WorldWideScience

Sample records for include color illustrations

  1. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2001-12-01

    We present techniques for using mainstream graphics software, specifically Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, for producing composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used with numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce printed and web-based news, education and public presentation products as well as illustrations for technical publication. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels. These features, along with its user-oriented, visual interface, provide convenient tools to produce high-quality, full-color images and graphics for printed and on-line publication and presentation.

  2. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency provided... storage devices, and any other thing used in the making of the illustration that contain an image of the...

  3. Design Support System for Coloring Illustrations by Using the Colors Preferred by a User as Determined from the Hue Patterns of Illustrations Prepared by that User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Hironobu; Mitsukura, Yasue

    We propose a new design support system that can color illustrations according to a person's color preferences that are determined on the basis of the color patterns of illustrations prepared by that person. Recently, many design tools for promoting free design have been developed. However, preferences for various colors differ depending on individual personality. Therefore, a system that can automatically color various designs on the basis of human preference is required. In this study, we propose an automatic modeling system that can be used to model illustrations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we simulate a coloring design experiment to determine the color patterns preferred by some subjects by using various design data. By using the design data, we determine each subjects preferred color pattern, and send feedback on these individual color patterns to the proposed system.

  4. 75 FR 49525 - World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,781] World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site Leased Workers From Randstad... Adjustment Assistance on May 14, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color (USA), LLC, formerly known as...

  5. A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Kees.

    1990-01-01

    Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs

  6. Illustrator CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A complete training package lets you learn Adobe Illustrator CC at your own speed Adobe Illustrator is the leading drawing and illustration software used to create artwork for a variety of media. This book-and-DVD package provides 13 self-paced lessons that get you up to speed on the latest version of Illustrator (Creative Cloud). Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are supported by video tutorials on the DVD. Together, these tools will help you learn Adobe Illustrator basics, essential skills, and all the new capabilities in Illustrator CC-in no time.  Includes step-by-step in

  7. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  8. Color Comprehension and Color Categories among Blind Students: A Multi-Sensory Approach in Implementing Concrete Language to Include All Students in Advanced Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarasena, Salinee

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates teaching methods regarding color comprehension and color categorization among blind students, as compared to their non-blind peers and whether they understand and represent the same color comprehension and color categories. Then after digit codes for color comprehension teaching and assistive technology for the blind had…

  9. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  10. Simple Laboratory Experiment for Illustrating Soil Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattey, J. A.; Johnson, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to illustrate the effect of food source and added nutrients (N) on microbial activity in the soil. Supplies include air-dried soil, dried plant material, sources of carbon and nitrogen, a trap such as KOH, colored water, and a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Includes a diagram of an incubation chamber to demonstrate microbial…

  11. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  12. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  13. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  14. White organic light-emitting devices with tunable color emission fabricated utilizing exciplex formation at heterointerfaces including m-MDATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seop; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and the optical properties of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) were investigated to clarify the effect of exciplex on their color stabilization and color purity. The electrons combined with the holes at heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA layer and the 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) and the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM1) emitting layer (EML) resulted in the formation of the exciplex. The emission peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing the m-MTDATA layer shifted to a lower energy side in comparison with that of the EML. This was due to the interaction of the holes in the m-MTDATA layer and the electrons in the MADN EML. Carriers in white OLEDs (WOLEDs) with exciplex emissions existed at the heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA and the EML because the DCM1 EML was too thin to affect the EL peak related to the m-MTDATA layer. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of WOLEDs at 9.5 V were (0.33, 0.36), and their maximum current efficiency at 46 mA/cm 2 was 2.03 cd/A.

  15. White organic light-emitting devices with tunable color emission fabricated utilizing exciplex formation at heterointerfaces including m-MDATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seop; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2011-05-31

    The electrical and the optical properties of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) were investigated to clarify the effect of exciplex on their color stabilization and color purity. The electrons combined with the holes at heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA layer and the 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) and the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM1) emitting layer (EML) resulted in the formation of the exciplex. The emission peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing the m-MTDATA layer shifted to a lower energy side in comparison with that of the EML. This was due to the interaction of the holes in the m-MTDATA layer and the electrons in the MADN EML. Carriers in white OLEDs (WOLEDs) with exciplex emissions existed at the heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA and the EML because the DCM1 EML was too thin to affect the EL peak related to the m-MTDATA layer. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of WOLEDs at 9.5 V were (0.33, 0.36), and their maximum current efficiency at 46 mA/cm{sup 2} was 2.03 cd/A.

  16. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  17. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  18. [Surgeon and eye doctor Caspar Stromayr and the ophthalmological illustrations in his "Practica copiosa" (1559)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, A; Kümmel, W F

    1984-11-01

    In 1559 Caspar Stromayr wrote a richly illustrated book about hernias and their treatment. The manuscript also includes 3 chapters of a book on ophthalmological diseases which, however, was never published. In addition, it contains 6 separate watercolor illustrations of eye diseases, though without any explanatory texts. The authors attempt to interpret these first colored pictures of eye diseases.

  19. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  2. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  3. Atlas of Illustrative Cases of Tattoo Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoos, and tattoo complications as well, are colorful and visually flashy. A clinical outlook provides important clues to diagnosis by pattern recognition. This atlas,which is a report of 79 case illustrations, is made as a practical tool and vade mecum for the clinician. The atlas can be used in the office and as a bedside tool. It includes characteristic photos, and each case is accompanied with a brief medical history, a comment with learning points, the final diagnosis, and a review of therapeutic options. This spectrum of cases illustrates the different diagnostic entities according to the newly proposed Bispebjerg University Hospital ('Tattoo Clinic') diagnostic system of tattoo complications, a system reported to the 11th revision of the WHO disease classification system. Cases include allergies predominantly seen in red tattoos manifesting the characteristic patterns of plaque elevation, excessive hyperkeratosis, ulcerating reactions, urticaria, and generalized skin rash. Each type of reaction has typical clues to diagnosis and a typical disease course. 'Cross-sensitivity' allergic reactions in old tattoos of the same color as the trigger tattoo are also illustrated. Reactions in black tattoos are dominated by a pattern with papulonodular reactions, which are nonallergic anddue to pigment agglomeration in the skin. Reactions may be granulomatous and a marker of systemic sarcoidosis, sometimes associated with a general outbreak in the skin in black tattoos, e.g. 'rush phenomenon'. Bacterial infections are also illustrated. The technical hazards of tattooing and sequels as well as unwanted effects of tattoo removal by lasers are shown along with severe scarring following tattoo removal by caustics. This atlas is a tutorial in modern medical and surgical treatments of tattoo complications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  5. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  6. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  7. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  8. Textile Art as Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Floyd C.

    1998-01-01

    Used in picture-book illustration, such techniques as embroidery, applique, wood-block printing, batik, and quilting reflect cultural heritages and add richly textured images to this annotated list of titles for children from preschool through junior high. (Author)

  9. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  10. Unsupervised color image segmentation using a lattice algebra clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a lattice algebra clustering technique for segmenting digital images in the Red-Green- Blue (RGB) color space. The proposed technique is a two step procedure. Given an input color image, the first step determines the finite set of its extreme pixel vectors within the color cube by means of the scaled min-W and max-M lattice auto-associative memory matrices, including the minimum and maximum vector bounds. In the second step, maximal rectangular boxes enclosing each extreme color pixel are found using the Chebychev distance between color pixels; afterwards, clustering is performed by assigning each image pixel to its corresponding maximal box. The two steps in our proposed method are completely unsupervised or autonomous. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the color segmentation results including a brief numerical comparison with two other non-maximal variations of the same clustering technique.

  11. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  12. Illustrating and Designing Quranic Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenoar, Lubna

    2009-01-01

    Selected verses from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English language translation of the meaning of the Quran have been used as a literary text to teach both descriptive and figurative imagery (including similes, metaphors and symbols) to students at the undergraduate level in an Islamic institution. The technique--Illustrating and Designing for teaching…

  13. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  14. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  15. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  16. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  17. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  18. The Scientist as Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may be...

  1. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  2. A grieving process illustrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rory

    2018-03-01

    The sudden death of Pablo Picasso's closest friend Carlos Casagemas in 1901 came as a great shock to the young Picasso. From a young age, Picasso had ruminated on life and death; however, this was his first experience of bereavement. Following the death of Casagemas, Picasso's paintings can be seen as a diary of his grieving process and clearly illustrate the five stages of the grieving process as outlined by Kubler-Ross in ' On Death and Dying ' (1969). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  4. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  5. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  6. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  7. Radiology illustrated. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2014-01-01

    Pattern approach to the diagnosis of lung diseases based on CT scan appearances. Guide to quick and reliable differential diagnosis. CT-pathology correlation. Emphasis on state-of-the-art MDCT. The purpose of this atlas is to illustrate how to achieve reliable diagnoses when confronted by the different abnormalities, or ''disease patterns'', that may be visualized on CT scans of the chest. The task of pattern recognition has been greatly facilitated by the advent of multidetector CT (MDCT), and the focus of the book is very much on the role of state-of-the-art MDCT. A wide range of disease patterns and distributions are covered, with emphasis on the typical imaging characteristics of the various focal and diffuse lung diseases. In addition, clinical information relevant to differential diagnosis is provided and the underlying gross and microscopic pathology is depicted, permitting CT-pathology correlation. The entire information relevant to each disease pattern is also tabulated for ease of reference. This book will be an invaluable handy tool that will enable the reader to quickly and easily reach a diagnosis appropriate to the pattern of lung abnormality identified on CT scans.

  8. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  9. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  10. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  11. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... illustrates four shades of color used to describe skin color of walnut kernels. (a) Availability of color...

  12. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  13. Illustration of reaction mechanism in polyatomic systems via computer movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    The CD 4 + T* systems is suited for classroom illustration of reaction dynamics. Questions about the system can be illustrated by reducing selected many-body trajectories to a 16 mm color movie that represents the six-body motion in projected coordinates. Such a movie has been produced for this system. The production procedure used is reported, and a detailed description of the contents of the movie is given. (U.S.)

  14. Seeing the Light: Optics in Nature, Photography, Color, Vision, and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, David R.; Brill, Dieter R.; Stork, David G.

    1985-11-01

    The most complete and lucid nonmathematical study of light available. Chapters are self-contained, making the book flexible and easy to read. Coverage includes such non-traditional topics as processes of vision and the eye, atmospherical optical phenomena, color perception and illusions, color in nature and in art, Kirilian photography, and holography. Includes experiments that can be carried out with simple equipment. Chapters contain optional advanced sections, and appendixes review the mathematics for quantitative aspects. Illustrated, including a four-color insert.

  15. Trends in Illustration: A digital approach to large format illustrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, this study uses Adobe Photoshop CS4, a digital draw and paint tool, to illustrate some of the notable folktales in Igbo oral tradition. Vector and Raster techniques of computer graphics will be employed and discussed. Basic information on digital illustration will also be enumerated in the project. This piece of ...

  16. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  17. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  18. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facettes multiples de la mangrove Divers faciès végétaux de la mangrove Rhizophora et Avicennia. © Cormier. Avicennia et Laguncularia. © Cormier. Mangrove : un écosystème forestier parcouru de bolons. © Cormier. Écosystème à mangrove (du rebord de plateau au bolon, y compris rizières de mangrove et tannes). Cormier © Orstom. Faune typique de la mangrove Monodactylus (Psettia sebae). Vidy © Orstom. Crabes violonistes (Uca spp.) Intès © Orstom. Les Rivières du Sud : des mangroves densémen...

  19. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fig. 5 – Détail de la carte des formations superficielles du plateau insulaire de la Guadeloupe(Augris et al., 1992) Fig. 6 – Détail de la carte des formations superficielles du plateau insulaire de la Martinique(Augris et al., 2000) Baie échancrée, récif frangeant, récif barrière, et mangrove sur la côte est de la Martinique.© Ifremer/A. Guillou Mangrove à Rhizophora mangle dans le Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (Gùadeloupe).© M. Louis Pente externe d'un récif corallien en bon état de santé (Mar...

  20. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fig. 1 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Scarron), Paris, musée du Louvre. Fig. 4 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Scarron), restitution du format d’origine : environ 128 x 96 cm (détail de la fig. 1). Fig. 5 : Giovanni Lanfranco, Ravissement de la Madeleine, Naples, museo nazionale Capodimonte. Fig. 6 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Chantelou), Sarasota, Ringling Museum of Art. Fig. 7 : Nicolas Poussin, Assomption, Paris, mus...

  1. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1/ Atelier de Neri di Bici (attr.), Saint Yves rendant la justice, XVe siècle (Florence, Opera del Duomo) 2/ Le Sodoma,Saint Yves rendant la justice, 1507 (San Gimignano, fresque du Palais communal) 3/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Yves entre la veuve et l’orphelin, 1616 (Florence, galerie Pitti) 4/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Luc recommandant saint Yves à la Vierge, v. 1630 (Paris, Musée du Louvre) 5/ Giacomo Triga, La Vierge et les saints Yves, Gilles et Gimnesius, 1723 (Rome, église Santa Lucia ...

  2. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  3. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  4. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  5. Professional representation and the free-lance medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, K N; Daugherty, J

    1994-01-01

    We researched factors related to the success or failure in working relationships between free-lance medical illustrators and artist's representatives. In the fall of 1992, surveys were mailed to 230 medical illustrators; 105 (46%) completed surveys were returned. Respondents were divided into three categories: 1) medical illustrators currently represented, 2) medical illustrators previously represented, and 3) medical illustrators who had never been represented. Comparisons made among illustrators from the three groups included business practices, clientele, experience, and self-promotion techniques. These comparisons revealed notable differences and similarities between the three groups and were subsequently analyzed to identify the characteristics of medical illustrators who would benefit from professional representation.

  6. ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR AND GIMP - AN APPROACH TO GARMENT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDRIE Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing clothes has become easier with the use of clothing design software. One of the most popular and basic software made for garments design is Adobe Illustrator. It enables designers and small to medium businesses to create clothing designs with easy access to all assets, including images, colors, brushes, and type styles. While Illustrator has all the necessary elements and features that are ideal for creating designer clothing, GIMP provides basic set of tools for image editing. When used in combination with one another, these two programs provide just about all the tools an apparel designer needs to draw fashion design sketches, technical flat sketches, CAD presentations, graphic artworks, design embroideries etc. In this paper we show how to use the instruments of those two software in order to draw a woman jacket’s garments components and to fill with texture the jacket created. By utilizing Illustrator’s Symbol we created libraries of jacket components (puller zipper, label, then the brushes to design the zipper detail. Finally, by a drag and drop we added the zipper, the zipper puller and the label. GIMP gave us access to precise fabric textures which make our output so realistic that you can almost touch the fabric.

  7. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  8. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  9. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  10. Illustrations of the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide a more intuitive understanding of the twin paradox, several illustrations of this are presented. In one of these, each of the twins is equipped with a lamp whose monochromatic light can be observed by the other. In other illustrations the travelling twin uses an Einstein train instead of a space ship, all the cars of the train and all stations along the route of the train being equipped with clocks. (author)

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  12. Charge and color breaking minima in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brhlik, Michal

    2001-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model include complicated scalar sectors leading to the possible occurrence of non-standard minima along suitable directions in the field space. These minima usually break charge and/or color and their presence in the theory would require an explanation why the universe has settled in the standard electroweak symmetry breaking minimum. In this talk I illustrate the relevance of the charge and color breaking minima in the framework of the minimal supergravity model and a string motivated Horava-Witten scenario

  13. The illustrated A brief history of time

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This is Stephen Hawking's updated, expanded and illustrated edition of his celebrated work which includes the most recent developments in the field, many of which were forecast by him. At the same time, he explains his complex theories through a fresh visual dimension. Over one hunded and fifty stunning colour illustrations have been specially commissioned for this purpose to help the reader understand what have become popular mythic images of our century, but which nonetheless remain difficult, abstract ideas to grasp. It includes a new introduction written specially for this edition.

  14. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  15. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  16. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  17. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of Color, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau, Kurt

    2001-07-01

    An updated and revised second edition of the acclaimed classic Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue, or a ruby red? This classic volume studies the physical and chemical origins of color by exploring fifteen separate causes of color and their varied and often subtle occurrences in biology, geology, mineralogy, the atmosphere, technology, and the visual arts. It covers all of the fundamental concepts at work and requires no specialized knowledge. Author Kurt Nassau includes hundreds of illustrations, tables, and photographs-as well as end-of-chapter problems-that aid in visualizing the concepts discussed. An updated bibliography permits readers to pursue their own particular interests and an expanded series of appendices cover advanced topics. The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Second Edition is a one-of-a-kind treatment of color that provides both detailed physical and chemical properties of color and a more general overview of the subject. It will prove highly useful to specialists and non-specialists alike-and fascinate those with varied interests from optics to art history.

  18. Illustrator's view of more-effective technical communication through computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGasperi, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    The need for dynamic and well-designed presentations is critical for effective technical communication. Computer graphics as an art media tool for the illustrator often surpasses other available media. After the speed of the computer, its capability to produce an increible range of complex color schemes makes it such an invaluable aid. However, it is evident that this medium is frequently not used to its fullest capacity in the field of technical communication. This is because of the lack of well-designed visual presentations. In particular, this situation is often caused by the improper use of color, the lack of contrast, and visual continuity. Improving the state-of-the-art in the area of visual presentations is achievable by including graphic design techniques, a common-reference language, and by improving versatility in graphics programs and software packages

  19. Radiology illustrated. Uroradiology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    2012-01-01

    Uroradiology is an up-to-date, image-oriented reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. All aspects of the imaging of urologic diseases are covered, and case studies illustrate the findings obtained with the relevant imaging modalities in both common and uncommon conditions. Most chapters focus on a particular clinical problem, but normal findings, congenital anomalies, and interventions are also discussed and illustrated. In this second edition, the range and quality of the illustrations have been enhanced, and many schematic drawings have been added to help readers memorize characteristic imaging findings through pattern recognition. The accompanying text is concise and informative. Besides serving as an outstanding aid to differential diagnosis, this book will provide a user-friendly review tool for certification or recertification in radiology. (orig.)

  20. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  1. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  2. A Segmentation Analysis of an Illustrator's Quilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Joseph; Scherban, Dwight M.

    2007-01-01

    Jerry Pinkney's pencils and watercolors have created an indelible niche in African American children's literature, celebrating a magical world where children's thoughts flow freely back in time and across space. His illustrations have been repeatedly recognized by multiple awards and honor book citations (Brodie, 1998), including the Coretta Scott…

  3. 48 CFR 9904.410-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.410-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-60 Illustrations. (a) Business Unit A has been including the...

  4. Avian haematozoa 3. Color atlas of leucocytozoon simondi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Desser, S.S.; Bennett, G.F.; Tarshis, I.B.

    1977-01-01

    The life cycle of Leucocytozoon simondi is Illustrated in a series of color photomicrographs of the various stages of development in the blackfly vector and in the tissues and blood of Anatidae. A brief discussion of the life cycle is presented and taxonomic status of the parasite is reviewed. The bibliography includes references to the stages depicted and other phases of the development, morphology and pathogenesis of .L. simondi.

  5. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  6. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  7. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  8. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  9. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  10. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  11. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  12. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  13. Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2009-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.

  14. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  15. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  16. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  17. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  18. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Inácio, Filomena; Araújo, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks - a surface and a knowledge verification task - using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the differences between typical and atypical color objects in each task. In the color knowledge task, we found two significant clusters that were consistent with the N350 and late positive complex (LPC) effects. Atypical color objects elicited more negative ERPs compared to typical color objects. The color effect found in the N350 time window suggests that surface color is an important cue that facilitates the selection of a stored object representation from long-term memory. Moreover, the observed LPC effect suggests that surface color activates associated semantic knowledge about the object, including color knowledge representations. We did not find any significant differences between typical and atypical color objects in the surface color verification task, which indicates that there is little contribution of color knowledge to resolve the surface color verification. Our main results suggest that surface color is an important visual cue that triggers color knowledge, thereby facilitating object identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  20. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  1. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  2. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  4. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  5. USING COLORS TO IMPROVE PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Levesque, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a well known correlation between the mass and metallicity of star-forming galaxies. Because mass is correlated with luminosity, this relation is often exploited, when spectroscopy is not available, to estimate galaxy metallicities based on single band photometry. However, we show that galaxy color is typically more effective than luminosity as a predictor of metallicity. This is a consequence of the correlation between color and the galaxy mass-to-light ratio and the recently discovered correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and residuals from the mass-metallicity relation. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy of ∼180, 000 nearby galaxies, we derive 'LZC relations', empirical relations between metallicity (in seven common strong line diagnostics), luminosity, and color (in 10 filter pairs and four methods of photometry). We show that these relations allow photometric metallicity estimates, based on luminosity and a single optical color, that are ∼50% more precise than those made based on luminosity alone; galaxy metallicity can be estimated to within ∼0.05-0.1 dex of the spectroscopically derived value depending on the diagnostic used. Including color information in photometric metallicity estimates also reduces systematic biases for populations skewed toward high or low SFR environments, as we illustrate using the host galaxy of the supernova SN 2010ay. This new tool will lend more statistical power to studies of galaxy populations, such as supernova and gamma-ray burst host environments, in ongoing and future wide-field imaging surveys

  6. Atlas of Illustrative Cases of Tattoo Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    proposed Bispebjerg University Hospital ('Tattoo Clinic') diagnostic system of tattoo complications, a system reported to the 11th revision of the WHO disease classification system. Cases include allergies predominantly seen in red tattoos manifesting the characteristic patterns of plaque elevation......'. Bacterial infections are also illustrated. The technical hazards of tattooing and sequels as well as unwanted effects of tattoo removal by lasers are shown along with severe scarring following tattoo removal by caustics. This atlas is a tutorial in modern medical and surgical treatments of tattoo...

  7. Illustrated & Dissected: Professor Richard Sawdon Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Alternative Gallery feature introduces the photographic artist Professor Richard Sawdon Smith. Professor Sawdon Smith's work stems around a fascination with representations of anatomy that have been fuelled by his experience as a hospital patient. The work has allowed him to explore ideas through the use of medical illustrations which include early anatomical drawings, personal medical photography and facial modelling. The work highlights how such imagery can be used in the context of a patient seeking understanding and acceptance of ill health and disease using the body as a canvas on which to translate the experience.

  8. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  9. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  10. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  11. Evaluation of functional color vision requirements and current color vision screening tests for air traffic control specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relation of type and degree of color vision deficiency and aeromedical color vision screening test scores to performance of color-dependent tasks of Air Traffic Control Specialists. The subjects included 37...

  12. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  13. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  14. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  15. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  16. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes. PMID:28792983

  17. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  18. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  19. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  20. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrative examples. 1170.13 Section 1170.13... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a) The following examples will illustrate the application of the foregoing provisions to some of the activities...

  1. Contributions of early Arab scholars to color science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    The Islamic world made important discoveries in the field of color science during the medieval era. These included many fundamental ideas on the nature of color. Some of the first hue scales, though partial were developed by these scholars. They also showed that color was a percept and light and color were ontologically distinct. Other contributions by these scholars include descriptions of the color mixtures, color tops, color theory, etc. A few of these contributions will be discussed in this paper with particular attention to the work of Ibn al-Haytham on color.

  2. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  3. Alkylation of Chlorobenzene. An Experiment Illustrating Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates the kinetic versus thermodynamic control of chemical reactions for organic chemistry students. Considers the laboratory procedures including the isolation of both the kinetic and thermodynamic products. (CW)

  4. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  5. Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşıoğlu, Seden

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...

  6. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  7. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  8. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  10. CULTURAL PEDAGOGIC INCLUSION - DALTONISM AND COLOR EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielly Kizzy Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches color teaching including children with color blindness. Colors are present in everything that surrounds us and the use of colors has a direct link in the development of the child. Babies perceive colors from 3 months and naming them is a process that extends up to 3 years, since it requires stimuli, and it is at this stage, between 2 and 3 years, that the suspicion of color blindness arises. The difficulty varies between perceiving variation of shades, and not seeing specific color. The objective of this work is understood the ocular deficiency and reflect an inclusive pedagogical project of a color class.

  11. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  12. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  13. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of...

  15. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  16. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  17. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are illustrative...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which must be...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.409-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.409-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-60 Illustrations. The following examples are illustrative of...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are incurred...

  1. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  2. Salting Effects as an Illustration of the Relative Strength of Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Eric C.; Golden, Donnie R.; Royce, Brenda R.

    2010-01-01

    This quick and inexpensive demonstration of the salting of an alcohol out of an aqueous solution illustrates the impact of intermolecular forces on solubility using materials familiar to many students. Ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) is added to an aqueous 35% solution of isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol and water) containing food coloring as a…

  3. CMEIAS color segmentation: an improved computing technology to process color images for quantitative microbial ecology studies at single-cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Colin A; Reddy, Chandan K; Dazzo, Frank B

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative microscopy and digital image analysis are underutilized in microbial ecology largely because of the laborious task to segment foreground object pixels from background, especially in complex color micrographs of environmental samples. In this paper, we describe an improved computing technology developed to alleviate this limitation. The system's uniqueness is its ability to edit digital images accurately when presented with the difficult yet commonplace challenge of removing background pixels whose three-dimensional color space overlaps the range that defines foreground objects. Image segmentation is accomplished by utilizing algorithms that address color and spatial relationships of user-selected foreground object pixels. Performance of the color segmentation algorithm evaluated on 26 complex micrographs at single pixel resolution had an overall pixel classification accuracy of 99+%. Several applications illustrate how this improved computing technology can successfully resolve numerous challenges of complex color segmentation in order to produce images from which quantitative information can be accurately extracted, thereby gain new perspectives on the in situ ecology of microorganisms. Examples include improvements in the quantitative analysis of (1) microbial abundance and phylotype diversity of single cells classified by their discriminating color within heterogeneous communities, (2) cell viability, (3) spatial relationships and intensity of bacterial gene expression involved in cellular communication between individual cells within rhizoplane biofilms, and (4) biofilm ecophysiology based on ribotype-differentiated radioactive substrate utilization. The stand-alone executable file plus user manual and tutorial images for this color segmentation computing application are freely available at http://cme.msu.edu/cmeias/ . This improved computing technology opens new opportunities of imaging applications where discriminating colors really matter most

  4. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  5. 37 CFR 7.12 - Claim of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of color. 7.12 Section... § 7.12 Claim of color. (a) If color is claimed as a feature of the mark in the basic application and/or registration, the international application must include a statement that color is claimed as a...

  6. Pseudo-color processing in nuclear medical image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqian; Jin Yongjie

    1992-01-01

    The application of pseudo-color technology in nuclear medical image processing is discussed. It includes selection of the number of pseudo-colors, method of realizing pseudo-color transformation, function of pseudo-color transformation and operation on the function

  7. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  8. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  9. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  10. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2012-02-01

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N c 2 , where N c =3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  11. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2012-02-15

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N{sub c}{sup 2}, where N{sub c}=3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  12. Physics and psychophysics of color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Edward J.

    1991-08-01

    The successful design of a color-imaging system requires knowledge of the factors used to produce and control color. This knowledge can be derived, in part, from measurements of the physical properties of the imaging system. Color itself, however, is a perceptual response and cannot be directly measured. Though the visual process begins with physics, as radiant energy reaching the eyes, it is in the mind of the observer that the stimuli produced from this radiant energy are interpreted and organized to form meaningful perceptions, including the perception of color. A comprehensive understanding of color reproduction, therefore, requires not only a knowledge of the physical properties of color-imaging systems but also an understanding of the physics, psychophysics, and psychology of the human observer. The human visual process is quite complex; in many ways the physical properties of color-imaging systems are easier to understand.

  13. Relative contributions of pigments and biophotonic nanostructures to natural color production: a case study in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Kieffer, Leah; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-04-15

    Understanding the mechanistic bases of natural color diversity can provide insight into its evolution and inspiration for biomimetic optical structures. Metazoans can be colored by absorption of light from pigments or by scattering of light from biophotonic nanostructures, and these mechanisms have largely been treated as distinct. However, the interactions between them have rarely been examined. Captive breeding of budgerigars (Aves, Psittacidae, Melopsittacus undulatus) has produced a wide variety of color morphs spanning the majority of the spectrum visible to birds, including the ultraviolet, and thus they have been used as examples of hypothesized structure-pigment interactions. However, empirical data testing these interactions in this excellent model system are lacking. Here we used ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, light and electron microscopy, pigment extraction experiments and optical modeling to examine the physical bases of color production in seven budgerigar morphs, including grey and chromatic (purple to yellow) colors. Feathers from all morphs contained quasi-ordered air-keratin 'spongy layer' matrices, but these were highly reduced and irregular in grey and yellow feathers. Similarly, all feathers but yellow and grey had a layer of melanin-containing melanosomes basal to the spongy layer. The presence of melanosomes likely increases color saturation produced by spongy layers whereas their absence may allow increased expression of yellow colors. Finally, extraction of yellow pigments caused some degree of color change in all feathers except purple and grey, suggesting that their presence and contribution to color production is more widespread than previously thought. These data illustrate how interactions between structures and pigments can increase the range of colors attainable in birds and potentially in synthetic systems.

  14. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  15. Using color and grayscale images to teach histology to color-deficient medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lindsay R; Lackey, Wendy L; Kennedy, Frances A; Stephenson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Examination of histologic and histopathologic microscopic sections relies upon differential colors provided by staining techniques, such as hematoxylin and eosin, to delineate normal tissue components and to identify pathologic alterations in these components. Given the prevalence of color deficiency (commonly called "color blindness") in the general population, it is likely that this reliance upon color differentiation poses a significant obstacle for several medical students beginning a course of study that includes examination of histologic slides. In the past, first-year medical students at Michigan State University who identified themselves as color deficient were encouraged to use color transparency overlays or tinted contact lenses to filter out problematic colors. Recently, however, we have offered such students a computer monitor adjusted to grayscale for in-lab work, as well as grayscale copies of color photomicrographs for examination purposes. Grayscale images emphasize the texture of tissues and the contrasts between tissues as the students learn histologic architecture. Using this approach, color-deficient students have quickly learned to compensate for their deficiency by focusing on cell and tissue structure rather than on color variation. Based upon our experience with color-deficient students, we believe that grayscale photomicrographs may also prove instructional for students with normal (trichromatic) color vision, by encouraging them to consider structural characteristics of cells and tissues that may otherwise be overshadowed by stain colors.

  16. Illustrations of vacuum polarization by solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, R.; Wilczek, F.

    1984-01-01

    The value and limitations of the adiabatic method for calculating induced charges are discussed in a general way and illustrated in some simple models in 1+1 dimensions. The relevance of the size of solitons is emphasized

  17. Illustrations in Text: A Retentional Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of the retentional role of illustrations in a text and their effect on enhancing long-term memory with 15-year-old secondary school students. Seven references are listed. (CHC)

  18. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  19. Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural color filters, which obtain color selection by varying structures, have attracted extensive research interest in recent years due to the advantages of compactness, stability, multifunctions, and so on. In general, the mechanisms of structural colors are based on the interaction between light and structures, including light diffraction, cavity resonance, and surface plasmon resonance. This paper reviews recent progress of various structural color techniques and the integration applications of structural color filters in CMOS image sensors, solar cells, and display.

  20. Color screening effect in the quark potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongye; Yu Youwen; Shen Pengnian; Shen Xiaoyan; Dong Yubin

    1993-01-01

    By using the color confinement potential which includes the color screening effect, we studied the baryon spectra and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The results show that the color screening effect not only improves the baryon spectrum calculation, but also can solve the long-tail problem of the color Van der Waals force. A part of the medium attraction of the nuclear force can be obtained from the color Van der Waals force. (orig.)

  1. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  2. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  3. The Use of Pictorial Illustrations in African Language Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Gangla-Birir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article examines the use of pictorial illustrations in African language dictionar-ies, with particular reference to items generally included in dictionaries based on Stein's (1991 categories. It argues for the need to include more illustrations of cultural items specific to a par-ticular community and language group in dictionaries. A corpus analytic survey is done to deter-mine if African language dictionaries employ pictorial illustrations and, if so, which items are illus-trated. The results of this survey indicate that only a few African language dictionaries employ pictorial illustrations, even those that do correspond to Stein's categories. Of the dictionaries exam-ined, only one uses illustrations in the form of full-colour photographs, namely of different kinds of cattle, a very important cultural item within that specific community.


    Keywords: PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS, CULTURE, LEXICOGRAPHY, BILINGUAL DIC-TIONARY, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGE

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van beeldillustrasies in Afrikataalwoordeboeke. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die gebruik van beeldillustrasies in Afrikataalwoordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na items wat gewoonlik in woordeboeke ingesluit word, gebaseer op Stein (1991 se kategorieë. Dit betoog vir die noodsaaklikheid om meer illustrasies van kulturele items eie aan 'n besondere gemeenskap of taalgroep in woordeboeke in te sluit. 'n Analitiese oorsig van 'n korpus is gedoen om te bepaal of Afrikataalwoordeboeke beeldillustrasies gebruik, en, indien wel, watter items geïllustreer word. Die resultate van hierdie oorsig toon aan dat slegs 'n paar Afrikataalwoor-deboeke beeldillustrasies gebruik, selfs dié wat met Stein se kategorieë ooreenstem. Van die woor-deboeke wat ondersoek is, gebruik net een illustrasies in die vorm van volkleurfoto's, naamlik van verskillende soorte beeste, 'n baie belangrike kulturele item binne daardie spesifieke gemeenskap

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  10. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  12. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  14. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  15. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  16. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  17. Comparatively Studied Color Correction Methods for Color Calibration of Automated Microscopy Complex of Biomedical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kravtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a task of generating the requirements and creating a calibration target for automated microscopy systems (AMS of biomedical specimens to provide the invariance of algorithms and software to the hardware configuration. The required number of color fields of the calibration target and their color coordinates are mostly determined by the color correction method, for which coefficients of the equations are estimated during the calibration process. The paper analyses existing color calibration techniques for digital imaging systems using an optical microscope and shows that there is a lack of published results of comparative studies to demonstrate a particular useful color correction method for microscopic images. A comparative study of ten image color correction methods in RGB space using polynomials and combinations of color coordinate of different orders was carried out. The method of conditioned least squares to estimate the coefficients in the color correction equations using captured images of 217 color fields of the calibration target Kodak Q60-E3 was applied. The regularization parameter in this method was chosen experimentally. It was demonstrated that the best color correction quality characteristics are provided by the method that uses a combination of color coordinates of the 3rd order. The study of the influence of the number and the set of color fields included in calibration target on color correction quality for microscopic images was performed. Six train sets containing 30, 35, 40, 50, 60 and 80 color fields, and test set of 47 color fields not included in any of the train sets were formed. It was found out that the train set of 60 color fields minimizes the color correction error values for both operating modes of digital camera: using "default" color settings and with automatic white balance. At the same time it was established that the use of color fields from the widely used now Kodak Q60-E3 target does not

  18. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  19. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  20. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  1. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  3. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  4. Child Illustrators: Making Meaning through Visual Art in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Alicia; Minton, Sylvia; Martinez, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In picture books, illustrations often play a critical role in helping authors tell stories. Instruction in the elements of composition including visual, textual, and peritextual features enhances meaning for children when they are given the opportunity to become authors of their own picturebooks. This study was conducted in a fourth grade…

  5. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  6. Illustrative Examples in a Bilingual Decoding Dictionary: An (Un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    not have the status of a phraseological unit in English, it cannot be in- cluded and treated in the idioms section. Therefore, we can find such word combinations mostly included as illustrative examples, and it can often be observed that their translations into Slovene are also idiomatic: tired prid. sit: sick and tired of sth do vrh ...

  7. Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some Illustrative Examples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some. Illustrative Examples v Yegnanarayanan is a. Professor of Mathematics at MNM Jain Engineering. College, Chennai. His research interests include graph theory and its applications to both pure maths and theoretical computer science. Keywords. Graph theory, matching theory,.

  8. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Kunz, Rino E.; Seitz, Peter; Brunner, Harald; Knop, Karl

    1993-12-01

    As part of the ESPRIT II project No. 2103 (MASCOT) a high performance prototype color CCD still video camera was developed. Intended for professional usage such as in the graphic arts, the camera provides a maximum resolution of 3k X 3k full color pixels. A high colorimetric performance was achieved through specially designed dielectric filters and optimized matrixing. The color transformation was obtained by computer simulation of the camera system and non-linear optimization which minimized the perceivable color errors as measured in the 1976 CIELUV uniform color space for a set of about 200 carefully selected test colors. The color filters were designed to allow perfect colorimetric reproduction in principle and at the same time with imperceptible color noise and with special attention to fabrication tolerances. The camera system includes a special real-time digital color processor which carries out the color transformation. The transformation can be selected from a set of sixteen matrices optimized for different illuminants and output devices. Because the actual filter design was based on slightly incorrect data the prototype camera showed a mean colorimetric error of 2.7 j.n.d. (CIELUV) in experiments. Using correct input data in the redesign of the filters, a mean colorimetric error of only 1 j.n.d. (CIELUV) seems to be feasible, implying that it is possible with such an optimized color camera to achieve such a high colorimetric performance that the reproduced colors in an image cannot be distinguished from the original colors in a scene, even in direct comparison.

  9. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    , moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  10. Process Philosophy and the Text-Image Interface: A Study of Three Western Australian Botanical Illustrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical illustration combines scientific knowledge and artistic technique. However, whereas illustrated botanical images record static visual qualities, such as form and color, written botanical narratives supply crucial sensory, ecological, historical, and cultural contexts that complement visual representation. Understanding the text-image interface—where images and words intersect—contributes to humanities-based analyses of botanical illustration and illustrators. More specifically, a process philosophy perspective reveals the extent to which botanical representations engage the temporality, cyclicality, and contextuality of the living plants being illustrated. This article takes up these themes through a comparative theoretical study of three female Western Australian botanical illustrators, Georgiana Leake (1812–1869, Emily Pelloe (1877–1941, and Philippa Nikulinsky (born 1942, whose lives together span the 183 year history of the Swan River Colony and the state of Western Australia. I apply a processist framework to examine the text-image interface of their works. All three illustrators use some form of textuality: marginalia, annotations, written accompaniments, introductory statements, and other narrative materials. In examining their written commentaries and traces, I identify the emergence of a process mode of botanical illustration that represents plants as ecological, historical, cultural, and temporal organisms.

  11. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  12. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  13. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  14. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  15. Robust Color Choice for Small-size League RoboCup Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of choosing a set of most separable colors in a given environment is discussed. The proposed method models the process of generating theoretically computed best colors, printing of these colors through a color printer, and imaging the printed colors through a camera into an integrated framework. Thus, it provides a feasible way to generate practically best separable colors for a given environment with a set of given equipment. A real world application (robust color choice for small-size league RoboCup competition is used as an example to illustrate the proposed method. Experimental results on this example show the competitiveness of the colors learned from our algorithm compared to the colors adopted by other teams which are chosen via an extensive trial and error process using standard color papers.

  16. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  17. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  18. Illustrative Line Styles for Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view-oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for

  19. Flow Visualization using Illustrative Line Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias; Bekker, Paulus

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view- oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for

  20. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  1. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  2. 48 CFR 9904.408-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-60 Illustrations. (a) Company A's vacation plan provides that...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.403-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-60 Illustrations. (a) The following table lists some typical...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.407-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A's written practice is to set...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.406-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-60 Illustrations. (a) A contractor allocates general management...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-60 Illustrations. (a) An auditor recommends disallowance of...

  7. 13 CFR 112.7 - Illustrative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative applications. 112.7 Section 112.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY... or recruitment advertising, employment, layoff or termination, upgrading, demotion, or transfer...

  8. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  10. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  11. Colored Tensor Models - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gurau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct ancestor, matrix models, which encode a theory of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. These features include the possession of Feynman graphs encoding topological spaces, a 1/N expansion of graph amplitudes, embedded matrix models inside the tensor structure, a resumable leading order with critical behavior and a continuum large volume limit, Schwinger-Dyson equations satisfying a Lie algebra (akin to the Virasoro algebra in two dimensions, non-trivial classical solutions and so on. In this review, we give a detailed introduction of colored tensor models and pointers to current and future research directions.

  12. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  13. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  14. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  15. Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Theune, Mariet; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, F.

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section/paragraph that

  16. Selling pictures: the illustrated auction catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pergam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is based upon a survey of reproductions in auction catalogues – from their first appearance in the early eighteenth century until their more consistent use in the second decade of the twentieth century. Examining the role of these illustrations sheds light on how auctions functioned; it was not just the works of art that were traded, but knowledge about those works of art became currency to be exchanged. In contrast to the high end engravings and photographs of luxury illustrated art books, reproductions in auction catalogues – publications produced as ephemeral marketing tools – were of noticeably lower quality. This study of the status of reproductions, therefore, investigates the evolving understanding of art knowledge, both aesthetic and economic, and the interdependence of the market and connoisseurship.

  17. Crédit des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Illustration de couverture : Lyon, cathédrale Saint-Jean, culée de l’arc-boutant 2/3 : David (XIIIe siècle) surgissant de l’échafaudage (XXIe siècle). Photo Jean-Pierre Gobillot. Illustration de la quatrième de couverture : Lyon, cathédrale Saint-Jean, arcature extérieure de l’abside, chapiteau central. Dessin Ghislaine Macabéo. Photos Jean-Pierre Gobillot : fig. 1, 2, 10, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 46, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 67, 76a, 78, 80, 82, 83, 88, 90, 97, 105, 106, 11...

  18. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  19. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  20. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  1. Some illustrative examples of model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the view of model uncertainty proposed by Apostolakis. We then present several illustrative examples related to model uncertainty, some of which are not well handled by this formalism. Thus, Apostolakis' approach seems to be well suited to describing some types of model uncertainty, but not all. Since a comprehensive approach for characterizing and quantifying model uncertainty is not yet available, it is hoped that the examples presented here will service as a springboard for further discussion

  2. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  3. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  4. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  5. CULTURAL PEDAGOGIC INCLUSION - DALTONISM AND COLOR EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Arielly Kizzy Cunha; José Anderson Santos Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The article approaches color teaching including children with color blindness. Colors are present in everything that surrounds us and the use of colors has a direct link in the development of the child. Babies perceive colors from 3 months and naming them is a process that extends up to 3 years, since it requires stimuli, and it is at this stage, between 2 and 3 years, that the suspicion of color blindness arises. The difficulty varies between perceiving variation of shades, and not seeing sp...

  6. Plant-wide quantitative assessment of a process industry system's operating state based on color-spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Sun; Jianmin, Gao; Zhiyong, Gao; Hongquan, Jiang; Xu, Gao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to assess the operating state of a process industry system quantitatively based on meshing the theory of scientific data visualization and digital image processing. First, a series of color-spectrum, which represent the operating state of the system, is formed by mapping the monitor data set to a group of digital color images. Second, the common feature of color-spectrum, which is named benchmark-color-spectrum, is extracted as a standard of the normal state. Third, the abnormal degree can be quantified by calculating the difference of the benchmark-color-spectrum with observed color-spectrum. At last, a plant-wide operating state of the system in a period of time can be shown by plotting quantitative abnormal degree. Two case is included to illustrate the proposed method and its appropriateness. One is a general process industry system simulator named Tennessee Eastman Process. Another is an air compressor group which belongs to a real chemical plant.

  7. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  8. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  9. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  10. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  11. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  12. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  14. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  15. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  16. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  17. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  18. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  20. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  1. Autoimmune pancreatitis: An illustrated guide to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, R.D.; Rofe, C.J.; Bryant, T.J.C.; Hacking, C.N.; Stedman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains one of the rarer forms of pancreatitis but has become increasingly well recognized and widely diagnosed as it is an important differential, particularly due to the dramatic response to appropriate therapy. It is now best considered as part of a multisystem disease and the notion of “IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease” has become widely recognized as the number of extra-pancreatic associations of AIP grows. More recently AIP has been classified into two subtypes: lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) with distinct geographical, age and sex distributions for the two subtypes, in addition to different pathological characteristics. The role of imaging is crucial in AIP and should be considered in conjunction with clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to make the diagnosis. Radiologists are uniquely placed to raise the possibility of AIP and aid the exclusion of significant differentials to allow the initiation of appropriate management and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. Radiological investigation may reveal a number of characteristic imaging findings in AIP but appearances can vary considerably and the focal form of AIP may appear as a pancreatic mass, imitating pancreatic carcinoma. This review will illustrate typical and atypical appearances of AIP on all imaging modes. Emphasis will be placed on the imaging features that are likely to prove useful in discriminating AIP from other causes prior to histopathological confirmation. In addition, examples of relevant differential diagnoses are discussed and illustrated

  2. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  3. The structure and properties of color spaces and the representation of color images

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This lecture describes the author's approach to the representation of color spaces and their use for color image processing. The lecture starts with a precise formulation of the space of physical stimuli (light). The model includes both continuous spectra and monochromatic spectra in the form of Dirac deltas. The spectral densities are considered to be functions of a continuous wavelength variable. This leads into the formulation of color space as a three-dimensional vector space, with all the associated structure. The approach is to start with the axioms of color matching for normal human vie

  4. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  5. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  6. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  7. RGB Color Cube-Based Histogram Specification for Hue-Preserving Color Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Inoue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of color image enhancement methods are based on the methods for grayscale image enhancement in which the main interest is contrast enhancement. However, since colors usually have three attributes, including hue, saturation and intensity of more than only one attribute of grayscale values, the naive application of the methods for grayscale images to color images often results in unsatisfactory consequences. Conventional hue-preserving color image enhancement methods utilize histogram equalization (HE for enhancing the contrast. However, they cannot always enhance the saturation simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a histogram specification (HS method for enhancing the saturation in hue-preserving color image enhancement. The proposed method computes the target histogram for HS on the basis of the geometry of RGB (rad, green and blue color space, whose shape is a cube with a unit side length. Therefore, the proposed method includes no parameters to be set by users. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves higher color saturation than recent parameter-free methods for hue-preserving color image enhancement. As a result, the proposed method can be used for an alternative method of HE in hue-preserving color image enhancement.

  8. Mengkaji Penggunaan Software Apple Color untuk Color Grading saat Pasca Produksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-production process, there is one process that is not as well known as the video editing process, the addition of animation, special effects enrichment, motion graphics or audio editing and audio mixing, an important process which is rarely realized called Color Correction or Color Grading. Various software have been made to handle this process, ranging from additional filters are already available for free in any editing software, to high-end devices worth billions of dollars dedicated for specifically conducting Color Correction. Apple Color is one of the software included in the purchase of Final Cut Studio package which also include Final Cut Pro for Video Editing, Soundtrack Pro for Sound Editing and Mixing, and Motion for compositing. Apple's Color is specially designed for color correction tasks after previously edited in Final Cut Pro. This paper is designed to introduce Apple's software as well as analyze the feasibility of Apple Color as a professional device in the world of production, especially post-production. Some professional color correction software will be compared briefly with Apple Color to get an objective conclusion. 

  9. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be...

  10. Perceptual quality of color images of natural scenes transformed in CIELUV color space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Eschbach, R.; Braun, K.

    1997-01-01

    Transformations of digitized color images in perceptually-uniform CIELUV color space and their perceptual relevance were investigated. Chroma veriation was chosen as the first step of a series of investigations into possible transformations (including lightness, hue-angle, chroma, ect.) To obtain

  11. Perceptual quality of color images of natural scenes transformed in CIELUV color space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Transformations of digitized color images in perceptually-uniform CIELUV color space and their perceptual relevance were investigated. Chroma variation was chosen as the first step of a series of investigations into possible transformations (including lightness, hue-angle, chroma, etc.). To obtain

  12. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  13. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-06-11

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Chemical constituents from Aspidosperma illustre (Apocynaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Lara F.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino

    2010-01-01

    A new natural product oleanane-type triterpene, olean-12-ene-11α-methoxy-3β-acetate (10) was isolated from Aspidosperma illustre, together with β-amyrin (3), lupeol (4), β-amyrin acetate (5), lupeol acetate (6), olean-12-ene-28-hydroxy-3α-tetradecanoate (7), olean-12-ene-28-carboxy-3α-hexadecanoate (8), ursolic acid (9) triterpenes, and two monoterpenic indole alkaloids, b-yoimbine (1) and 1,2-dehydroaspidospermidine (2). These compounds were characterized on their spectral data basis, mainly one- ( 1 H, 13 C, APT) and two-dimensional ( 1 H- 1 H-COSY, 1 H- 1 HNOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and mass spectra, involving also comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  15. Uncertainty relation and probability. Numerical illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Umetsu, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty relation and the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics are intrinsically connected, as is evidenced by the evaluation of standard deviations. It is thus natural to ask if one can associate a very small uncertainty product of suitably sampled events with a very small probability. We have shown elsewhere that some examples of the evasion of the uncertainty relation noted in the past are in fact understood in this way. We here numerically illustrate that a very small uncertainty product is realized if one performs a suitable sampling of measured data that occur with a very small probability. We introduce a notion of cyclic measurements. It is also shown that our analysis is consistent with the Landau-Pollak-type uncertainty relation. It is suggested that the present analysis may help reconcile the contradicting views about the 'standard quantum limit' in the detection of gravitational waves. (author)

  16. Adobe Illustrator CS2 crash course

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Amado

    2007-01-01

    Introdução ao Adobe Illustrator.Compilação de informações, links e tutorial passo-a-passo para a iniciação a este softwarelt;p>FBAUP, Pedro Amado, 2007-01-22Versão 0.1 (alfa). Actualizada em 2007-01-22.Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso Não-Comercial-Partilha nos termos da mesma Licença 2.5 Portugal. Para ver uma cópia destalicença, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pt/ ou envie uma cartapara Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott ...

  17. Climate and colored walls: in search of visual comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrarte-Grau, Malvina

    2002-06-01

    The quality of natural light, the landscape surrounds and the techniques of construction are important factors in the selection of architectural colors. Observation of exterior walls in differentiated climates allows the recognition of particularities in the use of color which satisfy the need for visual comfort. At a distance of 2000 kilometers along the coast of Peru, Lima and Mancora at 12° and 4° respectively, are well defined for their climatic characteristics: in Mancora sunlight causes high reflection, in Lima overcast sky and high humidity cause glare. The study of building color effects at these locations serves to illustrate that color values may be controlled in order to achieve visual comfort and contribute to color identity.

  18. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  19. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  20. Google SketchUp Workshop Modeling, Visualizing, and Illustrating

    CERN Document Server

    Brixius, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Discover the secrets of the Google SketchUp with the 16 real-world professional-level projects including parks, structures, concept art, and illustration. Google SketchUp Workshop includes all the wide variety of projects that SketchUp can be used for-architectural visualization, landscape design, video game and film conception, and more. SketchUp masters in every field will get you up to speed in this agile and intuitive software and then show you the real uses with through projects in architecture, engineering, and design. * Packed with 16 real-world Go

  1. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  2. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of color reproduction management; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Iro saigen kanri (color management) no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Standardization of color reproduction management is aimed at realization of the most urgently needed areas of the color reproduction management for international standardization. This R and D program is aimed at drafting the standards for color information devices and their characteristics, and proposing the drafts. Factors which deteriorate color reproduction stability of input and output devices are classified and analyzed, devices for evaluation are selected, and extents of the deterioration are measured and evaluated, in order to extract the problems involved in the color reproduction models for the current input and output devices. Standardization of color management on the multi-spectrum color images is attempted for business printing, where effectiveness of a fluorescent ink containing a fluorescent material is noted for expansion of the color reproduction range for printing color images with the conventional YMCK inks. Basic aspects of the fluorescent colors are measured, to verify the methods for measuring fluorescent body colors. As a result, new knowledge is obtained. The standard images for flesh color evaluation are produced, and the methods for analyzing the data obtained by the tests, including the subjective tests, are established. These lead to establishment of the standards for preferred flesh color of the yellow races. (NEDO)

  3. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  4. Light and Color in Nature and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Samuel J.; Cummins, Herman Z.

    1983-02-01

    An introduction to the science of light and color and its applications to photography, art, natural phenomena, and other related areas. Explains the origin of phenomena commonly encountered in nature and art, emphasizing the physical aspects but also touching on aspects of physiology and psychology that directly influence how visual images are perceived. Covers the effect of mixing color, the notion of color spaces, how atoms and molecules affect light, how light can be measured, the effect of using a lens, and many other topics. Requires little or no mathematical background. Includes questions and references for further reading.

  5. Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part II: colored illuminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Zhai, Qiyan; Luo, Ming R; Hanselaer, Peter

    2017-04-03

    In a previous paper, 12 corresponding color data sets were derived for 4 neutral illuminants using the long-term memory colours of five familiar objects. The data were used to test several linear (one-step and two-step von Kries, RLAB) and nonlinear (Hunt and Nayatani) chromatic adaptation transforms (CAT). This paper extends that study to a total of 156 corresponding color sets by including 9 more colored illuminants: 2 with low and 2 with high correlated color temperatures as well as 5 representing high chroma adaptive conditions. As in the previous study, a two-step von Kries transform whereby the degree of adaptation D is optimized to minimize the DEu'v' prediction errors outperformed all other tested models for both memory color and literature corresponding color sets, whereby prediction errors were lower for the memory color set. Most of the transforms tested, except the two- and one-step von Kries models with optimized D, showed large errors for corresponding color subsets that contained non-neutral adaptive conditions as all of them tended to overestimate the effective degree of adaptation in this study. An analysis of the impact of the sensor space primaries in which the adaptation is performed was found to have little impact compared to that of model choice. Finally, the effective degree of adaptation for the 13 illumination conditions (4 neutral + 9 colored) was successfully modelled using a bivariate Gaussian in a Macleod-Boyton like chromaticity diagram.

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  7. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  15. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  8. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  9. [An illustrated guide to dental screening: a school survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Annabelle; Sayada, Mélanie; Azogui-Levy, Sylvie

    2017-12-05

    Marked social inequalities in oral health are observed right from early childhood. A mandatory complete health check-up, including dental screening, is organized at school for 6-year-old children. School healthcare professionals are not well trained in dental health. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of an illustrated guide as a simple and rapid dental screening training tool in order to ensure effective, standardized and reproducible screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the context of the dental examination performed as part of the health check-up. Two examiners (Doctor E1 and Nurse E2) were trained in dental screening by means of the illustrated guide. This reference guide, comprising pictures and legends, presents the main oral pathology observed in children. 109 consent forms for oral screening were delivered, and 102 children agreed to participate (93.57%). The sensitivity of detection of tooth decay by examiners E1 and E2 was 81.48% with a specificity of 96%. No correlation was observed between the child's age (+/- 6 years) and correct detection rates. The illustrated guide is an appropriate and rapid tool for dental screening that can improve the quality of dental check-up and increase the number of children detected.

  10. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  11. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  12. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  13. Internal medicine. An illustrated radiological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tubaikh, Jarrah Ali; Sabah Hospital, Kuwait

    2010-01-01

    This book explains how radiology can be a powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis of many internal medicine diseases that are usually diagnosed on the basis of their laboratory or clinical presentation. It is organized in the classic fashion for internal medicine books, with eleven chapters covering the different internal medicine specialties. Within these chapters, more than 450 diseases are considered, some of which are rarely encountered but are nonetheless significant. For each disease, radiological and clinical features are displayed in images and high-quality digital medical illustrations, and those differential diagnoses are identified that can be ruled out by imaging alone. In addition, the pathophysiology underlying the radiological features is described, enabling the reader to understand why a particular sign is seen on MR images, CT scans, or plain radiographs. The book will serve as an excellent radiological atlas for internal medicine practitioners and family physicians, showing disease presentations that may be hard to find in standard medical textbooks and explaining which imaging modalities are likely to be most informative in particular patients. (orig.)

  14. An illustration of whole systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Kanwal; Carson, Ewart; Cramp, Derek

    2006-08-01

    The complexity of policy-making in the NHS is such that systemic, holistic thinking is needed if the current government's plans are to be realized. This paper describes systems thinking and illustrates its value in understanding the complexity of the diabetes National Service Framework (NSF); its role in identifying problems and barriers previously not predicted; and in reaching conclusions as to how it should be implemented. The approach adopted makes use of soft systems methodology (SSM) devised by Peter Checkland. This analysis reveals issues relating to human communication, information provision and resource allocation needing to be addressed. From this, desirable and feasible changes are explored as means of achieving a more effective NSF, examining possible changes from technical, organizational, economic and cultural perspectives. As well as testing current health policies and plans, SSM can be used to test the feasibility of new health policies. This is achieved by providing a greater understanding and appreciation of what is happening in the real world and how people work. Soft systems thinking is the best approach, given the complexity of health care. It is a flexible, cost-effective solution, which should be a prerequisite before any new health policy is launched.

  15. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  16. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  17. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  18. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  19. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  20. Bringing Life to Illustration and Illustrating the World in Movement through Visual Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    “If a picture is worth a thousand words” as Arthur Brisbane said, journalist of the New York Times in 1911 Fig.1 How many words would equal the hundreds of frames containing in an animation? In this equation as any other, illustration and animation are complex visual expressions, full of shapes c...

  1. Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Moradkhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.

  2. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems. PMID:24273504

  3. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: Toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko eAsano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems.

  4. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems.

  5. Vector sparse representation of color image using quaternion matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Yu, Licheng; Xu, Hongteng; Zhang, Hao; Nguyen, Truong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional sparse image models treat color image pixel as a scalar, which represents color channels separately or concatenate color channels as a monochrome image. In this paper, we propose a vector sparse representation model for color images using quaternion matrix analysis. As a new tool for color image representation, its potential applications in several image-processing tasks are presented, including color image reconstruction, denoising, inpainting, and super-resolution. The proposed model represents the color image as a quaternion matrix, where a quaternion-based dictionary learning algorithm is presented using the K-quaternion singular value decomposition (QSVD) (generalized K-means clustering for QSVD) method. It conducts the sparse basis selection in quaternion space, which uniformly transforms the channel images to an orthogonal color space. In this new color space, it is significant that the inherent color structures can be completely preserved during vector reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed sparse model is more efficient comparing with the current sparse models for image restoration tasks due to lower redundancy between the atoms of different color channels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sparse image model avoids the hue bias issue successfully and shows its potential as a general and powerful tool in color image analysis and processing domain.

  6. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  7. Standard classification of uranium resources-an illustrative example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, P.M.; Babitzke, H.R.; Curry, D.; Masters, C.D.; McCammon, R.B.; Noble, R.B.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Schanz, J.J.; Schreiber, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    An example illustrates the use of ASTM Standard E901-82, Classification System for Uranium Resources. The example demonstrates the dynamic nature of the process of classification and attests to the necessity of addressing both the aggregate needs of broad-scale resource planning and the specific needs of individual property evaluation. Problems that remain in fixing the classification of a given uranium resource include the uncertainty in estimating the quantity of undiscovered resources and resolving the differences that may exist in deciding when the drill-hole spacing is adequate to determine the tonnage and grade of discovered resources

  8. Real color captures attention and overrides spatial cues in grapheme-color synesthetes but not in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Hagoort, Peter; Händel, Barbara F

    2013-08-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive color when reading letters or digits. We investigated oscillatory brain signals of synesthetes vs. controls using magnetoencephalography. Brain oscillations specifically in the alpha band (∼10Hz) have two interesting features: alpha has been linked to inhibitory processes and can act as a marker for attention. The possible role of reduced inhibition as an underlying cause of synesthesia, as well as the precise role of attention in synesthesia is widely discussed. To assess alpha power effects due to synesthesia, synesthetes as well as matched controls viewed synesthesia-inducing graphemes, colored control graphemes, and non-colored control graphemes while brain activity was recorded. Subjects had to report a color change at the end of each trial which allowed us to assess the strength of synesthesia in each synesthete. Since color (synesthetic or real) might allocate attention we also included an attentional cue in our paradigm which could direct covert attention. In controls the attentional cue always caused a lateralization of alpha power with a contralateral decrease and ipsilateral alpha increase over occipital sensors. In synesthetes, however, the influence of the cue was overruled by color: independent of the attentional cue, alpha power decreased contralateral to the color (synesthetic or real). This indicates that in synesthetes color guides attention. This was confirmed by reaction time effects due to color, i.e. faster RTs for the color side independent of the cue. Finally, the stronger the observed color dependent alpha lateralization, the stronger was the manifestation of synesthesia as measured by congruency effects of synesthetic colors on RTs. Behavioral and imaging results indicate that color induces a location-specific, automatic shift of attention towards color in synesthetes but not in controls. We hypothesize that this mechanism can facilitate coupling of grapheme and color during the development of

  9. Addressing Diversity in the Decade of Behavior: Focus on Women of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; Vaz, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the lives of women of color, illustrating diversity-minded feminist principles that may inform research and program development related to other aspects of diversity. Notes perspectives and priorities of women of color in psychology. Considers why implementing feminist psychology's inclusive vision for research is a continuing struggle,…

  10. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  11. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  12. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3 He), the A and A * phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A * phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A * phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  13. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  14. Color coherence in W + jet events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.

    1997-11-01

    We report on preliminary studies of color coherence effects in p anti p collisions, based on data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider, at a center of mass energy √s = 1.8 TeV. Color interference effects are studied by examining particle distribution patterns in W + Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and to a recent analytic Modified-Leading-Log perturbative calculation based on the Local Parton-Hadron Duality hypothesis. Soft particle radiation is enhanced in the event plane relative to the transverse plane, in agreement with calculations in which the effects of color coherence are fully included

  15. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  16. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... one-layer surface textures of silicon.We explored four patterns of square structures in a square lattice with periods of 500, 400, 300, and 200 nm. The reflectivity and daylight-colors were measured and compared with simulations based on rigorously coupledwave analysis with excellent agreement. Based...... on the 200-nm periodic pattern, it was found that angle-independent specular colors up to 60 deg of incidence may be provided. The underlying mechanisms include (1) the suppression of diffraction and (2) a strong coupling of light to localized surface states. The strong coupling yields absorption anomalies...

  17. Update on INCITS W1.1 standard for evaluating the color rendition of printing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Robert; Dalal, Edul N.; Farnand, Susan; Gusev, Dmitri; Kress, William C.; Martinez, Oscar; McCarthy, Ann; Topfer, Karin; Zeise, Eric K.

    2003-12-01

    The color rendition ad hoc team of INCITS W1.1 is working to address issues related to color and tone reproduction for printed output and its perceptual impact on color image quality. The scope of the work includes accuracy of specified colors with emphasis on memory colors, color gamut, and the effective use of tone levels, including issues related to contouring. The team has identified three sub-attributes of color rendition: (1) color quantization -- defined as the ability to merge colors where needed, (2) color scale -- defined as the ability to distinguish color where needed, and (3) color fidelity -- defined as the ability to match colors. Visual definitions and descriptions of how these sub-attributes are perceived have been developed. The team is presently defining measurement methods for these, with the first of the sub-attributes considered being color quantization. More recently, the problem of measuring color fidelity has been undertaken. This presentation will briefly review the definitions and appearance of the proposed sub-attributes. The remainder of the discussion will focus on the progress to date of developing test targets and associated measurement methods to quantify the color quantization and color fidelity sub-attributes.

  18. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  19. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  20. Plasmonic- and dielectric-based structural coloring: from fundamentals to practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejun; Jang, Jaehyuck; Jeong, Heonyeong; Rho, Junsuk

    2018-01-01

    Structural coloring is production of color by surfaces that have microstructure fine enough to interfere with visible light; this phenomenon provides a novel paradigm for color printing. Plasmonic color is an emergent property of the interaction between light and metallic surfaces. This phenomenon can surpass the diffraction limit and achieve near unlimited lifetime. We categorize plasmonic color filters according to their designs (hole, rod, metal-insulator-metal, grating), and also describe structures supported by Mie resonance. We discuss the principles, and the merits and demerits of each color filter. We also discuss a new concept of color filters with tunability and reconfigurability, which enable printing of structural color to yield dynamic coloring at will. Approaches for dynamic coloring are classified as liquid crystal, chemical transition and mechanical deformation. At the end of review, we highlight a scale-up of fabrication methods, including nanoimprinting, self-assembly and laser-induced process that may enable real-world application of structural coloring.

  1. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  2. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  3. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  4. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FOURTH CLASS GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the illustrations found in five different Geography textbooks in Romania. The analysis is based on several criteria: number, size, clarity, pedagogical usefulness. The following conclusions have been drawn: the illustrations are numerous; most of the illustrations are too small and unclear to be efficiently used in the teaching activity; the purpose of some materials is purely illustrative; some illustrations are overcharged with details, which prevent children from understanding them. Authors and publishing houses are advised to choose the illustrations in the fourth class Geography textbooks more carefully.

  6. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  7. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  8. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  9. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  10. 48 CFR 9904.416-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the plan. (f) Contractor F has a fire insurance policy which provides that the first $50,000 of... and casualty insurance premium for the policy term July 1, 1980, to July 1, 1983, and includes the... insurance program. The policy term corresponds with the contractor's cost accounting period. Premium refunds...

  11. 45 CFR 1151.18 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available to deaf and hearing impaired persons through the use of a sign language interpreter or by... handicapped person with experience and expertise equal to qualification standards established by a planning or... mean that every planning or advisory board necessarily must include a handicapped person. (b) Despite...

  12. 48 CFR 9905.505-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommends disallowance of certain direct labor and direct material costs, for which a billing has been... indirect cost pool relevant to the subject contract consists of direct labor, direct material, total prime cost, total cost input, etc., the institution must include the disallowed direct labor and material...

  13. Ethnographic Techniques in Educational Evaluation: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes the ethnographic component of a multidisciplinary evaluation, conducted by the RMC Research Corporation, of the Career Intern Program for dropouts. Includes discussion of participant observations, interviewing techniques, triangulation, unobtrusive measures, data recording, and equipment. (Part of a theme issue entitled…

  14. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  15. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  16. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  17. The use of transparent media in medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, W M

    1978-03-01

    Transparent media, such as watercolor, acrylic, and dyes, have been used by scientific illustrators for centuries. This article gives one artist's view of the highly complex medium. Materials, techniques, short cuts, and potential problem areas are discussed. Illustrations of specific techniques and a step-by-step development of a medical illustration is provided.

  18. Can Strategies Facilitate Learning from Illustrated Science Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of schema training in illustration types and text-illustration relations for learning from college level physiology texts and discusses findings that are consistent with prior research on learning from illustrated materials and with dual coding theory. Considers future directions for strategy training research and…

  19. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  20. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  1. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  2. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  3. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  6. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  7. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  9. In search of the rainbow: Colored inks in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical pathologists are aware of the multiple advantages that coloured inks contribute to surgical pathology practice, these coloured inks are not available in India and importing them is not a viable proposition. A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children′s hobby colors of a particular brand. They retain their bright distinct colors on paraffin blocks and sections. These paints are available all over India, and are cheap, safe, and easy to use. Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination. It allows three-dimensional microscopic reconstruction of the tumor vis-a-vis its various neighboring anatomic structures. It allows postoperative comparison of tissue planes predicted by preoperative imaging. It maintains orientation of grossed and dissected specimens, enabling the pathologist to re-visit the grossed specimen, if required, and confidently allows further sampling if necessary. Aim: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks. Results: The study identified specific shades within a brand of acrylic colors that are easily available and simple to use, with good results on microscopic examination. Conclusion: Colored inks lend precision to margin examination. A set of easily procurable colors are available in our country, which are easy to use, with distinct bright colors, safe, and reliable.

  10. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind...... turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute...

  11. The effective manager perspectives and illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    An ideal introduction to management and organizational behaviour, this Reader brings together a range of contributions on the art and science of management. The focus of the book is on the ideas and theories which a manager can use to become more effective. Six sections explore important aspects of the manager's job: management, leadership and conflict; motivation and stress at work; organizational culture; decision-making and teams; staff development; and diversity in organizations. In each section, the reader will find articles which reflect major ideas or debates within the area, including those that challenge traditional views and ways of doing things. Does money motivate? Are teams useful?

  12. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; M?ller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  13. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  14. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  16. Evaluating the Performance of Polynomial Regression Method with Different Parameters during Color Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polynomial regression method is employed to calculate the relationship of device color space and CIE color space for color characterization, and the performance of different expressions with specific parameters is evaluated. Firstly, the polynomial equation for color conversion is established and the computation of polynomial coefficients is analysed. And then different forms of polynomial equations are used to calculate the RGB and CMYK’s CIE color values, while the corresponding color errors are compared. At last, an optimal polynomial expression is obtained by analysing several related parameters during color conversion, including polynomial numbers, the degree of polynomial terms, the selection of CIE visual spaces, and the linearization.

  17. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  18. Adobe Illustrator drawing showing geophysical and topographical survey data and interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lacey; Ferraby, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Adobe Illustrator drawing at 1:2000 that shows the rasters and interpretations of the geophysics, the topographical contours, and the survey areas, with British National Grid coordinates and Ordnance Survey Master Map data included.

  19. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  20. Practical illustration of the traditional vers. alternative LOCA embrittlement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtilkova, V.; Novotny, L.; Hamouz, V.; Doucha, R.; Tinka, I.; Macek, J.; Lahovsky, F.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of LOCA time behaviour is usually based on traditional embrittlement criterion, represented by the equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) limit 17 % (18 %) at the peak cladding temperature below 1204 0 C (1200 0 C). From different existing correlations for evaluation the ECR, the correlations of Baker-Just, Cathcart and VNIINM (Bibilashvili) are discussed here. Results, obtained by these correlations, are illustrated for typical and atypical LOCA courses analysed for the WWER 440 plant. An approach to assess these correlations from the viewpoint of violation of the observed criterion is presented. This approach is based on determination of the temperature vers. time of exposition, when the criterion limit is reached. Reasons leading to necessity of alternative criterion proposal are summarised. This criterion for LOCA events evaluation, including corresponding correlation, is proposed on the basis of the long-term experimental research of cladding materials at UJP Praha. The computational results, obtained according to this alternative criterion, are illustrated for the same courses of LOCA events as for traditional criteria and traditional correlations. Proposed criterion is also confronted with the other discussed criteria in accordance with mentioned approach presented in this paper. The characteristic experimental results and key findings are summarised. They substantiate and support the proposed alternative criterion. An advantage of the criterion is its independence on ECR, on hydrogen and oxygen content and on oxidation history, and its applicability to current Zr-based alloy cladding materials as well. This applicability is kept while preserving the simplicity of the criterion using. (author)

  1. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  2. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  3. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A' iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  4. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  5. An illustration of web survey methododlogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    2009-01-01

    A food and nutrition revival has hit European schools in recent years and as a result school meal provision is undergoing significant changes. Unhealthy eating and growing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents are significant threats that seem to foster a remaking and rethinking...... tend to include an organic supply chain. A former study in the Danish primary schools has shown that there is an association between organic school food policies and indicators (proxies) for healthy eating among children when (school food coordinators) statements on indicators (proxies) for healthy...... eating are used as variable. This project continue to search for the above signs of associations but involving also a “bottom” level (pupils) perspective in addition to the “top” level (school food coordinators) in the previous study. The project is to study the following hypothesis: organic food service...

  6. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  7. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  8. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  9. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Daiki; Suganami, Haruka; Hosoba, Minoru; Ohno, Kazuko; Emoto, Yutaka; Tabata, Yoshito; Matsui, Norihisa

    2013-03-01

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u'v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2 according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors .

  10. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  11. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  12. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  13. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  14. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Architecture Views Illustrating the Service Automation Aspect of SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Cuadrado, Félix; Lago, Patricia; Duenãs, Juan C.

    Earlier in this book, Chapter 8 provided a detailed analysis of service engineering, including a review of service engineering techniques and methodologies. This chapter is closely related to Chapter 8 as shows how such approaches can be used to develop a service, with particular emphasis on the identification of three views (the automation decision view, degree of service automation view and service automation related data view) that structure and ease elicitation and documentation of stakeholders' concerns. This is carried out through two large case studies to learn the industrial needs in illustrating services deployment and configuration automation. This set of views adds to the more traditional notations like UML, the visual power of attracting the attention of their users to the addressed concerns, and assist them in their work. This is especially crucial in service oriented architecting where service automation is highly demanded.

  16. Orthognathic Surgery: Planning and treatment with illustration on six cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AiRuhaimi, K; Nwoku, A. L; Shaikh, H. S

    1991-01-01

    Almost all conferences for plastic and maxillofacial surgery discuss reports on several methods of orthognathic surgery, planning, success results, and complications of the different procedures carried out to correct patient's soft and hard tissues frontal profiles and occlusal discrepancies. Various principles are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of facial deformities. However, the most important consideration, after all, is the final accepted aesthetic and functional requirements and stability of the moved segments. The objective of this paper is to give the basic principles of treatment planning for correcting facial discrepancies, surgical approach to different cases, and the methods to increase stability of the moved segments. Six cases are included to illustrate the different aspects of treatment planning, surgical management, and stabilization methods. (author)

  17. Usefulness of color and pulsed Doppler's in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Prieto, C.; Cortes, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Pastor, I.

    2003-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are performed to relieve symptomatic portal hypertension symptomatic or removal pressure in hepatic vascularisation in patients with Budd-Chiari's syndrome. Most surgical portosystemic shunts can be suitably studied by means of ultrasound scan complemented by color and pulsed Dopplers, proved one understands the hemodynamics of the surgical procedures involved. This article demonstrates the usefulness and limitations of the ultrasound scan Duplex Doppler in the evaluation of portosystemic shunts performed on pediatric patients. Pulsed Doppler provides information regarding the nature and direction of blood flow. Color doppler is capable of directly revealing the shunt and, in most cases, permits the anastomosis to be located. The types of shunts that appear include proximal and distal spleno-renal, portocaval and mesocaval. Types of vascular connections are illustrated,s well as expected post-surgical blood flow direction in affected vessels. The ultrasound scanning technique is discussed, as well as the criteria for determining vascular permeability. Also highlighted are the advantages, limitations and diagnostic difficulties associated with the different forms of Doppler. (Author) 17 refs

  18. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  1. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  2. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  3. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  4. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  5. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  6. Coevolution of coloration and colour vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2017-07-05

    The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration. Here, to illustrate how one might interpret the evolutionary significance of such differences, we used colour vision modelling based on an avian eye to evaluate the effects of variation in three key characters: photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, oil droplet pigmentation and the proportions of different photoreceptor types. The models predict that physiologically realistic changes in any one character will have little effect, but complementary shifts in all three can substantially affect discriminability of three types of natural spectra. These observations about the adaptive landscape of colour vision may help to explain the general conservatism of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities in birds. This approach can be extended to other types of eye and spectra to inform future work on coevolution of coloration and colour vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  8. Color digital halftoning taking colorimetric color reproduction into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Shimoyama, Nobukatsu; Miyake, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    Taking colorimetric color reproduction into account, the conventional error diffusion method is modified for color digital half-toning. Assuming that the input to a bilevel color printer is given in CIE-XYZ tristimulus values or CIE-LAB values instead of the more conventional RGB or YMC values, two modified versions based on vector operation in (1) the XYZ color space and (2) the LAB color space were tested. Experimental results show that the modified methods, especially the method using the LAB color space, resulted in better color reproduction performance than the conventional methods. Spatial artifacts that appear in the modified methods are presented and analyzed. It is also shown that the modified method (2) with a thresholding technique achieves a good spatial image quality.

  9. Railroad signal color and orientation : effects of color blindness and criteria for color vision field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report concerns two issues: 1) whether color vision is necessary for locomotive crews who work on railroads where the signal system is either completely redundant with regard to signal color and signal orientation or the signal system only uses ...

  10. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  11. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  12. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear twilight sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Mollner, Duncan C

    2017-07-01

    At the earth's surface, clear-sky colors during civil twilights depend on the combined spectral effects of molecular scattering, extinction by tropospheric aerosols, and absorption by ozone. Molecular scattering alone cannot produce the most vivid twilight colors near the solar horizon, for which aerosol scattering and absorption are also required. However, less well known are haze aerosols' effects on twilight sky colors at larger scattering angles, including near the antisolar horizon. To analyze this range of colors, we compare 3D Monte Carlo simulations of skylight spectra with hyperspectral measurements of clear twilight skies over a wide range of aerosol optical depths. Our combined measurements and simulations indicate that (a) the purest antisolar twilight colors would occur in a purely molecular, multiple-scattering atmosphere, whereas (b) the most vivid solar-sky colors require at least some turbidity. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple scattering plays an important role in determining the redness of the antitwilight arch.

  13. Active Color Control in a Metasurface by Polarization Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyung Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating colors by employing metallic nanostructures has attracted intensive scientific attention recently, because one can easily realize higher spatial resolution and highly robust colors compared to conventional pigment. However, since the scattering spectra and thereby the resultant colors are determined by the nanostructure geometries, only one fixed color can be produced by one design and a whole new sample is required to generate a different color. In this paper, we demonstrate active metasurface, which shows a range of colors dependent on incident polarization by selectively exciting three different plasmonic nanorods. The metasurface, which does not include any tunable materials or external stimuli, will be beneficial in real-life applications especially in the display applications.

  14. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  15. A comparison of color fidelity metrics for light sources using simulation of color samples under lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Yoojin; Jang, Junwoo

    2017-09-01

    Color fidelity has been used as one of indices to evaluate the performance of light sources. Since the Color Rendering Index (CRI) was proposed at CIE, many color fidelity metrics have been proposed to increase the accuracy of the metric. This paper focuses on a comparison of the color fidelity metrics in an aspect of accuracy with human visual assessments. To visually evaluate the color fidelity of light sources, we made a simulator that reproduces the color samples under lighting conditions. In this paper, eighteen color samples of the Macbeth color checker under test light sources and reference illuminant for each of them are simulated and displayed on a well-characterized monitor. With only a spectrum set of the test light source and reference illuminant, color samples under any lighting condition can be reproduced. In this paper, the spectrums of the two LED and two OLED light sources that have similar values of CRI are used for the visual assessment. In addition, the results of the visual assessment are compared with the two color fidelity metrics that include CRI and IES TM-30-15 (Rf), proposed by Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) in 2015. Experimental results indicate that Rf outperforms CRI in terms of the correlation with visual assessment.

  16. Precision of synesthetic color matching resembles that for recollected colors rather than physical colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Wegener, Signy V; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-10-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the precision with which synesthetes are able to match their color experiences triggered by visible graphemes, with the precision of their matches for recalled colors based on the same graphemes spoken aloud. In six synesthetes, color matching for printed graphemes was equally variable relative to recalled experiences. In a control experiment, synesthetes and age-matched controls either matched the color of a circular patch while it was visible on a screen, or they judged its color from memory after it had disappeared. Both synesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and the variance of synesthetes' recalled color judgments matched that associated with their synesthetic judgments for visible graphemes in the first experiment. Results suggest that synesthetic experiences of color triggered by achromatic graphemes are analogous to recollections of color.

  17. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  18. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials......, exemplified in silicon. However, only corresponding faint colors appear in polymeric materials. The concept of all-polymer pigment-free coloration seems somewhat restricted in relation to widespread industrial employment. Finally, a novel plasmon color technology for structural coloration in plastics......, and it is shown that the dependence on polarization can be controlled. In collaboration with industry, polymer-based colored metasurfaces of square-centimeter size are demonstrated by embossing, injection molding, roll-to-roll printing, and film insert molding with full compatibility. Furthermore, post production...

  19. Roles of Illustrators in Visual Communication of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Okawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge is the knowledge accumulated by systematic studies and organized by general principles. Visual, verbal, numeric, and other types of representation are used to communicate scientific knowledge. Scientific illustration is the visual representation of objects and concepts in order to record and to convey scientific knowledge(Ford, 1993. There are some discussions on scientific illustrations in history, philosophy and the sociology of science(Burri & Dumit, 2008, but little has been done on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. This study focuses on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. The purpose is to show how illustrators create the visual messages in communications of scientific knowledge. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with 6 professional illustrators, creators and art directors, it is showed that illustrators select and edit scientific information, add non-scientific information, and organize information into one visual representation of scientific knowledge. The implication of this research will provide a new perspective to multisensory communication of scientific knowledge.

  20. Multi-color and artistic dithering

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Hersch, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-color dithering algorithm is proposed, which converts a barycentric combination of color intensities into a multi-color non-overlapping surface coverage. Multi-color dithering is a generalization of standard bi-level dithering. Combined with tetrahedral color separation, multi-color dithering makes it possible to print images made of a set of non-standard inks. In contrast to most previous color halftoning methods, multi-color dithering ensures by construction that the different selec...

  1. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2018-04-20

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular wavelengths. Metal nanosphere dimers are capable of supporting plasmon resonances that can be tuned to span the entire visible spectrum. In this article, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. We show that it is possible to obtain RGB pixels in the reflection mode. The longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanosphere dimers along the axis of the dimer is the main contributor to the color of the pixel, while far-field diffractive coupling further enhances and tunes the plasmon resonance. The computational method used is the finite-difference time-domain method. The advantages of this approach include simplicity of the design, bright coloration, and highly polarized function. In addition, we show that it is possible to obtain different colors by varying the angle of incidence, the periodicity, the size of the dimer, the gap, and the substrate thickness.

  2. Thermal conductivity of different colored compomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Cigdem; Keles, Ali; Guler, Mehmet S; Karagoz, Sendogan; Cora, Ömer N; Keskin, Gul

    2017-11-10

    Compomers are mostly used in primary dentition. The thermal conductivity properties of traditional or colored compomers have not been investigated in detail so far. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the thermal conductivities of traditional and colored compomers. Two sets of compomers - namely, Twinky Star (available in berry, lemon, green, silver, blue, pink, gold and orange shades) and Dyract Extra (available in B1, A3 and A2 shades) - were included in this study. All of the traditional and colored compomers were applied to standard molds and polymerized according to the manufacturers' instructions. Three samples were prepared from each compomer. Measurements were conducted using a heat conduction test setup, and the coefficient of heat conductivity was calculated for each material. The heat conductivity coefficients were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan tests. Uncertainty analysis was also performed on the calculated coefficients of heat conductivity. Statistically significant differences were found (p<0.05) between the thermal conductivity properties of the traditional and colored compomers examined. Among all of the tested compomers, the silver shade compomer exhibited the highest coefficient of heat conductivity (p<0.05), while the berry shade exhibited the lowest coefficient (p<0.05). Uncertainty analyses revealed that 6 out of 11 samples showed significant differences. The silver shade compomer should be avoided in deep cavities. The material properties could be improved for colored compomers.

  3. Color change, phenotypic plasticity, and camouflage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to change appearance over a range of timescales is widespread in nature, existing in many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. This can include color change occurring in seconds, minutes, and hours, to longer term changes associated with phenotypic plasticity and development. A major function is for camouflage against predators because color change and plasticity enables animals to match their surroundings and potentially reduce the risk of predation. Recently, we published findings (Stevens et al. 2014a showing how shore crabs can change their appearance and better match the background to predator vision in the short term. This, coupled with a number of past studies, emphasizes the potential that animals have to modify their appearance for camouflage. However, the majority of studies on camouflage and color plasticity have focused on a small number of species capable of unusually rapid changes. There are many broad questions that remain about the nature, mechanisms, evolution, and adaptive value of color change and plasticity for concealment. Here, I discuss past work and outline six questions relating to color change and plasticity, as well as major avenues for future work.

  4. Color selective photodetector and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian J.; Dorn, August; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2013-03-19

    A photoelectric device, such as a photodetector, can include a semiconductor nanowire electrostatically associated with a J-aggregate. The J-aggregate can facilitate absorption of a desired wavelength of light, and the semiconductor nanowire can facilitate charge transport. The color of light detected by the device can be chosen by selecting a J-aggregate with a corresponding peak absorption wavelength.

  5. Visual Infrared Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.; de Zeeuw, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements for visual and visual-infrared colors provide the means to determine both the average temperature of the giant branch and the turnoff-temperature of the main sequence. This allows to model fractional contributions of different populations, including age- and

  6. Objective Color Classification of Ecstasy Tablets by Hyperspectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured

  7. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  8. Color Research and Its Application to the Design of Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Dennis; Wilson, Trudy

    1996-01-01

    Reviews color research and considers its implications for the design of instructional materials. Topics include physiological and psychological effects; color and learning, including attention, search tasks, retention and other objective measures, and non-objective measures; color and the cathode ray tube (CRT); and further research needs.…

  9. Design considerations for prepress color proof measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David L.

    1993-06-01

    For our purposes, we needed colorimetric measurements or, better yet, spectral reflectance data. Our survey of commercially available instruments identified one spectrocolorimeter, the Hunter PICS (manufactured by Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc.), which could be programmed to automatically measure the color (and spectral reflectance) of large numbers of samples on a proof sheet. After an evaluation of this instrument, which included measuring over 10,000 exhibits, it was decided that the unit did not fully meet our needs. This resulted in a decision to integrate another instrument, the Byk-Gardner Color Machine (manufactured by Byk-Gardner, Inc.), with an x-y positioning mechanism. This paper describes the design considerations used in the development of our color measurement system.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  11. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  12. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  13. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  14. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  15. [Web-based analysis of Stilling's color plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J

    2014-12-01

    Color vision tests with pseudoisochromatic plates currently represent the most common procedure for the screening of congenital color vision deficiencies. By means of a web-based color vision test, new and old color plates can be tested for diagnostic quality without major effort. A total of 16 digitized Stilling's color plates of the 11th edition from 1907 were included in a web-based color vision test (http://www.farbsehtest.de). The χ(2)-test was used to check whether the Stilling color plates showed similar results to the nine previously evaluated Ishihara color plates. A total of 518 subjects including101 (19.5 %) female subjects with a mean age of 34.6 ± 17 years, took the web-based test with the 25 plates. For all participants the range for the correctly recognized plates was between 5.2 % (n = 27) and 97.7 % (n = 506) for the Stilling color plates and between 64.9 % (n = 336) and 100 % (n = 518) for the Ishihara color plates. For participants with more than 5 errors (n = 247), the range for correctly recognized plates was between 2.0 % (n = 5) and 98.0 % (n = 242) for the Stilling plates and between 42.5 % (n = 105) and 100 % (n = 247) for the Ishihara plates. Taking all color plates and all participants into account there was a significantly higher incidence of erroneous recognition of the Stilling color plates (3038 false and 5250 true answers) compared to the Ishihara color plates (1511 false and 3151 true answers) (p plates could be used for the test edition of the Velhagen/Broschmann/Kuchenbecker color plates from 2014. Overall, the Stilling color plates were recognized with a higher incidence of error by all participants in the web-based test compared to the utilized Ishihara color plates, which in most cases was attributable to ambiguity of some symbols.

  16. Cliques, coloring, and satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of a DIMACS Challenge is to encourage and coordinate research in the experimental analysis of algorithms. The First DIMACS Challenge encouraged experimental work in the area of network flow and matchings. The Second DIMACS Challenge, on which this volume is based, took place in conjunction with the DIMACS Special Year on Combinatorial Optimization. Addressed here are three difficult combinatorial optimization problems: finding cliques in a graph, coloring the vertices of a graph, and solving instances of the satisfiability problem. These problems were chosen both for their practical interest and because of their theoretical intractability.

  17. Dorothea Mantzel and Bernd Schulz. Francolin Illustrated School Dic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    and wonder whether the Francolin Illustrated School Dictionary for Southern. Africa makes this distinction. I wonder ... The dictionary, the editors claim, is aimed at senior primary school learners who do not speak English as ... illustration of someone shooting with a bow and arrow at a target. When one turns to the headword ...

  18. Automatic Generation of Stippling Illustrations from two Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Arroyo

    2012-05-01

    This tool needs almost no user interaction. The user simply has to align both photographs and indicate the level of detail according to the distance. The rest is decided by our software. Whereas a professional illustrator needs more than 20 hours to finish a similar illustration, our software is able to do it in just few seconds.

  19. Mental Imagery, Text Illustrations, and Children's Story Comprehension and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.; Jawitz, Paula Brooks

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effects of instructions to induce mental imagery and attend to text illustrations on fourth graders' reading comprehension and recall of narrative text. Finds that images and illustrations independently enhanced reading performance and that, in combination, these two strategies resulted in impressive increases in children's…

  20. The Effect of Illustrations on Second Graders' Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Gina

    A study investigated whether text illustrations improve the reading comprehension of second graders. Subjects, 14 second-grade students, read five stories from a basal reader. The control group read each story with accompanying illustrations, while the experimental group was exposed to only the written version of the same stories. Questions based…

  1. The Influence of Illustrations on Children's Comprehension of Written Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth J.; Solman, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of a variety of picture-text conditions on third and fifth grade average readers' comprehension. Concludes that the advantage of presenting children of normal reading ability with illustrated text is small and primarily dependent on the placement of illustrations adjacent to related textual materials. (RS)

  2. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of principles. 1.941-3 Section 1.941-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application...

  3. What's Up in the Atmosphere? Exploring How Aerosols Impact Sky Color Through Hands-on Activities with Elementary GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, K.; Taylor, J.

    2015-12-01

    What color is the sky today? The GLOBE Kids - Anita, Simon, and Dennis want to know why the sky isn't always the same shade of blue and sometimes isn't even blue. Through the new Elementary GLOBE Aerosols Storybook and Learning Activities, the GLOBE Kids learn that there's a lot more than air in the atmosphere, which can affect the colors we see in the sky. There are four hands-on activities in this unit: 1) Sky Observers - Students make observations of the sky, record their findings and share their observation reports with their peers. The activity promotes active observation and recording skills to help students observe sky color, and recognize that sky color changes; 2) Why (Not) So Blue? - Students make predictions about how drops of milk will affect color and visibility in cups of water representing the atmosphere to help them understand that aerosols in the atmosphere have an effect on sky conditions, including sky color and visibility. The activity also introduces the classification categories for daytime sky color and visibility; 3) See the Light - Students use prisms and glue sticks to explore the properties of light. The activity demonstrates that white light is made up of seven colors that represent different wavelengths, and illustrates why the sky is blue during the day and red at sunset; 4) Up in the Air - Students work in groups to make an aerosol sampler, a simple adhesive tool that allows students to collect data and estimate the extent of aerosols present at their school, understanding that, in fact, there are particles in the air we breathe. NGSS Alignment includes: Disciplinary Core Ideas- ESS2.D: Weather and Climate, ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems, PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation, ESS3.A: Natural Resources; Science and Engineering Practices- Asking Questions and Defining Problems, Planning and Carrying Out an Investigation, Analyzing and Interpreting Data, Engaging in Argument from Evidence, Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

  4. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  5. Information system for administrating and distributing color images through internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The information system for administrating and distributing color images through the Internet ensures the consistent replication of color images, their storage - in an on-line data base - and predictable distribution, by means of a digitally distributed flow, based on Windows platform and POD (Print On Demand technology. The consistent replication of color images inde-pendently from the parameters of the processing equipment and from the features of the programs composing the technological flow, is ensured by the standard color management sys-tem defined by ICC (International Color Consortium, which is integrated by the Windows operation system and by the POD technology. The latter minimize the noticeable differences between the colors captured, displayed or printed by various replication equipments and/or edited by various graphical applications. The system integrated web application ensures the uploading of the color images in an on-line database and their administration and distribution among the users via the Internet. For the preservation of the data expressed by the color im-ages during their transfer along a digitally distributed flow, the software application includes an original tool ensuring the accurate replication of colors on computer displays or when printing them by means of various color printers or presses. For development and use, this application employs a hardware platform based on PC support and a competitive software platform, based on: the Windows operation system, the .NET. Development medium and the C# programming language. This information system is beneficial for creators and users of color images, the success of the printed or on-line (Internet publications depending on the sizeable, predictable and accurate replication of colors employed for the visual expression of information in every activity fields of the modern society. The herein introduced information system enables all interested persons to access the

  6. Encoding color information for visual tracking: Algorithms and benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengpeng; Blasch, Erik; Ling, Haibin

    2015-12-01

    While color information is known to provide rich discriminative clues for visual inference, most modern visual trackers limit themselves to the grayscale realm. Despite recent efforts to integrate color in tracking, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the role color information can play. In this paper, we attack this problem by conducting a systematic study from both the algorithm and benchmark perspectives. On the algorithm side, we comprehensively encode 10 chromatic models into 16 carefully selected state-of-the-art visual trackers. On the benchmark side, we compile a large set of 128 color sequences with ground truth and challenge factor annotations (e.g., occlusion). A thorough evaluation is conducted by running all the color-encoded trackers, together with two recently proposed color trackers. A further validation is conducted on an RGBD tracking benchmark. The results clearly show the benefit of encoding color information for tracking. We also perform detailed analysis on several issues, including the behavior of various combinations between color model and visual tracker, the degree of difficulty of each sequence for tracking, and how different challenge factors affect the tracking performance. We expect the study to provide the guidance, motivation, and benchmark for future work on encoding color in visual tracking.

  7. Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments explore the color perception of objects in complex scenes. The first experiment examines the color perception of objects across variation in surface gloss. Observers adjusted the color appearance of a matte sphere to match that of a test sphere. Across conditions we varied the body color and glossiness of the test sphere. The data indicate that observers do not simply match the average light reflected from the test. Indeed, the visual system compensates for the physical effect of varying the gloss, so that appearance is stabilized relative to what is predicted by the spatial average. The second experiment examines how people perceive color across locations on an object. We replaced the test sphere with a soccer ball that had one of its hexagonal faces colored. Observers were asked to adjust the match sphere have the same color appearance as this test patch. The test patch could be located at either an upper or lower location on the soccer ball. In addition, we varied the surface gloss of the entire soccer ball (including the test patch). The data show that there is an effect of test patch location on observers' color matching, but this effect is small compared to the physical change in the average light reflected from the test patch across the two locations. In addition, the effect of glossy highlights on the color appearance of the test patch was consistent with the results from Experiment 1.

  8. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-01-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  9. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  10. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  11. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  12. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  13. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the uniform...

  14. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  15. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  16. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  17. Crystallography of color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    We develop the Ginzburg-Landau approach to comparing different possible crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD, the QCD incarnation of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. In this phase, quarks of different flavor with differing Fermi momenta form Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum, yielding a condensate that varies in space like a sum of plane waves. We work at zero temperature, as is relevant for compact star physics. The Ginzburg-Landau approach predicts a strong first-order phase transition (as a function of the chemical potential difference between quarks) and for this reason is not under quantitative control. Nevertheless, by organizing the comparison between different possible arrangements of plane waves (i.e., different crystal structures) it provides considerable qualitative insight into what makes a crystal structure favorable. Together, the qualitative insights and the quantitative, but not controlled, calculations make a compelling case that the favored pairing pattern yields a condensate which is a sum of eight plane waves forming a face-centered cubic structure. They also predict that the phase is quite robust, with gaps comparable in magnitude to the BCS gap that would form if the Fermi momenta were degenerate. These predictions may be tested in ultracold gases made of fermionic atoms. In a QCD context, our results lay the foundation for a calculation of vortex pinning in a crystalline color superconductor, and thus for the analysis of pulsar glitches that may originate within the core of a compact star

  18. Two-color studies of autoionizing states of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, P.M.; Dehmer, J.L.; Tomkins, F.S.; O'Halloran, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-color, resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization is proving to be a valuable technique for the study of autoionizing states of small molecules. In this talk, results obtained by combining REMPI, photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry will be discussed and will be illustrated by examples from our recent studies of rotational and vibrational autoionization in molecular hydrogen and rotational autoionization in nitric oxide. 2 refs., 1 fig

  19. Effect of freezing temperature on the color of frozen salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottestad, Silje; Enersen, Grethe; Wold, Jens Petter

    2011-09-01

    New freezing methods developed with the purpose of improved product quality after thawing can sometimes be difficult to get accepted in the market. The reason for this is the formation of ice crystals that can give the product a temporary color loss and make it less appealing. We have here used microscopy to study ice crystal size as a function of freezing temperature by investigating the voids in the cell tissue left by the ice crystals. We have also investigated how freezing temperature affects the color and the visible absorption spectra of frozen salmon. Freezing temperatures previously determined to be the best for quality after thawing (-40 to -60 °C) were found to cause a substantial loss in perceived color intensity during frozen state. This illustrated the conflict between optimal freezing temperatures with respect to quality after thawing against visual appearance during frozen state. Low freezing temperatures gave many small ice crystals, increased light scattering and an increased absorption level for all wavelengths in the visible region. Increased astaxanthin concentration on the other hand would give higher absorption at 490 nm. The results showed a clear potential of using visible interactance spectroscopy to differentiate between poor product coloration due to lack of pigmentation and temporary color loss due to light scattering by ice crystal. This type of measurements could be a useful tool in the development of new freezing methods and to monitor ice crystal growth during frozen storage. It could also potentially be used by the industry to prove good product quality. In this article we have shown that freezing food products at intermediate to low temperatures (-40 to -80 °C) can result in paler color during frozen state, which could affect consumer acceptance. We have also presented a spectroscopic method that can separate between poor product color and temporary color loss due to freezing. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Lean practices for quality results: a case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pauline; Hwang, David; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, healthcare providers are implementing lean practices to achieve quality results. Implementing lean healthcare practices is unique compared to manufacturing and other service industries. The purpose of this paper is to present a model that identifies and defines the lean implementation key success factors in healthcare organisations. The model is based on an extant literature review and a case illustration that explores actual lean implementation in a major USA hospital located in a Midwestern city (approximately 300,000 people). An exploratory/descriptive study using observation and follow-up interviews was conducted to identify lean practices in the hospital. Lean practice key drivers include growing elderly populations, rising medical expenses, decreasing insurance coverage and decreasing management support. Effectively implementing lean practices to increase bottom-line results and improve organisational integrity requires sharing goals and processes among healthcare managers and professionals. An illustration explains the model and the study provides a sound foundation for empirical work. Practical implications are included. Lean practices minimise waste and unnecessary hospital stays while simultaneously enhancing customer values and deploying resources in supply systems. Leadership requires clear project targets based on sound front-end planning because initial implementation steps involve uncertainty and ambiguity (i.e. fuzzy front-end planning). Since top management support is crucial for implementing lean practices successfully, a heavyweight manager, who communicates well both with top managers and project team members, is an important success factor when implementing lean practices. Increasingly, green orientation and sustainability initiatives are phrases that replaced lean practices. Effective results; e.g. waste reduction, employee satisfaction and customer values are applicable to bigger competitive challenges arising both in specific

  1. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  4. A Study of Color Transformation on Website Images for the Color Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study on color transformation method on website images for the color blind. The most common category of color blindness is red-green color blindness which is viewed as beige color. By transforming the colors of the images, the color blind can improve their color visibility. They can have a better view when browsing through the websites. To transform colors on the website images, we study on two algorithms which are the conversion techniques from RGB colo...

  5. COLOR CONCEPTS IN WARDROBE PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mrs Kirti Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Fashion trends point out colors to wear but individuality should never be overlooked An impression of fine colors in dress will be gained if they are becoming to the person who is to wear them, if they are right for the occasion and if they are selected and arranged so as to make a pleasing ensemble.The larger the area the duller a color should be specially for business wear, but foe an evening or sports wear, it should be modified. The colors should be bright then, provided the wearer is not...

  6. Children’s Book Illustrations: Visual Language of Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladíková Hana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality picture books that merge text and illustration together in order to tell a story are eminent for healthy mental and social growth of children. This paper is to outline the benefits picture books bring to children between the ages three to eight, determine functions of its illustrative language, examine the process of its production, and point out a set of elements that, according to number of professional children's book illustrators, significantly contribute to the success of a picture book

  7. Developing hospital identity manuals: a reference tool for illustrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J A; Zimmerman, S B

    1990-01-01

    Because of an increase in hospital marketing efforts, medical illustrators may be asked to assist in developing and implementing hospital identity manuals, which specify the graphic standards for visual communications media. A checklist survey of existing identity manuals and a literature review were conducted by one of the authors, a medical illustrator, to help her to develop a manual for her hospital employer. This article documents the literature review, the study, and the identity manual development, and presents recommendations to help other medical illustrators who might become involved in similar assignments.

  8. The colors of icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ordinary icebergs of meteoric glacier ice appear bluish-white, i.e. intermediate in color between the white of snow and the blue of pure ice, depending on the bubble content. However, clear dark bubble-free icebergs are occasionally seen in the Antarctic Ocean; they originate from freezing of seawater to the base of ice shelves. On parts of the Amery Ice Shelf, frozen seawater contributes up to one-third of the ice-shelf thickness. Many of the icebergs produced by the Amery are therefore composite icebergs; the upper part consists of meteoric glacier ice from snowfall, but the lower part is frozen seawater ("marine ice"). When these icebergs capsize, the marine ice is exposed to view; it can be accessed for study in springtime when the icebergs are embedded in shorefast sea ice. The marine ice varies in color from blue to green depending on the content of dissolved organic matter. The color is therefore an indicator of biological productivity in the seawater from which the ice froze. To infer processes at the ice-shelf base, these icebergs may be examined and cored for spectral reflectance, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, organic matter, particles, and distribution of cracks and stripes. Seasonal and interannual variations may be quantified from samples collected along the marine ice-growth trajectory at the meteoric/marine-ice interface. The scale of small turbulent eddies at the ice-shelf base, which govern the transfer of heat between ocean and ice, can be inferred from the size of scallops in the iceberg surface (typically a few centimeters). Dark stripes within meteoric ice result from tension-cracks at the grounding line, forming basal crevasses that fill suddenly with seawater; their width, spacing, and salinity can give clues to processes at the grounding line. Results will be shown from icebergs sampled on Australian expeditions near Davis and Mawson stations. Marine ice is more readily accessed by sampling an iceberg than by drilling through an ice shelf

  9. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing,

  10. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  11. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  12. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  13. Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill L.

    Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

  14. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (1) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (1) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' bunseki kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses. In the analysis of all items, the following were indicated: color mapping by country, analysis of similarity of countries, relations between 'the survey of the world's youth' and the internet survey, etc. In the analysis of each item, the following were shown: regional difference in color of hair/color of pupil/color taste, analysis of life color, analysis of memory color in the natural world, warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images and color taste, analysis of color association data by language, regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/regional difference in colors peculiar to cities, and analysis of regional difference in evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  15. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  16. Role of color memory in successive color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2008-06-01

    We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the "pure color memory shift" and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

  17. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  18. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Breslav, Simon; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching

  19. Congenital diseases and syndromes. An illustrated radiological guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Tubaikh, Jarrah Ali [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Sabah Hospital (Kuwait). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen, Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2009-07-01

    Congenital Diseases and Syndromes - An Illustrated Radiological Guide is designed to serve the radiologist as an easy-to-use visual guide that illustrates the typical diagnostic radiological features of the most common congenital diseases and syndromes. The book is organised according to body system, with chapters focusing on the CNS, the head and neck, the chest and heart, the abdomen and pelvis, and the musculoskeletal system. A final chapter is devoted to phakomatosis. Each syndrome or disease is illustrated by multiple images as well as by high-quality digital medical illustrations depicting those radiological signs that are difficult to detect. The reader is thereby familiarised with the various congenital anomalies from the radiological point of view. In addition, etiology, diagnostic criteria, and main symptoms are described, and potential differential diagnoses highlighted. This book will be immensely useful for junior radiologists, radiology students, and doctors in any specialty who are interested in congenital malformations and syndromes. (orig.)

  20. Illustrative examples in a bilingual decoding dictionary: An (un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Illustrative Examples, Bilingual Decoding Dictionary, Semantic Differences Between Source Language (Sl) And Target Language (Tl), Grammatical Differences Between Sl And Tl, Translation Of Examples, Transposition, Context-Dependent Translation, One-Word Equivalent, Zero Equivalent, Idiomatic ...

  1. Physics with illustrative examples from medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Benedek, George B

    Physics: with illustrative examples from medicine and biology is a three-volume set of textbooks in introductory physics written at the calculus level and designed primarily for students with career objectives in the life sciences.

  2. Research on Illustrations in Text: Issues and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the problems of research on the effects of illustrations in text and other teaching materials. Several research frameworks are described, and a functional approach is suggested as a method of improvement. (BK)

  3. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  4. Congenital diseases and syndromes. An illustrated radiological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tubaikh, Jarrah Ali; Sabah Hospital; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital Diseases and Syndromes - An Illustrated Radiological Guide is designed to serve the radiologist as an easy-to-use visual guide that illustrates the typical diagnostic radiological features of the most common congenital diseases and syndromes. The book is organised according to body system, with chapters focusing on the CNS, the head and neck, the chest and heart, the abdomen and pelvis, and the musculoskeletal system. A final chapter is devoted to phakomatosis. Each syndrome or disease is illustrated by multiple images as well as by high-quality digital medical illustrations depicting those radiological signs that are difficult to detect. The reader is thereby familiarised with the various congenital anomalies from the radiological point of view. In addition, etiology, diagnostic criteria, and main symptoms are described, and potential differential diagnoses highlighted. This book will be immensely useful for junior radiologists, radiology students, and doctors in any specialty who are interested in congenital malformations and syndromes. (orig.)

  5. Stored object knowledge and the production of referring expressions: The case of color typicality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eWesterbeek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When speakers describe objects with atypical properties, do they include these properties in their referring expressions, even when that is not strictly required for unique referent identification? Based on previous work, we predict that speakers mention the color of a target object more often when the object is atypically colored, compared to when it is typical. Taking literature from object recognition and visual attention into account, we further hypothesize that this behavior is proportional to the degree to which a color is atypical, and whether color is a highly diagnostic feature in the referred-to object's identity. We investigate these expectations in two language production experiments, in which participants referred to target objects in visual contexts. In Experiment 1, we find a strong effect of color typicality: less typical colors for target objects predict higher proportions of referring expressions that include color. In Experiment 2 we manipulated objects with more complex shapes, for which color is less diagnostic, and we find that the color typicality effect is moderated by color diagnosticity: it is strongest for high-color-diagnostic objects (i.e., objects with a simple shape. These results suggest that the production of atypical color attributes results from a contrast with stored knowledge, an effect which is stronger when color is more central to object identification. Our findings offer evidence for models of reference production that incorporate general object knowledge, in order to be able to capture these effects of typicality on determining the content of referring expressions.

  6. Understanding Colorism and How It Relates to Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2011-01-01

    Discrimination based on gradations of skin color can occur within and between racial or ethnic groups, including blacks, Latinos, and Asians. Lighter skin and Caucasian features tend to be viewed more positively than darker-skin qualities. Where a person of color falls along the "color line" may affect his or her social status, employment…

  7. Color of Minerals. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, George, Jr.

    The causes for many of the colors exhibited by minerals are presented to students. Several theories of modern physics are introduced. The nature of light, the manner in which light interacts with matter, atomic theory, and crystal structure are all discussed in relation to the origin of color in minerals. Included are color pictures of many…

  8. Color synesthesia. Insight into perception, emotion, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Avinoam B; Sanda, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Synesthesia is an extraordinary perceptual phenomenon, in which individuals experience unusual percepts elicited by the activation of an unrelated sensory modality or by a cognitive process. Emotional reactions are commonly associated. The condition prompted philosophical debates on the nature of perception and impacted the course of art history. It recently generated a considerable interest among neuroscientists, but its clinical significance apparently remains underevaluated. This review focuses on the recent studies regarding variants of color synesthesia, the commonest form of the condition. Synesthesia is commonly classified as developmental and acquired. Developmental forms predispose to changes in primary sensory processing and cognitive functions, usually with better performances in certain aspects and worse in others, and to heightened creativity. Acquired forms of synesthesia commonly arise from drug ingestion or neurological disorders, including thalamic lesions and sensory deprivation (e.g., blindness). Cerebral exploration using structural and functional imaging has demonstrated distinct patterns in cortical activation and brain connectivity for controls and synesthetes. Artworks of affected painters are most illustrative of the nature of synesthetic experiences. Results of the recent investigations on synesthesia offered a remarkable insight into the mechanisms of perception, emotion and consciousness, and deserve attention both from neuroscientists and from clinicians.

  9. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  10. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  11. Dogville or an illustration of some properties of general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Harmgart, H.; Huck, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this note we argue that Lars von Trier’s movie Dogville can be viewed as an illustration of a simple economy where one agent has only her body as initial endowment. The movie illustrates some interesting comparative statics of equilibrium allocations. It shows how life would be like in a world where, in the absence of constitutional or legal constraints, economic forces reign freely and raises some fundamental issues of voluntary exchange versus force that apply to a number ...

  12. Color engineering in the age of digital convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1998-09-01

    Digital color imaging has developed over the past twenty years from specialized scientific applications into the mainstream of computing. In addition to the phenomenal growth of computer processing power and storage capacity, great advances have been made in the capabilities and cost-effectiveness of color imaging peripherals. The majority of imaging applications, including the graphic arts, video and film have made the transition from analogue to digital production methods. Digital convergence of computing, communications and television now heralds new possibilities for multimedia publishing and mobile lifestyles. Color engineering, the application of color science to the design of imaging products, is an emerging discipline that poses exciting challenges to the international color imaging community for training, research and standards.

  13. SMALL PLANETARY SATELLITE COLORS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include published colors of small planetary satellites published up through December 2003. Small planetary satellites are defined as all...

  14. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  15. Update on the INCITS W1.1 standard for evaluating the color rendition of printing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnand, Susan; Topfer, Karin; Kress, William C.; Martinez, Oscar; McCarthy, Ann L.; Shin, Helen H.; Zeise, Eric K.; Gusev, Dmitri

    2005-01-01

    The color rendition ad hoc team of INCITS W1.1 is working to address issues related to color and tone reproduction for printed output and its perceptual impact on color image quality. The scope of the work includes accuracy of specified colors with an emphasis on memory colors, color gamut, and the effective use of tone levels, including issues related to contouring. The team has identified three sub-attributes of color rendition: 1) color quantization, defined as the ability to merge colors where needed; 2) color scale, defined as the ability to distinguish color where needed; and 3) color fidelity, defined as a balance of colorimetric accuracy, in cases where a reference exists, and pleasing overall color appearance. Visual definitions and descriptions of how these sub-attributes are perceived have been developed. The team is presently working to define measurement methods for the sub-attributes, with the focus in 2004 being on color fidelity. This presentation will briefly review the definitions and appearance of the proposed sub-attributes and the progress to date of developing test targets and associated measurement methods to quantify the color quantization sub-attribute. The remainder of the discussion will focus on the recent progress made in developing measurement methods for the color fidelity sub-attribute.

  16. Probing color separate states in e+e- annihilation at the Z0 pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiyuan; Shao, F.-I.; Wang Qun; Xie Qubing

    2002-01-01

    Hadronic events in e + e - →Z 0 are generated by a Monte Carlo model, including the production of color separate states. These events are compared with those produced by the JETSET with a default set of parameters where the color connections are color singlet chains. By selecting two jet-like events and a sensitive observable, we find that these two kinds of color connections lead to significant differences in the hadronic states

  17. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  18. Color maps of Arp 146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A. B.; Spight, L. D.; Colegrove, P. T.; Disanti, M. A.; Fink, U.

    1990-01-01

    Four color maps of Arp 146 are given. The structure and color of the ring galaxy and its companion show evidence of a bridge of material between the companion and the remnant nucleus of the original galaxy now forming the ring. Broad band spatial coverage clearly defines regions of starburst occurrence.

  19. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  20. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =.

  1. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-07

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  2. The Many Colors and Shapes of Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.

    While many enterprises and business entities are deploying and exploiting Cloud Computing, the academic institutes and researchers are also busy trying to wrestle this beast and put a leash on this possible paradigm changing computing model. Many have argued that Cloud Computing is nothing more than a name change of Utility Computing. Others have argued that Cloud Computing is a revolutionary change of the computing architecture. So it has been difficult to put a boundary of what is in Cloud Computing, and what is not. I assert that it is equally difficult to find a group of people who would agree on even the definition of Cloud Computing. In actuality, may be all that arguments are not necessary, as Clouds have many shapes and colors. In this presentation, the speaker will attempt to illustrate that the shape and the color of the cloud depend very much on the business goals one intends to achieve. It will be a very rich territory for both the businesses to take the advantage of the benefits of Cloud Computing and the academia to integrate the technology research and business research.

  3. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  4. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  5. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  6. A Sommerfeld toolbox for colored dark sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hedri, Sonia; Kaminska, Anna; Vries, Maikel de [Mainz Univ., PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Inst. for Theoretical Physics (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    We present analytical formulas for the Sommerfeld corrections to the annihilation of massive colored particles into quarks and gluons through the strong interaction. These corrections are essential to accurately compute the dark matter relic density for coannihilation with colored partners. Our formulas allow us to compute the Sommerfeld effect, not only for the lowest term in the angular momentum expansion of the amplitude, but for all orders in the partial wave expansion. In particular, we carefully account for the effects of the spin of the annihilating particle on the symmetry of the two-particle wave function. This work focuses on strongly interacting particles of arbitrary spin in the triplet, sextet and octet color representations. For typical velocities during freeze-out, we find that including Sommerfeld corrections on the next-to-leading order partial wave leads to modifications of up to 10 to 20 percent on the total annihilation cross section. Complementary to QCD, we generalize our results to particles charged under an arbitrary unbroken SU(N) gauge group, as encountered in dark glueball models. In connection with this paper a Mathematica notebook is provided to compute the Sommerfeld corrections for colored particles up to arbitrary order in the angular momentum expansion. (orig.)

  7. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  8. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  9. A Sommerfeld toolbox for colored dark sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hedri, Sonia; Kaminska, Anna; Vries, Maikel de

    2017-01-01

    We present analytical formulas for the Sommerfeld corrections to the annihilation of massive colored particles into quarks and gluons through the strong interaction. These corrections are essential to accurately compute the dark matter relic density for coannihilation with colored partners. Our formulas allow us to compute the Sommerfeld effect, not only for the lowest term in the angular momentum expansion of the amplitude, but for all orders in the partial wave expansion. In particular, we carefully account for the effects of the spin of the annihilating particle on the symmetry of the two-particle wave function. This work focuses on strongly interacting particles of arbitrary spin in the triplet, sextet and octet color representations. For typical velocities during freeze-out, we find that including Sommerfeld corrections on the next-to-leading order partial wave leads to modifications of up to 10 to 20 percent on the total annihilation cross section. Complementary to QCD, we generalize our results to particles charged under an arbitrary unbroken SU(N) gauge group, as encountered in dark glueball models. In connection with this paper a Mathematica notebook is provided to compute the Sommerfeld corrections for colored particles up to arbitrary order in the angular momentum expansion. (orig.)

  10. A Sommerfeld toolbox for colored dark sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hedri, Sonia; Kaminska, Anna; de Vries, Maikel

    2017-09-01

    We present analytical formulas for the Sommerfeld corrections to the annihilation of massive colored particles into quarks and gluons through the strong interaction. These corrections are essential to accurately compute the dark matter relic density for coannihilation with colored partners. Our formulas allow us to compute the Sommerfeld effect, not only for the lowest term in the angular momentum expansion of the amplitude, but for all orders in the partial wave expansion. In particular, we carefully account for the effects of the spin of the annihilating particle on the symmetry of the two-particle wave function. This work focuses on strongly interacting particles of arbitrary spin in the triplet, sextet and octet color representations. For typical velocities during freeze-out, we find that including Sommerfeld corrections on the next-to-leading order partial wave leads to modifications of up to 10 to 20 percent on the total annihilation cross section. Complementary to QCD, we generalize our results to particles charged under an arbitrary unbroken SU( N) gauge group, as encountered in dark glueball models. In connection with this paper a Mathematica notebook is provided to compute the Sommerfeld corrections for colored particles up to arbitrary order in the angular momentum expansion.

  11. EXAFS analysis of full color glasses and glass ceramics: local order and color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, Petrus A.; Sa, Gilberto F. de; Malta, Oscar L.; Silva, Jose expedito Cavalcante

    1996-01-01

    The generation and control of the relative intensities of the primary additive colors in solid state light emitters is very important to the development of higher resolution media, used in color monitors, solid state sensors, large area and flat displays and other optoelectronic devices. We have developed a multi-doped glassy material named FCG (full color glass, to generate and to control the primary light colors, allowing the simulation of any color of light by additive synthesis. Tm(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions were used (0.01 to 5.0 mol%) as blue, green and red narrow emitters. A wide color gamut was obtained under ultraviolet excitation by varying the material composition. The chromaticity diagram is covered, including the white simulation. We proposed a mechanism to control the chromaticity of a fixed composition of the material, using the Er (III) as a selective quencher that may be deactivated by infrared excitation. Although this new material presents at this time a high efficiency, it may be improved because the energy transfer between the rare earth triad may be still reduced. Optical spectroscopy measurements confirms that it is still possible to improve the efficiency of the FCC material. EXAFS analysis will be used to probe the local environment around the triad of rare earth that generates the primary colors. For this purpose we have prepared single doped glasses with each component of the triad with the same concentration than FCG. The devitrification of these glasses will be analyzed in order to produce glassceramics with ion segregation. (author)

  12. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Golabchi, Khodayar; Dehghani, Alireza; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Mirzendehdel, Mahsa; Ghasemi, Majid

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) among MS patients. The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs) and history of optic neuritis (ON) was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013). There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023) but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67). This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  13. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs among MS patients. Materials and Methods: The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs and history of optic neuritis (ON was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. Results: 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013. There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023 but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  14. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  15. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  16. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  17. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  18. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  19. Analyses of multi-color plant-growth light sources in achieving maximum photosynthesis efficiencies with enhanced color qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingzhu; Lin, Yue; Zheng, Lili; Guo, Ziquan; Xu, Jianxing; Liang, Shijie; Liu, Zhuguagn; Lu, Yijun; Shih, Tien-Mo; Chen, Zhong

    2018-02-19

    An optimal design of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that benefits both the photosynthesis performance for plants and the visional health for human eyes has drawn considerable attention. In the present study, we have developed a multi-color driving algorithm that serves as a liaison between desired spectral power distributions and pulse-width-modulation duty cycles. With the aid of this algorithm, our multi-color plant-growth light sources can optimize correlated-color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) such that photosynthetic luminous efficacy of radiation (PLER) is maximized regardless of the number of LEDs and the type of photosynthetic action spectrum (PAS). In order to illustrate the accuracies of the proposed algorithm and the practicalities of our plant-growth light sources, we choose six color LEDs and German PAS for experiments. Finally, our study can help provide a useful guide to improve light qualities in plant factories, in which long-term co-inhabitance of plants and human beings is required.

  20. Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use/nof spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is/nstill used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal/nof diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of/nunique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what/nis known today in color constancy, describes the d...