faceted precipitates formation by ion implantation. As a theoretical analysis, the interfacial energy and diffusion kinetics play prominent roles in the mechanism of atomic diffusion for the precipitates formation. With a low ion dose, faceted precipitates are developed by virtue of the anisotropic interfacial energy. As an increase of ion dose, connected precipitates with crystallographic characters on the edge are appeared. For a high ion dose, labyrinth-like nanostructures of precipitates are produced and the characteristic morphology of crystallographic symmetry becomes faint. These simulation results for the morphological evolutions of embedded precipitates by ion implantation are corresponded with many experimental observations in the literatures. The quantitative analyses of the simulations are also well described the consequence of precipitates formation under different conditions

  3. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  4. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  5. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  6. Physics of ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The ejection of atoms by the ion bombardment of solids is discussed in terms of linear collision cascade theory. A simple argument describes the energies of the ejecta, but elaborate models are required to obtain accurate sputtering yields and related quantities. These include transport theoretical models based on linearized Boltzmann equations, computer simulation models based on the binary collision approximation, and classical many-body dynamical models. The role of each kind of model is discussed. Several aspects of sputtering are illustrated by results from the simulation code MARLOWE. 20 references, 6 figures

  7. Common primary headaches in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a very common problem in pregnancy. Evaluation of a complaint of headache requires categorizing it as primary or secondary. Migrainous headaches are known to be influenced by fluctuation of estrogen levels with high levels improving it and low levels deteriorating the symptoms. Tension-type Headaches (TTHs are the most common and usually less severe types of headache with female to male ratio 3:1. Women known to have primary headache before conception who present with a headache that is different from their usual headache, or women not known to have primary headache before conception who present with new-onset of headache during pregnancy need neurologic assessments for potential secondary cause for their headache. In addition to proper history and physical examination, both non-contrast computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are considered safe to be performed in pregnant women when indicated. Treatment of abortive and prophylactic therapy should include non-pharmacologic tools, judicious use of drugs which are safe for mother and fetus.

  8. International cooperation in heavy-ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The rapidly growing research applications of heavy ions in basic biology and medicine have stimulated interest in this field in many countries. LBL, with its unique facilities and its scientific programs, is the focal point of interest. Plans are underway in several countries, including France, Japan, West Germany, and Canada, to build heavy-ion facilities, and to collaborate with our staff at LBL in heavy-ion research in physics, biology, and medicine

  9. Fast ion beam-laser interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Engstroem, L.; Hardis, J.E.; Somerville, L.P.; Ray, W.J.; Kurtz, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are using collinear laser excitation of fast ion beams to study a number of atomic structure problems. The problems include the determination of fine and hyperfine structure in light positive and negative ions, plus measurements of absolute wavelengths of light from two-electron ions. In addition the authors intend to use a similar experimental arrangement to study excitation and decay of high Rydberg states first in the absence of fields and then in crossed electric and magnetic fields

  10. High accuracy ion optics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, R.J.; Evans, G.A.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulation of focused ion beams for surface analysis of materials by SIMS, or for microfabrication by ion beam lithography plays an important role in the design of low energy ion beam transport and optical systems. Many computer packages currently available, are limited in their applications, being inaccurate or inappropriate for a number of practical purposes. This work describes an efficient and accurate computer programme which has been developed and tested for use on medium sized machines. The programme is written in Algol 68 and models the behaviour of a beam of charged particles through an electrostatic system. A variable grid finite difference method is used with a unique data structure, to calculate the electric potential in an axially symmetric region, for arbitrary shaped boundaries. Emphasis has been placed upon finding an economic method of solving the resulting set of sparse linear equations in the calculation of the electric field and several of these are described. Applications include individual ion lenses, extraction optics for ions in surface analytical instruments and the design of columns for ion beam lithography. Computational results have been compared with analytical calculations and with some data obtained from individual einzel lenses. (author)

  11. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  12. Ion beam modification of buckminsterfullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; McCulloch, D.G.; Leong, W.H.; Hoffman, A.; Kalish, R.

    1995-01-01

    The response of thin films of buckminsterfullerene (C 60 ) to energetic xenon ion impact is investigated. The diagnostics employed include Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies, Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. By combining the information obtained from these diagnostics with that from the dependence of the conductivity on ion dose, it is concluded that each C 60 molecule completely disintegrates when hit by an energetic ion. The cross-section for the destruction of about 7 x 10 -13 cm 2 for irradiation with 620 keV Xe ions. The disintegration occurs when C atoms are knocked-out of the molecule either directly by the impinging ion or by an energetic knock-on C atom with the damage cascade. This process is quite different from the Coulomb Explosion mechanism previously proposed in the literature. For very low ions doses ( 11 Xe/cm 2 ) most of the C 60 molecules remain intact; however this dose is sufficient to completely disrupt the ordering of the C 60 molecules in the van der Waals bonded C 60 solid. Disruption of the lattice ordering at such low doses is considered to be attributable to the weakness of the van der Waals forces which bind the C 60 clusters together into the molecular solid. 13 refs., 7 figs

  13. Laser ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskij, Yu

    1979-02-01

    The characteristics a laser source of multiply-ionized ions are described with regard to the interaction of laser radiation and matter, ion energy spectrum, angular ion distribution. The amount of multiple-ionization ions is evaluated. Out of laser source applications a laser injector of multiple-ionization ions and nuclei, laser mass spectrometry, laser X-ray microradiography, and a laser neutron generators are described.

  14. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  15. Common energy audit report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A.I.; Sheina, L.S.; Ivanov, N.S. [RDIEE, Moswoc (Russian Federation); Draborg, S.; Oestergaard, T. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interst in energy savings. At some dairies it seemed to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting could production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  16. Common energy audit report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A I; Sheina, L S; Ivanov, N S [RDIEE, Moswoc (Russian Federation); Draborg, S; Oestergaard, T [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interst in energy savings. At some dairies it seemed to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting could production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  17. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  18. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  19. Justifying group-specific common morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for each claim. It argues that the claim that there is a universal common morality in the descriptive sense has not been successfully defended to date. It maintains that the claim that there is a common morality in the normative sense need not be understood as universalist. This paper advocates the concept of group specific common morality, including country-specific versions. It suggests that both the descriptive and the normative claims that there are country-specific common moralities are plausible, and that a country-specific normative common morality could provide the basis for a country's bioethics.

  20. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  1. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, A. M.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α, Al 2O 3+α) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxyapatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate.

  2. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  3. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

  4. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  5. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10 7 -10 9 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11 C and 19 Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  7. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K + ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 micros. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described

  8. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Singh, S. V.; Kakad, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M > 1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M < 1). The slow ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge

  9. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  10. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  12. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  13. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  14. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  15. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  16. 11. international conference on ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production

  17. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  18. Heteroditopic receptors for ion-pair recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Anna J; Beer, Paul D

    2012-05-21

    Ion-pair recognition is a new field of research emerging from cation and anion coordination chemistry. Specific types of heteroditopic receptor designs for ion pairs and the complexity of ion-pair binding are discussed to illustrate key concepts such as cooperativity. The importance of this area of research is reflected by the wide variety of potential applications of ion-pair receptors, including applications as membrane transport and salt solubilization agents and sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  20. Ion-ion Recombination and Chemiion Concentrations In Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    Jet aircraft emit large quantities of ultrafine volatile aerosols, as well as soot parti- cles, into the environment. To determine the long-term effects of these emissions, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control particle formation and evolution is needed, including the number and size dispersion. A recent explanation for aerosol nucleation in a jet wake involves the condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, and cer- tain organic compounds, onto charged molecular clusters (chemiions) generated in the engine combustors (Yu and Turco, 1997). Massive charged aggregates, along with sulfuric acid and organic precursor vapors, have been detected in jet plumes under cruise conditions. In developing the chemiion nucleation theory, Yu and Turco noted that ion-ion recombination in the engine train and jet core should limit the chemiion emission index to 1017/kg-fuel. This value is consistent with ion-ion recombination coefficients of 1×10-7 cm3/s over time scales of 10-2 s. However, the evolution of the ions through the engine has not been adequately studied. The conditions at the combustor exit are extreme-temperatures approach 1500 K, and pressures can reach 30 atmospheres. In this presentation, we show that as the combustion gases expand and cool, two- and three-body ion-ion recombination processes control the chemiion concentration. The concepts of mutual neutralization and Thomson recombination are first summarized, and appropriate temperature and pressure dependent recombination rate coefficients are derived for the aircraft problem. A model for ion losses in jet exhaust is then formulated using an "invariance" principle discussed by Turco and Yu (1997) in the context of a coagulating aerosol in an expanding plume. This recombina- tion model is applied to estimate chemiion emission indices for a range of operational engine conditions. The predicted ion emission rates are found to be consistent with observations. We discuss the sources of variance in chemiion

  1. Alkynylcarbenium ions and related unsaturated cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergey M; Koblik, Alla V; Muradyan, Lyudmila A [Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Rostov State University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-31

    Published data on carbenium ions containing carbon-carbon triple bonds both directly conjugated with the carbenium centre and separated from it are surveyed and described systematically. Ammonium, diazonium, iminium, phosphonium and iodonium cations containing alkynyl groups, which can be regarded as heteroanalogues of alkynylcarbenium ions, are also considered. The bibliography includes 283 references.

  2. Alkynylcarbenium ions and related unsaturated cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Sergey M; Koblik, Alla V; Muradyan, Lyudmila A

    1998-01-01

    Published data on carbenium ions containing carbon-carbon triple bonds both directly conjugated with the carbenium centre and separated from it are surveyed and described systematically. Ammonium, diazonium, iminium, phosphonium and iodonium cations containing alkynyl groups, which can be regarded as heteroanalogues of alkynylcarbenium ions, are also considered. The bibliography includes 283 references

  3. Principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Arnold, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Doering, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    An outline is given of the principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy to the selective measurement of single substances in a substance matrix, including advantages and disadvantages of ion mobility detectors for solving analytical problems in the fields of environment, microelectronics, medicine, and military engineering. (orig.) [de

  4. Electron capture in ion atom and ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Electron capture (EC) by positive ions in collision with various targets has remained one of the most important subjects of research since the early 30's. From a theoretical point of view, EC is obviously a coupled 3-body problem: at least two cores and an active electron that jumps between them. Practical interest in EC arose in a variety of fields. Recently a renewed interest arose from the physics of thermonuclear fusion, where capture by highly charged ionic impurities were found to be an important process in tokamak devices. For that reasons, a number of reviews were devoted to this subject during the past years, including lectures given in various NATO advanced science institutes. The aim of this lecture is not at all to add a new review to this list, but (i) to summarize the very basis of the present theoretical approaches at low and moderate collision energy, (ii) to pinpoint some crucial difficulties in the theoretical treatment, (iii) to select specific examples which, to the taste of the author, reflect some present practical interest, or some significant advances. 48 references, 38 figures, 1 table

  5. Common hyperspectral image database design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  6. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  7. Ion rarefaction waves and associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains an experimental and theoretical study of the response of a plasma to the motion of the positive space-charge sheath which bounds it . It is known theoretically that, if a sheath edge is moved at a speed less than the speed of ion acoustic waves, a region of ion rarefaction propagates into the plasma at the ion acoustic speed. Some calculations are described which include the effects of an initial presheath by constructing a one-dimensional plasma solution where a production term balances the losses of ions to the walls. The plasma response to the motion of one boundary is found using the method of characteristics with appropriate boundary conditions. Ion rarefaction waves are associated with expanding sheaths while ion 'enhancement' waves (compressive features) are formed on sheath collapse. In each case the wavefront moves at the local ion acoustic speed which includes the effects of ion drift. The presence of the presheath is essential to the generation of enhancements. The constructional details of a multidipole device are discussed, and the results of Langmuir probe and ion acoustic wave experiments are used to determine the parameters of a quiescent argon plasma. Some experiments on moving sheaths in such a plasma are then considered. (author)

  8. Ion implantation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struttmann, D.A.; Anderl, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a data acquisition system developed for hydrogen ion-driven permeation experiments for materials relevant to fusion technology. The system consists of an IMB PC-AT, CAMAC interface to diagnostic instrumentation and custom-developed software (BASIC) to provide time-history information for signals from several instruments including three quadrupole mass spectrometers. 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  11. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width ∼35 cm for a nominal beam area of ∼1,000 cm 2 , and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of ∼100 keV. Separately, they've developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they've developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications

  12. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  13. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.

  14. Measurement of few-electron uranium ions on a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    The high-energy electron beam ion trap, dubbed Super-EBIT, was used to produce, trap, and excite uranium ions as highly charged as fully stripped U 92+ . The production of such highly charged ions was indicated by the x-ray emission observed with high-purity Ge detectors. Moreover, high-resolution Bragg crystal spectromters were used to analyze the x-ray emission, including a detailed measurement of both the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole transitions. Unlike in ion accelerators, where the uranium ions move at relativistic speeds, the ions in this trap are stationary. Thus very precise measurements of the transition energies could be made, and the QED contribution to the transition energies could be measured within less than 1 %. Details of the production of these highly charged ions and their measurement is given

  15. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.; Fletcher, L.; Pak, A.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; Hastings, J.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Turnbull, D.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; Döppner, T.

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ~3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4k=4Å-1. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  16. Quasilinear ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1993-12-01

    The quasilinear modification of the ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron (FHIC) heating is investigated both with a simple already well established analytic one-dimensional approach, and with a new two dimensional steady state solver of the quasilinear kinetic equation, SSFPQL. By accepting to disregard the effects of ion trapping in banana orbits, but including finite Larmor radius effects, the latter code has been made much faster than full surface-averaged codes; yet it can provide most of the relevant information on the suprathermal ion tail produced by this heating method. With SSFPQL we confirm that the one-dimensional model gives fair approximations for global properties of the distribution function, such as the average energy content of the tail and the fusion reactivity. On the other hand the tail is found to be very anisotropic, the increase of the parallel effective temperature being a small fraction of the total energy increase. Information on the anisotropy is essential to study the feedback of the fast ion tail on wave propagation and absorption, which is quite sensitive to the distribution of parallel velocities. The insight gained in the derivation and discussion of this model can be used to build a selfconsistent description of this heating scenario, whose implementation requires only a reasonable numerical effort. (orig.)

  17. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  18. Negative ion ESI-MS analysis of natural yellow dye flavonoids--An isotopic labelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Hamish; Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Hulme, Alison N.; Quye, Anita

    2009-07-01

    Flavonoids are amongst the most commonly used natural yellow colourants in paintings, as lakes, and in historical textiles as mordant dyes. In this paper, evidence from isotopically labelled substrates is used to propose negative ion electrospray collision induced decomposition mechanisms of flavones, flavonols and an isoflavone. These mechanisms include a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation (observed for flavones and flavonols) and an M-122 fragmentation (characteristic of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonols). In addition, the presence of a m/z 125 fragment ion is shown to be characteristic of 2'-hydroxyflavonols and an ion at m/z 149 is shown to be characteristic of 4'-hydroxyflavones. Applications of these methods are exemplified by the identification of a minor component of Dyer's camomile (Anthemis tinctoria L.) and the identification of the dye source in green threads sampled from an 18th Century Scottish tartan fragment.

  19. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  20. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  1. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  2. Ion sources in AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Indira S.

    1997-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) entails the sputtering of various samples in an ion source followed by high precision mass analysis of the sputtered ion species in a Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator. A brief account is given

  3. Single Cathode Ion Thruster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective is to design an electrostatic ion thruster that is more efficient, simpler, and lower cost than the current gridded ion thruster. Initial objective is to...

  4. Applications of decelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1985-03-01

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed

  5. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  6. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  8. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  9. Ion-acoustic double layers in multi-species plasmas maintained by negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, F.

    1989-01-01

    A study is made of ion-acoustic double layers in a plasma consisting of any number of cold positive and negative ion (and cold electron) species in addition to one isothermal electron population. The Sagdeev potential is obtained in general, together with limits on both compressive and rarefactive solutions for ion-acoustic double layers and/or solitons. Weak ion-acoustic double layers are described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. Such double layers are not possible in plasmas with only positive ion species and one electron population. When one or more negative ion and/or cold electron species are included above a certain threshold density, rarefactive ion-acoustic double layers occur, but no compressive ones. The double-layer form of the potential is given, together with an application to a plasma with one positive and one negative ion component. It is shown that there is indeed such a threshold density for the negative ion density, depending on the charge-to-mass ratios of both types of ions. The threshold density is determined numerically for a range of such ratios and discussed in view of possible relevance to auroral and experimental plasmas. In the discussion, cold electrons can play the role of the negative ion species. (author)

  10. Ion Acceleration by Double Layers with Multi-Component Ion Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Timothy; Aguirre, Evan; Scime, Earl; West Virginia University Team

    2017-10-01

    Current-free double layers (CFDL) models have been proposed to explain observations of magnetic field-aligned ion acceleration in plasmas expanding into divergent magnetic field regions. More recently, experimental studies of the Bohm sheath criterion in multiple ion species plasma reveal an equilibration of Bohm speeds at the sheath-presheath boundary for a grounded plate in a multipole-confined filament discharge. We aim to test this ion velocity effect for CFDL acceleration. We report high resolution ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements using laser induced fluorescence downstream of a CFDL in a helicon plasma. Combinations of argon-helium, argon-krypton, and argon-xenon gases are ionized and measurements of argon or xenon IVDFs are investigated to determine whether ion acceleration is enhanced (or diminished) by the presence of lighter (or heavier) ions in the mix. We find that the predominant effect is a reduction of ion acceleration consistent with increased drag arising from increased gas pressure under all conditions, including constant total gas pressure, equal plasma densities of different ions, and very different plasma densities of different ions. These results suggest that the physics responsible for acceleration of multiple ion species in simple sheaths is not responsible for the ion acceleration observed in these expanding plasmas. Department of Physics, Gettysburg College.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE MOST COMMON COFFEE BREWS AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Huda A. Al Doghaither; Ashjan M. Almowalad; Ayat M. Shorbaji; Ayat B. Al-Ghafari; Ulfat M. Omar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the most commonly used coffee brews in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and antioxidants properties including ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ion chelating activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide assays were also determined. Results of study revealed that phenolic contents were 741, 835 an...

  12. Descriptors for ions and ion-pairs for use in linear free energy relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Acree, William E

    2016-01-22

    The determination of Abraham descriptors for single ions is reviewed, and equations are given for the partition of single ions from water to a number of solvents. These ions include permanent anions and cations and ionic species such as carboxylic acid anions, phenoxide anions and protonated base cations. Descriptors for a large number of ions and ionic species are listed, and equations for the prediction of Abraham descriptors for ionic species are given. The application of descriptors for ions and ionic species to physicochemical processes is given; these are to water-solvent partitions, HPLC retention data, immobilised artificial membranes, the Finkelstein reaction and diffusion in water. Applications to biological processes include brain permeation, microsomal degradation of drugs, skin permeation and human intestinal absorption. The review concludes with a section on the determination of descriptors for ion-pairs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  14. Heavy ion accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerating structure concerned in this invention is of the kind that have a resonance cavity inside which are located at least two longitudinal conducting supports electrically connected to the cavity by one of their ends in such a way that they are in quarter-wavelength resonance and in phase opposition. Slide tubes are electrically connected alternatively to one or the other of the two supports, they being electrically connected respectively to one or the other end of the side wall of the cavity. The feature of the structure is that it includes two pairs of supports symmetrically placed with respect to the centre line of the cavity, the supports of one pair fitted overhanging being placed symmetrically with respect to the centre line of the cavity, each slide tube being connected to the two supports of one pair. These support are connected to the slide wall of the cavity by an insulator located at their electrically free end. The accelerator structure composed of several structures placed end to end, the last one of which is fed by a high frequency field of adjustable amplitude and phase, enables a heavy ion linear accelerator to be built [fr

  15. Ion sources for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1974-01-01

    A limited review of low charge sate positive and negative ion sources suitable for accelerator use is given. A brief discussion is also given of the concepts underlying the formation and extraction of ion beams. Particular emphasis is placed on the technology of ion sources which use solid elemental or molecular compounds to produce vapor for the ionization process

  16. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  17. Behaviour of tetraalkylammonium ions in high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Kapron, James T

    2010-05-30

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an ion-filtering technique recently adapted for use with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to remove interferences during analysis of complex matrices. This is the first systematic study of a series of singly charged tetraalkylammonium ions by FAIMS-MS. The compensation voltage (CV) is the DC offset of the waveform which permits the ion to emerge from FAIMS and it was determined for each member of the series under various conditions. The electrospray ionization conditions explored included spray voltage, vaporizer temperature, and sheath and auxiliary gas pressure. The FAIMS conditions explored included carrier gas flow rate, electrode temperature and composition of the carrier gas. Optimum desolvation was achieved using sufficient carrier gas (flow rate > or = 2 L/min) to ensure stable response. Low-mass ions (m/z 100-200) are more susceptible to changes in electrode temperature and gas composition than high mass ions (m/z 200-700). As a result of this study, ions are reliably analyzed using standard FAIMS conditions (dispersion voltage -5000 V, carrier gas flow rate 3 L/min, 50% helium/50%nitrogen, inner electrode temperature 70 degrees C and outer electrode temperature 90 degrees C). Variation of FAIMS conditions may be of great use for the separation of very low mass tetraalkylammonium (TAA) ions from other TAA ions. The FAIMS conditions do not appear to have a major effect on higher mass ions. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Otwarty model licencjonowania Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkowski, Alek

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a family of Creative Commons licenses (which form nowadays one of the basic legal tools used in the Open Access movement), as well as a genesis of the licenses – inspired by Open Software Licenses and the concept of commons. Then legal tools such as individual Creative Commons licenses are discussed as well as how to use them, with a special emphasis on practical applications in science and education. The author discusses also his research results on scientific publishers a...

  19. Common bus multinode sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Naviasky, E.H.; Evans, W.P.; Jefferies, D.W.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant including a common bus multinode sensor system for sensors in the nuclear power plant, each sensor producing a sensor signal. The system consists of: a power supply providing power; a communication cable coupled to the power supply; plural remote sensor units coupled between the cable and one or more sensors, and comprising: a direct current power supply, connected to the cable and converting the power on the cable into direct current; an analog-to-digital converter connected to the direct current power supply; an oscillator reference; a filter; and an integrated circuit sensor interface connected to the direct current power supply, the analog-to-digital converter, the oscillator crystal and the filter, the interface comprising: a counter receiving a frequency designation word from external to the interface; a phase-frequency comparator connected to the counter; an oscillator connected to the oscillator reference; a timing counter connected to the oscillator, the phase/frequency comparator and the analog-to-digital converter; an analog multiplexer connectable to the sensors and the analog-to-digital converter, and connected to the timing counter; a shift register operatively connected to the timing counter and the analog-to-digital converter; an encoder connected to the shift register and connectable to the filter; and a voltage controlled oscillator connected to the filter and the cable

  20. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  1. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  2. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  3. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  4. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C{sub 60}{sup r+} (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C{sub 60} collisions: II. Dependence on collisional processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D [LCAR-IRSAMC, UMR 5589 Universite Paul Sabatier-CNRS, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2004-06-28

    In this paper, a quantitative comparison of our experimental data for the asymmetrical fission (AF) and neutral evaporation of the C{sub 60} molecule under proton impact (part I) is made with data published by other authors and often obtained in rather different collisional systems. The comparison with multicharged ions for which more quantitative data are available is focused on. It is demonstrated that size distributions of fragments, averaged fragment sizes, branching ratios between AF and evaporation or between AF channels, are common to all the collisional systems. Differences only appear when the comparison includes the undissociated stable fullerene ion signals.

  5. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  6. 2D accelerator design for SITEX negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Raridon, R.J.; McGaffey, R.W.; McCollough, D.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Solving the Poisson-Vlasov equations where the magnetic field, B, is assumed constant, we optimize the optical system of a SITEX negative ion source in infinite slot geometry. Algorithms designed to solve the above equations were modified to include the curved emitter boundary data appropriate to a negative ion source. Other configurations relevant to negative ion sources are examined

  7. Laser stripping of relativistic H- ions with practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlin, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes laser stripping of H - ions. Some applications are suggested for HEP including stripping 2GeV ions circulating in an accelerator with radius 75 meters where laser meets ion head on in a three meter interaction region. The paper describes photoionizaton cross section, laser power calculation, and how to generate the 5 micrometer light

  8. A directly coupled monolithic rectangular resonator forming a robust microwave plasma ion source for SIFT-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanel, P; Hall, E F H; Workman, C T; Smith, D

    2004-01-01

    A simple ion source is described that consists of a glass discharge tube positioned judiciously in a rectangular waveguide resonator that is directly coupled to an under-run standard magnetron. This ion source operates well with gas mixtures, including rare gases, air and water vapour in the pressure range 10-100 Pa and at magnetron powers within the range 15-40 W. The main advantage of this magnetron/cavity arrangement is the absence of mechanically adjustable parts (aerial and tuning stub), in contrast to other commonly used arrangements that combine a cavity resonator that is connected to the magnetron via a launcher and a coaxial cable

  9. A directly coupled monolithic rectangular resonator forming a robust microwave plasma ion source for SIFT-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanel, P [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Hall, E F H [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Workman, C T [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom); Smith, D [Trans Spectra Limited, 9 The Elms, Newcastle under Lyme, ST5 8RP (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    A simple ion source is described that consists of a glass discharge tube positioned judiciously in a rectangular waveguide resonator that is directly coupled to an under-run standard magnetron. This ion source operates well with gas mixtures, including rare gases, air and water vapour in the pressure range 10-100 Pa and at magnetron powers within the range 15-40 W. The main advantage of this magnetron/cavity arrangement is the absence of mechanically adjustable parts (aerial and tuning stub), in contrast to other commonly used arrangements that combine a cavity resonator that is connected to the magnetron via a launcher and a coaxial cable.

  10. Mode conversion of fast Alfvacute en waves at the ion endash ion hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S.D.; Fuchs, V.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion endash ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvacute en waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvacute en waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvacute en waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvacute en wave power incident on the ion endash ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvacute en waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion endash ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvacute en waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. On the solvation of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagberg, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Simulation of the universal ions in water solution is a standardized tool commonly used today. The route to simulation of actinide ions is normally tough because the evaluation of the simulation parameters are normally not given empirically and standard Hartree-Fock calculations are not accurate enough. We use multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations when deriving the parameters for actinide ion-water potential [1]. The parameters are then simulated using classical molecular dynamics. A case study of the Cm 3+ ion will be presented on the poster. Results from the simulations will be also be discussed, e.g. the radial distribution functions and the coordination number. [1] D. Hagberg, G. Karlstrom, B.O. Roos and L. Gagliardi The coordination of uranyl in water: a combined quantum chemical and molecular simulation study J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 14250-14256 (2005)

  12. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  13. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  14. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  15. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  16. Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...

  17. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoo, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  18. Abundances in planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Sales, JB; Feibelman, WA; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R

    2003-01-01

    The far infrared nebular spectrum provides a valuable complement to the observed lines in other spectral regions. There are several reasons for this, the most important being the large increase in the number of ions observed, and the fact that the abundances found from these lines are relatively

  19. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. Examples of thin film property modification by ion bombardment during deposition, including effects which are primarily compositional as well as those which are primarily structural are presented. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of ion beam techniques in identifying and controlling the fundamental deposition parameters. 68 refs.; 15 figs.; 1 table

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.

    1996-08-01

    Topics included in the papers presented at this conference are: vacuum arc ion source development at GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Germany), ITEP (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russia), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization); triggers for vacuum arc sources; plasma distribution of cathodic arc deposition system; high ion charge states in vacuum arc ion sources; and gas and metal ion sources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  1. Ion beam stabilization in ion implantation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental efforts aimed at ion beam current stabilization in an equipment for ion implantation in solids. The related problems of power supplies are discussed. Measured characteristics of laboratory equipment served the determination of the parameters to be required of the supplies as well as the design and the construction of the supplies. The respective wiring diagram is presented. (J.K.)

  2. Syncope- a common challenge to medical practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syncope is a common presentation in medical practice, and is associated with a higher than normal risk of mortality and morbidity in older individuals; It is essential that an accurate clinical history of the episode described as syncope be obtained, including the events preceding, the observations of eye-witnesses, and the ...

  3. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private commons... radiofrequency radiation) and maintaining the ability to ensure such compliance; and, (3) Retains direct... applicable technical and service rules, including requirements relating to radiofrequency radiation and...

  4. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  5. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  6. Common Threads: Teaching Immigration in Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Robin Haskell; Bone, Kristine; Mossop, Gail; Owens, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Brings together ideas on teaching about immigration from a number of elementary-school teachers in New Jersey and summarizes common themes. Outlines three specific projects based on the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, family history, and children's fiction. Includes a brief list of children's literature and other teaching resources. (DSK)

  7. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  8. Calculation of ion storage in electron beams with account of ion-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, Eh.A.; Shirkov, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Ion storage in relativistic electron beams was calculated taking account of ion-ion charge exchange and ionization. The calculations were made for nitrogen ion storage from residual gas during the compression of electron rings in the adhezator of the JINR heavy ion accelerator. The calculations were made for rings of various parameters and for various pressures of the residual gas. The results are compared with analogous calculations made without account of ion-ion processes. It is shown that at heavy loading of a ring by ions ion-ion collisions play a significant part, and they should be taken into account while calculating ion storage

  9. Surface engineering by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Bjarne Roger

    1995-01-01

    Awidespread commercial applica tion iof particle accelerators is for ion implantation. Accelerator beams are used for ion implantation into metals, alloying a thin surface layer with foreign atoms to concentrations impossible to achieve by thermal processes, making for dramatic improvements in hardness and in resistance to wear and corrosion. Traditional hardening processes require high temperatures causing deformation; ion implantation on the other hand is a ''cold process'', treating the finished product. The ionimplanted layer is integrated in the substrate, avoiding the risk of cracking and delamination from normal coating processes. Surface properties may be ''engineered'' independently of those of the bulk material; the process does not use environmentally hazardous materials such as chromium in the surface coating. The typical implantation dose required for the optimum surface properties of metals is around 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 , a hundred times the typical doses for semiconductor processing. When surface areas of more than a few square centimetres have to be treated, the implanter must therefore be able to produce high beam currents (5 to 10 mA) to obtain an acceptable treatment time. Ion species used include nitrogen, boron, carbon, titanium, chromium and tantalum, and beam energies range from 50 to 200 keV. Since most components are three dimensional, it must be possible to rotate and tilt them in the beam, and control beam position over a large area. Examples of industrial applications are: - surface treatment of prostheses (hip and knee joints) to reduce wear of the moving parts, using biocompatible materials; - ion implantation into high speed ball bearings to protect against the aqueous corrosion in jet engines (important for service helicopters on oil rigs); - hardening of metal forming and cutting tools; - reduction of corrosive wear of plastic moulding tools, which are expensive to produce

  10. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  11. Electron-ion correlation effects in ion-atom single ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Gasaneo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2000-06-28

    We study the effect of electron-ion correlation in single ionization processes of atoms by ion impact. We present a distorted wave model where the final state is represented by a correlated function solution of a non-separable three-body continuum Hamiltonian, that includes electron-ion correlation as coupling terms of the wave equation. A comparison of the electronic differential cross sections computed with this model with other theories and experimental data reveals that the influence of the electron-ion correlation is more significant for low energy emitted electrons. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  12. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Criddle, K.; Vannais, D.; Ueno, A.; Kraemer, S.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a series of 69 independent mutants at the endogenous hprt locus of human TK6 lymphoblasts and over 200 independent S1-deficient mutants of the human x hamster hybrid cell line AL arising spontaneously or following low-fluence exposures to densely ionizing Fe ions (600 MeV/amu, linear energy transfer = 190 keV/microns). We find that large deletions are common. The entire hprt gene (> 44 kb) was missing in 19/39 Fe-induced mutants, while only 2/30 spontaneous mutants lost the entire hprt coding sequence. When the gene of interest (S1 locus = M1C1 gene) is located on a nonessential human chromosome 11, multilocus deletions of several million base pairs are observed frequently. The S1 mutation frequency is more than 50-fold greater than the frequency of hprt mutants in the same cells. Taken together, these results suggest that low-fluence exposures to Fe ions are often cytotoxic due to their ability to create multilocus deletions that may often include the loss of essential genes. In addition, the tumorigenic potential of these HZE heavy ions may be due to the high potential for loss of tumor suppressor genes. The relative insensitivity of the hprt locus to mutation is likely due to tight linkage to a gene that is required for viability.

  13. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  14. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  15. Duopigatron ion source studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, F.M.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1978-07-01

    Ion source performance characteristics consisting of total ion current, ion energy distribution, mass distribution, and ion current density distribution were measured for several models of a duopigatron. Variations on the duopigatron design involved plasma expansion cup material and dimensions, secondary cathode material, and interelectrode spacings. Of the designs tested, the one with a copper and molybdenum secondary cathode and a mild steel plasma expansion cup proved to give the best results. The ion current density distribution was peaked at the center of the plasma expansion cup and fell off to 80 percent of the peak value at the cup wall for a cup 15.2 mm deep. A total ion current of 180 mA consisting of 60 to 70 percent atomic ions was produced with an arc current of 20 A and source pressure of 9.3 Pa. More shallow cups produced a larger beam current and a more sharply peaked ion current density distribution. Typical ion energy distributions were bell-shaped curves with a peak 10 to 20 V below anode potential and with ion energies extending 30 to 40 V on either side of the peak

  16. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-01-01

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas

  17. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  18. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...... Thesis (2008). [2] R.J. Hendricks, D.M. Grant, P.F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures, Applied Physics B, 88, 507 (2007)....

  19. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  20. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  1. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  2. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions (updated 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.

    1993-04-01

    Following our previous compilations [IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990)], bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1980-1992 are included. For easy finding references for particular combination of collision partners, a simple list is also provided. (author) 1542 refs

  3. An analysis of options available for developing a common laser ray tracing package for Ares and Kull code frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, S K

    2008-11-06

    Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.

  4. Electrodialytic separation of alkali-element ions with the aid of ion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurskii, V.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Electrodialytic separation of ions bearing charges of the same sign with the aid of ion-exchange membranes has been examined in the literature in relation to the so-called ideal membranes, which do not exhibit selectivity with respect to one ion type in ion exchange. It has been shown that separation on such membranes is effective only for counterions differing in size of charge. A matter of greater importance from the practical standpoint is the possibility of using electrodialysis for separating ions bearing like charges and having similar properties, including ionic forms of isotopes of the same element. In this paper they report a comparative study of ion separation, with reference to the Cs-Na pair, by electrodialysis through various types of cation-exchange membranes. Changes of the solution concentration in the cathode compartment were monitored by measurement of 22 Na and 137 Cs activities

  5. On ion injection at quasiparallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Kucharek, H.; Kato, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of numerical experiments has been performed in order to study the interaction of interstellar pickup protons and helium ions with quasiparallel collisionless shocks. The shocks are modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid simulation method which treats the ions as macroparticles and the electrons as a massless fluid. Solar wind alpha particles and pickup protons are included self-consistently. In addition, the particle splitting method is used for the solar wind ions so that the distribution function can be followed over more than 10 orders of magnitude. A large part of the pickup ion distribution is reflected; the reflection efficiency is very high, and can reach in cases where the pickup ion density is low as much as 50%-60%. The reflection efficiency is almost independent of magnetic field-shock normal angle. This indicates that magnetic mirroring is unimportant and does not lead to larger reflection efficiencies. The reflection efficiency of pickup protons rapidly decreases when the pickup ion density exceeds a few percent of the solar wind density. An addition of 25% pickup protons decreases the reflection coefficient for these ions to ∼10%. This represents the fact that a quasiparallel shock cannot be considered as being uncoupled from the upstream region: at high additions of pickup ions the shock structure is changed in such a way as to reflect less pickup ions. The intensity of diffuse ions upstream of a quasiparallel shock does not depend on the temperature of the core distribution. Within the framework of the present model even solar wind distributions with a hard power law tail do not produce higher intensities of diffuse ions. It is argued that this can be understood by the fact that the intrinsic self-consistency between the processes in the upstream region and at the shock transition determines the injection and reflection properties of the core solar wind distribution

  6. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  7. Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1977-04-01

    For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating

  8. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have......, together with concerted bodily (and vocal) activity, serve to organize, regulate and coordinate both attention and the verbal and non-verbal activity that it gives rise to. Since wordings are normative, they can be used to develop skills for making cultural sense of environments and other peoples’ doings...

  9. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  12. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  13. Common mode and coupled failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    Based on examples and data from Abnormal Occurence Reports for nuclear reactors, a classification of common mode or coupled failures is given, and some simple statistical models are investigated. (author)

  14. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  16. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  17. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schmidt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  18. Numerical investigation of depth profiling capabilities of helium and neon ions in ion microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Philipp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of polymers by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS has been a topic of interest for many years. In recent years, the primary ion species evolved from heavy monatomic ions to cluster and massive cluster primary ions in order to preserve a maximum of organic information. The progress in less-damaging sputtering goes along with a loss in lateral resolution for 2D and 3D imaging. By contrast the development of a mass spectrometer as an add-on tool for the helium ion microscope (HIM, which uses finely focussed He+ or Ne+ beams, allows for the analysis of secondary ions and small secondary cluster ions with unprecedented lateral resolution. Irradiation induced damage and depth profiling capabilities obtained with these light rare gas species have been far less investigated than ion species used classically in SIMS. In this paper we simulated the sputtering of multi-layered polymer samples using the BCA (binary collision approximation code SD_TRIM_SP to study preferential sputtering and atomic mixing in such samples up to a fluence of 1018 ions/cm2. Results show that helium primary ions are completely inappropriate for depth profiling applications with this kind of sample materials while results for neon are similar to argon. The latter is commonly used as primary ion species in SIMS. For the two heavier species, layers separated by 10 nm can be distinguished for impact energies of a few keV. These results are encouraging for 3D imaging applications where lateral and depth information are of importance.

  19. Philosophy vs the common sense

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself...

  20. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  1. Whose commons are mobilities spaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    for cyclists and cycling to be given greater consideration in broader societal understandings of the common good. I argue that this is in fact not the case. Rather the specific project identities that are nurtured by Copenhagen’s cycling community inhibit it from advocating publicly or aggressively...... for a vision of the common good that gives cyclists greater and more protected access to the city’s mobility spaces...

  2. Common anorectal disorders: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Weiser, Kirsten

    2009-10-01

    Anorectal disorders affect men and women of all ages. Their management is not limited to the evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids. Rather, a spectrum of anorectal disorders ranges from benign and irritating (pruritus ani) to potentially life-threatening (anorectal cancer). Symptoms are nonspecific, which can make the evaluation of patients difficult. In addition, treatment can be frustrating because clinicians are hamstrung by a lack of well-designed, prospective, clinical trials. Some of the most common anorectal disorders include fecal incontinence, pelvic floor dyssynergia, anal fissures, pruritus ani, proctalgia fugax, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of common anorectal disorders.

  3. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  4. Metallic ions in the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years considerable progress has been made in establishing the presence of metallic ions in the sporadic E layers at mid latitudes and as discrete patches at high altitudes in the equatorial ionosphere. The E-region observations have been based on rocket flights, which represent local conditions faithfully. But the global distribution of metallic ions and variations relating to changes in season, local time, magnetic activity, etc., which require satellite data, have been largely unexamined. This work presents a few aspects of this missing global distribution over an altitude range of 100 to 1000 km, using the data from AE-C, AE-D, and OGO-6 satellites and the rocket flights 18.117 and 18.118 from Wallops Island on July 12 and 13, 1971. The rocket data provide a day-night pair of vertical profiles that include altitudes not covered by the satellites. Results are presented for Mg + , Al + , Si + and Fe + ions in terms of their detection probabilities, median concentrations and relative abundances with respect to Mg + ions as a function of significant geophysical parameters. Na + and K + ions have been excluded from this study because alkali metal ions driven off the spacecraft hamper the measurement of ambient Na + and K + ions. This study has indicated that in general different metallic ions appear together in comparable concentrations except for Al + , which is an order of magnitude smaller than the others

  5. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  6. Atmospheric ions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1977-01-01

    The various types of atmospheric ions are defined, the main sources of natural atmospheric radioactivity inducing the formation of radioactive ions in the air are then recalled. The basic equations governing the formation of these ions are indicated and the most current experimental methods used for detecting them are described (Zeleny tubes, Erikson tubes). The special properties of these ions are examined, they are particularly emphasized for the smaller ones. The existence of a discret spectrum of mobilities is shown and the presence of big negative radioactive ions is investigated. Indicative information are given on the granulometric distribution of the atmospheric radioactivity in the air, from small positive Ra A ion fixation on aerosols [fr

  7. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  8. Ion thruster performance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brophy, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A model of ion thruster performance is developed for high flux density cusped magnetic field thruster designs. This model is formulated in terms of the average energy required to produce an ion in the discharge chamber plasma and the fraction of these ions that are extracted to form the beam. The direct loss of high energy (primary) electrons from the plasma to the anode is shown to have a major effect on thruster performance. The model provides simple algebraic equations enabling one to calculate the beam ion energy cost, the average discharge chamber plasma ion energy cost, the primary electron density, the primary-to-Maxwellian electron density ratio and the Maxwellian electron temperature. Experiments indicate that the model correctly predicts the variation in plasma ion energy cost for changes in propellant gas (Ar, Kr, and Xe), grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam extraction area, discharge voltage, and discharge chamber wall temperature

  9. Ion emission microscope microanalyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepin, V.T.; Olckovsky, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the ion microanalyzer (microprobe) the object is exposed to the bombardment of a highly focused ion beam, the secondary ions emitted from the object being analyzed by means of a mass filter. In order to be able to control the position of an analysis synchronous to the local analysis of an object an ion-optical converter (electron image with a fluorescent screen) is placed behind the aperture diaphragm in the direction of the secondary ion beam. The converter allows to make visible in front of the mass filter a non-split ion image characterizing the surface of the surface investigated. Then a certain section may be selected for performing chemical and isotope analyses. (DG) [de

  10. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  11. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  12. Cleavage reactions of the complex ions derived from self-complementary deoxydinucleotides and alkali-metal ions using positive ion electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Abliz, Zeper; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2004-05-01

    The dissociation reactions of the adduct ions derived from the four self-complementary deoxydinucleotides, d(ApT), d(TpA), d(CpG), d(GpC), and alkali-metal ions were studied in detail by positive ion electrospray ionization multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). For the [M + H](+) ions of the four deoxydinucleotides, elimination of 5'-terminus base or loss of both of 5'-terminus base and a deoxyribose were the major dissociation pathway. The ESI-MS(n) spectra showed that Li(+), Na(+), and Cs(+) bind to deoxydinucleotides mainly by substituting the H(+) of phosphate group, and these alkali-metal ions preferred to bind to pyrimidine bases rather than purine bases. For a given deoxydinucleotide, the dissociation pathway of [M + K](+) ions differed clearly from that of [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + Cs](+) ions. Some interesting and characteristic cleavage reactions were observed in the product-ion spectra of [M + K](+) ions, including direct elimination of deoxyribose and HPO(3) from molecular ions. The fragmentation behavior of the [M + K](+) and [M + W](+) (W = Li, Na, Cs) adduct ions depend upon the sequence of bases, the interaction between alkali-metal ions and nucleobases, and the steric hindrance caused by bases.

  13. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. Electron-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion concentrates on basic physics aspects of inelastic processes of excitation, ionization, and recombination that occur during electron-ion collisions. Except for cases of illustration along isoelectronic sequences, only multicharged (at least +2) ions will be specifically discussed with some emphasis of unique physics aspects associated with ionic charge. The material presented will be discussed from a primarily experimental viewpoint with most attention to electron-ion interacting beams experiments

  15. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.; Gusevova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The historical development is described of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material, ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions. (M.S.)

  16. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, V; Gusevova, M

    1980-06-01

    The historical development of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses is described. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material and ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions.

  17. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  18. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  19. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  20. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  1. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  2. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  3. Ion optics in an ion source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Dept, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of ion beams from an ion source which consisted of a hemispherical anode, a plane earthed cathode, and a focusing electrode has been carried out. The focal properties of such electrode arrangement were studied using axially symmetric fields. Axial and radial electric fields were obtained as functions of the axial distance. It was found that the radial component of the gradient of potential pushes the ions towards the axis, which indicates the convergent action of the system. The effect of voltage variation between the boundary and the focusing electrode on the position of the plasma boundary are given using the experimental data of the ion source characteristics and its geometrical parameters. The advantages of plasma diffusing outside the source through a small aperture were used by applying a potential to the focusing electrode. It was possible to extract a large ion current from the expanded plasma. The system constituted a lens with a focal length of 29.4 mm. 7 figs.

  4. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  5. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  6. Doppler ion program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities

  7. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  8. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  9. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  10. Characterization of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, K.; Takayanagi, T.; Wada, M.; Ohtani, S.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple and fast method for simulating observed images of ion Coulomb crystals. In doing so, cold elastic collisions between Coulomb crystals and virtual very light atoms are implemented in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation code. Such an approach reproduces the observed images of Coulomb crystals by obtaining density plots of the statistics of existence of each ion. The simple method has the advantage of short computing time in comparison with previous calculation methods. As a demonstration of the simulation, the formation of a planar Coulomb crystal with a small number of ions has been investigated in detail in a linear ion trap both experimentally and by simulation. However, also large Coulomb crystals including up to 1400 ions have been photographed and simulated to extract the secular temperature and the number of ions. For medium-sized crystals, a comparison between experiments and calculations has been performed. Moreover, an MD simulation of the sympathetic cooling of small molecular ions was performed in order to test the possibility of extracting the temperature and the number of refrigerated molecular ions from crystal images of laser-cooled ions. Such information is basic to studying ultracold ion-molecule reactions using ion Coulomb crystals including sympathetically cooled molecular ions.

  11. Radiobiological experiments with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1988-11-01

    In experiments, performed at the Unilac, Bevalac, and Ganil a large body of radiobiological data, cross sections for cell inactivation and mutation, induction of both, chromosome aberrations, and strand breaks of DNA have been measured for different atomic numbers, from helium (Z=2) to uranium (Z=92), and at an LET range from 10 to 16000 keV/μm. These data exhibit a common feature: At LET values below 100 keV/μm all data points of one specific effect form one single curve as a function of LET, independent from the atomic number of the ion. In this LET range, the biological effects are independ from the particle energy or track structure and depend only on the energy transfer. Therefore, LET is a good parameter in this regime. For LET values greater than 100 keV/μm, the curves for the different ions separate from the common curve in order of increasing atomic numbers. In this regime LET is no longer a good parameter and the physical parameters of the formation of particle tracks are important. The similarity of the σ-LET curves for different endpoints shows that the 'hook-structure' is produced by physical and chemical effects which occur before the biologically relevant lesions are formed. For this part of the reaction chain only a very limited amount of data are available. (orig./MG)

  12. Hip implants - Paper VI - Ion concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargeant, A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States); Goswami, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States)]. E-mail: t-goswami@onu.edu

    2007-07-01

    Total hip-joint arthroplasty is performed in increasing numbers where it translates to about 0.16-0.2% of population per year in industrial countries. In most cases, an implant is a metallic component articulating with a metal, ceramic or poly-ethylene liner as seen in the case of hip, knee and spine. The metal implants release ions in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to study metallic implants and ions released as a result. Toxic concentrations of ions can lead to many adverse physiological effects, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and metal sensitivity. There is a need to map ion concentrations establishing boundaries between normal and toxic levels; which however, does not exist. Reference levels of ion concentrations in body fluids and tissues determined by many studies are compiled, reviewed, and presented in this paper. The concentrations of ions released from different alloys, including cobalt, chromium, nickel, molybdenum titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, are presented in this paper. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to clinical data on metal ion concentrations in patients with metal joint prostheses, and laboratory data on the physiological effects of the metals.

  13. Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Ubbink-Kok, T.; Elferink, M.G.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is

  14. High energy metal ion implantation using 'Magis', a novel, broad-beam, Marx-generator-based ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion energy of the beam formed by an ion source is proportional to extractor voltage and ion charge state. Increasing the voltage is difficult and costly for extraction voltage over 100 kV. Here we explore the possibility of increasing the charge states of metal ions to facilitate high-energy, broad beam ion implantation at a moderate voltage level. Strategies to enhance the ion charge state include operating in the regimes of high-current vacuum sparks and short pulses. Using a time-of-flight technique we have measured charge states as high as 7+ (73 kA vacuum spark discharge) and 4+ (14 kA short pulse arc discharge), both for copper, with the mean ion charge states about 6.0 and 2.5, respectively. Pulsed discharges can conveniently be driven by a modified Marx generator, allowing operation of ''Magis'' with a single power supply (at ground potential) for both plasma production and ion extraction

  15. Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-hedielberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

  16. Thermal conductivity and nanocrystalline structure of platinum deposited by focused ion beam

    KAUST Repository

    Alaie, Seyedhamidreza; Goettler, Drew F.; Jiang, Yingbing; Abbas, Khawar; Baboly, Mohammadhosein Ghasemi; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chaieb, Saharoui; Leseman, Zayd Chad

    2015-01-01

    Pt deposited by focused ion beam (FIB) is a common material used for attachment of nanosamples, repair of integrated circuits, and synthesis of nanostructures. Despite its common use little information is available on its thermal properties

  17. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  18. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-09-01

    This review is 2nd part of the report published at January 1982 (JAERI-M-9902). A compilation includes the survey of the data of the cross sections of H - and D - ion formations and the neutralization of these ions. This is also presented new information about the photosensitization by laser beam in dissociative-resonance electron capture of sulfur hexafluoride reported by Chen et al., for reference to enhancement of D - ions in discharge. For neutralization, the data of mutual neutralization and photodetachment are also presented. (author)

  19. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  20. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 x 10 26 cm -2 sec -1 at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  2. Ion source design for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  3. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  4. Solar-wind minor ions: recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the years following the Solar Wind Four Conference at Burghausen our knowledge of the solar wind ion composition and dynamics has grown. There have been some surprises, and our understanding of the evolution of the solar wind has been improved. Systematic studies have shown that the minor ions generally travel with a common bulk speed and have temperatures roughly proportional to their masses. It has been determined that the 3 He ++ content varies greatly; 3 He ++ / 4 He ++ ranges from as high as 10 2 values to below 2 x 10 - 4 . In some solar wind flows which can be related to energetic coronal events, the minor ions are found in unusual ionization states containing Fe 16 + as a prominent ion, showing that the states were formed at unusually high temperatures. Unexpectedly, in a few flows substantial quantities of 4 He + have been detected, sometimes with ions identifiable as O 2 + and O 3 + . Surprisingly, in some of these examples the ionization state is mixed showing that part of the plasma escaped the corona without attaining the usual million-degree temperatures while other parts were heated more nearly in the normal manner. Additionally, detailed studies of the minor ions have increased our understanding of the coronal expansion. For example, such studies have contributed to identifying near equatorial coronal streamers as the source of solar wind flows between high speed streams

  5. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  6. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory.

  7. New Insights of Graphite Anode Stability in Rechargeable Batteries: Li-Ion Coordination Structures Prevail over Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-01-04

    Graphite anodes are not stable in most noncarbonate solvents (e.g., ether, sulfoxide, sulfone) upon Li ion intercalation, known as an urgent issue in present Li ions and next-generation Li–S and Li–O2 batteries for storage of Li ions within the anode for safety features. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is commonly believed to be decisive for stabilizing the graphite anode. However, here we find that the solvation structure of the Li ions, determined by the electrolyte composition including lithium salts, solvents, and additives, plays a more dominant role than SEI in graphite anode stability. The Li ion intercalation desired for battery operation competes with the undesired Li+–solvent co-insertion, leading to graphite exfoliation. The increase in organic lithium salt LiN(SO2CF3)2 concentration or, more effectively, the addition of LiNO3 lowers the interaction strength between Li+ and solvents, suppressing the graphite exfoliation caused by Li+–solvent co-insertion. Our findings refresh the knowledge of the well-known SEI for graphite stability in metal ion batteries and also provide new guidelines for electrolyte systems to achieve reliable and safe Li–S full batteries.

  8. The influence of polarizability and charge transfer on specific ion effects in the dynamics of aqueous salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mary; Rick, Steven W.

    2018-06-01

    The diffusion rates for water molecules in salt solutions depend on the identity of the ions, as well as their concentration. Among the alkali metal ions, cesium and potassium increase and sodium strongly decreases the diffusion constant of water. The origin of the difference can be understood by examining the simulation results using different potential models. In this work, aqueous solutions of salts are simulated with a variety of models. Commonly used non-polarizable models, which otherwise reproduce many experimental properties, do not capture the trend in the diffusion constant, while models which include polarization and/or charge transfer interactions do. For the non-polarizable models, the diffusion constant decreases too strongly with salt concentration. The changes in the water diffusion constant with increasing salt concentration match the diffusion constant of the ion. The ion diffusion constant is dependent on the residence time for water in the ion solvation shell. The non-polarizable models over-estimate the residence time, relative to the translational diffusion constant and so tend to under-estimate the ion and water diffusion constants.

  9. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  10. Philosophy vs the common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself from the common sense, which refers to the common or collective experience. Moreover, the study examines the role of emotions, conformity and conventionality which they play with respect to the common sense. Next the author focuses on the role of philosophical intuition, guided with principles of rationality, nonconformity and scepticism, which the author professes the foundation stones of any sound philosophy. The common sense, described as deeply routed in the world of human emotions, aims at empathy, as the purpose of philosophy is to provide the rational means of knowledge. Therefore, philosophy uses thinking, keeping the permanent efforts to check and recheck data of its own experience. Thus, the first task of philosophical thinking appears to overcome the suggestion of the common sense, which purposes the social empathy, as philosophical intuition aims at independent thinking, the analytics of subjective experience. The study describes the fundamental principles of the common sense, on the one hand, and those of philosophy, on the other. The author arrives to conclusion that the common sense is unable to exceed the limits of sensual experience. Even there, where it apparently rises to a form of any «spiritual unity», even there it cannot avoid referring to the data of commonly shared sensual experience; though, philosophy, meanwhile, goes beyond sensuality, creating a discourse that would be able to alienate from it, and to make its rational

  11. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers...... that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  13. A study of common-mode failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Watson, I.A.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to investigate problems of the identification of the common failure mode (CFM) the reliability models used and the data required for their solution, particularly with regard to automatic protection systems for nuclear reactors. The available literature which was surveyed during the study is quoted and used as a basis for the main work of the study. The type of redundancy system under consideration is initially described and the types of CFM to which these systems are prone are identified before a general definition of the term 'common mode failure' is proposed. The definition and proposed classification system for CMF are based on the common cause of failure, so identifying the primary events. Defences against CFM are included and proposals for an overall strategy and detailed recommendations for design and operation are made. Common mode failures in US nuclear reactor systems, aircraft systems, and other sources including chemical plant systems are surveyed. The data indicates the importance of the human error problem in the causes of CMF in design, maintenance and operation. From a study of the collected data a redundancy sub-system model for CMF is developed which identifies three main categories of failure, non-recurrent engineering design errors, maintenance and test errors, and random interest events. The model proposed allows for the improvement in sub-system reliability where appropriate defences are applied. (author)

  14. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  15. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  16. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  17. Generation of intense, high-energy ion pulses by magnetic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A system based on the magnetic compression of ion rings, for generating intense (High-current), high-energy ion pulses that are guided to a target without a metallic wall or an applied external magnetic field includes a vacuum chamber; an inverse reflex tetrode for producing a hollow ion beam within the chamber; magnetic coils for producing a magnetic field, bo, along the axis of the chamber; a disc that sharpens a magnetic cusp for providing a rotational velocity to the beam and causing the beam to rotate; first and second gate coils for producing fast-rising magnetic field gates, the gates being spaced apart, each gate modifying a corresponding magnetic mirror peak (Near and far peaks) for trapping or extracting the ions from the magnetic mirror, the ions forming a ring or layer having rotational energy; a metal liner for generating by magnetic flux compression a high, time-varying magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic field progressively increasing the kinetic energy of the ions, the magnetic field from the second gate coil decreasing the far mirror peak at the end of the compression for extracting the trapped rotating ions from the confining mirror; and a disc that sharpens a magnetic half-cusp for increasing the translational velocity of the ion beam. The system utilizes the self-magnetic field of the rotating, propagating ion beam to prevent the beam from expanding radially upon extraction

  18. Method and device for ion mobility separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-07-11

    Methods and devices for ion separations or manipulations in gas phase are disclosed. The device includes a single non-planar surface. Arrays of electrodes are coupled to the surface. A combination of RF and DC voltages are applied to the arrays of electrodes to create confining and driving fields that move ions through the device. The DC voltages are static DC voltages or time-dependent DC potentials or waveforms.

  19. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs

  20. Ion-implantation dense cascade data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterbon, K.B.

    1983-04-01

    A tabulation is given of data useful in estimating various aspects of ion-implantation cascades in the nuclear stopping regime, particularly with respect to nonlinearity of the cascade at high energy densities. The tabulation is restricted to self-ion implantation. Besides power-cross-section cascade dimensions, various material properties are included. Scaling of derived quantities with input data is noted, so one is not limited to the values assumed by the author

  1. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  2. Hollow cathode for positive ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, D.E.; Kim, J.; Tsai, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Development to incorporate hollow cathodes into high power ion sources for neutral beam injection systems is being pursued. Hollow tube LaB 6 -type cathodes, similar to a UCLA design, have been constructed and tested in several ORNL ion source configurations. Results of testing include arc discharge parameters of >1000 and 500 amps for 0.5 and 10 second pulse lengths, respectively. Details of cathode construction and additional performance results are discussed

  3. Interpretation of ion cyclotron emission from fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Superthermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is observed in both fusion and space plasma. Typical spectra display strong peaks at sequential multiple ion cyclotron harmonics, and distinct energetic ion populations are present in the emitting regions. In JET and TFTR, for example, ICE appears to be driven by fusion products or by injected beam ions in the outer mid plane; and in the Earth's ring current, radiation belts, and bow shock, ICE has been observed by the spacecraft OGO 3, GEOS 1 and 2 and AMPTE/IRM, often in conjunction with highly non-Maxwellian proton populations. Common emission mechanisms, arising from collective relaxation of energetic ion populations, appear to operate in both the fusion and space plasma environments. These are reviewed here, and the potential role of ICE as a diagnostic of energetic ion populations is also examined. (Author)

  4. Ion collection efficiency of ionization chambers in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Cecatti, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    When ionization chambers are used in pulsed radiation beams the high-density of ions produced per pulse permits ion recombination, demanding the use of a correction factor. An experimental technique using the charge collected at two different voltages permits the calculation of the ion collection efficiency. The ion collection efficiency of some common ionization chambers in pulsed electron beams were studied as a function of electron energy, dose rate and depth. Accelerators with magnetic scanning system, in which the instantaneous dose rate is much greater than the average dose rate, present a smaller collection efficiency than accelerators with scattering foil. The results lead to the introduction of a correction factor for ion recombination that is the reciprocal of the ion collection efficiency. It is also suggested a simple technique to connect an external variable DC power supply in a Baldwin Farmer dosemeter. (Author) [pt

  5. Ion mobilities and ion-atom interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatland, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques for measuring the mobilities of ions in gases, relating interaction potentials to mobilities, and determining potentials from experimental mobilities are reviewed. Applications are presented for positive alkali ions and negative halogen ions in inert gases. (Auth.)

  6. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  7. Where do ions solvate?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a simple model of ionic solvation inside a water cluster. The cluster is modeled as a spherical dielectric continuum. It is found that unpolarizable ions always prefer the bulk solvation. On the other hand, for polarizable ions, there exists a critical value of polarization above which surface solvation becomes ...

  8. Ion implantation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this part of the paper descriptions are given of the effects of ion implantation on (a) friction and wear in metals; and (b) corrosion of metals. In the study of corrosion, ion implantation can be used either to introduce a constituent that is known to convey corrosion resistance, or more generally to examine the parameters which control corrosion. (U.K.)

  9. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  10. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  11. Computer simulation of the topography evolution on ion bombarded surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zier, M

    2003-01-01

    The development of roughness on ion bombarded surfaces (facets, ripples) on single crystalline and amorphous homogeneous solids plays an important role for example in depth profiling techniques. To verify a faceting mechanism based not only on sputtering by directly impinging ions but also on the contribution of reflected ions and the redeposition of sputtered material a computer simulation has been carried out. The surface in this model is treated as a two-dimensional line segment profile. The model describes the topography evolution on ion bombarded surfaces including the growth mechanism of a facetted surface, using only the interplay of reflected and primary ions and redeposited atoms.

  12. Quantum logic for the control and manipulation of molecular ions using a frequency comb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S; Matsukevich, D N

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the preparation, manipulation and detection of quantum states of single molecular ions. In this scheme, molecular and atomic ions are confined in radio-frequency Paul trap and share common modes of motion. A frequency comb laser field is used to drive stimulated Raman transitions that couple internal states of the molecular ion with the motion of ions. State transfer from the molecular ion to the atomic ion via the common mode of motion results in efficient state detection for the molecule. The coupling of molecular states to the motion and the subsequent sideband cooling of the ions provide a way to prepare the molecular ion in a well-defined state. (paper)

  13. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  14. Experiments on common property management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.; Shogren, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Common property resources are (renewable) natural resources where current excessive extraction reduces future resource availability, and the use of which is de facto restricted to a specific set of agents, such as inhabitants of a village or members of a community; think of community-owned forests,

  15. The Parody of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay builds on the idea that Commons-based peer production is a social advancement within capitalism but with various post-capitalistic aspects, in need of protection, enforcement, stimulation and connection with progressive social movements. We use theory and examples to claim that peer-to-peer economic relations can be undermined in the long run, distorted by the extra-economic means of a political context designed to maintain profit-driven relations of production into power. This subversion can arguably become a state policy, and the subsequent outcome is the full absorption of the Commons as well as of the underpinning peer-to-peer relations into the dominant mode of production. To tackle this threat, we argue in favour of a certain working agenda for Commons-based communities. Such an agenda should aim the enforcement of the circulation of the Commons. Therefore, any useful social transformation will be meaningful if the people themselves decide and apply policies for their own benefit, optimally with the support of a sovereign partner state. If peer production is to become dominant, it has to control capital accumulation with the aim to marginalise and eventually transcend capitalism.

  16. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  17. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  18. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O 2 + ( 4 π/sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the 4 π/sub 5/2/ and 4 π/sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the 4 π/sub 3/2/ and 4 π/sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms)

  19. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  20. Inline CBET Model Including SRS Backscatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-26

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. Using the CBET gains derived in this paper, we show how to implement these equations in a ray-based laser source for a rad-hydro code.

  1. Taking a Comprehensive Approach to Common Core Rollout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Amy

    2016-01-01

    One district, South Bay Union School District, devises and executes a comprehensive strategy that includes training for district staff, teachers and coaches, including using PLCs and professional development in the implementation of Common Core English language arts standards.

  2. Twenty-First Century Diseases: Commonly Rare and Rarely Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunert, Sylvia; Sittampalam, Gurusingham Sitta; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J

    2017-09-20

    Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers ( www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/2014 ). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity. This editorial is taking into account the uniqueness of each individual and surrounding environment, and stresses the point that a more accurate definition of a "common" disorder could be simply the amalgamation of a myriad of "rare" diseases. These rare diseases are being grouped together because they share a rather constant complement of common features and, indeed, generally respond to empirically developed treatments, leading to a positive outcome consistently. We make the case that it is highly unlikely that such treatments, despite their statistical success measured with large cohorts using standardized clinical research, will be effective on all patients until we increase the depth and fidelity of our understanding of the individual "rare" diseases that are grouped together in the "buckets" of common illnesses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 511-516.

  3. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  4. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  5. Focused Ion Beam Analysis of Banana Peel and Its Application for Arsenate Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.

  6. Gas Chromatographic-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by Ion-Molecule Reactions Using the Electron-Deficient Reagent Ion CCl{3/+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Su, Yue; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2011-10-01

    When using tetrachloromethane as the reagent gas in gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with hybrid ionization source, the cation CCl{3/+} was generated in high abundance and further gas-phase experiments showed that such an electron-deficient reagent ion CCl{3/+} could undergo interesting ion-molecule reactions with various volatile organic compounds, which not only present some informative gas-phase reactions, but also facilitate qualitative analysis of diverse volatile compounds by providing unique mass spectral data that are characteristic of particular chemical structures. The ion-molecule reactions of the reagent ion CCl{3/+} with different types of compounds were studied, and results showed that such reactions could give rise to structurally diagnostic ions, such as [M + CCl3 - HCl]+ for aromatic hydrocarbons, [M - OH]+ for saturated cyclic ether, ketone, and alcoholic compounds, [M - H]+ ion for monoterpenes, M·+ for sesquiterpenes, [M - CH3CO]+ for esters, as well as the further fragment ions. The mechanisms of ion-molecule reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic ketones and alcoholic compounds with the reagent ion CCl{3/+} were investigated and proposed according to the information provided by MS/MS experiments and theoretical calculations. Then, this method was applied to study volatile organic compounds in Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum and 20 compounds, including monoterpenes and their oxygen-containing derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbon and sesquiterpenes were identified using such ion-molecule reactions. This study offers a perspective and an alternative tool for the analysis and identification of various volatile compounds.

  7. A novel ion imager for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Miyata, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsutomu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new area detector for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ion microscope, and its performance. The operational principle is based on detecting the change in potential of a floating photodiode caused by the ion-induced secondary-electron emission and the incoming ion itself. The experiments demonstrated that 10 1 -10 5 aluminum ions per pixel can be detected with good linear response. Moreover, relative ion sensitivities from hydrogen to lead were constant within a factor of 2. The performance of this area detector provides the potential for detection of kiloelectronvolt ion images with current ion microscopy

  8. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  9. Ion thermometers - nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, J.; Jakes, D.

    The principle is briefly described of ion thermometers and the effects are reported of radiation on the ion crystal properties. The results show that ion thermometers are applicable for in-core measurements. (J.P.)

  10. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  11. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W

    1999-12-01

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  13. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  14. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  15. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  16. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α , Al 2 O 3+α ) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxy-apatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate. (orig.)

  17. Laser-cooled atomic ions as probes of molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kenneth R.; Viteri, C. Ricardo; Clark, Craig R.; Goeders, James E.; Khanyile, Ncamiso B.; Vittorini, Grahame D. [Schools of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Computational Science and Engineering and Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Trapped laser-cooled atomic ions are a new tool for understanding cold molecular ions. The atomic ions not only sympathetically cool the molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures, but the bright atomic ion fluorescence can also serve as a detector of both molecular reactions and molecular spectra. We are working towards the detection of single molecular ion spectra by sympathetic heating spectroscopy. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy uses the coupled motion of two trapped ions to measure the spectra of one ion by observing changes in the fluorescence of the other ion. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy is a generalization of quantum logic spectroscopy, but does not require ions in the motional ground state or coherent control of the ion internal states. We have recently demonstrated this technique using two isotopes of Ca{sup +} [Phys. Rev. A, 81, 043428 (2010)]. Limits of the method and potential applications for molecular spectroscopy are discussed.

  18. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  19. LHC Report: Ion Age

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    Commissioning this new and almost unprecedented mode of collider operation is a major challenge both for the LHC and its injector chain. Moreover, it has to be done very quickly to achieve a whole series of physics goals, requiring modifications of the LHC configuration, in a very short time. These include a switch of the beam directions halfway through the run, polarity reversals of the ALICE spectrometer magnet and Van der Meer scans.    The Linac3 team kept the lead source running throughout the end-of-year technical stop, and recovery of the accelerator complex was very quick. New proton and lead beams were soon ready, with a bunch filling pattern that ensures they will eventually match up in the LHC. The LEIR machine has even attained a new ion beam intensity record.  On Friday 11 January the first single bunches o...

  20. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.