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Sample records for include cobaltii exchanged

  1. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  2. Refrigerant Performance Evaluation Including Effects of Transport Properties and Optimized Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignoli, Riccardo; Brown, J Steven; Skye, H; Domanski, Piotr A

    2017-08-01

    Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system. The paper discusses a simulation methodology and model that addresses the above shortcomings. This model simulates the thermodynamic cycle operating at specified heat sink and heat source temperature profiles, and includes the ability to account for the effects of thermophysical properties and refrigerant mass flux on refrigerant heat transfer and pressure drop in the air-to-refrigerant evaporator and condenser. Additionally, the model can optimize the refrigerant mass flux in the heat exchangers to maximize the Coefficient of Performance. The new model is validated with experimental data and its predictions are contrasted to those of a model based on thermodynamic properties alone.

  3. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  4. Magnetic circular dichroic spectra of cobalt(II) substituted metalloenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, B; Kaden, T A; Vallee, B L

    1975-04-08

    The magnetic circular dichroic (MCD) spectra of cobalt(II) sugstituted metalloenzymes have been studied and compared to a series of four-, five-, and six-coordinate cobalt(II) model complexes previously examined (T. A. Kaden et al. (1974), Inorg. Chem. 13, 2582). The MCD spectra of cobalt substituted carboxypeptidase A, procarboxypeptidase ta, and thermolysin are consistent with earlier deductions of tetrahedral coordination from absorption spectra and also with X-ray structure analysis. Inhibitors fail to alter their MCD spectra significantly. The MCD spectra of cobalt alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase are more complex and their pH dependence and alteration by inhibitors are discussed in terms of known cobalt(II) models.

  5. Molecular structure and DFT investigations on new cobalt(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. Vol. 127, No. 12, December 2015, pp. 2137–2149. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-015-0976-x. Molecular structure and DFT investigations on new cobalt(II) chloride complex with superbase guanidine type ligand. SAIED M SOLIMANa,b,∗, MORSY A M ABU-YOUSSEFb,∗. , JΦRG ALBERINGc and.

  6. Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt(II) phenanthroline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAMONI GARAI

    2017-09-19

    Sep 19, 2017 ... The cobalt(II) complex has been evaluated as a functional model for phosphatase enzyme by using 4-nitrophenylphosphate. (PNPP) as a standard substrate in aqueous DMF medium. ... Designed coordination molecules with an ability to mimic the ... tion, cobalt complexes have gained importance because.

  7. Cobalt(II) supported on ethylenediamine-functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 126, No. 1, January 2014, pp. 111–115. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Cobalt(II) supported on ethylenediamine-functionalized nanocellulose as an efficient catalyst for room temperature aerobic oxidation of alcohols. AHMAD SHAABANI. ∗. , SAJJAD KESHIPOUR, MONA HAMIDZAD and MOZHDEH SEYYEDHAMZEH.

  8. synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: agwara29@yahoo.com; Tel. 237 798 75425. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF. COBALT(II), COPPER(II) AND ZINC(II) MIXED-LIGAND COMPLEXES. CONTAINING 1,10-PHENANTHROLINE AND 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE. M.O. Agwara1*, P.T. Ndifon1, N.B. ...

  9. Mechanochemical Preparation of Cobalt Nanoparticles through a Novel Intramolecular Reaction in Cobalt(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolghasem Kahani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel solid state reaction involving a series of cobalt(II hydrazine-azides has been used to prepare metallic cobalt nanoparticles. The reactions of [Co(N2H4(N32], [Co(N2H42(N32], and [Co(N2H4(N3Cl]·H2O via NaOH, KOH as reactants were carried out in the solid state. These complexes undergo an intramolecular two-electron oxidation-reduction reaction at room temperature, producing metallic cobalt nanoparticles (Co1–Co6. The aforementioned complexes contain cobalt(II that is an oxidizing agent and also hydrazine ligand as a reducing agent. Other products produced include sodium azide and ammonia gas. The cobalt metal nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The synthesized cobalt nanoparticles have similar morphologies; however, their particle size distributions are different.

  10. Nonseparable exchange-correlation functional for molecules, including homogeneous catalysis involving transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu S; Zhang, Wenjing; Verma, Pragya; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-05-14

    The goal of this work is to develop a gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation functional of Kohn-Sham density functional theory for treating molecular problems with a special emphasis on the prediction of quantities important for homogeneous catalysis and other molecular energetics. Our training and validation of exchange-correlation functionals is organized in terms of databases and subdatabases. The key properties required for homogeneous catalysis are main group bond energies (database MGBE137), transition metal bond energies (database TMBE32), reaction barrier heights (database BH76), and molecular structures (database MS10). We also consider 26 other databases, most of which are subdatabases of a newly extended broad database called Database 2015, which is presented in the present article and in its ESI. Based on the mathematical form of a nonseparable gradient approximation (NGA), as first employed in the N12 functional, we design a new functional by using Database 2015 and by adding smoothness constraints to the optimization of the functional. The resulting functional is called the gradient approximation for molecules, or GAM. The GAM functional gives better results for MGBE137, TMBE32, and BH76 than any available generalized gradient approximation (GGA) or than N12. The GAM functional also gives reasonable results for MS10 with an MUE of 0.018 Å. The GAM functional provides good results both within the training sets and outside the training sets. The convergence tests and the smooth curves of exchange-correlation enhancement factor as a function of the reduced density gradient show that the GAM functional is a smooth functional that should not lead to extra expense or instability in optimizations. NGAs, like GGAs, have the advantage over meta-GGAs and hybrid GGAs of respectively smaller grid-size requirements for integrations and lower costs for extended systems. These computational advantages combined with the relatively high accuracy for all

  11. Lab-scale experiment of a closed thermochemical heat storage system including honeycomb heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fopah-Lele, Armand; Rohde, Christian; Neumann, Karsten; Tietjen, Theo; Rönnebeck, Thomas; N'Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Osterland, Thomas; Opel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale thermochemical heat storage reactor was developed in the European project “thermal battery” to obtain information on the characteristics of a closed heat storage system, based on thermochemical reactions. The present type of storage is capable of re-using waste heat from cogeneration system to produce useful heat for space heating. The storage material used was SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Due to agglomeration or gel-like problems, a structural element was introduced to enhance vapour and heat transfer. Honeycomb heat exchanger was designed and tested. 13 dehydration-hydration cycles were studied under low-temperature conditions (material temperatures < 100 °C) for storage. Discharging was realized at water vapour pressure of about 42 mbar. Temperature evolution inside the reactor at different times and positions, chemical conversion, thermal power and overall efficiency were analysed for the selected cycles. Experimental system thermal capacity and efficiency of 65 kWh and 0.77 are respectively obtained with about 1 kg of SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Heat transfer fluid recovers heat at a short span of about 43 °C with an average of 22 °C during about 4 h, acceptable temperature for the human comfort (20 °C on day and 16 °C at night). System performances were obtained for a salt bed energy density of 213 kWh·m 3 . The overall heat transfer coefficient of the honeycomb heat exchanger has an average value of 147 W m −2  K −1 . Though promising results have been obtained, ameliorations need to be made, in order to make the closed thermochemical heat storage system competitive for space heating. - Highlights: • Lab-scale thermochemical heat storage is designed, constructed and tested. • The use of honeycomb heat exchanger as a heat and vapour process enhancement. • Closed system (1 kg SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O) able to give back 3/4 of initial thermal waste energy. • System storage capacity and thermal efficiency are respectively 65 kWh and 0.77.

  12. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  13. A semiempirical long-range corrected exchange correlation functional including a short-range Gaussian attenuation (LCgau-B97).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jong-Won; Peng, Daoling; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2011-11-30

    We applied an improved long-range correction scheme including a short-range Gaussian attenuation (LCgau) to the Becke97 (B97) exchange correlation functional. In the optimization of LCgau-B97 functional, the linear parameters are determined by least squares fitting. Optimizing μ parameter (0.2) that controls long-range portion of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange to excitation energies of large molecules (Chai and Head-Gordon, J Chem Phys 2008, 128, 084106) and additional short-range Gaussian parameters (a = 0.15 and k = 0.9) that controls HF exchange inclusion ranging from short-range to mid-range (0.5-3 Å) to ground state properties achieved high performances of LCgau-B97 simultaneously on both ground state and excited state properties, which is better than other tested semiempirical density functional theory (DFT) functionals, such as ωB97, ωB97X, BMK, and M0x-family. We also found that while a small μ value (∼0.2) in LC-DFT is appropriate to the local excitation and intramolecular charge-transfer excitation energies, a larger μ value (0.42) is desirable in the Rydberg excitation-energy calculations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. CO2 and O2 Gas Exchange in an Experimental Model of the Btlss with Plant Wastes and Human Wastes Included in the Mass Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    Mass exchange processes in the new experimental model of the biotechnical life support system (BTLSS) constructed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS have a higher degree of closure than in the previous BTLSS, and, thus, the technologies employed in the new system are more complex. Therefore, before closing the loops of mass exchange processes for several months, the new model of the BTLSS was run to match the technologies employed to cultivate plants and the methods used to involve inedible plant parts and human wastes into the mass exchange with the CO2 absorption rate and the amount of the resulting O2. The plant compartment included vegetables grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS) (chufa, beet, carrot, radish, and lettuce), plants hydroponically grown on expanded clay aggregate (wheat, soybean, watercress), and plants grown in aquaculture (common glasswort and watercress). Nutrient solutions for hydroponically grown plants were prepared by using products of physicochemical mineralization of human wastes. Growing the plants in aquaculture enabled maintaining NaCl concentration in the irrigation solution for hydroponically grown plants at a level safe for the plants. Inedible plant biomass was added to the SLS. Three cycles of closing the system were run, which lasted 7, 7, and 10 days. The comparison of the amount of CO2 fed into the system over 24 h (simulating human respiration) and the amount of CO2 daily exhaled by a 70-kg middle-aged human showed that between 1% and 4% of the daily emissions of CO2 were assimilated in the system, and about 3% of the average human daily O2 requirement accumulated in the system. Plant productivity was between 4 and 4.7% of the human daily vegetable requirement, or between 3 and 3.5% of the total human daily food requirement. Thus, testing of the BTLSS showed a match between the technologies employed to arrange mass exchange processes. This study was supported by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-14-00599).

  15. 78 FR 38286 - Notice of Change to the CCC Sugar Purchase and Exchange To Include Certificates of Quota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... INFORMATION: USDA's Sugar Program and the Domestic Sugar Market Conditions Under the Sugar Program, domestic.... domestic market and conduct voluntary exchanges of the purchased sugar in return for credits under the... sugar from the domestic market in order to conduct voluntary exchanges for privately held TPA CQEs...

  16. Cobalt(II removal from synthetic wastewater by adsorption on South African coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Aoyi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced wastewater-treatment techniques such as adsorption are essential in the removal of non- biodegradable toxic wastes from water. In this study, the use of South African coal fly ash, an industrial byproduct, has been investigated as a potential replacement for the current costly adsorbents used for removing heavy metals from wastewater. We utilised coal fly ash for the adsorption of cobalt(II ions from synthetic petrochemical wastewater and characterised its performance. A two-level three-factor full-factorial design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The combined effects of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on cobalt(II removal were assessed using response surface methodology. Although the focus was on removal of cobalt(II, the adsorption was carried out in the presence of phenol and other heavy metal ions using the batch technique. The applicability of the Freundlich and Langmuir models to the equilibrium data was tested. Consequently, the equilibrium data was found to conform more favourably to the Freundlich isotherm than to the Langmuir isotherm; in this case, the coal fly ash had a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.401 mg/g for cobalt(II. We conclude that South African coal fly ash, as a natural, abundant and low-cost adsorbent, might be a suitable local alternative for elimination of cobalt(II from aqueous solutions.

  17. Experimental evaluation of an adaptive Joule-Thomson cooling system including silicon-microfabricated heat exchanger and microvalve components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; Park, Jong M; White, Michael J; Nellis, Gregory F; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2011-03-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling system that combines two custom micromachined components-a Si/glass-stack recuperative heat exchanger and a piezoelectrically actuated expansion microvalve. With the microvalve controlling the flow rate, this system can modulate cooling to accommodate varying refrigeration loads. The perforated plate Si/glass heat exchanger is fabricated with a stack of alternating silicon plates and Pyrex glass spacers. The microvalve utilizes a lead zirconate titanate actuator to push a Si micromachined valve seat against a glass plate, thus modulating the flow passing through the gap between the valve seat and the glass plate. The fabricated heat exchanger has a footprint of 1 × 1 cm(2) and a length of 35 mm. The size of the micromachined piezoelectrically actuated valve is about 1 × 1 × 1 cm(3). In JT cooling tests, the temperature of the system was successfully controlled by adjusting the input voltage of the microvalve. When the valve was fully opened (at an input voltage of -30 V), the system cooled down to a temperature as low as 254.5 K at 430 kPa pressure difference between inlet and outlet at steady state and 234 K at 710 kPa in a transient state. The system provided cooling powers of 75 mW at 255 K and 150 mW at 258 K. Parasitic heat loads at 255 K are estimated at approximately 700 mW.

  18. Experimental evaluation of an adaptive Joule–Thomson cooling system including silicon-microfabricated heat exchanger and microvalve components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibin; Park, Jong M.; White, Michael J.; Nellis, Gregory F.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the evaluation of a Joule–Thomson (JT) cooling system that combines two custom micromachined components—a Si/glass-stack recuperative heat exchanger and a piezoelectrically actuated expansion microvalve. With the microvalve controlling the flow rate, this system can modulate cooling to accommodate varying refrigeration loads. The perforated plate Si/glass heat exchanger is fabricated with a stack of alternating silicon plates and Pyrex glass spacers. The microvalve utilizes a lead zirconate titanate actuator to push a Si micromachined valve seat against a glass plate, thus modulating the flow passing through the gap between the valve seat and the glass plate. The fabricated heat exchanger has a footprint of 1×1 cm2 and a length of 35 mm. The size of the micromachined piezoelectrically actuated valve is about 1×1×1 cm3. In JT cooling tests, the temperature of the system was successfully controlled by adjusting the input voltage of the microvalve. When the valve was fully opened (at an input voltage of −30 V), the system cooled down to a temperature as low as 254.5 K at 430 kPa pressure difference between inlet and outlet at steady state and 234 K at 710 kPa in a transient state. The system provided cooling powers of 75 mW at 255 K and 150 mW at 258 K. Parasitic heat loads at 255 K are estimated at approximately 700 mW. PMID:21552354

  19. Unusual route for preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    4H2O, zinc(II) carbonate,. ZnCO3 and cadmium(II) ... describing the preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) carbonate compounds are discussed. .... At room temperature the coordination compounds of manganese(II) ion ...

  20. Study of the extraction of cobalt(II) from sulphate medium by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we have first investigated the extraction of cobalt(II) from sulphate medium using capric acid dissolved in chloroform and then the effect of other diluents on the extraction process at 25°C. This study aims to understand the behaviour followed by this metal or, in other words, find its stoichiometry at the end of the ...

  1. Phase Diagrams of Mesogenic Binary Systems of Cobalt(II) and Univalent Metal Octanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmenko, Inna I.; Mirnaya, Tatyana A.; Yaremchuk, Galina G.

    2011-11-01

    The phase diagrams of binary systems of cobalt(II) octanoate and lithium, sodium, potassium, and thallium(I) octanoates have been studied by differential thermal analysis and polythermal polarization microscopy. In all systems, continuous or limited liquid crystalline solutions of smectic modification are formed. The temperature and composition ranges of the formation of liquid crystals and glasses have been determined.

  2. Synergistic extraction of cobalt(II) with resacetophenone oxime in the presence of heterocyclic nitrogen and organophosphorous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, A.T.; Nepali, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Equilibrium distribution coefficients were determined for the extraction of cobalt(II) with resacetophenone oxime (RAPOX) as a function of pH and reagent concentration at ambient temperature. RAPOX forms simple 1:2 chelate with cobalt(II). Synergic extraction was observed with pyridine and its methyl derivatives and some organophosphorous compounds. From the extraction equilibrium data the adduct formation constants of 1:2 chelate to adducting ligand adducts were evaluated. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Exchange of organic radicals with organo-cobalt complexes formed in the living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; de Bruin, B.; Peng, C.-H.; Fryd, M.; Wayland, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of organic radicals between solution and organo-cobalt complexes is experimentally observed and the reaction pathway is probed through DFT calculations. Cyanoisopropyl radicals from AIBN (2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile) enter solutions of cobalt(II) tetramesityl porphyrin ((TMP)Co-II center

  4. Activating cobalt(II) oxide nanorods for efficient electrocatalysis by strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tao; Yan, Dong-Yang; Wang, Hui; Jiao, Yan; Hu, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Yao; Zheng, Lirong; Mao, Jing; Liu, Hui; Du, Xi-Wen; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-11-15

    Designing high-performance and cost-effective electrocatalysts toward oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions in water-alkali electrolyzers is pivotal for large-scale and sustainable hydrogen production. Earth-abundant transition metal oxide-based catalysts are particularly active for oxygen evolution reaction; however, they are generally considered inactive toward hydrogen evolution reaction. Here, we show that strain engineering of the outermost surface of cobalt(II) oxide nanorods can turn them into efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. They are competitive with the best electrocatalysts for this reaction in alkaline media so far. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the tensile strain strongly couples the atomic, electronic structure properties and the activity of the cobalt(II) oxide surface, which results in the creation of a large quantity of oxygen vacancies that facilitate water dissociation, and fine tunes the electronic structure to weaken hydrogen adsorption toward the optimum region.

  5. Unusual route for preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    describing the preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) carbonate compounds are discussed. Keywords. MnCO3⋅H2O; CoCO3⋅4H2O; ZnCO3; CdCO3; infrared spectra. 1. Introduction. Urea is physiologically very important. It is the chief nitrogenous product of protein metabolism. Urea has a melting ...

  6. A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) aminophosphonate containing one-dimensional channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmill, William R.; Smith, Mark D.; Reisner, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    A tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) phosphonate, Co(O 3 PCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ), has been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques. X-ray diffraction indicates that this material is a three-dimensional open framework with rings aligned along a single axis forming infinite one-dimensional channels. The framework decomposes just above 400 deg. C. Magnetic susceptibility data are consistent with weak antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures

  7. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  8. Spectral studies of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with thiosemicarbazone of heterocyclic ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Umendra

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents the spectral analysis of cobalt(II) complexes with indoxyl thiosemicarbazone (ITSC) of general composition [CoL 2X 2] (where L = ITSC, X = Cl -, NO 3-, (1/2)SO 42-, NCS -). The geometry of the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (electronic, IR, EPR, 1H NMR, mass) studies. The various physico-chemical techniques suggested a coordination number of six (octahedral) for chloro, nitrato and thiocyanato complexes. Whereas sulfato complex was found to have five coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. All the complexes are of high spin type showing magnetic moment corresponding to three unpaired electrons.

  9. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  10. The cobalt(II salt of the azo dye Orange G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Okoth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Crystallizing the cobalt(II salt of the azo dye Orange G from water was found to give the solvent-separated ion-pair species hexaaquacobalt(II 7-oxo-8-(2-phenylhydrazin-1-ylidene-7,8-dihydronaphthalene-1,3-disulfonate tetrahydrate, [Co(H2O6](C16H10N2O7S2·4H2O. The asymmetric unit of the cobalt(II salt contains three independent octahedral [Co(OH26]2+ cations, three azo anions, all with similar configurations, and 12 uncoordinated water molecules. The structure is closely related to that of one of the known magnesium analogues. Both structures have Z′ = 3, feature nearly planar azo anions [maximum displacement of azo-N atoms from the plane of the phenyl ring = 0.058 (7 Å] in their hydrazone tautomeric form, form layer structures with hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers alternating along the b-axis direction, and are stabilized by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds..

  11. Structural Dynamics of the GW182 Silencing Domain Including its RNA Recognition motif (RRM) Revealed by Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak-Rotowska, Maja K.; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Rubin, Marcin; Fabian, Marc R.; Sonenberg, Nahum; Dadlez, Michal; Niedzwiecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The human GW182 protein plays an essential role in micro(mi)RNA-dependent gene silencing. miRNA silencing is mediated, in part, by a GW182 C-terminal region called the silencing domain, which interacts with the poly(A) binding protein and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex to repress protein synthesis. Structural studies of this GW182 fragment are challenging due to its predicted intrinsically disordered character, except for its RRM domain. However, detailed insights into the properties of proteins containing disordered regions can be provided by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX/MS). In this work, we applied HDX/MS to define the structural state of the GW182 silencing domain. HDX/MS analysis revealed that this domain is clearly divided into a natively unstructured part, including the CCR4-NOT interacting motif 1, and a distinct RRM domain. The GW182 RRM has a very dynamic structure, since water molecules can penetrate the whole domain in 2 h. The finding of this high structural dynamics sheds new light on the RRM structure. Though this domain is one of the most frequently occurring canonical protein domains in eukaryotes, these results are - to our knowledge - the first HDX/MS characteristics of an RRM. The HDX/MS studies show also that the α2 helix of the RRM can display EX1 behavior after a freezing-thawing cycle. This means that the RRM structure is sensitive to environmental conditions and can change its conformation, which suggests that the state of the RRM containing proteins should be checked by HDX/MS in regard of the conformational uniformity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with…

  13. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  14. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  15. Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 2 - practical use, including problems, and their use with paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R

    2011-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters are intended to replace the normal warming, humidifying and filtering functions of the upper airways. The first part of this review considered the history, principles of operation and efficiency of these devices. The aim of this part of the review is to summarise recent guidelines on the use of these devices and outline the problems that can occur. In particular, the effect of these devices on gas analysis, dead space, resistance to gas flow and blockage of the breathing system is considered. In children, it is important to consider the addition of dead space and resistance to gas flow. A body weight of 2.5 kg is probably the lower weight limit for use with heat and moisture exchangers, and 3 kg for filters. The resistance to gas flow of a heat- and moisture-exchanging filter added to a Mapleson F breathing system can cause a delay in the induction of anaesthesia. © 2010 The Author. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  17. Sequential potentiometric complexometric redox determination of iron(III) and cobalt(II) with application to alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B V; Gopinath, R

    1989-08-01

    A simple potentiometric method is presented for successive determination of iron(III) and cobalt(II) by complexometric titration of the iron(III) with EDTA at pH 2 and 40 degrees , followed by redox titration of the cobalt(II) complex with 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridyl at pH 4-5 and 40 degrees , with gold(III). There is no interference in either determination from common metal ions other than copper(II), which severely affects the cobalt determination but can be removed by electrolysis. The method has been successfully applied to determination of iron and cobalt in Kovar and Alnico magnet alloys.

  18. Ligand-exchange chromatography of aromatic amines on resin-bound cobalt ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlivan, E.; Vural, U.S.; Ayar, A.; Yildiz, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

    1996-06-01

    The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diaminoethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines was investigated. This will permit the evaluation of bDAEG-sporopollenin ligand exchangers for their utilization as sorbents in the recovery, pollution control, and elimination of amines from wastewater.

  19. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamal, A.; Maurya, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide, and its coordination compounds with nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) are described. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, molecular weight, i.r., electronic and n.m.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The stoichiometries of the complexes are represented as NiL . 3H 2 O, CoL . 2H 2 O, CuL, MnL . 2H 2 O, ZnL . H 2 O, Zr(OH) 2 (LH) 2 , Zr(OH) 2 L . 2MeOH, UO 2 L . MeOH and MoO 2 L . MeOH (where LH 2 =Schiff base). The copper(II) complex shows a subnormal magnetic moment due to antiferromagnetic exchange interaction while the nickel(II), cobalt(II) and manganese(II) complexes show normal magnetic moments at room temperature. The i.r. and n.m.r. spectral studies show that the Schiff base behaves as a dibasic and tridentate ligand coordinating through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. (orig.)

  1. The effects of performance criteria including accounting, market, and economy on the quality of financial reporting: A case study on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effects of performance criteria (accounting, market and economy on the quality of financial reporting in Iran. To evaluate the variable financial reporting quality, the scores given to each company are applied based on the checklist introduced by Iranian Association of Certified Public Accountants and used for the disclosure of the information of the annual financial statements of companies. The statistical population of this research consists of the companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. This research, which is classified as applied research, uses the methods of multivariate regression test. The data and hypotheses of this research are analyzed and tested using correlation test and means difference test. The results of the tests conducted on 99 companies indicate that there is a significant and positive relation between the rate of return on equity and the equality of financial reporting. There is also a significant and positive relation between earnings per share and the equality of financial reporting. However, there is no relationship between QTOBIN and the equality of financial reporting. Finally, our results indicate there is a significant and positive relation between market value-added and the equality of financial reporting.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furić, Krešimir; Kodrin, Ivan; Kukovec, Boris-Marko; Mihalić, Zlatko; Popović, Zora

    2013-01-15

    Two cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid, 3-OHpicH), trans-[Co(3-OHpic)2(py)2] (2) and cis-[Co(3-OHpic)2(4-pic)2] (3) (py=pyridine; 4-pic=4-picoline or 4-methylpyridine), previously synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, are here studied by Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopy with the help from the corresponding DFT vibrational calculations using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) computational model. Intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond appears in both complexes 2 and 3, while weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds assemble molecules of 2 or 3 into 3D architecture. A complete presentation of all Raman, infrared and theoretical results is given for complex 3. The measured spectra are shown, relative intensities and bandwidths are discussed and the assignment of vibrational bands is given on the basis of the DFT calculations. The calculated spectra agree very well with the presented experimental findings, thanks to the suitable grouping of modes. The same vibrational calculations also reveal insignificant influence of H→CH3 substitution for the spectroscopic characterization of the complex. A careful study of differences between calculated and observed wavenumbers suggests that modified single-factor scaling is actually better than the classic multi-factor scaling approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrophotometric Study of the Complex Formation of Anionic Chelates of Cobalt(II) with Monotetrazolium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divarova, V. V.; Stojnova, K. T.; Racheva, P. V.; Lekova, V. D.

    2017-05-01

    The complex formation and extraction of anionic chelates of Co(II)-4-(2-thiazolylazo)resorcinol (TAR) with cations of monotetrazolium salts (TS) — (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 3-(2-naphthyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TV) — in the liquid-liquid extraction system Co(II)-TAR-TS-H2O-CHCl3 were studied by spectrophotometric methods. The optimum conditions for the extraction of Co(II) were found. The molar ratio of the components and the form of the anionic chelates of Co(II) in the extracted compounds were determined by independent methods. The association process in the aqueous phase and the extraction process were investigated and quantitatively characterized. The following key constants were calculated: association constant, distribution constant, extraction constant, and recovery factor. The validity of the Beer's law was checked, and some analytical characteristics were calculated. Based on the obtained results and the lower price of the monotetrazolium salt MTT compared with that of TV, the ion-associated complex of Co(II)-TAR-MTT can be implemented for determination of cobalt(II) traces in alloys and biological, medical, and pharmaceutical samples.

  4. Reversible five-coordinate ⇄ six-coordinate transformation in cobalt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Linda; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Baker, Anthony T.

    2018-04-01

    The heterocyclic ligands 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (L1) and 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (L2) and their cobalt(II) complexes were synthesized. The blue five-coordinate complex [Co(L1)Cl2] isolated initially from the reaction mixture rapidly absorbed water vapour from the atmosphere to yield the pink six-coordinate complex [Co(L1)(H2O)3]Cl2. This change is reversible upon desiccation or transferring [Co(L1)(H2O)3]Cl2 into acetonitrile. The five coordinate complex [Co(L2)Cl2], however, remains stable under similar conditions. The structures of the complexes [Co(L1)Cl2], [Co(L1)(H2O)3]Cl2 and [Co(L2)Cl2] have been determined by x-ray crystallography. The magnetic susceptibilities and the electronic spectra for [Co(L1)Cl2], [Co(L2)Cl2] and [Co(L1)(H2O)3]Cl2 are presented.

  5. A binuclear cobalt(II) complex of an NO3-donor Schiff base derived from 3-carboxylsalicylaldehyde and 2-nitroaniline

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Wen Yu; Ling Chang; Peng Sun; Min-Hui He

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the centrosymmetric title complex, bis{μ-3-[(2-nitrophenyl)iminomethyl]-2-oxidobenzoato}dicobalt(II), [Co2(C14H8N2O5)2], in which the ligand is 3-[(2-nitrophenyl)iminomethyl]-2-oxidobenzoate, a Schiff base synthesized from 2-nitroaniline with 3-carboxylsalicylaldehyde, the two cobalt(II) ions in the molecular unit are bridged by two phenolate O atoms of the ligands. Each metal centre has a distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, molecules a...

  6. Potentiometric determination of stability constants of cyanoacetato complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusinović, T; Filipović, I

    1981-03-01

    Stability constants of cyanoacetato complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) were determined potentiometrically at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees and ionic strength 2M (sodium perchlorate). The stability constants were evaluated by a weighted least-squares method.

  7. Cobalt(II) and strontium(II) complexes of three isomers, nicotinamide, isonicotinamide and picolinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junhui; Hua, Xiaohui; Yang, Limin; Li, Weihong; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Liu, Liming; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2014-02-01

    Novel coordination structures formed by cobalt(II) and strontium(II) complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) are reported. The structures of these complexes (CoCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (Co-na), CoCl2·(C6H6N2O)2 (Co-ina), CoCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O, (Co-pa), SrCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Sr-na), SrCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·3H2O (Sr-ina) and SrCl2·C6H6N2O·H2O (Sr-pa)) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Pyridyl nitrogen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Co2+, but pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen are used for coordination to Sr2+, and each Sr2+ is coordinated to four ligands. For isonicotinamide, pyridyl nitrogen is coordinated to Co2+, carbonyl oxygen is coordinated to Sr2+ and the ligand is also hydrogen-bonded in Sr-ina. Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Co2+ to form a five-membered ring structure, but the carbonyl oxygen is coordinated to two Sr2+ ions in Sr-pa. Some of the complexes can form chain or network structures. The experiments results indicate the differences of the coordination of Co and Sr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation.

  8. Photothermal micro-fluidic sensor based on an integrated Young interferometer made by ion exchange in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, A.; Bucci, D.; Broquin, J.E.; Magnaldo, A.; Couston, L.; Nannini, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the planar co-integration of an ion-exchange Young interferometer with a micro-fluidic sensing chamber for photothermal analyte detection. Being exclusively fabricated and packaged in borosilicate glass, the sensor is well suited for a vast range of applications in chemical analysis, including ionizing environments. Local absorption of a pulsed excitation laser by the analyte in the fluid generates a change of the fluid refractive index which translates to a shift of the interference pattern. The detection limit of fringe movement was measured to be 1.8 * 10 -3 * 2π and the corresponding refractive index resolution was Δn =7.5 * 10 -6 . Absorption measurements of cobalt(II) nitrate in ethanol yielded a detection limit of c = 6 * 10 -4 M, equivalent to an absorption coefficient of α = 1.2 * 10 -2 cm -1 and a minimum detectable absorbance of K = 1.4 * 10 -5 . At a probed volume of 20 pl, a quantity of 12 fmol of Co(II) was detected. (authors)

  9. Perturbation theory for intermolecular forces including exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1970-01-01

    Generalized solutions to the Kisenschitz and London perturbation equations are derived. It is pointed out that the results obtained in the formalisms proposed by Hirschfelder (HAV), by Hirschfelder and Silbey, by Murrell and Shaw, and by Musher and Amos are special cases of the generalized

  10. Molecular, crystal, and electronic structure of the cobalt(II) complex with 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, R. V.; Sokol, V. I.; Polyanskaya, N. A.; Ryabov, M. A.; Strashnov, P. V.; Davydov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol (H L) with cobalt(II) acetate gives the coordination compound [Co L 2] · CHCl3 ( I). The molecular and crystal structure of I is determined by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the Co atom in complex I is an octahedron. The anion L acts as a tridentate chelating ligand and is coordinated to the Co atom through the phenanthrenequinone O1 atom and the benzothiazole N1 atom of the moieties L and the N3 atom of the azo group to form two five-membered metallocycles. The molecular and electronic structures of the compounds H L, L, and Co L 2 are studied at the density functional theory level. The results of the quantum-chemical calculations are in good agreement with the values determined by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Molecular, crystal, and electronic structure of the cobalt(II) complex with 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linko, R. V.; Sokol, V. I.; Polyanskaya, N. A.; Ryabov, M. A.; Strashnov, P. V.; Davydov, V. V.; Sergienko, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of 10-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-9-phenanthrol (HL) with cobalt(II) acetate gives the coordination compound [CoL 2 ] · CHCl 3 (I). The molecular and crystal structure of I is determined by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the Co atom in complex I is an octahedron. The anion L acts as a tridentate chelating ligand and is coordinated to the Co atom through the phenanthrenequinone O1 atom and the benzothiazole N1 atom of the moieties L and the N3 atom of the azo group to form two five-membered metallocycles. The molecular and electronic structures of the compounds HL, L, and CoL 2 are studied at the density functional theory level. The results of the quantum-chemical calculations are in good agreement with the values determined by X-ray diffraction.

  12. Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of lapachol: synthesis, DNA interaction, and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Talaie, Faranak; Chiniforoshan, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Three novel copper(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) complexes of lapachol (Lap) containing 110-phenanthroline (phen) ligand, [M(Lap) 2 (phen)] (M=Cu(II), 1, Co(II), 2, and Ni(II), 3), have been synthesized and characterized using, elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies. Their interactions with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) were investigated using viscosity, thermal denaturation, circular dichorism, fluorescence quenching, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The DNA cleavage abilities of 1-3 have been studied, where cleavage activity of copper complex 1 is more than the complexes 2 and 3. The in vitro cytotoxic potential of the complexes 1-3 against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2), and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells indicated their promising antitumor activity with quite low IC 50 values in the range of .15-2.41 μM, which are lower than those of cisplatin.

  13. Aromatic carboxylate effect on dimensionality of three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ju-Wen; Gong, Chun-Hua; Hou, Li-Li; Tian, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers [Co(4-bbc) 2 (bbbm)] (1), [Co(3,5-pdc)(bbbm)]·2H 2 O (2) and [Co(1,4-ndc)(bbbm)] (3) (4-Hbbc=4-bromobenzoic acid, 3,5-H 2 pdc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H 2 ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and bbbm=1,1-(1,4-butanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 is a 1D chain formed by the bbbm ligands and Co II ions. Polymer 2 exhibits a 2D network with a (3·4·5)(3 2 ·4·5·6 2 ·7 4 ) topology. Polymer 3 possesses a 3D three-fold interpenetrating framework. The versatile structures of title polymers indicate that the aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of 1–3. Moreover, the thermal stability, electrochemical and luminescent properties of 1–3 were investigated. - graphical abstract: Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The aromatic carboxylates play a key role in the dimensionality of three polymers. The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were obtained. • The aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of three polymers. • The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated

  14. EPR-study of reversible oxygenation process of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N1,N4-di(salicylidene)-isothiosemicarbazides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeleu, N.V.; Revenko, M.D.; Rusu, V.G.; Shames, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction between molecular oxygen and coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N 1 ,N 4 -di(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazides in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was studied by the EPR method. It was found that paramagnetic monomeric adducts and diamagnetic μ-peroxo-dimers are formed. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the EPR spectra of the initial cobalt complexes, as well as of the paramagnetic adducts were determined. The nature of the Co-O 2 bond is discussed

  15. Reagents for selective extraction of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from highly acidic sulfate feeds containing iron

    OpenAIRE

    Roebuck, James William

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on development of new regents which are suitable for recovering nickel, cobalt and copper from laterite leach solutions, specifically focusing on reagent requirements for novel base metal flowsheets developed by Anglo American. The work aims to design reagents which can extract nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from a highly acidic aqueous sulfate solutions whilst showing selectivity over iron(II) and iron(III). Chapter 1 reviews current extractive metallur...

  16. Interaction of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with a gamma-linked, bis-beta-diketone ligand to yield an unusual coordination motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bai-Shu; Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Zhu, Huai-Wu; Luo, Shi-Xia; Lindoy, Leonard F; McMurtrie, John C; Turner, Peter; Wei, Gang

    2005-04-21

    Discrete cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of type ML (where L is a bis(2,4-pentanedionate) derivative incorporating a -SCH2CH2S- bridge between the gamma-carbons of respective beta-diketone units) have been synthesised and represent the first examples in which a gamma-substituted, thioether-containing beta-diketone ligand coordinates via a sulfur and oxygen donor in preference to the classical coordination mode involving both beta-diketonate oxygens.

  17. Exchange transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... count in a newborn (neonatal polycythemia) Rh-induced hemolytic disease of the newborn Severe disturbances in body chemistry Severe newborn jaundice ... exchange transfusion was performed to treat. Alternative Names Hemolytic disease - exchange transfusion Patient ... Exchange transfusion - series References Costa ...

  18. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II, 4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol, and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II, 4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR, 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt, water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Co3+(PAR2], were found. The following key equilibrium constants were calculated: constant of association (Log β=4.77±0.06, constant of distribution (LogKD=1.34±0.01, and constant of extraction (LogKex=6.11±0.07. Beer’s law was obeyed for Co concentrations up to 1.7 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 6.0×104 L mol−1 cm−1 at λmax=520 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity, were estimated as well.

  19. Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of juglone: synthesis, structure, DNA interaction and enhanced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Fooladivanda, Mahrokh; Chiniforoshan, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Three novel copper(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) complexes of juglone (Jug) containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand, [M(Jug) 2 (phen)] (M = Cu(II), 1, Co(II), 2, and Ni(II), 3), have been synthesized and characterized using, elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies. Their interactions with calf thymus DNA were investigated using viscosity measurements, UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. The catalytic activities on DNA cleavage of the complexes 1-3 were studied, which copper complex 1 showed better catalyst activity in the DNA cleavage process than complexes 2 and 3. The in vitro cytotoxic potential of the complexes 1-3 against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2), and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells indicated their promising antitumor activity with quite low IC 50 values in the range of 0.09-1.89 μM, which are 75 times lower than those of cisplatin.

  20. Bis-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde Schiff-base cobalt(II) complex as a neutral carrier for a highly selective iodide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianyuan; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Zhong, Xia; Liu, Yan; Tang, Dianping

    2004-12-01

    A new solvent polymeric membrane electrode based on N,N'-bis-(dimethylaminobenzaldehyde)-glycine cobalt(II) [Co(II)-BDMABG] as a neutral carrier is described, which displays a preferential potentiometric response to iodide ion and an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence in the following order: I- > ClO4- > Sal- > SCN- > NO2- > Br- > NO3- > Cl- > SO3(2-) > SO4(2-). The electrode exhibits a near-Nernstian potential linear range of 9.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-1) M with a detection limit of 6.8 x 10(-7) M and a slope of -53.0 mV/decade in pH 2.0 of a phosphate buffer solution at 20 degrees C. The response mechanism is discussed in view of the A.C. impedance technique and the UV spectroscopy technique. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of iodide in Jialing River and Spring in Jinyun Mountains with satisfactory results.

  1. A binuclear cobalt(II complex of an NO3-donor Schiff base derived from 3-carboxylsalicylaldehyde and 2-nitroaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Wen Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the centrosymmetric title complex, bis{μ-3-[(2-nitrophenyliminomethyl]-2-oxidobenzoato}dicobalt(II, [Co2(C14H8N2O52], in which the ligand is 3-[(2-nitrophenyliminomethyl]-2-oxidobenzoate, a Schiff base synthesized from 2-nitroaniline with 3-carboxylsalicylaldehyde, the two cobalt(II ions in the molecular unit are bridged by two phenolate O atoms of the ligands. Each metal centre has a distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by Co...O interactions involving the nitro O atoms, forming a two-dimensional network. There are also C—H...O and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances of 3.5004 (2, 3.6671 (2 and 3.6677 (2 Å] between adjacent benzene rings of the two-dimensional networks, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework.

  2. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  4. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and…

  5. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  6. Comparative electrochemical study of some cobalt(III and cobalt(II complexes with azamacrocycles and b-diketonato ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BABIC-SAMARDZIJA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical properties of eight mixed-ligand cobalt(III and cobalt(II complexes of the general formulas [CoIII(Raccyclam](ClO42 (1–(4 and [Co2II(Ractpmc](ClO43 (5–(8 were studied. The substances were investigated in aqueous NaClO4 solution and non-aqueous LiClO4/CH3CN solution by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode. In aqueous solution, cyclam and Rac ligands being soluble in water undergo anodic oxidation. Coordination to Co(III in complexes 1–4, stabilizes these ligands but reversible peaks in catohodic region indicate the redox reaction CoIII/CoII ion. In the case of the binuclear Co(II complexes 5–8, peaks recorded on the CVs represent oxidation of the bridged Rac ligand. The complexes examined influence the cathodic reaction of hydrogen evolution in aqueous solutions by shifting its potential to more negative values and its current is increased. In non-aqueous solution the CVs of the ligands show irreversible anodic peaks for cyclam, tpmc and for the Rac ligands soluble in acetonitrile. The absence of any peaks in the case of the investigated complexes 1–4 indicates that coordination to Co(III stabilizes both the cyclam and Rac ligands. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes 5–8 show oxidation processes of the Rac ligand and Co(II ions but the absence of a highly anodic peak of the coordinated macrocycle tpmc shows its stabilization. Contrary to in aqueous solution, the redox reaction Co(III/Co(II does not occur in acetonitrate indicating a higher stability of the complexes 1–4 in this media in comparison with the binuclear cobalt(II-tpmc complexes 5–8.

  7. Introducing Cobalt(II) Porphyrin/Cobalt(III) Corrole Containing Transducers for Improved Potential Reproducibility and Performance of All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Ewa; Naitana, Mario L; Stelmach, Emilia; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Bulska, Ewa; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Paolesse, Roberto; Michalska, Agata

    2017-07-05

    A novel solid contact type for all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes is introduced, yielding high stability and reproducibility of potential readings between sensors as well as improved analytical performance. The transducer phase herein proposed takes advantage of the presence of porphyrinoids containing the same metal ion at different oxidation states. In contrast to the traditional approach, the compounds of choice are not a redox pair; although they have different oxidation states, they cannot be electrochemically driven one to another. The compounds of choice were cobalt(II) porphyrin and cobalt(III) corrole-both characterized by a high stability of the coordinated metal ions in their respective redox states and electrical neutrality, as well as relatively high lipophilicity. The porphyrinoids were used together with carbon nanotubes to yield transducer layers for ion-selective electrodes. As a result, we obtained a high stability of potential readings of the resulting ion-selective electrodes together with good reproducibility between different sensor batches. Moreover, advantageously the presence of porphyrinoids in the transducer phase results in improvement of the analytical performance of the sensors: linear response range and selectivity due to interactions with membrane components, resulting in tailoring of ion fluxes through the membrane phase. Thus, carbon nanotubes with the cobalt(II) porphyrin/cobalt(III) corrole system are promising alternatives for existing transducer systems for potentiometric sensors.

  8. Heat and mass exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  9. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  10. Effect of three bis-pyridyl-bis-amide ligands with various spacers on the structural diversity of new multifunctional cobalt(II) coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hong-Yan [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Lu, Huizhe [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193 (China); Le, Mao; Luan, Jian [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Wang, Xiu-Li, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Liu, Guocheng; Zhang, Juwen [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Three new cobalt(II) coordination polymers [Co{sub 2}(1,4-NDC){sub 2}(3-bpye)(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Co(1,4-NDC)(3-bpfp)(H{sub 2}O)] (2) and [Co(1,4-NDC)(3-bpcb)] (3) [3-bpye=N,N′-bis(3-pyridinecarboxamide)-1,2-ethane, 3-bpfp=bis(3-pyridylformyl)piperazine, 3-bpcb=N,N′-bis(3-pyridinecarboxamide)-1,4-benzene, and 1,4-H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid] have been hydrothermally synthesized. The structures of complexes 1–3 have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses and further characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Complex 1 is a 3D coordination structure with 8-connected (4{sup 20}.6{sup 8}) topology constructed from 3D [Co{sub 2}(1,4-NDC){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} framework and bidentate 3-bpye ligands. Complex 2 shows 1D “cage+cage”-like chain formed by 1D [Co{sub 2}(1,4-NDC){sub 2}]{sub n} ribbon chains and [Co{sub 2}(3-bpfp){sub 2}] loops, which are further linked by hydrogen bonding interactions to form a 3D supramolecular network. Complex 3 displays a 3D coordination network with a 6-connected (4{sup 12}.6{sup 3}) topology based on 2D [Co{sub 2}(1,4-NDC){sub 2}]{sub n} layers and bidentate 3-bpcb bridging ligands. The influences of different bis-pyridyl-bis-amide ligands with various spacers on the structures of title complexes are studied. Moreover, the fluorescent properties, electrochemical behaviors and magnetic properties of complexes 1–3 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three multifunctional cobalt(II) complexes constructed from three bis-pyridyl-bis-amide and 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. The fluorescent, electrochemical and magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated. - Highlights: • Three multifunctional cobalt(II) complexes based on various bis-pyridyl-bis-amide ligands. • Complex 1 is a 3D coordination structure with 8-connected (4{sup 20}.6{sup 8

  11. Neutral (bis-beta-diketonato) iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallocycles: structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Jack K; Bray, David J; Gloe, Kerstin; Gloe, Karsten; Hayter, Michael J; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Meehan, George V; McMurtrie, John C; Lindoy, Leonard F; Wenzel, Marco

    2007-05-07

    Neutral dimeric metallocyclic complexes of type [M(2)(L(1))(2)B(n)] (where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), L(1) is the doubly deprotonated form of a 1,3-aryl linked bis-beta-diketone ligand of type 1,3-bis(RC(O)CH(2)C(O))C(6)H(4) (R=Me, n-Pr, t-Bu) and B is pyridine (Py) or 4-ethylpyridine (EtPy)) have been synthesised, adding to similar complexes already reported for copper(II). New lipophilic ligand derivatives with R = octyl or nonyl were also prepared for use in solvent extraction experiments. Structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction investigations of selected metal complex systems from the above series are reported, with the X-ray structures of [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)] x 2.25CHCl(3) x 0.5H(2)O (R=Pr), [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(2)] (R=Me) and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu) being presented. The electrochemistry of H(2)L(1) (R=t-Bu) and of [Fe(2)(L(1))(3)], [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Cu(2)(L(1))(2)] and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(2)] has been examined. Oxidative processes for the complexes are dominantly irreversible, but several examples of quasireversible behaviour were observed and support the assignment of an anodic process, seen between +1.0 and +1.6 V, as a metal-centred oxidation. The reduction processes for the respective metal complexes are not simple, and irreversible in most cases. Solvent extraction studies (water/chloroform) involving variable concentrations of metal, bis-beta-diketone and heterocyclic base have been performed for cobalt(II) and zinc(II) using a radiotracer technique to probe the stoichiometries of the extracted species in each case. Synergism was observed when 4-ethylpyridine was added to the bis-beta-diketone ligand in the chloroform phase. Competitive extraction studies show a clear uptake preference for copper(II) over cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II).

  12. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  13. HEAT EXCHANGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  14. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  15. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Ichiro.

    1996-01-01

    An inner cylinder is disposed coaxially in a vertical vessel, and a plurality of heat transfer pipes are wound spirally on the outer circumference of the inner cylinder. High temperature sodium descends on the outer side of the inner cylinder while exchanging heat with water in the heat transfer pipes and becomes low temperature sodium. The low temperature sodium turns at the lower portion of the vessel, rises in a sodium exit pipe inserted to the inner cylinder and is discharged from the top of the vessel to the outside of the vessel. A portion of a cover gas (an inert gas such as argon) filled to the upper portion of the vessel intrudes into the space between the outer circumference of the sodium exit pipe and the inner circumference of the inner cylinder to form a heat insulation layer of the inert gas. This prevents heat exchange between the high temperature sodium before heat exchange and low temperature sodium after heat exchange. The heat exchanger is used as a secondary heat exchanger for coolants (sodium) of an FBR type reactor. (I.N.)

  16. Stability constants of salicylate of zinc(II), cobalt(II), uranyl(II) and thorium(IV) by paper electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.P.; Yadava, J.R.; Yadava, P.C.; Yadava, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Stability constants of zinc(II), cobalt(II), uranyl(II) and thorium(IV) have been determined by paper electrophoresis. Salicylic acid (0.005 mol dm - 3 ) was added to the background electrolyte: 0.1 mol dm - 3 HClO 4 . The proportions of C 6 H 4 OHCOO - and C 6 H 4 OCOO/sup =/ were varied by changing the pH of the electrolyte. These anions yielded the complexes, ZnC 6 H 4 OHCOO + , CoC 6 H 4 OHCOO + , Th(C 6 H 4 OHCOO) 4 and UO 2 (C 6 H 4 OCOO) 2 /sup =/ whose stability constants are found to be 10/sup 3.1/, 10/sup 3.2/, 10/sup 11.6/ and 10/sup 22.2/, respectively (μ = 0.1, temp. 40 0 C). (author)

  17. Stability constants of glutarate complexes of copper(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl(II) by paper electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.P.; Yadava, J.R.; Yadava, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Stability constants of Copper(II), Zinc(II), Cobalt(II) and Uranyl(II) glutarates have been determined by paper electrophoresis. Glutaric acid (0.005 mol dmsup(-3)) was added to the background electrolyte : 0.1 mol dmsup(-3) HClO 4 . The proportions of (CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO - and (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 2- were varied by changing the pH of the electrolyte. These anions yielded the complexes Cu(CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 , [Zn(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + [Co(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + and UO 2 (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 whose stability constants are found to be 10sup(3.9), 10sup(2.9), 10sup(2.7) and 10sup(13.5) respectively. (author)

  18. Efficient removal of cobalt(II) and strontium(II) metals from water using ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Hany; Moustafa, Wafaa M. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Farghali, Ahmed A.; El Rouby, Waleed M.A. [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt); Khalil, Waleed F. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2017-12-04

    Graphene oxide (GO) with high specific surface area was prepared and functionalized with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The as-prepared GO and the functionalized one (GO-EDTA) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared and EDTA functionalized GO were applied as adsorbent to remove strontium(II) and cobalt(II) from water. The results indicated that the prepared materials are efficient adsorbents for strontium(II) and cobalt(II) removal. The adsorption of Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} under effects of contact time, temperature, and pH was investigated It is concluded that the maximum adsorption capacities of GO for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} were about 168 and 140 mg.g{sup -1}, whereas of GO-EDTA the values were about 197 and 158 mg.g{sup -1}, respectively. It is indicated that pH 6 and temperature 40 C are the best condition for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} removal from water. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that Langmuir isotherm is best fit for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} equilibrium adsorption. Adsorption kinetics were studied by applying pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models on the experimental data. The results proved that pseudo second-order model is the best represented adsorption kinetics. Appling the intraparticle diffusion regressions on the experimental data indicated that intraparticle diffusion involved in adsorption process, which was not the only rate-controlling step. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed C−H amination with organic azides: radical nature and H-atom abstraction ability of the key cobalt(III)-nitrene intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaskovskyy, V.; Olivos Suarez, A.I.; Lu, H.; Jiang, H.; Zhang, X.P.; de Bruin, B.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed benzylic C-H bond amination of ethylbenzene, toluene, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) using a series of different organic azides [N3C(O)OMe, N3SO2Ph, N3C(O)Ph, and N3P(O)(OMe)2] as nitrene sources was studied by means of density functional

  20. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  1. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  2. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  3. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  5. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  6. Track structure for low energy ions including charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2002-01-01

    The model and development is described of a new generation of Monte Carlo track structure codes. The code LEAHIST simulates full slowing down of low-energy proton history tracks in the range 1 keV-1 MeV and the code LEAHIST simulates low-energy alpha particle history tracks in the range 1 keV-8 MeV in water. All primary ion interactions are followed down to 1 keV and all electrons to 1 eV. Tracks of secondary electrons ejected by ions were traced using the electron code KURBUC. Microdosimetric parameters derived by analysis of generated tracks are presented. (author)

  7. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  8. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  9. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  10. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  11. Multicomponent ion exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of ion-exchange column design becomes increasingly important in applications where high efficiency is required to remove trace components in wastewater to very low discharge requirements and for treating hazardous wastewaters where the disposal costs for secondary waste is extremely high. A predictive mathematical model is being developed for improved design of ion-exchange columns for treatment of wastewaters which are contaminated with trace quantities of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Equilibria isotherms and mass transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange of Ca, Mg, Na, Ca, and Sr with Ionsive IE-95 chabazite zeolite. These equations are being included in a mathematical model to determine the cation breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions

  12. Modular heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger for use in nuclear reactors includes a heat exchange tube bundle formed from similar modules each having a hexagonal shroud containing a large number of thermally conductive tubes which are connected with inlet and outlet headers at opposite ends of each module, the respective headers being adapted for interconnection with suitable inlet and outlet manifold means. In order to adapt the heat exchanger for operation in a high temperature and high pressure environment and to provide access to all tube ports at opposite ends of the tube bundle, a spherical tube sheet is arranged in sealed relation across the chamber with an elongated duct extending outwardly therefrom to provide manifold means for interconnection with the opposite end of the tube bundle.

  13. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  14. SYNERGISTIC EXTRACTION OF COBALT(II WITH MIXTURE OF ACYL-PYRAZOLON AND CROWN-ETHER IN STRONSIUM(II ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rusdiarso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic extraction of cobalt(II with mixture of acyl-pyrazolon (HL and crown-ether (E in the Sr(NO32 environment has been studied. In this research, HPMBP (phenyl-1-methyl-3-benzoil-4-pyrazolon-5 was used, with three different kinds of  crown-ether, i.e. (benzo-15-crown-5, DB18C6 (dibenzo-18-crown-6 and DB24C8 (dibenzo-24-crown-8, in chloroform. In the bulk environment  of stronsium,  a cobalt coextraction and stronsium occured with species ESrNO3+,Co(PMBP3-, and E = B15C5,    while Co(PMBP2E and ESr,Co(PMBP32, with E = DB18C6. There was no  coextraction when using crown-ether DB24C8, with the extracted species Co(PMBP2E. Values of extraction constant presented in log Kex were -6.08 (B15C5, - 4.51,  -12.55 (DB18C6, and - 4.57 (DB24C8, respectively.   Keywords: synergistic, cobalt (II, strontium (II, coextraction.

  15. Biological Active Cobalt(II and Nickel(II Complexes of 12-Membered Hexaaza [N6] Macrocyclic Ligand Synthetic and Spectroscopic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umendra Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New cobalt(II and nickel(II complexes of 12-membered macrocyclic Schiff - base ligand containing thiosemicarbazone moiety as a part of ring have been prepared having general composition [MLX2] where M = Co(II or Ni(II, L=3,4,9,10–tetra-2-furanyl-1,2,5,6,8,11- hexaazacyclododeca-7,12- dithione - 2,4,8,10 – tetraene, X = Cl-, NO3-, NCS-. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral (IR, electronic, EPR techniques and thermal analysis. Spectroscopic studies suggested a six coordinated octahedral geometry for all the complexes. The IR spectra of complexes suggest that ligand is coordinated to the metal ion through its four imines nitrogen. Conductivity measurements supported the non electrolytic nature of the complexes. The antifungal activities of complexes have been studied against a number of pathogenic fungi under laboratory conditions. The complexes showed good antifungal results. Thermal analysis of reported complexes suggests the absence of water molecule either in or outside the coordination sphere.

  16. Self-assembly of tetrakis (3-trifluoromethylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato cobalt(II) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their amperometric sensing application for nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Ding, Yu; Wang, Ao; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chenxin; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the soluble cobalt phthalocyanine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized by π-π stacking interaction between tetrakis (3-trifluoromethylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato cobalt(II) (CoPcF) complex and MWCNTs. The physical properties of CoPcF-MWCNTs hybrids are evaluated using spectroscopy (UV-vis, XPS, and Raman) and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). Subsequently, an amperometric nitrite electrochemical sensor is designed by immobilizing CoPcF-MWCNTs hybrids on the glassy carbon electrode. The immobilized CoPcF complex shows the fast electron transfer rate and excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of nitrite. Under optimum experimental conditions, the proposed nitrite electrochemical sensor shows the fast response (less than 2 s), wide linear range (9.6 × 10(-8) to 3.4 × 10(-4) M) and low detection limit (6.2 × 10(-8) M) because of the good mass transport, fast electron transfer rate, and excellent electrocatalytic activity.

  17. 3,4-Dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphate of mononuclear cobalt(II) with N-donor ligands: Synthesis, structural characterization, DFT and antibacterial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kour, Gurpreet; Schreckenbach, Georg; Andotra, Savit; Hundal, Geeta; Sharma, Vishal; Jaglan, Sundeep; Pandey, Sushil K.

    2017-08-01

    3,4-Dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphate of cobalt(II) with N-donor ligands [{(ArO)2PS2}2CoL2] [Ar = 3,4-(CH3)2C6H3 (1-3); L = C5H5N (1), 3,4-(CH3)2C5H3N (2) and 4-(C2H5)C5H4N (3)] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n whereas complexes 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic space group Pbar1. The crystal structures of complexes 1-3 reveal mononuclear units with the Co(II) center chelated in bidentate fashion by four S atoms of the two diphenyldithiophosphate ligands. The N atoms from two donor ligands are axially coordinated, leading to distorted octahedral geometry around Co(II). The complexes have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT), structural parameters have been calculated, and the energy gaps of the frontier orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) have been predicted. Mayer bond orders have also been calculated. Structural parameters from the crystallographic and DFT studies are in good agreement with each other. To explore the biological potential, complexes were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains. The bacterial growth inhibition capacity of the ligand and complexes followed the order of 3 > 2 > 1 > L1.

  18. A binuclear cobalt(II) complex of an NO(3)-donor Schiff base derived from 3-carboxyl-salicylaldehyde and 2-nitro-aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Wen; Chang, Ling; Sun, Peng; He, Min-Hui

    2008-12-20

    In the crystal structure of the centrosymmetric title complex, bis-{μ-3-[(2-nitro-phen-yl)imino-meth-yl]-2-oxidobenzoato}dicobalt(II), [Co(2)(C(14)H(8)N(2)O(5))(2)], in which the ligand is 3-[(2-nitro-phen-yl)imino-meth-yl]-2-oxidobenzoate, a Schiff base synthesized from 2-nitro-aniline with 3-carboxyl-salicyl-aldehyde, the two cobalt(II) ions in the mol-ecular unit are bridged by two phenolate O atoms of the ligands. Each metal centre has a distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked by Co⋯O inter-actions involving the nitro O atoms, forming a two-dimensional network. There are also C-H⋯O and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances of 3.5004 (2), 3.6671 (2) and 3.6677 (2) Å] between adjacent benzene rings of the two-dimensional networks, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework.

  19. A binuclear cobalt(II) complex of an NO3-donor Schiff base derived from 3-carboxyl­salicylaldehyde and 2-nitro­aniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Wen; Chang, Ling; Sun, Peng; He, Min-Hui

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the centrosymmetric title complex, bis­{μ-3-[(2-nitro­phen­yl)imino­meth­yl]-2-oxidobenzoato}dicobalt(II), [Co2(C14H8N2O5)2], in which the ligand is 3-[(2-nitro­phen­yl)imino­meth­yl]-2-oxidobenzoate, a Schiff base synthesized from 2-nitro­aniline with 3-carboxyl­salicyl­aldehyde, the two cobalt(II) ions in the mol­ecular unit are bridged by two phenolate O atoms of the ligands. Each metal centre has a distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked by Co⋯O inter­actions involving the nitro O atoms, forming a two-dimensional network. There are also C—H⋯O and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances of 3.5004 (2), 3.6671 (2) and 3.6677 (2) Å] between adjacent benzene rings of the two-dimensional networks, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework. PMID:21581483

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper (II) with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol in micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.A.; Soomro, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) is carried out with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as a complexing reagent in aqueous phase using non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. Beer's law is obeyed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) over the range 0.5 - 4.0, 0.5 - 4.0 and 0.5 - 3.0 ngmL/sup -1/ with detection limit (2 σ) of 6.7, 3.2 and 3.9 ngmL/sup -1/. The max molar absorption, molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are 580 nm, 570 nm and 555 nm; max (104 mol/sup -1/ cm /sup -1/) is 0.87, 1.8 and 1.6 and 6.8, 3.3 and 3.9 ng cm-2 respectively. The pH at which complex is formed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) is 5, 5.5 and 6.5 respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 is 5%. The present method is compared with that of atomic absorption spectroscopy and no significant difference is noted between the two methods at 95% confidence level. The method has been applied to the determination of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) in industrial waste water and pharmaceutical samples. (author)

  1. EPR-study of reversible oxygenation process of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N/sup 1/,N/sup 4/-di(salicylidene)-isothiosemicarbazides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeleu, N.V.; Revenko, M.D.; Rusu, V.G.; Shames, A.T.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction between molecular oxygen and coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N/sup 1/,N/sup 4/-di(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazides in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was studied by the EPR method. It was found that paramagnetic monomeric adducts and diamagnetic ..mu..-peroxo-dimers are formed. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the EPR spectra of the initial cobalt complexes, as well as of the paramagnetic adducts were determined. The nature of the Co-O/sub 2/ bond is discussed.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    L. Muruganandam; K. Krishnakumar

    2012-01-01

    A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenyl)methyl]acetamide (MBA), was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetrac...

  3. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  4. Deuterium exchange in sesamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.K.; Vaidya, N.A.; Morton, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed exchange of sesamol in 2 H 2 O results in rapid exchange of H-6 and slower exchange of H-2. The deuterium atoms introduced are retained during conversion to the methyl and allyl ethers. (author)

  5. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  6. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  7. Synthesis of bis(N-arylcarboximidoylchloride)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes and their catalytic behavior for 1,3-butadiene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Jia, Xiangyu; Wang, Feng; Dai, Quanquan; Wang, Baolin; Bi, Jifu; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Liping; Bai, Chenxi; Hu, Yanming; Zhang, Xuequan

    2013-10-07

    A new family of bis(N-arylcarboximidoylchloride)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes with the general formula [2,6-(ArN=CCl)2C5H3N]CoCl2 (Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, 4a; 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3, 4b; 2,6-Me2C6H3, 4c; C6H5, 4d; 4-Cl-2,6-Me2C6H2, 4e) and a typical Brookhart-Gibson-type reference complex [2,6-(2,4,6-Me3C6H2N=CMe)2C5H3N]CoCl2 (5a) were synthesized and characterized. Determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, complexes 4a, 4c-e, and 5a adopted a trigonal bipyramidal configuration, and 4b adopted a distorted square pyramidal geometry. In combination with ethylaluminum sesquichloride (EASC), all the complexes were highly active towards 1,3-butadiene polymerization, affording polybutadiene with predominant cis-1,4 content (up to 96%). 4a with chlorine atoms at the imine groups exhibited higher catalytic activity than did 5a, indicating that the incorporation of chlorine atoms into the ligand improves the activity. The activity of the complexes in 1,3-butadiene polymerization was in the order of 4a > 4c ∼ 4e ∼ 4b > 4d, which is consistent with the trend of spatial opening degree around the metal center in the complexes as revealed by crystallographic data. Screening polymerization conditions proved that EASC was the most efficient among the cocatalysts examined.

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(II and Cobalt(II by Direct, Derivative, and Simultaneous Methods Using 2-Hydroxy-1-Naphthaldehyde-p-Hydroxybenzoichydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anusuya Devi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized and validated spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of iron and cobalt individually and simultaneously. 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-p-hydroxybenzoichydrazone (HNAHBH reacts with iron(II and cobalt(II to form reddish-brown and yellow-coloured [Fe(II-HNAHBH] and [Co(II-HNAHBH] complexes, respectively. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was found at 405 nm and 425 nm, respectively. For [Fe(II-HNAHBH], Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.055–1.373 μg mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.095 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity ɛ, 5.6 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. [Co(II-HNAHBH] complex obeys Beer’s law in 0.118–3.534 μg mL−1 range with a detection limit of 0.04 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity, ɛ of 2.3 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. Highly sensitive and selective first-, second- and third-order derivative methods are described for the determination of iron and cobalt. A simultaneous second-order derivative spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of these metals. All the proposed methods are successfully employed in the analysis of various biological, water, and alloy samples for the determination of iron and cobalt content.

  9. Slow Magnetic Relaxations in Cobalt(II) Tetranitrate Complexes. Studies of Magnetic Anisotropy by Inelastic Neutron Scattering and High-Frequency and High-Field EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Cui, Hui-Hui; Stavretis, Shelby E; Hunter, Seth C; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Chen, Xue-Tai; Sun, Yi-Chen; Wang, Zhenxing; Song, You; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Ouyang, Zhong-Wen; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-12-19

    Three mononuclear cobalt(II) tetranitrate complexes (A) 2 [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] with different countercations, Ph 4 P + (1), MePh 3 P + (2), and Ph 4 As + (3), have been synthesized and studied by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, magnetic measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high-frequency and high-field EPR (HF-EPR) spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the structure of the tetranitrate cobalt anion varies with the countercation. 1 and 2 exhibit highly irregular seven-coordinate geometries, while the central Co(II) ion of 3 is in a distorted-dodecahedral configuration. The sole magnetic transition observed in the INS spectroscopy of 1-3 corresponds to the zero-field splitting (2(D 2 + 3E 2 ) 1/2 ) from 22.5(2) cm -1 in 1 to 26.6(3) cm -1 in 2 and 11.1(5) cm -1 in 3. The positive sign of the D value, and hence the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy, was demonstrated for 1 by INS studies under magnetic fields and HF-EPR spectroscopy. The combined analyses of INS and HF-EPR data yield the D values as +10.90(3), +12.74(3), and +4.50(3) cm -1 for 1-3, respectively. Frequency- and temperature-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the slow magnetization relaxation in 1 and 2 at an applied dc field of 600 Oe, which is a characteristic of field-induced single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The electronic structures and the origin of magnetic anisotropy of 1-3 were revealed by calculations at the CASPT2/NEVPT2 level.

  10. Solvent-induced synthesis of cobalt(II) coordination polymers based on a rigid ligand and flexible carboxylic acid ligands: syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Chuanlei; Ju, Zemin; Zheng, Hegen

    2015-04-21

    Five new cobalt(ii) coordination architectures, {[Co(L)2(H2O)2]·2H2O·2NO3}n (), {[Co(L)(ppda)]·2H2O}n (), {[Co2(L)(ppda)2]2·H2O}n (), {[Co(L)(nba)]·5H2O}n (), and {[Co(L)(oba)]2·3H2O}n (), have been constructed from the rigid ligand L [L = 2,8-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)dibenzofuran] and different flexible carboxylic acid ligands [H2ppda = 4,4'-(perfluoropropane-2,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid, H2nba = 4,4'-azanediyldibenzoic acid, and H2oba = 4,4'-oxydibenzoic acid]. Depending on the nature of the solvent systems, these five different coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, PXRD and elemental analysis. Compounds , and were obtained by a one-pot method, and then we utilized the solvent-induced effect to obtain almost pure crystals of , respectively. Compound is an infinite 1D chain which is formed by L ligands and Co atoms. Compound contains a [Co2(CO2)4] secondary building unit (SBU), and can be topologically represented as a 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating pcu net with the point symbol of {4(12)·6(3)}. Compound can be characterized as a 4-connected sql tetragonal planar network with the point symbol of {4(4)·6(2)}. In compounds and , there is a 1D chain which is formed by flexible carboxylic acid ligands and Co atoms; then the 1D chain is linked by L ligands in the tilting direction, leading to the formation of a 2D layer. Furthermore, UV-vis, TGA and magnetic properties have been investigated in detail.

  11. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  12. Sonochemical synthesis of a new cobalt(II) complex: Crystal structure, thermal behavior, Hirshfeld surface analysis and its usage as precursor for preparation of CoO/Co3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerozohori, Morteza; Masoudiasl, Ardavan; Farokhiyani, Sara; Joohari, Shiva; McArdle, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    A bidentate Schiff base ligand and its nano-structured cobalt(II) complex were synthesized under ultrasound irradiation and then their structures were identified by physical and spectral techniques SEM and XRD techniques were used to confirm the nanostructure character of the complex. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the complex crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group of P1¯ and two crystallographically independent molecules participate in its asymmetric unit. In the structure of complex, cobalt center is four-coordinated by two iminic nitrogens of bidentate Schiff base ligand and two bromide anions in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Crystal packing analysis well indicates that C-H⋯Br, C-H⋯π and π⋯π are the most intermolecular interactions. Moreover Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2D Fingerprint plots were applied for more investigation of intermolecular interactions. In addition, sonochemically prepared cobalt(II) bromide complex was subjected to calcination process under air atmosphere for preparation of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The XRD pattern confirmed the simultaneous formation of CoO and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  14. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  15. Energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the identification of efficiencies that can minimise transaction costs in energy trading and marketing. The article describes what is meant by 'trade management'. It is argued that a trade management system should be able to dovetail with existing or future ERP, advanced risk management, and financial management systems, to provide total enterprise integration. With the right trade management systems, traders have all the necessary information to help them manage exposure to financial risks in a world where energy trading companies are forced to accept very small margins. A trade management system can cover many aspects of a business including the winning of contracts for transportation deals, including rail, car, truck, barge and pipeline. There appears to be unprecedented opportunities for companies specialising in development and provision of trade management systems

  16. Energy exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B. [SolArc, Inc. (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The article discusses the identification of efficiencies that can minimise transaction costs in energy trading and marketing. The article describes what is meant by 'trade management'. It is argued that a trade management system should be able to dovetail with existing or future ERP, advanced risk management, and financial management systems, to provide total enterprise integration. With the right trade management systems, traders have all the necessary information to help them manage exposure to financial risks in a world where energy trading companies are forced to accept very small margins. A trade management system can cover many aspects of a business including the winning of contracts for transportation deals, including rail, car, truck, barge and pipeline. There appears to be unprecedented opportunities for companies specialising in development and provision of trade management systems.

  17. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  18. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The considerable mass of Heat Exchangers (HXs) and coldplates on spacecraft as well as the problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) are among the...

  19. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of a New Mannich Base N-[Morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide and Its Cobalt(II, Nickel(II and Copper(II Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muruganandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Mannich base N-[morpholino(phenylmethyl]acetamide (MBA, was synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Chelates of MBA with cobalt(II, nickel(II and copper(II ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV spectral studies. MBA was found to act as a bidentate ligand, bonding through the carbonyl oxygen of acetamide group and CNC nitrogen of morpholine moiety in all the complexes. Based on the magnetic moment values and UV-Visible spectral data, tetracoordinate geometry for nitrato complexes and hexacoordinate geometry for sulphato complexes were assigned. The antimicrobial studies show that the Co(II nitrato complex is more active than the other complexes.

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. Cooling device for a heat exchange fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The invention refers to a system for cooling process or operation fluids, in which the local or general superheating of the coolant must be avoided. It particularly applies to the bleed fluid of a nuclear power station steam generator. This invention aims to create a heat exchange system that uses static components only and that is therefore completely reliable whilst remaining simple and relatively economical. This system includes a regeneration heat exchanger (with a primary and secondary system) and a triple flow heat exchanger with three circuits. The first and second circuits are in fluid communication with the primary and secondary circuits of the regeneration heat exchanger. The fluid communication between the regeneration heat exchanger and the triple circuit heat exchanger is such that the process fluid first goes through one of the circuits of the regeneration heat exchanger where it is cooled, then through one of the first two circuits of the triple circuit heat exchanger where it is cooled still more, then through the other of the circuits of the regeneration exchanger where it is heated and finally through the second of the first two circuits of the triple circuit heat exchanger where it is cooled again. A coolant flows through the third circuit in order to cool the process fluid concerned [fr

  3. Developing an exchange mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary

    2010-09-01

    Exchange is a fundamental concept that underlies all social marketing efforts. In a successful exchange, both parties receive something of value and the benefits that they desire in return for a price. The purpose of this article is to describe how practitioners can develop an "exchange mindset." A practitioner's answer to five basic questions will enable him or her to see the exchange through the eyes of the customer and increase the likelihood of creating a successful exchange that will benefit both parties involved and result in positive behavior change.

  4. Communication network exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seung Sul

    1988-05-01

    This book has two parts. The first parts is comprised of five chapters, which deals with communication network constitution with design of network and types, telephone network about outline and management of network, telephone network · data network · private network, international data telephone network about service and international data network and technical standards of quality of service, communication and data. The second parts handles exchange, which is about institution of switching, a manual exchange and step-by step exchange, a crossbar exchange, electronic exchange, international switching system, design of equipment of test and measurement.

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. Experimental evaluation of vibrations in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ghiselli, A.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations may produce damage of heat exchangers, condensers and steam generators tubes. To evaluate this problem a set of tests were developed to know the real support state of the tubes, which have great influence on the vibration response. This paper include a description of the tests and the results obtained applying them on a heat exchanger equipment. (author) [es

  7. Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Thermal Behaviors of Two Supramolecular Salamo-Type Cobalt(II and Zinc(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the syntheses of two new complexes, [Co(L1(H2O2] (1 and [{Zn(L2(μ-OAcZn(n-PrOH}2] (2, from asymmetric halogen-substituted Salamo-type ligands H2L1 and H3L2, respectively. Investigation of the crystal structure of complex 1 reveals that the complex includes one Co(II ion, one (L12− unit and two coordinated water molecules. Complex 1 shows slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, forming an infinite 2D supramolecular structure by intermolecular hydrogen bond and π–π stacking interactions. Complex 2 contains four Zn(IIions, two completely deprotonated (L23− moieties, two coordinated μ-OAc− ions and n-propanol molecules. The Zn(II ions in complex 2 display slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal or square pyramidal geometries.

  8. Heat exchanger and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  9. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A; Saleh, Tawfik A; Ali, Shaikh A

    2017-04-05

    Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137mgg -1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A., E-mail: shaikh@kfupm.edu.sa

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g{sup −1} does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  11. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g −1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  12. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  13. 78 FR 17733 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... given that on March 18, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE..., including exercise style. Accordingly, the Exchange noted in its Mini Options filing that Exchange rules...

  14. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  15. Heat exchanger staybolt acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    The structural integrity demonstration of the primary coolant piping system includes evaluating the structural capacity of each component against a large break or equivalent Double-Ended Guillotine Break. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The Savannah River Site heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. Access to the staybolts is limited due to a welded seal cap over the staybolts. An ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection technique to provide an in-situ examination of the staybolts has recently been developed at SRS. Examination of the staybolts will be performed to ensure their service condition and configuration is within acceptance limits. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. The heat exchanger head is analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts. Evaluation of specific, inactive staybolt configurations based on the UT results can be performed with the finite element model and fracture methodology in this report

  16. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  17. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  18. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by a natural ion-exchange resin was investigated by considering the factors affecting the ammonium-exchange capacity including the zeolites' particle size, the loading flow rates and the impact of a number of regenerations upon the ion-exchange capacity. The resin column was ...

  19. Thermodynamic optimization of heat exchanger tanks by exergy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper introduces heat exchanger tanks, detailing their dominant thermodynamic relations to obtain the exergy analysis relations of heat exchanger tanks. Heat exchanger tank is examined under various laboratory conditions, including the power of heat element inside the tank, mass flow rate of cooling water of tank ...

  20. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  2. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  4. French chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Lerat, J.-M.; Plurien, P.

    1979-01-01

    A new chemical exchange reaction between two forms of uranium compounds with a high elementary separation coefficient and good kinetics has been discovered at the French Energy Commission ten years ago and developed to the industrial stage. We give here some general characteristics of the process and discuss some parameters of the kinetics exchange

  5. Direct fired heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  6. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  7. Motivation for International Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Elizabeth

    An objective analysis of students' initial motivation for studying overseas was attempted by surveying students before they embarked on their exchange programs. Eighty-eight students who were planning to study in France, Great Britain, Germany, and the People's Republic of China were surveyed. The exchange program was sponsored by the University…

  8. Composite inorganic ion exchangers and their uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  9. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ..., Opinion, and Order of the Commission July 26, 2013. I. Introduction On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC... Exchange is structured as a Delaware limited liability company ] (``LLC''), and is a wholly-owned... directors, including three Non-Industry Directors),\\45\\ a Finance and Audit Committee (consisting of between...

  10. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  11. Wound tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  12. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  13. High temperature alloys and ceramic heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masaharu

    1984-04-01

    From the standpoint of energy saving, the future operating temperatures of process heat and gas turbine plants will become higher. For this purpose, ceramics is the most promissing candidate material in strength for application to high-temperature heat exchangers. This report deals with a servey of characteristics of several high-temperature metallic materials and ceramics as temperature-resistant materials; including a servey of the state-of-the-art of ceramic heat exchanger technologies developed outside of Japan, and a study of their application to the intermediate heat exchanger of VHTR (a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor). (author)

  14. Energy-Exchange Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  15. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  17. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  18. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  19. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  20. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  1. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  2. Exchange transfusion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100018.htm Exchange transfusion - series—Procedure To use the sharing features on ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Common Infant and Newborn Problems Jaundice ...

  3. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  4. Contact Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. L.; Stalmach, D. D.; Cox, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid pressure controls contact between heat pipe and heat exchanger. Heat exchanger system in cross section provides contact interface between fluid system and heat pipe with easy assembly/disassembly of heat-pipe/ pumped-liquid system. Originally developed for use in space, new device applicable on Earth where fluid system is linked with heat pipe, where rapid assembly/disassembly required, or where high pressures or corrosive fluids used.

  5. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  6. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  7. Micro tube heat exchangers for Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers...

  8. The Balescu kinetic equation with exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V V; Kukharenko, Yu A

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the distribution functions, we have obtained the quantum kinetic equation including the dynamical screening of the interaction potential, which exactly takes into account the exchange scattering in the plasma. The collision integral is expressed in terms of the Green function of the linearized Hartree–Fock equation. The potential energy takes into account the polarization and exchange interaction too

  9. Design concept for vessels and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfmann, W.; Ferrari, L.D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A design concept for vessels and heat exchangers against internal and external loads resulting from normal operation and accident is shown. A definition and explanation of the operating conditions and stress levels are given. A description of the type of analysis (stress, fatigue, deformation, stability, earthquake and vibration) is presented in detail, also including technical guidelines which are used for the vessels and heat exchangers and their individual structure parts. (Author) [pt

  10. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  11. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  12. Ion-exchange voltammetry of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) nickel(II), cobalt(II), and Co(salen) at polyestersulfonated ionomer coated electrodes in acetonitrile: Reactivity of the electrogenerated low-valent complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Moretto, Ligia M.; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of [Ni(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ], [Co(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ], and Co(salen) (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and salen N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine) is studied at a glassy carbon electrode modified with the poly(estersulfonate) ionomer Eastman AQ 55 in acetonitrile (MeCN). It is shown that the nickel complex is strongly incorporated into the polymer. The reduction of the divalent nickel compound features a two-electron process leading to a nickel(0) species which is released from the coating because of the lack of electrostatic attraction with the ionomer. Yet, the neutral zerovalent nickel-bipyridine complex is reactive towards ethyl 4-iodobenzoate and di-bromocyclohexane despite the presence of the polymer. The activation of the aryl halide occurs through an oxidative addition, whereas, an electron transfer is involved in the presence of the alkyl halide making the catalyst regeneration much faster in the latter case. The electrochemical study of [Co(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ] shows that incorporation of the cobalt complex into the polymer is efficient, provided excess bpy is used. This excess bpy does not interfere with the electrocatalytic activity of the cobalt complex incorporated in the AQ coating and efficient electrocatalysis is observed towards di-bromocyclohexane and benzyl-bromide as substrates. Finally, replacement of the bpy ligand with the macrocycle N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine, salen, leads to the incorporation of the non-charged Co II (salen) complex into the AQ 55 polymer showing the relevancy of hydrophobic interactions. The reaction between the electrogenerated [Co I (salen)] - with 1,2-dibromocyclohexane exhibits a fast inner sphere electron transfer

  13. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of N'-(furan-3-ylmethylene)-2-(4-methoxyphenylamino)acetohydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Sanaa M; El-Saied, Fathy A; Abou El-Enein, Saeyda A; El-Shater, Heba A

    2009-03-01

    Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of furan-2-carbaldehyde 4-methoxy-N-anilinoacetohydrazone were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal (TG and DTA) analyses, IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra as well as magnetic moment and molar conductivity. Mononuclear complexes are obtained with 1:1 molar ratio except complexes 3 and 9 which are obtained with 1:2 molar ratios. The IR spectra of ligand and metal complexes reveal various modes of chelation. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate one and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The ligand behaves also as a monobasic tridentate one and coordination occurs through the enolic oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom of furan ring. Moreover, the ligand behaves as a neutral tridentate and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms as well as a monobasic bidentate and coordination occurs via the enolic oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The electronic spectra and magnetic moment measurements reveal that all complexes possess octahedral geometry except the copper complex 10 possesses a square planar geometry. The thermal studies showed the type of water molecules involved in metal complexes as well as the thermal decomposition of some metal complexes.

  14. Crystal structure of bis(azido-κNbis[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ2N2,N3]cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Laachir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Co(N32(C12H8N4S2], the cobalt(II atom is located on an inversion centre and displays an axially weakly compressed octahedral coordination geometry. The equatorial positions are occupied by the N atoms of two 2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazole ligands, whereas the axial positions are occupied by N atoms of the azide anions. The thiadiazole and pyridine rings linked to the metal are almost coplanar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.0273 (16 Å. The cohesion of the crystal is ensured by weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds and by π–π interactions between pyridine rings [intercentroid distance = 3.6356 (11 Å], forming a layered arrangement parallel to (001. The structure of the title compound is isotypic with that of the analogous nickel(II complex [Laachir et al. (2013. Acta Cryst. E69, m351–m352].

  15. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  16. Meson exchange-current effects in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehesa, J.S.; Lallena, A. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Krewald, S. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik); Donnelly, T.W. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Lab. for Nuclear Science; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1985-04-15

    Meson exchange-current effects in the electroexcitation of magnetic states are evaluated in /sup 16/O and /sup 208/Pb. A new method is suggested which properly includes the influence of the nuclear mean field on meson exchange-current effects. In addition, an effective meson exchange-current operator is developed which considerably simplifies the evaluation of meson exchange-current effects. Over a wide range of momentum transfers, the magnetic cross sections for the electroexcitation of high-spin, stretched 1 plh states are found to be smoothly enhanced by meson exchange currents.

  17. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  18. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  19. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications.

  20. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  1. 77 FR 31059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... structure for logical ports used to receive Multicast PITCH data from the Exchange, but rather, simply an... logical ports necessary to receive Multicast PITCH data from the Exchange, which is reflected on the... includes one port at the Exchange's primary data center and another port at the Exchange's secondary data...

  2. Study of multi-site chemical exchange in solution state by NMR: 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant features of the experiment, which relies on sign labelling of the exchanging sites, include considerably shorter experiment time compared to standard 2D exchange work, clear definition of the exchange time window and uniform pulse non-ideality effects for all the exchanging sites. Complete kinetic information is ...

  3. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  4. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  5. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  6. Heat exchanger panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  7. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  8. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  10. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  11. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  13. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  14. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-28

    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  15. Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Dive into Exchange Server 2010 and SP1-and discover how to really put your messaging solutions to work! This well-organized and in-depth reference packs all the details you need to deploy and manage Exchange 2010, including hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert tips, and workarounds.Topics include preparing for the deployment of Exchange 2010; new features of Service Pack 1; using Remote PowerShell and the Exchange Management Shell; understanding how the new Role Based Access Control (RBAC) permissions model works and how to customize it to your requirements; the new high availability mode

  16. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  17. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  18. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  20. Synthesis and electrochemistry of β-pyrrole nitro-substituted cobalt(II) porphyrins. The effect of the NO₂ group on redox potentials, the electron transfer mechanism and catalytic reduction of molecular oxygen in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Ou, Zhongping; Yang, Shuibo; Meng, Deying; Lu, Guifen; Fang, Yuanyuan; Kadish, Karl M

    2014-07-28

    Four cobalt(II) porphyrins, two of which contain a β-pyrrole nitro substituent, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. The investigated compounds are represented as (TRPP)Co and (NO2TRPP)Co, where TRPP is the dianion of a substituted tetraphenylporphyrin and R is a CH3 or OCH3 substituent on the four phenyl rings of the macrocycle. Two reductions and three oxidations are observed for each compound in CH2Cl2 containing 0.10 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. The first reduction of the compounds without a nitro substituent is metal-centered and leads to formation of a Co(I) porphyrin which then reacts with the CH2Cl2 solvent to generate a carbon σ-bonded Co(III)-R complex. A further reduction then occurs at more negative potentials to generate an unstable Co(II) σ-bonded compound. In contrast to these reactions, the first reduction of the nitro-substituted porphyrins is macrocycle-centered under the same solution conditions and gives a Co(II) porphyrin π-anion radical product. This reversible electron transfer is then followed at more negative potentials by a second reversible one-electron addition to give a Co(II) dianion. Three reversible one-electron oxidations are also seen for each compound. The first is metal-centered and the next two involve the conjugated π-system of the macrocycle. Each neutral Co(II) porphyrin was also examined as to its catalytic activity for electroreduction of molecular oxygen when coated on an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1.0 M HClO4. The β-pyrrole nitro-substituted derivatives were shown to be better catalysts than the non-nitro substituted compounds under the utilized experimental conditions.

  1. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  2. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  3. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  4. Structural information on the coordination compounds formed by manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) thiocyanates with 4-cyanopyridine N-oxide from their magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, I. S.; Yadava, C. L.; Singh, Raghuvir

    1982-05-01

    Coordination compounds formed by the interaction of 4-cyanopyridine. N-oxide (4-CPO), a potentially bidentate ligand, with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and rnercury(II) thiocyanates have been prepared and characterized from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibilities, electronic and infrared spectral studies down to 200 cm -1 in the solid state. The compounds isolated are: Mn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Co(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Ni(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Zn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Cd(4-CPO)(NCS) 2 and Hg(4-CPO) 2(SCN) 2. It is shown that 4-CPO acts as a terminal N-oxide oxygen bonded monodentate ligand in all the metal(II) thiocyanate complexes studied. Tentative stereochemistries of the complexes in the solid state are discussed. The ligand field parameters 10 Dq, B, β and λ calculated for the manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes are consistent with their proposed stereochemistries.

  5. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  6. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  7. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  8. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  9. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  10. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  11. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  12. Hydrogen isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The two most widely used methods for following hydrogen isotope exchange reactions, namely dedeuteriation and detritiation, involve in the first place the synthesis of an appropriately labelled compound. Rates of dedeuteriation are usually followed by measuring changes in the 1 H n.m.r. spectrum of the substrate (examples are given); the method not only gives the rate but also the site(s) of exchange. It is limited to rather slow reactions and is not as accurate as some of the other methods. The development of deuterium n.m.r. spectroscopy means that changes in the 2 H n.m.r. spectrum can also be used to measure rates of dedeuteriation. The development of liquid scintillation counting greatly eased the problem of how to detect weak β emitters; the attractions of tritium as a tracer were thereby much enhanced. Nowadays the study of rates of detritiation constitutes one of the most versatile and accurate methods of following hydrogen isotope exchange. Examples of the technique are given. (U.K.)

  13. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-07-30

    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  14. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  15. Pion double charge exchange in the Δ33 resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirzba, A.; Toki, H.; Siciliano, E.R.; Johnson, M.B.; Gilman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We examine the model dependence and nuclear-structure sensitivity of several Δ 33 -dominated processes contributing to pion double charge exchange on nuclei in the region of the Δ 33 resonance. These processes include the Δ 33 -nucleon interaction V NΔ and sequential scattering, in which the pion undergoes single charge exchange on two different nucleons. In all cases, the scattering takes place through the exchange of an intermediate π and ρ meson. Sequential-mediated double charge exchange is found to be only moderately sensitive to short-range correlations, meson-nucleon form factors, and the rho meson, whereas V NΔ -mediated double charge exchange is very sensitive to all these effects. Results are given for double charge exchange on 18 O (double isobaric analog transitions) and 16 O (nonanalog transitions). Sequential double charge exchange is shown to favor non-spin-flip matrix elements of the transition operator whereas V NΔ -mediated double charge exchange favors spin-flip matrix elements. The energy dependence of the zero-degree cross sections for V NΔ and sequential scattering are also different: Sequential tends to increase monotonically from 100 to 300 MeV, whereas V NΔ peaks at about 150 MeV. The delta-nucleon interaction is found likely to dominate over sequential scattering in nonanalog double charge exchange. The V NΔ is also large in analog double charge exchange, but it does not enable us to explain the anomalous behavior of the 18 O differential cross sections

  16. Isotope exchange process and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvalle, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    A process for enriching uranium in one of its isotopes is described. To do so, cascade isotopic exchanges are made by contact between U(III) and U(IV) in conditions avoiding the oxidation of U(III) in U(IV). A liquid phase containing an uranium compound and free of other group III to VIII metals of the periodic classification, in which uranium is present at a first valence is placed in contact with a second valence uranium compound, protected from any contact with a conducting solid and with an agent bringing free or release oxygen. The second phase is organic. The process includes a counter current isotopic exchange between an aqueous phase containing a U +4 salting-out agent and the uranium as U +3 ions and an organic phase containing the uranium at valence IV. This is followed by the extraction of U(IV) from the organic phase into the previously spent aqueous phase and the reduction of uranium from valence IV to valence III; finally by oxidation of U(III) of the aqueous phase into U(IV) and the transfer of U(IV) into the previously exhausted organic phase [fr

  17. 12 CFR 614.4900 - Foreign exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4900 Foreign exchange. (a... international financial activities. The bank's policies should include established guidelines for: (1) Net...

  18. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  19. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified

  20. 77 FR 72813 - Information Collection; Land Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... discretionary, voluntary real estate transactions between the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretary of... exchanges can be initiated by a non-Federal party (or parties), an agent of a landowner, a broker, a third... parties) that can include landowners, agents of landowners, brokers, a third party, or a non-Federal...

  1. Shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougriou, Cherif; Baadache, Khireddine [University of Batna, Department of Mechanics, Batna (Algeria)

    2010-03-15

    This study concerns a new type of heat exchangers, which is that of shell-and-double concentric-tube heat exchangers. These heat exchangers can be used in many specific applications such as air conditioning, waste heat recovery, chemical processing, pharmaceutical industries, power production, transport, distillation, food processing, cryogenics, etc. The case studies include both design calculations and performance calculations. It is demonstrated that the relative diameter sizes of the two tubes with respect to each other are the most important parameters that influence the heat exchanger size. (orig.)

  2. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  3. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import...... in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created...

  4. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  5. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    , and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...... a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes...... regime in whichthe monetary authority optimises preferences which include an employment targetand an inflation target. As government spending affects the representativeindividual's utility, the choice of exchange rate regime has an impact on welfare.Keywords: exchange rate regimes; fiscal policy...

  6. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thi Hong Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the panel data and, then, a GMM estimator is employed to ensure the consistency of the estimates. The results point out that the exchange rate exposure of these countries is asymmetric. At market level, for a rise in the exchange rate (or local currency depreciates, the average stock returns tend to decrease. However, due to the favourable impact of currency depreciation on the net export position, the reduction speed of stock returns is faster than the rising speed of the exchange rate.

  7. Fock exchange in meson theories of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Fock exchange term in meson field theories of nuclear systems is shown to arise from a two-loop ground-state self-energy diagram. Evaluation of this diagram gives the relativistic or semirelativistic analog of the Fock exchange energy; it differs from the nucleon-nucleon Fock energy in including retardation effects. In finite meson-field theories of nuclear systems, the variational nature of the meson-field analog of the Hartree-Fock energy functional can be further elucidated. 4 refs

  8. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  9. 77 FR 3590 - Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration, Securities Law Techniques (Matthew Bender ed., 2011). Typical elements of merit review include... competition is brand name.\\81\\ Issuers place high value on being listed on certain exchanges because investors... exchanges can charge, above a competitor's price, because of its brand name). In addition to brand name...

  10. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6341 Large private branch exchange expense. This account shall include expenses associated with large private branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded...

  11. Failure of standard approximations of the exchange coupling in nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the exchange coupling for a double dot system using a numerically exact technique based on finite-element methods and an expansion in two-dimensional Gaussians. Specifically, we evaluate the exchange coupling both for a quasi-one- and a two-dimensional system, also including an appli...

  12. Monetary models and exchange rate determination: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper estimates three different monetary models of exchange rate determination for the Nigerian economy using time series data. These include the Monetary ... Thus, the money supply process should be stable; otherwise, the exchange rate system in the country will be unstable. The policy significance in this ...

  13. Price discovery on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange: Examining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is the first to examine the price discovery process on the South African Johannesburg Stock Exchange since several significant market changes occurred, including the introduction of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs). This paper examines the FTSE/JSE Top 40 Index, the Top 40 Index Futures and the SATRIX Top ...

  14. 78 FR 38776 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... with the Commission, the Exchange included statements concerning the purpose of and basis for the... this date in the Fee Schedule in this location is unnecessary going forward. Second, the Exchange... that including this language in the Fee Schedule is unnecessary going forward. Fourth, the Exchange...

  15. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The dual temperature exchange apparatus, with a dual temperature stage having a hot processing tower and a cold processing tower, is provided with means for transferring heat from the hot processed gas to both liquid and gas being delivered to the hot processing tower. The heat exchange system provides means for effecting direct contact between the hot processed gas and the cold processed liquid being delivered to the hot tower, means for establishing a circulation of the resulting heated processed liquid, and means including an indirect contact exchanger for transferring heat from said circulation to condition the gas being supplied to the hot processing tower. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  16. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  17. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  18. 76 FR 49832 - Notice of Market Assessment and Public Meeting for Digital Transportation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... including angels, venture capitalists and strategic investors to digital transportation business plans for... Market Assessment and Public Meeting for Digital Transportation Exchange AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...--creating a thriving marketplace for digital transportation solutions. The Digital Transportation Exchange...

  19. Educational Exchanges Across the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. J.; Walker, C. E.; Smith, M.; Pompea, S. M.; Orellana, D.

    2003-12-01

    What is color? What is light? How can we use a spectrometer to help students understand the answers to these questions? Even half a world apart and between people of different languages and cultures, how to teach these ideas to students can be a lively subject for discussion. And it is! Aided by Internet 2-based videoconferencing, NOAO North and South have sponsored three teacher professional development videoconference workshops, dubbed ASTRO-Chile, linking teachers in Tucson, AZ, and La Serena, Chile. The teachers exchange methods and ideas about how to explain and demonstrate physical concepts, important to the study of astronomy, to students of various ages. The workshops are conducted in Spanish with four bilingual science teachers from the Tucson area discussing pedagogical approaches with their teaching counterparts in Chile. Demonstrations and project presentations, from both sites, are included as part of each workshop. This work is supported, in part, through funding from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  20. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  1. Intergenerational Exchanges in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses exchanges of support between the elderly and adult generations and by gender, based on data from the United Nations household survey in Mexico City (SABE, 2000), and the National Study of Ageing and Health (ENASEM, 2001). Results indicate that in Mexico both generations – elderly parents and adult children – provide support, such as money, services, care or gifts for grandchildren, according to gender roles and the generation’s resources. Men provide monetary support and reproduce their role as family providers, but this role depends on having an income from work and, in later years, a pension, a more common situation among men than among women. Women develop their female domestic role as caregivers. They do not have a formal income, but receive informal economic support and offer services and care to their relatives, reproducing their invisible and unpaid work during their life course. Both types of support are widely exchanged between elderly parents and adult children and children-in-law. PMID:29375143

  2. Cointegration and Causality Test Among Export, Import, and Foreign Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Subiyakto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rupiah exchange rate, import, and export are the important indicators in economy, including the Indonesia economy. The debate regarding the relationship among the exchange rate, import, and export has been persisting for several decades. Some researchers found that there is a relationship among those three and others explained that there is no correlation among them. The aim of this research is to obtain the empirical evidence of the causal relationship among the export, import, and foreign exchange rate by using the monthly data from January 2010 to April 2014. The export and import data are the export and import values in US dollar. The exchange rate data is the median exchange rates of the Indonesian Bank. The Johansen Cointegration Test and the Granger Causality Test are used to analyze the data. The research result shows that export and import have no causal relationship at five percent. Next, the foreign exchange rate influences the export and import at 10 percent level. The result indicates that the foreign exchange rate has small effects on the export and import. Based on the results, the government should control the balance of trade and should not make any policy that is based on the exchange rate values. Finally, it can be said that the exchange rate policy is not effective in increasing the exports and reducing the imports.

  3. Measuring real exchange rate misalignment in Croatia: cointegration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Palić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze misalignment of the real exchange rate in Croatia. The misalignment analysis is conducted using the permanent equilibrium exchange rate approach. The equilibrium real exchange rate is computed using the cointegration approach whereby the real exchange rate and its fundamentals, namely terms of trade, net foreign assets and the ratio of prices of tradables to non-tradables are included in cointegration analysis. The Hodrick and Prescott filter is used to obtain permanent values of the equilibrium real exchange rate. The real exchange rate misalignment is computed as the deviation of the RER from its permanent equilibrium level. Four overvaluation periods and three undervaluation periods are recorded in Croatia in the observed period. Overvaluation periods are more often and of longer duration than undervaluation periods. However, the real exchange rate does not deviate largely from its estimated equilibrium value in the observed period, and it is neither overvalued nor undervalued constantly, but the periods alternate. Considering the results of the analysis, together with the empirical characteristics of Croatian economy, namely the high foreign currency indebtedness, highly euroized economy and underdeveloped export oriented sector, the depreciation of the real exchange rate is not recommended to economic policy makers and the current Croatian exchange rate policy is appropriate.

  4. Two Polymorphic Forms of a Six-Coordinate Mononuclear Cobalt(II) Complex with Easy-Plane Anisotropy: Structural Features, Theoretical Calculations, and Field-Induced Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadip; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Colacio, Enrique; Bauza, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Kirillov, Alexander M; Drew, Michael G B; Das, Subrata

    2016-09-06

    A mononuclear cobalt(II) complex [Co(3,5-dnb)2(py)2(H2O)2] {3,5-Hdnb = 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid; py = pyridine} was isolated in two polymorphs, in space groups C2/c (1) and P21/c (2). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are not isostructural in spite of having equal formulas and ligand connectivity. In both structures, the Co(II) centers adopt octahedral {CoN2O4} geometries filled by pairs of mutually trans terminal 3,5-dnb, py, and water ligands. However, the structures of 1 and 2 disclose distinct packing patterns driven by strong intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds, leading to their 0D→2D (1) or 0D→1D (2) extension. The resulting two-dimensional layers and one-dimensional chains were topologically classified as the sql and 2C1 underlying nets, respectively. By means of DFT theoretical calculations, the energy variations between the polymorphs were estimated, and the binding energies associated with the noncovalent interactions observed in the crystal structures were also evaluated. The study of the direct-current magnetic properties, as well as ab initio calculations, reveal that both 1 and 2 present a strong easy-plane magnetic anisotropy (D > 0), which is larger for the latter polymorph (D is found to exhibit values between +58 and 117 cm(-1) depending on the method). Alternating current dynamic susceptibility measurements show that these polymorphs exhibit field-induced slow relaxation of the magnetization with Ueff values of 19.5 and 21.1 cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The analysis of the whole magnetic data allows the conclusion that the magnetization relaxation in these polymorphs mainly takes place through a virtual excited state (Raman process). It is worth noting that despite the notable difference between the supramolecular networks of 1 and 2, they exhibit almost identical magnetization dynamics. This fact suggests that the relaxation process is intramolecular in nature and that the virtual state involved in the

  5. Exchange of Standardized Flight Dynamics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Berry, David; Flores-Amaya, Felipe; Folliard, J.; Kiehling, R.; Ogawa, M.; Pallaschke, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operations require the knowledge of the vehicle trajectory and attitude and also that of other spacecraft or natural bodies. This knowledge is normally provided by the Flight Dynamics teams of the different space organizations and, as very often spacecraft operations involve more than one organization, this information needs to be exchanged between Agencies. This is why the Navigation Working Group within the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems), has been instituted with the task of establishing standards for the exchange of Flight Dynamics data. This exchange encompasses trajectory data, attitude data, and tracking data. The Navigation Working Group includes regular members and observers representing the participating Space Agencies. Currently the group includes representatives from CNES, DLR, ESA, NASA and JAXA. This Working Group meets twice per year in order to devise standardized language, methods, and formats for the description and exchange of Navigation data. Early versions of some of these standards have been used to support mutual tracking of ESA and NASA interplanetary spacecraft, especially during the arrival of the 2003 missions to Mars. This paper provides a summary of the activities carried out by the group, briefly outlines the current and envisioned standards, describes the tests and operational activities that have been performed using the standards, and lists and discusses the lessons learned from these activities.

  6. Coupling codes including deformation exchange suitable for non conforming and unstructured large meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex, B.; Grandotto, M.; Perdu, F.; Daniel, M.; Gesquière, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A function of deformation transfer on meshes is proposed. ► Large meshes sharing a common geometry or common borders are treated. ► We show the deformation transfer impact on simulation results. - Abstract: The paper proposes a method to couple computation codes and focuses on the transfer of mesh deformations between these codes. The deformations can concern a single object or different objects in contact along common boundaries. The method is designed to allow a wide range of mesh types and to manage large volumes of data. To reach these objectives, a mesh simplification step is first achieved and is followed by the deformation characterisation through a continuous function defined by a network of compact support radial basis functions (RBFs). A test case featuring adjacent geometries in a material testing reactor (MTR) is presented to assess the method. Two solids close together are subject to a deformation by a thermal dilatation, and are cooled by a liquid flowing between them. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and show how the deformation transfer modifies the thermalhydraulic solution.

  7. Distorted-wave calculation of He(e,2 e) including core-exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1992-04-01

    Distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations are reported for coplanar symmetric ionization of helium at energies of 100 and 200 eV. The best possible one-configuration incident distorted wave functions together with the capture scattering have been used to produce a better agreement with absolute measurements at 100 eV compared with the previous DWBA calculations. However the discrepancy between experiment and theory at 200 eV for large angles has not been resolved by these modifications. Moreover capture scattering has been found negligible at 28.6 to 200 eV. Similar DWBA calculations for hydrogen close to the threshold are also reported. Very good agreement with experiment has been found at 17.6 eV. 20 refs., 4 figs

  8. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Every international business is affected by the ever-changing value of the currencies implied in contracts. While many of us consider this unpredictability a nuisance, the volatility of currencies around the world can mean the difference between success and failure for many exporters/importers. Exchange rates between one currency and another can change dramatically in a short period of time, leaving the unprepared business exposed to potentially crippling losses. The efficient management of this risk is essential for the survival of a company and any business that is exposed to such a risk should ensure that it is fully prepared to manage it. Old standbys and recent breakthroughs in the area of financial risk management can remove much of the risk from currency rate movements. The range of such products is huge, with increasingly sophisticated techniques constantly being added. Among the most modern methods for managing exchange risk there are four major classes of derivative products like: forwards, futures, options, and swaps. Beyond the four main types of risk management instruments, there are a number of other products including "swaptions" (options on swaps; avenging options; yield curve swaps; futures on spreads; and options on portfolios. Sophisticated mathematical tools and high-speed computers are needed to calculate the price of these instruments and to determine their overall effect on the company. In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they're traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to

  9. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  10. Finnish exchange students' culture shock

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Karoliina

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about culture shock experienced by the exchange students from Finland. It is commissioned by an international students exchange organisation located in Finland. The aim of the research was to find out how much the host country affects the culture shock and to identify aspects that affect the adaptation of the students. The goal is to provide the future exchange students with advise on coping with culture shock. Theoretical framework consists of defining w...

  11. Deuterium-hydrogen monothermal exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    A monothermal exchange process of extracting deuterium from ammonia synthesis gas is described. This process comprises passing the gas through an exchage liquid stream consisting of a liquid amine having up to five carbon atoms per molecule to cause deuterium to be transferred from the synthesis gas to the exchange liquid, and removing a stream of exchange liquid enriched in deuterium therefrom. (Patent Office Record)

  12. Deuterium exchange in carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaty, G.

    1976-01-01

    After giving a brief outline of the theoretical study of H/D exchange the reaction mechanisms of enolization of ketones and of ketonization of enols are discussed. The orientation of the exchange in aliphatic ketones and the stereochemistry of the exchange in rigid cyclic ketones are dealt with. Some other ketonic systems and carboxylic acids and their derivatives are also considered. (B.R.H.)

  13. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  14. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  15. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  16. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation, and the com......Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  17. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Central Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Data Exchange collects personally identifiable information, including personal answers to security questions. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  18. Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

  19. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  20. The selectivity of zirconium phosphate for caesium in electrochemical ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain, M.J.

    1988-11-01

    The properties of amorphous zirconium phosphate are investigated as an inorganic ion exchanger for use in liquid waste treatment by electrochemical ion exchange. Experiments to determine and increase the selectivity for caesium exchange over sodium are discussed, including various pulsed waveforms and studies with rotating membranes. Automation of a sampling system with pH and atomic absorption measurements is described. (author)

  1. 75 FR 8769 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... certain physical ports\\6\\ used to connect to the Exchange's system for order entry and receipt of data... additional single physical port provided by the Exchange to any Member or non- member in any data center. The... one port at the site of the Exchange's primary data center (including the expansion space located...

  2. 47 CFR 61.26 - Tariffing of competitive interstate switched exchange access services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... switched exchange access services that prices those services above the higher of: (1) The rate charged for... equivalent of the ILEC interstate exchange access services typically associated with following rate elements... switched exchange access services shall mean the composite, per-minute rate for these services, including...

  3. 77 FR 34434 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...); Submit to the Exchange partnership or corporate documents as may be applicable including applicable corporate formation documents of the applicant (Exchange Rule 2.6); Submit to the Exchange a list and... the proposed rule's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See 15 U.S.C. 78c(f). At...

  4. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  5. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  6. Heat exchanger design for desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Office of Saline Water (OSW) accomplished a very large amount of significant work related to the design and performance of large heat exchanger bundles and enhanced heat transfer surfaces. This work was undertaken to provide basic technical and economic data for the design of distillation plants for the desalination of seawater, and should be of value to other industrial applications as well. The OSW work covers almost every aspect of heat exchanger design, and ranges academic research to data gathering on commercial desalting plants. Exchanger design configurations include multistage flash plant condensers, vertical tube falling film and upflow evaporators, and horizontal tube spray film evaporators. Unfortunately, the data is scattered through a large number of reports of which many are concerned primarily with factors other than heat transfer, and the quality of reporting and the quality of the data are far from consistent. This report catalogues and organizes the heat exchanger data developed by the OSW. Some analysis as to the validity of the data is made and ranges of performance that can be expected are given. Emphasis is placed on the vertical tube, falling film evaporators. A thorough analysis of the large literature file that was surveyed was not possible. No analysis was made of the quality of original data, but apparent data discrepancies are pointed out where such discrepancies happen to be found

  7. Heat exchanger fouling: Prediction, measurement, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) sponsors the development of innovative heat exchange systems. Fouling is a major and persistent cost associated with most industrial heat exchangers and nationally wastes an estimated 2.9 Quads per year. To predict and control fouling, three OIP projects are currently exploring heat exchanger fouling in specific industrial applications. A fouling probe has been developed to determine empirically the fouling potential of an industrial gas stream and to derive the fouling thermal resistance. The probe is a hollow metal cylinder capable of measuring the average heat flux along the length of the tube. The local heat flux is also measured by a heat flux meter embedded in the probe wall. The fouling probe has been successfully tested in the laboratory at flue gas temperatures up to 2200 F and a local heat flux up to 41,000 BTU/hr sq ft. The probe has been field tested at a coal-fired boiler plant. Future tests at a municipal waste incinerator are planned. Two other projects study enhanced heat exchanger tubes, specifically the effect of enhanced surface geometries on the tube bundle performance. Both projects include fouling in a liquid heat transfer fluid. Identifying and quantifying the factors affecting fouling in these enhanced heat transfer tubes will lead to techniques to mitigate fouling.

  8. Sparse graphs using exchangeable random measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, François; Fox, Emily B

    2017-11-01

    Statistical network modelling has focused on representing the graph as a discrete structure, namely the adjacency matrix. When assuming exchangeability of this array-which can aid in modelling, computations and theoretical analysis-the Aldous-Hoover theorem informs us that the graph is necessarily either dense or empty. We instead consider representing the graph as an exchangeable random measure and appeal to the Kallenberg representation theorem for this object. We explore using completely random measures (CRMs) to define the exchangeable random measure, and we show how our CRM construction enables us to achieve sparse graphs while maintaining the attractive properties of exchangeability. We relate the sparsity of the graph to the Lévy measure defining the CRM. For a specific choice of CRM, our graphs can be tuned from dense to sparse on the basis of a single parameter. We present a scalable Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithm for posterior inference, which we use to analyse network properties in a range of real data sets, including networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes and millions of edges.

  9. Air Circulation and Heat Exchange Under Reduced Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, V.; Wheeler, R.; Dixon, M.; Fowler, P.; Hillhouse, L.

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchange rates decrease non-linearly with reductions in atmospheric pressure. This decrease creates risk of thermal stress (elevated leaf temperatures) for plants under reduced pressures. Forced convection (fans) significantly increases heat exchange rate under almost all pressures except below 10 kPa. Plant cultivation techniques under reduced pressures will require forced convection. The cooling curve technique is a reliable means of assessing the influence of environmental variables like pressure and gravity on gas exchange of plant. These results represent the extremes of gas exchange conditions for simple systems under variable pressures. In reality, dense plant canopies will exhibit responses in between these extremes. More research is needed to understand the dependence of forced convection on atmospheric pressure. The overall thermal balance model should include latent and radiative exchange components.

  10. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  11. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  12. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  13. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  14. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N.B.; Hughes, T.E.; Matiushin, G.D.; Turtanov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC have been proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, has been developed for test and check purposes.

  15. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  16. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  17. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  18. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  19. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  20. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  1. New perspectives on exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riska, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed method of constructing the nuclear exchange current operators within the framework of the topological soliton (Skyrme) model is described. This approach is theoretically compact, allows treating nucleon and nuclear structure on the same footing and finally can be viewed as an effective low-energy representation of QCD. The approach also leads to some very natural connections between pionic and nuclear transition rates because the effective pion-nucleon interaction involves the isovector (exchange) current operator. Finally, a discussion of the relation between exchange currents and relativistic corrections is given. (author). 76 refs, 6 figs

  2. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  3. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  4. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B.; Hodkinson, Trevor R.

    2011-01-01

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables—cultural, social, and economic—that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology—kinship, bridewealth, and filiation—we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels. PMID:22042843

  5. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  6. The OXL format for the exchange of integrated datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubert Jan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A prerequisite for systems biology is the integration and analysis of heterogeneous experimental data stored in hundreds of life-science databases and millions of scientific publications. Several standardised formats for the exchange of specific kinds of biological information exist. Such exchange languages facilitate the integration process; however they are not designed to transport integrated datasets. A format for exchanging integrated datasets needs to i cover data from a broad range of application domains, ii be flexible and extensible to combine many different complex data structures, iii include metadata and semantic definitions, iv include inferred information, v identify the original data source for integrated entities and vi transport large integrated datasets. Unfortunately, none of the exchange formats from the biological domain (e.g. BioPAX, MAGE-ML, PSI-MI, SBML or the generic approaches (RDF, OWL fulfil these requirements in a systematic way.

  7. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  8. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  9. Ion exchange in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieman, William; Walton, Harold F

    1970-01-01

    .... In order that the users of the book may understand properly the recommended analytical methods, considerable space is devoted to the preparation, structure and properties of ion-exchange materials...

  10. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  11. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  12. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  13. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  14. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  15. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  16. Heraclitus, Seaford and Reversible Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, C; Duschinsky, Robert Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In this essay we identify a characteristic pattern of Heraclitus’ thought and language, the “figure of reversible exchange”. We suggest that this figure allows Heraclitus to propose an ontological structure consisting of two intersecting circuits of relations: a pre-temporal reversible exchange between Being and Becoming and between One and Many, and a temporal reversible exchange within the Many as the very process of Becoming. Against Richard Seaford’s interpretation of Heraclitus’ thought ...

  17. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. Progress is reported on the development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed

  18. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Role of direct reactivity with metals in chemoprotection by N-acetylcysteine against chromium(VI), cadmium(II), and cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Michal W; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used for the assessment of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various biological processes and adverse drug reactions. NAC has been found to effectively inhibit the toxicity of carcinogenic metals, which was attributed to its potent ROS-suppressive properties. However, the absence of redox activity among some metals and findings from genetic models suggested a more diverse, smaller role of oxidative stress in metal toxicity. Here, we examined mechanisms of chemoprotection by NAC against Cd(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) in human cells. We found that NAC displayed a broad-spectrum chemoprotective activity against all three metals, including suppression of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, p53 activation, and HSP72 and HIF-1α upregulation. Cytoprotection by NAC was independent of cellular glutathione. NAC strongly inhibited the uptake of all three metals in histologically different types of human cells, explaining its high chemoprotective potential. A loss of Cr(VI) accumulation by cells was caused by NAC-mediated extracellular reduction of chromate to membrane-impermeative Cr(III). Suppression of Co(II) uptake resulted from a rapid formation of Co(II)-NAC conjugates that were unable to enter cells. Our results demonstrate that NAC acts through more than one mechanism in preventing metal toxicity and its chemoprotective activity can be completely ROS-independent. Good clinical safety and effectiveness in Co(II) sequestration suggest that NAC could be useful in the prevention of tissue accumulation and toxic effects of Co ions released by cobalt-chromium hip prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of direct reactivity with metals in chemoprotection by N-acetylcysteine against chromium(VI), cadmium(II) and cobalt(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used for the assessment of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various biological processes and adverse drug reactions. NAC has been found to effectively inhibit toxicity of carcinogenic metals, which was attributed to its potent ROS-suppressive properties. However, the absence of redox activity among some metals and findings from genetic models suggested a more diverse, smaller role of oxidative stress in metal toxicity. Here, we examined mechanisms of chemoprotection by NAC against Cd(II), Co(II) and Cr(VI) in human cells. We found that NAC displayed a broad-spectrum chemoprotective activity against all three metals, including suppression of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, p53 activation and HSP72 and HIF-1α upregulation. Cytoprotection by NAC was independent of cellular glutathione. NAC strongly inhibited uptake of all three metals in histologically different types of human cells, explaining its high chemoprotective potential. A loss of Cr(VI) accumulation by cells was caused by NAC-mediated extracellular reduction of chromate to membrane-impermeable Cr(III). Suppression of Co(II) uptake resulted from a rapid formation of Co(II)-NAC conjugates that were unable to enter cells. Our results demonstrate that NAC acts through more than one mechanism in preventing metal toxicity and its chemoprotective activity can be completely ROS-independent. A good clinical safety and effectiveness in Co(II) sequestration suggest that NAC could be useful for prevention of tissue accumulation and toxic effects of Co ions released by cobalt-chromium hip prostheses. PMID:23792775

  1. Modern or Anti-modern Science? Weimar Culture, Natural Science and the Heidegger-Heisenberg Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cathryn

    The following sections are included: * Weimar Culture and Scientific Rationality * Heidegger Read Historically * Science and Crisis * Quantum Mechanics and the Heidegger-Heisenberg Exchange * Conclusion * Acknowledgments

  2. 78 FR 75435 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... controversy alleging employment discrimination, including sexual harassment. The Exchange may, however, make.... Solicitation of Comments Interested persons are invited to submit written data, views, and arguments concerning...

  3. Conceptualizations for cleaning OTEC heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.S.; Hagel, D.; Conn, A.F.

    1978-09-01

    A critical operating aspect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants is the maintenance of clean surfaces on the seawater-side of the heat exchangers. The objective of this program was to assess the state of the art of biofouling control techniques and to evaluate the potential of these existing methods for solving the biofouling problems in the OTEC system. The first task of the program involved an in-depth review and discussion of various fouling control methods including water treatment, surface conditioning, and cleaning techniques. The methods considered applicable to OTEC were identified. This volume summarizes the second task of the program. The compatibility of the various cleaning and fouling control techniques with the different proposed heat exchanger designs and materials are discussed. Also provided are conceptual illustrations for adapting and incorporating the methods into an OTEC power plant. These conceptual designs suggest means for overcoming some of the shortcomings of the techniques which are considered suitable, however, detailed designs of the modified systems are beyond the scope of this report. Chlorination, chemical cleaning, Amertap recirculating sponge rubber balls, and MAN flow-driven brushes are the methods considered applicable for tubular heat exchangers with seawater inside the tubes. Water jets are suggested for the open-cycle and the ''trombone'' (Applied Physics Laboratory) heat exchanger designs. Although none of the methods are immediately applicable to OTEC in their present configuration, in several cases only minor developmental efforts should produce designs which can satisfy the stringent OTEC cleanliness requirements. Further research and development appear warranted for a number of other methods which indicate promise for long-range applicability. Specific recommendations are included.

  4. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

  5. Governance and Knowledge Exchange within and Between Epistemic Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars

    2004-01-01

    different epistemic communities, whether desired or unintended, is often cumbersome and fraught with difficulties. In order to achieve effective integration and cooperation between its various professional communities and subcultures, firms must therefore undertake investments in boundary...... generally be applied also outside the context of the exchange and the effort or investment expended in its acquisition is not transaction specific. The governance mode applied in such exchanges is therefore determined by strategic and contextual factors, including those of traditional transaction cost logic....

  6. Asymmetric behavior of exchange rate pass through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Bahar

    2009-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Economics, Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 43-48. This thesis investigates the presence of asymmetry in pass through from exchange rates to manufacturing industry prices in Turkey. In the analysis, to detect a possible nonlinear response of prices, threshold regression models are employed. The results indicate that reactions of prices to exchange rate movements diff...

  7. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  8. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of cobalt(II) and copper(II) coordination polymers assembled by phthalate and 4-methylimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, S.G.; Malinovskii, S.T.; Franz, Patrick; Ambrus, Christina; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Gerbeleu, Nicolae; Decurtins, Silvio

    2004-01-01

    New coordination polymers [M(Pht)(4-MeIm) 2 (H 2 O)] n (M=Co (1), Cu (2); Pht 2- =dianion of o-phthalic acid; 4-MeIm=4-methylimidazole) have been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are isostructural and consist of [M(4-MeIm) 2 (H 2 O)] building units linked in infinite 1D helical chains by 1,6-bridging phthalate ions which also act as chelating ligands through two O atoms from one carboxylate group in the case of 1. In complex 1, each Co(II) atom adopts a distorted octahedral N 2 O 4 geometry being coordinated by two N atoms from two 4-MeIm, three O atoms of two phthalate residues and one O atom of a water molecule, whereas the square-pyramidal N 2 O 3 coordination of the Cu(II) atom in 2 includes two N atoms of N-containing ligands, two O atoms of two carboxylate groups from different Pht, and a water molecule. An additional strong O-H↑··O hydrogen bond between a carboxylate group of the phthalate ligand and a coordinated water molecule join the 1D helical chains to form a 2D network in both compounds. The thermal dependences of the magnetic susceptibilities of the polymeric helical Co(II) chain compound 1 were simulated within the temperature range 20-300 K as a single ion case, whereas for the Cu(II) compound 2, the simulations between 25 and 300 K, were made for a linear chain using the Bonner-Fisher approximation. Modelling the experimental data of compound 1 with MAGPACK resulted in: g=2.6, vertical bar D vertical bar=62 cm -1 . Calculations using the Bonner-Fisher approximation gave the following result for compound 2: g=2.18, J=-0.4 cm -1

  9. 75 FR 66172 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... affiliate, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS Exchange''). Such strategies include the CYCLE routing strategy... prior to routing away from the Exchange. The Parallel T routing strategy is intended to route only to... System to route to alternative trading systems included in the System routing table. The definition of...

  10. UDOT research peer exchange, October 12-13, 2016 : implementation, state DOT library, national committees, and state transportation innovation council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) held a Research Peer Exchange on October 12-13, 2016, in downtown Salt Lake City. The focus topics or themes for the peer exchange included the following: : Supporting Implementation During and A...

  11. Sediment exchange between groin fields and main-stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Zhong, Deyu; Wu, Teng; Wu, Lingli

    2017-10-01

    Sediment exchange between groin fields and the main-stream influences the transport and distribution of polluted sediment that represents a hazard for rivers and neighboring floodplains. Despite its practical significance, little research has been done on the sediment exchange process itself, and existing studies used to estimate the sediment exchange by morphological change. The sediment exchange process, however, differs from morphological variation and includes two behaviors: the entrance of main-stream sediment into groin fields and the movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields. Therefore, this study aims at examining this exchange process and exploring the mechanisms of different exchange phenomena. Experiments were conducted in a mobile-bed laboratory flume by using a novel experimental method that successfully separates the movement of groin fields sediment from that of main-stream sediment. In addition to traditional measurements, such as measurements of morphological changes, surface flow velocities, and bed-form propagation, the deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is measured in detail. The results demonstrate that morphological change cannot reflect the sediment exchange process. The deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is determined by the dynamics of sediment movement, in which bedload- and suspended-sediment-dominated processes exhibit different deposition patterns. The movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields is determined mainly by local scouring around groins.

  12. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... International Securities Exchange LLC, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc., NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC... Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International Securities Exchange, LLC, Miami International Securities Exchange LLC, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc., NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC, The NASDAQ Stock...

  13. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O' Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800°C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  14. Higher Education Exchange 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be…

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  16. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  17. Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddy J, Moors; Jacobs, Cor; Jans, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    locations and with the inter-annual variation the measured dataset at the flux sites was extended with simulated data. These simulations show that the variability in carbon exchange is determined by: firstly the choice of crop and the location and to a lesser extent by the yearly differences in climate.......The estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 based on measurements at 17 flux sites in Europe for 45 cropping periods showed an average loss of -38 gC m-2 per cropping period. The cropping period is defined as the period after sowing or planting until harvest. The variability taken...... as the standard deviation of these cropping periods was 251 gC m-2. These numbers do not include lateral inputs such as the carbon content of applied manure, nor the carbon exchange out of the cropping period. Both are expected to have a major effect on the C budget of high energy summer crops such as maize. NEE...

  18. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Critically Ill Children Requiring Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Gerard; McRae, Rosemary; Chiletti, Roberto; Butt, Warwick

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the clinical indications, procedural safety, and outcome of critically ill children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange. Retrospective observational study based on a prospective registry. Tertiary and quaternary referral 30-bed PICU. Forty-eight critically ill children who received therapeutic plasma exchange during an 8-year period (2007-2014) were included in the study. Therapeutic plasma exchange. A total of 48 patients underwent 244 therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Of those, therapeutic plasma exchange was performed as sole procedure in 193 (79%), in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy in 40 (16.4%) and additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 11 (4.6%) sessions. The most common admission diagnoses were hematologic disorders (30%), solid organ transplantation (20%), neurologic disorders (20%), and rheumatologic disorders (15%). Complications associated with the procedure occurred in 50 (21.2%) therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Overall, patient survival from ICU was 82%. Although patients requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone (n = 31; 64%) had a survival rate of 97%, those with additional continuous renal replacement therapy (n = 13; 27%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 4; 8%) had survival rates of 69% and 50%, respectively. Factors associated with increased mortality were lower Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, need for mechanical ventilation, higher number of failed organs, and longer ICU stay. Our results indicate that, in specialized centers, therapeutic plasma exchange can be performed relatively safely in critically ill children, alone or in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Outcome in children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone is excellent. However, survival decreases with the number of failed organs and the need for continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  19. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  20. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  1. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  2. Including risk in the balanced scorecard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    then breaking them down into smaller goals that are set in lower hierarchies of the organisation (Cronje & Maritz ... the adoption rates for both frameworks among Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) listed organisations. .... regime. Implementing a successful BSC has been shown to lead to a higher rate of acceptance and ...

  3. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  4. Diffusion-Exchange Weighted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadallah Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed whereby diffusion and exchange in micro cellular structures in the human brain are correlated to produce a new type of image contrast leading to determination of water exchange rates in vivo. The diffusion method relies on differential apparent diffusion coefficients as detectable nuclei exchange between adjacent compartments marked with different apparent diffusion coefficient values (e.g. intra- and extra-cellular compartments. A new pulse sequence was developed, and used to calculate water intra/extra mean residence times in brain, and the signal dependence on various experimental parameters was analysed. The method was tested in vivo at 3T field strength and produced 160 ms and 550 ms for extra-cellular and intra-cellular mean residence times, respectively.

  5. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... diverse understandings of the value appropriation process and emphasize different mechanisms and outcomes of value appropriation. Research limitations/implications – Based on the literature comparison and discussion, in combination with inspiration from alternative business exchange literature......, the authors propose four areas with high potential for future research into value appropriation: network position effects, appropriation acts and behaviors, buyer-seller relationship effects, and appropriation over time. Practical implications – Boundary spanning managers acting in industrial markets must...

  6. Pulmonary gas exchange during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Guillaume, C; Percival, C; Bertrand, O; Motin, J

    1986-12-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange was continuously measured in 13 mechanically ventilated patients during 24 hemodialyses for acute renal failure. Minute-ventilation was maintained constant by controlled ventilation and gas exchange was continuously measured by a mass-spectrometer system. Three groups were compared: a cuprophan membrane with an acetate dialysate; a polyacrilonitrile membrane (PAN) with an acetate dialysate; and PAN with a bicarbonate dialysate. Arterial PO2 and the O2 alveolar-arterial gradient were the same regardless of the membrane used. [H+] mildly decreased with all dialysates used. Arterial PCO2 decreased only with the acetate dialysate. O2 consumption increased, up to 20 +/- 5% of the initial values during hemodialysis, and remained increased during the two hours following the hemodialysis. Respiratory exchange ratio was lower after than before the hemodialysis. the maintenance of a constant minute ventilation prevented hemodialysis induced hypoxemia. VO2 increased during hemodialysis.

  7. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  8. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  9. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  10. Heat exchanges between droplets and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    Data necessary for calculating the droplet cooling in wet cooling systems are surveyed. This cooling obeys the laws of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Exchanges with a solid sphere moving inside a surrounding fluid medium are first examined. The corrections needed for taking into account various secondary effects (circulation in the droplet, lack of sphericity, oscillations, etc...) are then dealt with. Some data necessary for calculating the trajectories of the droplets and their behavior in a cooling system are included (diameter distribution, limit velocities, decay thresholds, etc...). Finally, calculation methods applying to spray systems, as well as wet towers broadly outlined [fr

  11. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    Economic literature often offers conflicting views on the likely efficiency effects of information exchanges, communication between firms, and market transparency. On the one hand, it is argued that increased information dissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including...... buyers) and allows potential buyers to make correct decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, economic literature also shows that increased information dissemination can raise prices through tacit or explicit collusion to the benefit of firms but at the expense of society at large...

  12. Knowledge Exchange Between Universities and SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Sarai; Lykke, Marianne

    Exchanging knowledge between university and industry is generally known to be problematic. In this paper we address the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of knowledge: in particular scientific knowledge. The paper will present data from....... The paper presents new understandings related to industry’s ways of perceiving, accessing and imple- menting scientific knowledge; these include insights into the primary ways in which SMEs appropriate new knowledge; the barriers to acquiring new knowledge; how SMEs understand the university setting...

  13. Knowledge-based expert system for fouling assessment of industrial heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, N.H.; Carvalho, M.G. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Electrodinamica

    1996-03-01

    The paper emphasises the need for the development of the expert system as a tool for the mitigation of the fouling processes. Particular reference is given to the design margin lifetime assessment, fouling process control, fouling removal assessment and heat-exchanger safety by the expert system for industrial heat exchangers. This paper presents the concept of a heat-exchanger on-line system. The heat-exchanger efficiency is defined by the NTU concept for the simple parallel co-current heat exchanger. The respective methodology is used for the description of the generic behaviour of the heat-exchanger system. Particular attention was paid to the recognition of those situations leading to the degradation of the efficiency of the heat exchanger. The paper describes the selection of the diagnostic variables and their on-line measurements, including the logging system for the monitoring and acquisition of the data. (Author)

  14. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  15. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  16. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  17. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  18. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  19. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrite s * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  20. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  1. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  2. Ion exchange in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieman, William; Walton, Harold F

    1970-01-01

    ... to the analyst who wishes to calculate from the data of a few elutions the concentration and pH of eluent that will give the most efficient separation of a given mixture. This book will prove to be of value to analytical chemists, especially those intersted in separations, and physical chemists interested in ion exchange.

  3. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  4. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  5. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspects...

  6. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  7. CTOD-based acceptance criteria for heat exchanger head staybolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Awadalla, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    The primary coolant piping system of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors contains twelve heat exchangers to remove the waste heat from the nuclear materials production. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The beat exchanger head is analyzed with a three- dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts, that is, bolts that have a flaw exceeding the ultrasonic testing (UT) threshold depth of 25% of the bolt diameter. A limit of 6 inactive staybolts is reached with a fracture criterion based on the maximum allowable local displacement at the active staybolts which corresponds to the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of 0.032 inches. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. A total of up to 6 staybolts, reported as containing flaws with depths at or exceeding 25% would be acceptable in the heat exchanger

  8. Stakeholder engagement and knowledge exchange in environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Jeremy; Lowe, Philip; Proctor, Amy; Ruto, Eric

    2012-03-01

    It is commonly put forward that effective uptake of research in policy or practice must be built upon a foundation of active knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement during the research. However, what is often lacking is a systematic appreciation of the specific practices of knowledge exchange and their relative merits. The paper reports on a 2009 survey of 21 research projects within the UK Research Councils' Rural Economy and Land Use Programme regarding the involvement and perceived impact of over a thousand stakeholders in the research. The survey reveals that most stakeholders were involved as research subjects or as event participants. Large numbers were also engaged in the research process itself, including involvement in shaping the direction of research. Stakeholder engagement is perceived as bringing significant benefits to the process of knowledge production. A close relationship is found between mechanisms and approaches to knowledge exchange and the spread of benefits for researchers and stakeholders. Mutual benefits are gained from exchange of staff or where stakeholders are members of research advisory groups. Different stakeholder sectors are also associated with different patterns of engagement, which lead to contrasting impact patterns. Any efforts to alter knowledge exchange processes and outcomes must overcome these differing engagement tendencies. Overall, much greater attention should be given to early processes of knowledge exchange and stakeholder engagement within the lifetime of research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plate type heat exchanger for Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Shaharum Ramli

    2008-08-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) reached its first criticality status on 28 June 1982 with an installed capacity of 1 MW. After 26 years in operation, the ageing process has set in and many systems in the reactor need maintenance and replacement. Among these systems, the more critical one is the heat exchanger system. Currently, the shell and tube type heat exchanger is being used. It has been observed that the performance of the heat exchanger has dropped significantly over the years. Visual inspections indicate that the tubes are corroded or even to the extent of being totally blocked. With this in mind and also with the setting up of the new Nuclear Power Division, whose mission includes upgrading the present reactor to 3 MW, the heat exchanger system is essential and a critical component. Literature indicates that the use of plate type exchangers are more efficient than the current shell and tube type. This paper will look into the engineering and safety aspects of using the plate type heat exchanger to the current TRIGA PUSPATI reactor. (Author)

  10. Heat exchanger for reactor core and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jay S.; Kissinger, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A compact bayonet tube type heat exchanger which finds particular application as an auxiliary heat exchanger for transfer of heat from a reactor gas coolant to a secondary fluid medium. The heat exchanger is supported within a vertical cavity in a reactor vessel intersected by a reactor coolant passage at its upper end and having a reactor coolant return duct spaced below the inlet passage. The heat exchanger includes a plurality of relatively short length bayonet type heat exchange tube assemblies adapted to pass a secondary fluid medium therethrough and supported by primary and secondary tube sheets which are releasibly supported in a manner to facilitate removal and inspection of the bayonet tube assemblies from an access area below the heat exchanger. Inner and outer shrouds extend circumferentially of the tube assemblies and cause the reactor coolant to flow downwardly internally of the shrouds over the tube bundle and exit through the lower end of the inner shroud for passage to the return duct in the reactor vessel.

  11. Alarming of exchange rate crisis: A risk management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with increasing volatility of foreign exchange rate, risk management becomes more and more important not only for multinational companies and individuals but also for central governments. This paper attempts to build an econometrics model so as to forecast and manage risks in foreign exchange market, especially during the eve of turbulent periods. By following McNeil and Frey’s (2000 two stage approach called conditional EVT to estimate dynamic VaR commonly used in stock and insurance markets, we extend it by applying a more general asymmetric ARMA-GARCH model to analyze daily foreign exchange dollar-denominated trading data from four countries of different development levels across Asia and Europe for a period of more than 10 years from January 03, 2005 to May 29, 2015, which is certainly representative of global markets. Conventionally, different kinds of backtesting methods are implemented ultimately to evaluate how well the model behaves. Inspiringly, test results show that by taking several specific characteristics (including fat-tails, asymmetry and long-range dependence of the foreign exchange market return data into consideration, the violation ratio of out-of-sample data can be forecasted very well for both fixed and flexible foreign exchange regimes. Moreover, all of the violations are evenly distributed along the whole period which indicates another favorable property of our model. Meanwhile, we find evidence of asymmetry volatility in all of the studied foreign exchange markets even though the magnitudes of the most of them are weak

  12. 75 FR 50020 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Exchange's systems for purposes that include order entry and the receipt of Exchange data. A physical port is a port used by a Member or non-member to connect into the Exchange at the data centers where... sponsored participants and market data recipients. Annual fee per Connection service type physical port 1 Gb...

  13. 75 FR 50019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change to Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Exchange's systems for purposes that include order entry and the receipt of Exchange data. A physical port is a port used by a Member or non-member to connect into the Exchange at the data centers where... sponsored participants and market data recipients. Annual fee per Connection service type physical port 1 Gb...

  14. 76 FR 41541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Modifications to Non-Standard Routing Rates Various market centers, including the Exchange's affiliate, BATS... Exchange also proposes to modify its TRIM routing strategy to reflect the exact rate paid or assessed for... venues as ``low priced venues'' and the Exchange does not charge or rebate its Members for orders routed...

  15. 77 FR 34431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Rules (Exchange Rule 2.6); Submit to the Exchange partnership or corporate documents as may be applicable including applicable corporate formation documents of the applicant (Exchange Rule 2.6); Submit to... the proposed rule's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See 15 U.S.C. 78c(f). At...

  16. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  17. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  18. Written feedback as interaction: Knowledge exchange or activity exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wharton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in-text, handwritten feedback comments on first year undergraduate writing in the discipline of Statistics. Using a small corpus of annotated assignments, I examine the grammar choices and content choices made by tutors as they comment on students’ work.  To better understand the purposes of the comments, I draw on an interview with a tutor. I make use of Halliday’s concepts of knowledge exchange and activity exchange to interpret the choices observed in the data, and the motivations discussed by the tutor, from the perspective of interaction. Finally, I discuss the implications of the analysis in terms of the formative potential of the feedback. 

  19. Calorimetry exchange program annual data report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Calorimetry Sample Exchange Program are: discuss measurement differences; review and improve analytical measurements and methods; discuss new measurement capabilities; provide data to DOE on measurement capabilities to evaluate shipper-receiver differences; provide characterized or standard materials as necessary for exchange participants; and provide a measurement control program for plutonium analysis. A sample of PuO 2 powder is available at each participating site for NDA measurement, including either or both calorimetry and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the elements which are typically combined to provide a calorimetric assay of plutonium. The facilities measure the sample as frequently and to the level of precision which they desire, and then submit the data to the Exchange for analysis. The data report includes summary tables for each measurement and charts showing the performance of each laboratory. Comparisons are made to the accepted values for the exchange sample and to data previously reported by that laboratory. This information is presented, in the form of quarterly and annual reports, intended for use by Exchange participants in measurement control programs, or to indicate when bias corrections may be appropriate. No attempt, however, has been made to standardize methods or frequency of data collection, calibration, or operating procedures. Direct comparisons between laboratories may, therefore, be misleading since data have not been collected to the same precision or for the same time periods. A meeting of the participants of the Calorimetry Exchange is held annually at EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies. The purposes of this meeting are to discuss measurement differences, problems, and new measurement capabilities, and to determine the additional activities needed to fulfill the goals of the Exchange. This document provides data for 1992

  20. Disentangling soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field: a first step

    OpenAIRE

    Bachy, Aurélie; Mozaffar, Ahsan; Aubinet, Marc; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Digrado, Anthony; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the current research done in order to disentangle soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field. Methanol exchanges were calculated at ecosystem-scale (therefore including both components). It bases on the following observation: methanol exchanges on bare soil (measured when maize was at germination stage) were as important as when plants were fast growing (and thereby, when the highest methanol plant methanol emissions were expected), and this under similar weather...

  1. Application of ion-exchange unit in uranium extraction process in China (to be continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chuanwen

    2004-01-01

    The application conditions of five different ion exchange units in uranium milling plant and wastewater treatment plant of uranium mine in China are introduced, including working parameters, existing problems and improvements. The advantages and disadvantages of these units are reviewed briefly. The procedure points to be followed in selecting ion exchange unit are recommended in the engineering design. The primary views are presented upon the application prospects of some ion exchange units in uranium extraction process in China

  2. Learn about the Environmental Information Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, territories, and tribes can partner with EPA to exchange standardized data to improve its quality, increase its availability, and integrate it better across different sources using connecting nodes, xml schema, and a data exchange template.

  3. Fiscal deficits, exchange rate crises and inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article extends earlier work on unsustainable monetary policies by endogenizing the regime switch that ultimately restores sustainability. Within this framework we analyze exchange rate based stabilization programs and shows how constraints on Central Bank borrowing during an exchange crisis

  4. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  5. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  6. Heat exchanger with steam overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.; Schlinger, S.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger incorporating steam superheating is proposed suitable for nuclear power plants having heat transfer surfaces housed in the pressure vessel. The heat exchanger is characterized by the fact that on the primary side the steam overheating surface is parallel to the afterheating and evaporating surfaces. The parallel heat transfer surfaces, afterheating and evaporating surfaces are connected to a common tube plate. The superheated steam outlet is formed by the central tube, the saturated steam by-pass channel is formed by a concentric tube. The steam superheating surface is formed by a cluster of U-tubes. Spatial U-tubes form the afterheating and the evaporating surfaces outside of the superheating surface. (Oy)

  7. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  8. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane and [(2.3)(2).2(1)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,12-tetraazabicyclo[7.5.2]hexadecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Louise; Pretzmann, Ulla; Jensen, Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    ) and of three cobalt(II), four nickel(II), one copper(II), and two zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane. For nine of these compounds (2-8, 10b, and 12) the single-crystal X-ray structures were determined. The coordination geometry around the metal ion is square pyramidal in [Cu([(2.3)(2).2(1)]adz)Br]ClO4 (2......) and trigonal bipyramidal in the isostructural structures [Cu([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (3), [Ni-([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (5), [Ni([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (6), and [Co([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (8). In [Ni([3(5)]adz)(NO3)]NO3 (4) and [Ni([3(5)]-adz)(ClO4)]ClO4 (7) the coordination geometry around nickel(II) is a distorted octahedron...... with the inorganic ligands at cis positions. The coordination polyhedron around the metal ion in [Co([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (10b) and [Zn([3(5)]adz)][ZnCl4] (12) is a slightly distorted tetrahedron. Anation equilibrium constants were determined spectrophotometrically for complexes 2-6 at 25 and 40 degreesC and fall...

  9. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane and [(2.3)(2).2(1)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,12-tetraazabicyclo[7.5.2]hexadecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Louise; Pretzmann, Ulla; Jensen, Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    Isolation of the free bicyclic tetraamine, [3(5)]adamanzane .H2O (1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane .H2O), is reported along with the synthesis and characterization of a copper(II) complex of the smaller macrocycle [(2.3)(2).2(1)]-adamanzane (1,5,9,12-tetraazabicyclo[7.5.2]hexadecane......) and of three cobalt(II), four nickel(II), one copper(II), and two zinc(II) complexes with [3(5)]adamanzane. For nine of these compounds (2-8, 10b, and 12) the single-crystal X-ray structures were determined. The coordination geometry around the metal ion is square pyramidal in [Cu([(2.3)(2).2(1)]adz)Br]ClO4 (2......) and trigonal bipyramidal in the isostructural structures [Cu([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (3), [Ni-([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (5), [Ni([3(5)]adz)Br]Br (6), and [Co([3(5)]adz)Cl]Cl (8). In [Ni([3(5)]adz)(NO3)]NO3 (4) and [Ni([3(5)]-adz)(ClO4)]ClO4 (7) the coordination geometry around nickel(II) is a distorted octahedron...

  10. 78 FR 22580 - Millington Securities, Inc. and Millington Exchange Traded MAVINS Fund, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... of Creation Units will include institutional investors and arbitrageurs. Authorized Participants also... secondary market purchasers of Shares will include both institutional investors and retail investors.\\20...), operates as an exchange-traded fund that utilizes active management investment strategies (``Actively...

  11. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  12. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  13. Introduction to the World of Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Vargas-Silva

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the functioning of the foreign exchange rate system. We start by giving a historical account of the different exchange rate systems around the world. Next, we discuss the determinants of a currency’s value according to the main theories of exchange rate determination. Subsequently, we discuss the difference between the nominal and real exchange rate. Finally, the paper ends with summary and conclusions and with a list of additional readings on the topic.

  14. Foreign Exchange Market Microstructure: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ashween Kaur Anand; Dr Sukhvir Singh

    2017-01-01

    When we travel abroad to a foreign country, we have to exchange our domestic currency for that of the country we are visiting. For this purpose, we make use of exchange rates. However, exchanging currencies isn’t just for travelers. The price difference is something you can trade. Frequent changes in the value of currencies on account of economic conditions, political news and interest rate changes drive foreign exchange trading and a trader’s profit potential in the currency markets. Jus...

  15. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  16. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  17. SODIUM-WATER HEAT EXCHANGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W.R.; Koch, L.J.

    1962-04-17

    A heat exchanger comprising a tank for hot liquid and a plurality of concentric, double tubes for cool liquid extending vertically through the tank is described. These tubes are bonded throughout most of their length but have an unbonded portion at both ends. The inner tubes extend between headers located above and below the tanmk and the outer tubes are welded into tube sheets forming the top and bottom of the tank at locations in the unbonded portions of the tubes. (AEC)

  18. Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guiso; Paola Sapienza; Luigi Zingales

    2004-01-01

    How much do cultural biases affect economic exchange? We try to answer this question by using the relative trust European citizens have for citizens of other countries. First, we document that this trust is affected not only by objective characteristics of the country being trusted, but also by cultural aspects of the match between trusting country and trusted country, such as religion, history of conflicts, and genetic and somatic similarities. We then find that lower relative...

  19. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  20. DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, A.L.; Klein, G.; Radke, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    Exchange of hardness ions is important in enhanced oil recovery with chemical additives. In both micellar-polymer and caustic flooding processes, multivalent ions released from rock surfaces can interact with anionic surfactants, rendering them preferentially oil soluble and/or insoluble in water. Because hardness cations are sparingly soluble and precipitate in alkaline solutions, such solutions may be more efficient as surfactant flood preflushes than are softened brines. Multivalent ion precipitation may also occur in alkaline waterflooding. To permit design of such processes, this paper presents a chromatographic theory for simultaneous ion exchange with precipitation of divalent ions. Theoretical effluent histories and concentration profiles are presented for the cases of finite pulses and continuous injection of hydroxide ions into linear cores. Complete capture of the insoluble salt particles is assumed. Results are given for the case of instantaneous equilibration of the solution with the precipitate, as well for the case of complete nonequilibrium, in which the solid precipitate does not redissolve. The efficiency of alklaine preflushing is shown to depend on the exchange isotherm, initial divalent loading of the rock, injected pH and salinity, the solubility product of the precipitated salt, and pulse size. The effect of slug size on complete equilibrium removal of hardness ions is reduced efficiency with increasing size until a critical volume approximating continuous injection is reached. Increasing injected pH and salinity provides a more favorable response. Experimental data for Berea sandstone and an argillaceous sand compare favorably with the proposed theory.

  1. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  2. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  3. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  4. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  5. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  6. HYDRATION STRUCTURE AND WATER EXCHANGE DYNAMICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Free energy profile along the chosen reaction coordinate was determined and used to obtain the exchange mechanism and reaction rate of the water exchange process. In order to do sampling along a reaction coordinate umbrella-sampling technique was applied. The water exchange reaction is determined from the ...

  7. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Caprirolo; Vladimir Lavrac

    2003-01-01

    The paper is divided in three sections presenting some stylized facts concerning monetary and exchange rate policy framework in Slovenia. Three periods are covered: Money-based Stabilization Policy (1991-1995), Price and Real Exchange Rate Stability Dual Targeting Policy (1996-2001), and Exchange Rate Based Stabilization Policy and Accession to ERM2 (2001-).

  8. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 [Release No. 34-69964; File No. S7-30-11] RIN... currency exchange (``forex'') market is a large and liquid market used by banks, insurance companies, large... currency rates. In recent years, a secondary off-exchange market for forex has developed for retail...

  9. Component Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Capability Operability Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalina, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate heat sink (UHS) is of highest importance for nuclear power plant safe and reliable operation. The most important component in line from safety-related heat sources to the ultimate heat sink water body is a component cooling heat exchanger (CC Heat Exchanger). The Component Cooling Heat Exchanger has a safety-related function to transfer the heat from the Component Cooling (CC) water system to the Service Water (SW) system. SW systems throughout the world have been the root of many plant problems because the water source, usually river, lake, sea or cooling pond, are conductive to corrosion, erosion, biofouling, debris intrusion, silt, sediment deposits, etc. At Krsko NPP, these problems usually cumulate in the summer period from July to August, with higher Sava River (service water system) temperatures. Therefore it was necessary to continuously evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger operation and confirm that the system would perform its intended function in accordance with the plant's design basis, given as a minimum heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger design specification sheet. The Essential Service Water system at Krsko NPP is an open cycle cooling system which transfers heat from safety and non-safety-related systems and components to the ultimate heat sink the Sava River. The system is continuously in operation in all modes of plant operation, including plant shutdown and refueling. However, due to the Sava River impurities and our limited abilities of the water treatment, the system is subject to fouling, sedimentation buildup, corrosion and scale formation, which could negatively impact its performance being unable to satisfy its safety related post accident heat removal function. Low temperature difference and high fluid flows make it difficult to evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger due to its specific design. The important effects noted are measurement uncertainties, nonspecific construction, high heat transfer capacity, and operational specifics (e

  10. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: → Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. → Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. → Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. → More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  11. Choice of optimal exchange rate system For the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Koški

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research whose results are presented in this article was to choose the optimal system of exchange rate for the Republic of Croatia, of course before its accession to EU. The analyzed exchange rate systems here range from free-floating exchange rate to system without domestic currency in circulation. Naturally, the classification of International Monetary Fond is included in it. After that, the comparison of basic economic advantages and disadvantages of the fixed exchange rate in relation to floating exchange rate were carried out. Although the question is about the extreme systems, disregarding the system without domestic currency in circulation, their comparison makes possible completely satisfactory basis for the right conclusions on the choice of optimal exchange rate system for the Republic of Croatia. Considering its economic particularities, the system of managed-floating exchange rate without proclaimed exchange direction in advance is certainly optimal for the Republic of Croatia. Namely, within the framework of this system the limited floating exchange rates decrease the foreign exchange risk allowing to monetary authorities, at least partly, the independent monetary policy

  12. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  13. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Dept. Biotechnology, Mocow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  14. Procedure and apparatus for isotope exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvalle, Pierre

    1977-09-30

    A process for enriching uranium in one of its isotopes is described. To do so, cascade isotopic exchanges are made by contact between U(III) and U(IV) in conditions avoiding the oxidation of U(III) in U(IV). A liquid phase containing a uranium compound and free of other Group III to VIII metals of the periodic classification, in which uranium is present at a first valence is placed in contact with a second valence uranium compound, protected from any contact with a conducting solid and with an agent bringing free or release oxygen. The second phase is organic. The process includes a counter current isotopic exchange between an aqueous phase containing a U/sup +4/salting-out agent and the uranium as U/sup +3/ ions and an organic phase containing the uranium at Valence IV. This is followed by the extraction of U(IV) from the organic phase into the previously spent aqueous phase and the reduction of uranium from Valence IV to Valence III finally by oxidation of U(III) of the aqueous phase into U(IV) and the transfer of U(IV) into the previously exhausted organic phase.

  15. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    . Therefore, in this high-risk group, further therapy including prophylactic phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin and intramuscular protoporphyrins are necessary to prevent severe jaundice and decrease the need for exchange transfusion.

  16. Calorimetry exchange program. Quarterly data report, 2nd quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, T.M.

    1996-07-01

    The goals of the Calorimetry Sample Exchange Program are: (1) Discuss measurement differences, (2) Review and improve analytical measurements and methods, (3) Discuss new measurement capabilities, (4) Provide data to DOE on measurement capabilities to evaluate shipper-receiver differences, (5) Provide characterized or standard materials as necessary for exchange participants, (6) Provide a measurement control program for plutonium analysis. A sample of PuO{sub 2} powder is available at each participating site for NDA measurement, including either or both calorimetry and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the elements which are typically combined to provide a calorimetric assay of plutonium. The facilities measure the sample as frequently and to the level of precision which they desire, and then submit the data to the Exchange for analysis. Statistical tests are used to evaluate the data and to determine if there are significant differences from accepted values for the exchange sample or from data previously reported by that facility. This information is presented, in the form of a quarterly report, intended for use by Exchange participants in measurement control programs, or to indicate when bias corrections may be appropriate. No, attempt, however, has been made to standardize methods or frequency of data collection, calibration, or operating procedures. Direct comparisons between laboratories may, therefore, be misleading since data have not been collected to the same precision or for the same time periods. A meeting of the participants of the Calorimetry Exchange is held annually at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. The purposes of this meeting are to discuss measurement differences, problems, and new measurement capabilities, and to determine the additional activities needed to fulfill the goals of the Exchange.

  17. Hyporheic exchange along a river below a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandra Marzadri; Daniele Tonina; James A. McKean; Matt Tiedemann

    2012-01-01

    Hyporheic exchange is an important mechanism for solute mixing between river waters and shallow groundwater in streambed sediment. The hyporheic zone also provides an important ecotone for benthic species, including macro-invertebrates, microorganisms, and parts of some fish life stages. Most hyporheic analyses are limited in scope and performed at the reach scale....

  18. Bibliographical survey of heat exchangers for nuclear power plants and problems of HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamao, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1977-04-01

    The problems in development of heat exchangers for nuclear reactors have been examined in literature survey through Annual Index Subjects of NSA (Nuclear Science Abstracts) for the past ten years. R and D on heat exchangers for LMFBR, HTGR, LWR and HWR are on the increase. In the case of HTGRs, R and D on heat resisting materials including the corrosion and on hydrogen permeation of heat exchanger walls in high temperature pressure helium environment are important. Future R and D subjects for HTGR heat exchangers in showing the high temperature endurance are presented. (auth.)

  19. Solid state exchange reactions and thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Archundia, C.; Maddock, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A further study of exchange of the cobalt atoms in solid Co(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/(Co EDTA)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O has been made. The exchange is more easily measured when the compound has been ..gamma.. irradiated before heating. Without irradiation the exchange is complicated by substantial concurrent thermal decomposition. Vacuum dehydration to the tetrahydrate can be effected at 366 K without appreciable exchange. A relation between exchange, annealing of radiolytic decomposition and thermal decomposition in such compounds is suggested.

  20. Bayesian analysis for exponential random graph models using the adaptive exchange sampler

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Ick Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Exponential random graph models have been widely used in social network analysis. However, these models are extremely difficult to handle from a statistical viewpoint, because of the existence of intractable normalizing constants. In this paper, we consider a fully Bayesian analysis for exponential random graph models using the adaptive exchange sampler, which solves the issue of intractable normalizing constants encountered in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. The adaptive exchange sampler can be viewed as a MCMC extension of the exchange algorithm, and it generates auxiliary networks via an importance sampling procedure from an auxiliary Markov chain running in parallel. The convergence of this algorithm is established under mild conditions. The adaptive exchange sampler is illustrated using a few social networks, including the Florentine business network, molecule synthetic network, and dolphins network. The results indicate that the adaptive exchange algorithm can produce more accurate estimates than approximate exchange algorithms, while maintaining the same computational efficiency.

  1. Analysis of field coordination on heat exchanger shell side with different diameter tubes and holding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Lu Minshan; Dong Qiwu

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome the disadvantages of the rod-baffle heat exchanger, which achieves the high heat transfer efficiency only at high flow velocity, and which with non compact layout of tubes and is weak in the resistance of operation mode changes, this paper proposed two sizes of heat exchange tubes and holding and support structures to replace the traditional rod-baffle support unit, to increase the heat exchange coefficient on shell side and the heat exchange effectiveness. Three-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted on the shellside flow field and heat exchange field by the CFD software, and the calculation method was proposed for the included angle for the shellside velocity-temperature gradient fields of the vertical flow heat exchanger with complex structure. The quantitative relationship of the field coordination angle for the shellside velocity field and temperature gradient field was obtained and it is proved that the new structure is with better field coordination relation. (authors)

  2. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  3. The effects of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange volatility on exports

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ibrahima Amadou

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses panel data cointegration techniques to study the impacts of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to 2004. The results show that both real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility affect negatively exports. The results also illustrate that real exchange rate volatility is more harmful to exports than misalignment. These outcomes are corroborated by estimations on s...

  4. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  5. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  6. A Review of Industrial Heat Exchange Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Heat exchanger is an energy exchange equipment, it transfers the heat from a working medium to another working medium, which has been wildly used in petrochemical industry, HVAC refrigeration, aerospace and so many other fields. The optimal design and efficient operation of the heat exchanger and heat transfer network are of great significance to the process industry to realize energy conservation, production cost reduction and energy consumption reduction. In this paper, the optimization of heat exchanger, optimal algorithm and heat exchanger optimization with different objective functions are discussed. Then, optimization of the heat exchanger and the heat exchanger network considering different conditions are compared and analysed. Finally, all the problems discussed are summarized and foresights are proposed.

  7. Processing-property relationship in ion-exchanged ESP (engineered stress profile) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junwu

    2003-06-01

    A novel two-step ion exchange process was recently proposed to produce Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass. Important characteristics of ESP glass include high strength, relatively low strength variability and high surface damage resistance. It has been found that the mechanical reliability of ESP glass is mainly dependent on the processing conditions. Therefore, the primary objective of the current thesis is to quantitatively study the relationship between the mechanical properties of ESP glasses and the ion exchange processing conditions. Based on this relationship, processing conditions can be determined for any particular requirement of mechanical behavior for ion exchanged glass. To establish a property-processing relationship in ESP glasses, it is necessary to predict the stress profile in ion exchanged glass from the processing conditions. Since the residual stress profile in ion exchanged glass is mainly caused by the K/Na ion exchange and the stress relaxation, the diffusion process and the stress relaxation behavior of glass were studied. The K2O concentration profiles in singe-step and two-step ion exchanged soda lime silicate (SLS) glasses were calculated and found to be in a good agreement with the measured concentration profiles. The uniaxial compressive stress relaxation behavior of the SLS glass in the current thesis at typical ion exchange temperatures was studied. Since the surface composition in ion exchanged glass is significantly different from the composition of untreated glass, this composition difference could cause significant difference in glass properties including viscosity and stress relaxation. Therefore, properties of glasses with different K/Na ratios were studied, and empirical equations were obtained to estimate glass properties from the glass composition. Given the diffusion coefficient, surface concentration, composition-dependent dilation coefficient and stress relaxation data, residual stress profiles in ion-exchanged glasses

  8. On the proton exchange contribution to electron-hydrogen atom elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Tort, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    It is shown that the exchange contribution to the electron-proton potential Born term in elastic electron-hydrogen atom scattering arises as the non relativistic limit from the exchange of a proton between the two participant electrons - calculated from quantum electrodynamics including properly bound states (as solution of Bethe - Salpeter equation). (Author) [pt

  9. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, C.B.; Miller, J.B.; Gatti, L.V.; Gloor, M.M.; Laan-Luijkx, van der I.T.; Krol, M.C.; Guan, K.; Michalak, A.M.; Touma, T.; Andrew, A.; Basso, L.S.; Correia, C.S.C.; Domingues, L.G.; Joiner, J.; Lyapustin, A.; Peters, W.; Shiga, Y.P.; Thoning, K.; Velde, van der I.R.; Leeuwen van, T.T.; Yadav, V.; Diffenbaugh, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate–carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance
    for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2

  11. 78 FR 58354 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... AA classes based on several factors, including competitive forces and trading volume.\\3\\ The Exchange... electronically in additional Hybrid option classes. The Exchange believes this may result in more competitive pricing in IWM and other Hybrid option classes, which will promote just and equitable principles of trade...

  12. 77 FR 31411 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Fees. First, the Exchange currently trades a number of FX options, including options on the New Zealand... (``EUI''), the Japanese yen (``YUK'') and the Swiss franc (``SFC'').\\3\\ On August 3, 2009, the Exchange... percent (40%) of the transaction fees collected on any customer trade in the Incentive Plan Symbols and...

  13. Anion-exchange membranes containing diamines: preparation and stability in alkaline solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komkova, E.N.; Komkova, E.N.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Anion-exchange membranes (AEM) are prepared from chloromethylated polysulfone and a number of diamine compounds. The properties of the new AEM including the water content, ion-exchange capacity, permselectivity and area resistance are thoroughly studied. By varying the amount of diamine into the

  14. 78 FR 54338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ..., Interactive Data Online Properties, Inc. (collectively ``IDC''), whereby the Exchange will make available... the Private Labeled Products and who first subscribe as a result of the Exchange's marketing... feeds, including, but not limited to, TCP PITCH and Multicast PITCH, which are depth of book data feeds...

  15. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Collections and Services Division. Section: Acquisitions and Exchange. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on acquisitions and exchange presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) a condensed English version and the full German text of the presentation, "Document Exchange and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Council)--The Acquisition of Grey and Special Literature…

  16. Study of multi-site chemical exchange in solution state by NMR: 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    sequence functions, it is termed as the 'multi-site selective inversion experiment'. Significant features include considerably shorter experiment time com- pared to standard 2D EXSY,. 12 clear definition of the exchange time window, and uniform pulse non- ideality effects for all the exchanging sites. Double modulation of the ...

  17. Educational Exchanges in Public Diplomacy: Russian and International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Dolinkiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education exchanges are a key element of public diplomacy for most countries that considered effective in that domain of foreign policy activities. Education exchanges are attributed an important role in the post-war peace settlement between Germany and France and in determining the outcome of the Cold war. Relevant aspects of public diplomacy remain key elements of foreign policy instruments of the US, Germany and many other countries. Russia has been increasingly active in public diplomacy in the past decade and the role of education exchanges has been increasing which is also demonstrated by a growing number of expert publications on the subject. However the strategy, the quality of organization and the use of modern technologies remain at a relatively low level which leads to an inefficient use of resources. Priority issues that can be a core of Russia's public diplomacy (and foreign policy in general. Moreover, systemic work would be required to evaluate efficiency of current and complete projects which would allow determine effectiveness of programs and appropriateness of resources used. Education exchanges need to be targeted at both bringing international students to Russia and assisting Russian students to study internationally and professors to teach abroad. Finally, international best practices show that there is a need to maintain connections with international exchanges alumni and assist them to maintain connections with each other including with the use of modern technologies.

  18. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date

  19. Materials for nuclear diffusion-bonded compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiuqing; Smith, Tim; Kininmont, David; Dewson, Stephen John

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of materials used in the manufacture of diffusion bonded compact heat exchangers. Heatric have successfully developed a wide range of alloys tailored to meet process and customer requirements. This paper will focus on two materials of interest to the nuclear industry: dual certified SS316/316L stainless steel and nickel-based alloy Inconel 617. Dual certified SS316/316L is the alloy used most widely in the manufacture of Heatric's compact heat exchangers. Its excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties make it a good choice for use with many heat transfer media, including water, carbon dioxide, liquid sodium, and helium. As part of Heatric's continuing product development programme, work has been done to investigate strengthening mechanisms of the alloy; this paper will focus in particular on the effects of nitrogen addition. Another area of Heatric's programme is Alloy 617. This alloy has recently been developed for diffusion bonded compact heat exchanger for high temperature nuclear applications, such as the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the very high temperature nuclear reactors for production of electricity, hydrogen and process heat. This paper will focus on the effects of diffusion bonding process and cooling rate on the properties of alloy 617. This paper also compares the properties and discusses the applications of these two alloys to compact heat exchangers for various nuclear processes. (author)

  20. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  1. Taxpayers rights in the exchange of information between Tax Administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Cordón Ezquerro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evidences the need that Tax Administrations have, within a context of economic globalization and business internationalization, to improve and intensify exchange of information in order to achieve an effective and efficient control over the application process of their domestic tax regimes. Considering the benefit maximizing strategy implemented by private economic agents in the global setting, which includes international tax planning as one of their tools, Tax administrations ought to collaborate with each other. Exchange of information is the most suitable mean to implement such collaboration. Within this context, certain taxpayers’ rights could be at stake due to the exchange process; rights that could be properly acknowledged at the domestic level, but could lack similar recognition in an international scenario.

  2. Going on exchange to Scandinavia to improve language skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    -year study (2005-2007) of the language experiences and language-related attitudes of exchange students in Sweden and Denmark. The study includes some 240 subjects who were interviewed individually three times each during their stay in Scandinavia and who all, at the end of each interview, completed a simple......Most exchange students now come to Scandinavian countries not because they are students of the languages of the countries concerned, but because they wish to experience study abroad and can do so in Scandinavia through the medium of English used as a lingua franca. This paper reports on a three...... vocabulary test and a picture description test. On this basis, the paper addresses issues such as the following: Though the incoming exchange students' studies are to be in the medium of English rather than Swedish/Danish, does language learning nevertheless still play a role in their motivation for going...

  3. Modeling and predicting historical volatility in exchange rate markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Volatility modeling and forecasting of currency exchange rate is an important task in several business risk management tasks; including treasury risk management, derivatives pricing, and portfolio risk evaluation. The purpose of this study is to present a simple and effective approach for predicting historical volatility of currency exchange rate. The approach is based on a limited set of technical indicators as inputs to the artificial neural networks (ANN). To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it was applied to forecast US/Canada and US/Euro exchange rates volatilities. The forecasting results show that our simple approach outperformed the conventional GARCH and EGARCH with different distribution assumptions, and also the hybrid GARCH and EGARCH with ANN in terms of mean absolute error, mean of squared errors, and Theil's inequality coefficient. Because of the simplicity and effectiveness of the approach, it is promising for US currency volatility prediction tasks.

  4. Haemorrheological response to plasma exchange in Raynaud's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, A J; O'Reilly, M J; Yates, C J; Cotton, L T; Flute, P T; Dormandy, J A

    1979-11-10

    Eight patients with Raynaud's syndrome were treated by weekly plasma exchange for four weeks using a Haemonetics Model 30 Blood Processor. The mean whole-blood viscosity at a shear rate of 0.77/s was significantly lower after treatment, and the mean index of red-cell deformability was significantly improved. In four patients studied serially the mean percentage fall in whole-blood viscosity after a single plasma exchange was 49% at 0.77/s but only 14% at 91/s. All patients noticed symptomatic improvement including healing of ischaemic digital ulcers. In six patients the number of digital arterial segments containing detectable blood flow was measured by directional Doppler; in all six the number increased. It is concluded that plasma exchange is an effective means of haemorrheological treatment and may be beneficial in patients with digital ischaemia.

  5. Time-varying dependency in European energy markets: an analysis of Nord Pool, European Energy Exchange and Intercontinental Exchange energy commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Veka, Steinar; Lien, Gudbrand; Westgaard, Sjur; Higgs, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which the price of Nordic electricity derivatives correlates with European Energy Exchange (EEX) and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) electricity contracts. We also include their price correlation with ICE gas, Brent crude oil, coal and carbon emission contracts. Using multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models, we find significant time-varying relationships between all of the energy commodities included in the analy...

  6. Complex Heat Exchangers for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, Gabriela Alejandra

    100, axial conduction can be neglected. An alternative solution to address axial conduction was proposed, namely to include a well-insulated non-reacting section (without a catalytic bed) upstream of the reactor. The modified reactor heat exchanger was a novel solution to avoid the negative effect of axial conduction. Results show that by having a non-reacting section, axial conduction becomes unimportant.

  7. HOW TO INTEGRATE EXCHANGE STUDENT INTO FINNISH SOCIAL LIFE : How to integrate exchange students into Finnish social life

    OpenAIRE

    Mjema, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis project is the integration of exchange students into Finnish social life; the aim is to clarify how foreign students can use their free time when they are in Finland. The author’s main focus in this research was on exchange students at Omnia vocational college. The thesis report includes information about Omnia vocational college and the reasons for students to come to Finland and the problems that they face in terms of time, age, money and integration. The the...

  8. Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougar, Mary Lou D.

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other

  9. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  10. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  11. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  12. Ontological (In)Security of "Included" Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar; Ince, Basak

    2015-01-01

    When considered from today’s vantage point, attempts to create cohesive nationstates through forced migration and/or assimilation of peoples come across as sources of insecurity for all those affected (Krishna 1999). However, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, both forced...... migration and assimilation were adopted as conflict-regulation measures. The assumption was that ‘cohesive’ nation-states would be less conflict-prone than others (see Joenniemi Chapter 7). Authors of the Lausanne Treaty (1923) between Turkey and the European great powers adopted such an understanding...... of conflict regulation when they agreed on exchanging population between Greece and Turkey. In the following years Turkey’s Republican leaders engaged in various spatial, economic and cultural practices in the attempt to create a ‘cohesive’ body politic. In this chapter, we highlight multiple in...

  13. Subzero temperature chromatography for reduced back-exchange and improved dynamic range in amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, John D; Okach, Linda; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Brock, Ansgar

    2012-11-06

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange is a commonly used technique for studying the dynamics of proteins and their interactions with other proteins or ligands. When coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, hydrogen/deuterium exchange provides several unique advantages over other structural characterization techniques including very high sensitivity, the ability to analyze proteins in complex environments, and a large mass range. A fundamental limitation of the technique arises from the loss of the deuterium label (back-exchange) during the course of the analysis. A method to limit loss of the label during the separation stage of the analysis using subzero temperature reversed-phase chromatography is presented. The approach is facilitated by the use of buffer modifiers that prevent freezing. We evaluated ethylene glycol, dimethyl formamide, formamide, and methanol for their freezing point suppression capabilities, effects on peptide retention, and their compatibilities with electrospray ionization. Ethylene glycol was used extensively because of its good electrospray ionization compatibility; however, formamide has potential to be a superior modifier if detrimental effects on ionization can be overcome. It is demonstrated using suitable buffer modifiers that separations can be performed at temperatures as low as -30 °C with negligible loss of the deuterium label, even during long chromatographic separations. The reduction in back-exchange is shown to increase the dynamic range of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in terms of mixture complexity and the magnitude with which changes in deuteration level can be quantified.

  14. Tuning a High Transmission Ion Guide to Prevent Gas-Phase Proton Exchange During H/D Exchange MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Wales, Thomas E.; Whittington, Dale; Engen, John R.; Brown, Jeffery M.; Lee, Kelly K.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for protein structural analysis has been adopted for many purposes, including biopharmaceutical development. One of the benefits of examining amide proton exchange by mass spectrometry is that it can readily resolve different exchange regimes, as evidenced by either binomial or bimodal isotope patterns. By careful analysis of the isotope pattern during exchange, more insight can be obtained on protein behavior in solution. However, one must be sure that any observed bimodal isotope patterns are not artifacts of analysis and are reflective of the true behavior in solution. Sample carryover and certain stationary phases are known as potential sources of bimodal artifacts. Here, we describe an additional undocumented source of deuterium loss resulting in artificial bimodal patterns for certain highly charged peptides. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is predominantly due to gas-phase proton exchange between peptides and bulk solvent within the initial stages of high-transmission conjoined ion guides. Minor adjustments of the ion guide settings, as reported here, eliminate the phenomenon without sacrificing signal intensity. Such gas-phase deuterium loss should be appreciated for all HDX-MS studies using such ion optics, even for routine studies not focused on interpreting bimodal spectra.

  15. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on ion exchange held at the Lake Balaton, Hungary, 28-31 May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos, P.; Marton, A.

    1986-01-01

    Major trends of ion exchange researches and applications were discussed at the 5th international conference on ion echange held at Lake Balaton, Balatonfuered, Hungary. The 5 plenary lectures and the 98 papers delivered in 4 sessions dealt with theoretical aspects of ion exchange, different types of ion exchange materials including organic and inorganic ones, analytical applications of ion exchange processes, e.g. ion chromatography, HPLC and special technological procedures. Several examples were presented for ion exchange separations of nuclear interest such as the decontamination of radioactive wastes, the radiochemical analysis of the primary coolant, uranium recovery, the application of selective inorganic sorbents. (V.N.)

  16. Charge exchange recombination x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Namba, Shinichi; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    A recombining plasma x-ray laser using charge exchange recombination (CXR) is proposed. Fully stripped carbon ions collide with neutral He atoms and become excited hydrogenlike carbon ions, in which the excited levels with n=3 or 4 are mainly populated. We calculate the gain coefficients of the Balmer α and the Lyman β line of the hydrogenlike carbon ions by the use of a collisional-radiative model in which the CXR process is included. The calculated result shows that substantial gain can be generated for the Lyman β and Balmer α lines and that the gain of the Balmer α line can be strongly enhanced by the effect of CXR. We also report a preliminary experiment of this scheme. (author)

  17. Materials development for HTGR heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Roberts, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    High-temperature, gas-cooled reactors (HTGR's) are uranium/thorium-fueled, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled systems capable of producing high-temperature primary coolant. Several variants of this system are under active development in the United States and worldwide. In one version, the primary coolant heat is transferred to steam generators producing 538 0 C/16.5 MPa steam for use in electricity generation or process heat applications. The materials and design technology for steam generators in this system are well developed, relying heavily upon prior experience with fossil-fired steam generators and the steam generators of the commercial HTGR's. The major work that remains to be done is to complete qualification of the materials and to respond to evolving rules pertinent to elevatedtemperature nuclear design and construction. Other versions of the HTGR generate much higher primary coolant gas temperatures (850 0 to 950 0 C) and exchange this heat, through intermediate heat exchangers (IHX's), to a secondary loop for higher temperature process heat applications. Although IHX's for these systems are typically pressure-balanced (low-stress) units, their design involves several challenges, including the potential interactions between structural materials and impurities present in the HTGR primary coolant. Considerable work is required to qualify materials for IHX applications, including detailed mechanical property characterization, determination of environmental influences on performance, provision of welding materials and procedures for producing joints of adequate strength and integrity, and provisions for wear protection. Some of the work currently under way addressing these issues is described

  18. The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Volatility in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Definition and Construction. Source. Nominal Exchange. Rate. Bilateral Exchange rate of Nigeria Naira to US. Dollar. Central Bank of. Nigeria (CBN). Real Exchange Rate. Nominal Exchange Rate/Consumer Price. Index. CBN. Volatility of Nominal. Exchange Rate. Standard Deviation of the log differences of real exchange ...

  19. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  20. Geographic exchange standard and primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The ANSI Draft Proposal Specifications for an Information Interchange Data Descriptive File, X3L5.SEP, contains some Guidelines for Implementation (Appendix D). However, some additional guidelines should be provided specifically for the more commonly used systems of coding locational data, and referring thematic data to those codes. While there is no consensus that a single, preferred representation of geographical files can be specified as a standard for exchange, there is agreement on the generic form of record structures for commonly used, two-dimensional files. This report surveys by example common practice and illustrates the use of geocodes as thematic data pointers. It defines the elements of the structures as a subsystem within the interchange standard. An implementation within the Levels of Implementation of the basic IWGDE Standard is proposed and examples for some of the defined file types are presented in numerical form to aid in understanding. The problem of referring thematic data to a geographic file when these data reside in a physically distinct exchange file is discussed. 14 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  1. Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Meir, Avishai; Ramon, Guy Z.; WET Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines are reliable machines holding great promise in converting heat from low grade heat sources to mechanical or electrical power. In these engines the working fluid is a gas mixture containing one condensable component, decreasing the temperature difference required for ignition and steady state operation. Our experimental setup consists of a vertical acoustic resonator containing a mixture of air-water vapor. Water evaporates near the heat source, condenses at the heat sink and is drawn back down by gravity and capillary forces where it re-evaporates, sustaining a steady state closed thermodynamic cycle. We investigated the stability limit, namely the critical point at which temperature difference in the engine enables onset of self-excited oscillations, and the steady state of the engine. A simple theoretical model was derived, describing mechanisms of irreversible entropy generation and production of acoustic power in such engines. This model captures the essence in the differences between regular and phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines, and shows good agreement with experimental results of stability limit. Steady state results reveal not only a dramatic decrease in temperature difference, but also an increase in engine performances. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  2. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  3. Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion in severe hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Wael; Attia, Nayera I; Hassanein, Sahar M A

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion (TSSV-ET) in decreasing the post-exchange rebound increase in serum bilirubin level, with subsequent reduction of the need for repeated exchange transfusions. The study included 104 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia needing exchange transfusion. They were randomly enrolled into two equal groups, each group comprised 52 neonates. TSSV-ET was performed for the 52 neonates and the traditional single-stage double-volume exchange transfusion (SSDV-ET) was performed to 52 neonates. TSSV-ET significantly lowered rebound serum bilirubin level (12.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL), compared to SSDV-ET (17.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL), p < 0.001. Need for repeated exchange transfusions was significantly lower in TSSV-ET group (13.5%), compared to 32.7% in SSDV-ET group, p < 0.05. No significant difference was found between the two groups as regards the morbidity (11.5% and 9.6%, respectively) and the mortality (1.9% for both groups). Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion proved to be more effective in reducing rebound serum bilirubin level post-exchange and in decreasing the need for repeated exchange transfusions.

  4. Oxygen exchange between C18O2 and ''acidic'' oxide and zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peri, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The exchange of oxygen between C 18 O 2 and several high-area oxides, including silica, γ-alumina, silica--alumina, and zeolite catalysts, was studied. Infrared spectra of adsorbed CO 2 and of surface ''carbonates'' were used to follow the rate of oxygen exchange and investigate the nature of unusually exchangeable surface oxide ions, present at low concentrations. Interaction of CO 2 with the surface typically produced initial exchange of one oxygen atom, as expected from interaction with a single oxide ion (CO 2 + O 2- reversible CO 3 2- ), and the number of exchangeable ions increased with increasing temperature. The rate of oxygen exchange did not correlate with chemisorption to form stable surface carbonates or with the extent of strong physical adsorption of CO 2 . With dry silica, exchange was insignificant below 600 0 ; with catalytically active zeolites and dry γ-alumina, it was detectable at 200 0 and fairly rapid at 300--400 0 . Silica--alumina required 100--150 0 higher temperature for exchange than did an active zeolite. Activity for cracking and other hydrocarbon reactions may be related to the ease of exchange of some surface oxide ions with CO 2 . Active zeolites have reactive oxide sites resembling those on dry γ-alumina, but such sites on zeolites are probably less-readily eliminated by chemisorption of H 2 O or other compounds. (U.S.)

  5. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  6. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  7. Development of nursing students during international exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Varusk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the experiences which nursing exchange students have had when they have been abroad. This aim of this literature review was to evaluates and presents the most current and relevant information of the topic as possible. The findings were divided into two themes – how nursing exchange students had evolved on a personal and on a professional level. Most of the findings were about how the nursing exchange students had evolved on a person...

  8. Price of Fairness in Kidney Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    immensely, and provide valuable experi- ence in fielding real-world artificial intelligence technology . 2. FAIRNESS IN KIDNEY EXCHANGE In this section, we...exchange, a necessary consideration when fielding new technology in medicine (as noted by those who designed the recent deceased donor allocation scheme...Dynamic matching via weighted myopia with application to kidney exchange. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI

  9. Timeline and the Timeline eXchange Infrastructure: A framework for exchanging temporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, K.; Chung, S. H.

    The concept of a timeline is used ubiquitously during space mission design and development to specify elements of flight and ground system designs; it is used also during testing and operations to describe mission plans and system state trajectories, for example. In this paper we introduce our Timeline Ontology. The Timeline Ontology is grounded in mathematical formalism, thus providing concrete semantics. We also describe our ontology-based Timeline eXchange Infrastructure (TXI), a framework that provides a means to exchange time-varying information among various tools and algorithms with semantic correctness. To further ground the needs for Timeline and the TXI, we examine the tools used in the Mission Operations Systems (MOS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). To illustrate the versatility of the formalism, we also describe a use of Timelines during the early design phase of a project lifecycle. Finally, we look at future extensions to this work, including creating a user interface for Timeline instance editing, integrating with ontology validation tools, and extending the Timeline concept to include relationships to other pre-existing JPL ontologies.

  10. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  11. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  12. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  13. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  14. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  15. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  16. Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Ohadi, M.M.; Radermacher, R.

    2001-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the performance of CO{sub 2} microchannel evaporators and gas coolers in operational conditions representing those of residential heat pumps. A set of breadboard prototype microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was developed and tested. The refrigerant in the heat exchangers followed a counter cross-flow path with respect to the airflow direction. The test conditions corresponded to the typical operating conditions of residential heat pumps. In addition, a second set of commercial microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was tested for a less comprehensive range of operating conditions. The test results were reduced and a comprehensive data analysis, including comparison with the previous studies in this field, was performed. Capacity and pressure drop of the evaporator and gas cooler for the range of parameters studied were analyzed and are documented in this report. A gas cooler performance prediction model based on non-dimensional parameters was also developed and results are discussed as well. In addition, in the present study, experiments were conducted to evaluate capacities and pressure drops for sub-critical CO{sub 2} flow boiling and transcritical CO{sub 2} gas cooling in microchannel heat exchangers. An extensive review of the literature failed to indicate any previous systematic study in this area, suggesting a lack of fundamental understanding of the phenomena and a lack of comprehensive data that would quantify the performance potential of CO{sub 2} microchannel heat exchangers for the application at hand. All experimental tests were successfully conducted with an energy balance within {+-}3%. The only exceptions to this were experiments at very low saturation temperatures (-23 C), where energy balances were as high as 10%. In the case of evaporators, it was found that a lower saturation temperature (especially when moisture condensation occurs) improves the overall heat transfer coefficient

  17. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  18. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  19. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....

  20. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... relatered to rainfall-runo events. By combining geochemical, geophysical and hydrogeological models with numerical modeling, groundwater flow paths to a stream were investigated in a wetland. By combining the dierent tracers, condence in the paramters of the numerical model could be established...

  1. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  2. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  3. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  4. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  5. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  6. 77 FR 9714 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... sole proprietorship or a proprietary trading firm with 25 or fewer Authorized Traders (``Limited Size... rules regarding registration, qualification and continuing education requirements for Authorized Traders... proprietary traders. The Exchange proposes to expand its registration requirements to include the Proprietary...

  7. 75 FR 61533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... calculation.\\7\\ \\7\\ The DAX Index is published daily and is available real-time on ThomsonReuters, Bloomberg... through major market data vendors including ThomsonReuters and Bloomberg. If the Frankfurt Stock Exchange...

  8. 78 FR 19059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ETF options, including exercise style. Accordingly, the Exchange noted in its original mini-option... proposed rule change that are filed with the Commission, and all written communications relating to the...

  9. 78 FR 22017 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... NBBO in the options market during Limit States and Straddle States. Given the Exchange's recognition of... include, among other information: stock symbol, option symbol, time at the start of the Limit State or...

  10. 78 FR 21657 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange LLC; Order Approving, on an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... market during Limit States and Straddle States. Given the Exchange's recognition of the potential for... affected, each dataset will include, among other information: stock symbol, option symbol, time at the...

  11. Parallel markets, the foreign exchange auction, and exchange rate unification in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Janine; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.

    1992-01-01

    A large thriving parallel market for foreign exchange has coexisted with a rich menu of official exchange rate policies aimed at achieving a more flexible exchange rate and price system as well as financial and trade liberalization. Despite aggresive policies in these areas, particularly for the exchange rate, the black market premium (defined as the ratio of the black market rate to the official rate) remains high. The authors examine the origins of the parallel market, the statistical prope...

  12. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  13. Motion of the Debris from a High-Altitude Nuclear Explosion: Simulations Including Collisionless Shock and Charge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the EM 2.5 Quasi-neutral Hybrid Code ZEMER,” p3 66 Petr Hellinger , “Structure and Stationarity of Quasi-perpendicular Shocks: Numerical simulations...1966) 4121–4131. Hellinger , Petr. “Structure and Stationarity of Quasi-perpendicular Shocks: Numerical simulations.” Planetary and Space

  14. Sub-Zero Temperature Chromatography for Reduced Back-Exchange and Improved Dynamic Range in Amide Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Venable, John D.; Okach, Linda; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Brock, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange is a commonly used technique for studying the dynamics of proteins and their interactions with other proteins or ligands. When coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, hydrogen/deuterium exchange provides several unique advantages over other structural characterization techniques including very high sensitivity, the ability to analyze proteins in complex environments, and a large mass range. A fundamental limitation of the technique arises fr...

  15. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; van Westen, Danielle; Brockstedt, Sara; Lasič, Samo; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8±0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6±0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9±0.8 s(-1). In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Patient summary record—(1) Standard. Health Level Seven Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) Release 2... specifications for exchanging electronic health information. 170.205 Section 170.205 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF... exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health information. The...

  17. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  18. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  19. Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) to Support Low-Cost Spacecraft Operation via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul; Repaci, Max; Sames, David

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Packet telemetry, Internet IP networks and cost reduction; 2) Basic functions and technical features of SAFE; 3) Project goals, including low-cost satellite transmission to data centers to be distributed via an Internet; 4) Operations with a replicated file protocol; 5) File exchange operation; 6) Ground stations as gateways; 7) Lessons learned from demonstrations and tests with SAFE; and 8) Feedback and future initiatives.

  20. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that a long-run relationship exists between the industrial productivity growth rate, ration of industrial production to gross domestic product, exchange rate, interest rate and terms of trade, and that exchange rate deregulation has significant impact on industrial performance. In order to determine the short term ...

  1. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate. It adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange interventions, where the weights are their effectiveness. The

  2. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  3. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  4. First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent blood transfusion carries significant complications especially iron overload. Red cell exchange offers a better control both as prophylaxis and therapy for some complications. METHOD: A 32years old male SCD patient had priapism as an indication for Red Cell exchange. A total of 1850ml of his red cells was ...

  5. STATISTICS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    currency. But since transactions are made in national (domestic) currencies, the former is generally applied for exchange (Mordi, 2006). The main objectives of ... different regimes. In this paper, attempt is made to use Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average. (ARIMA) model to study exchange rate data according to ...

  6. Individual Differences in Reactions to Inequitable Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Barbara B.; Penner, Louis A.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the role of sociopathic tendencies in reactions to inequitable exchanges in 273 males and females classified as high or low in sociopathy. Subjects read narratives of inequitable exchanges and assumed the role of the exploiter and the role of the victim in each. (Author/RH)

  7. Development of heat exchangers for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, R.I.; Dalrymple, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Unusual design constraints, due to tube vibration, are called for when tube-in-shell heat exchangers are incorporated into CANDU type reactor power plants. CRNL has programs studying tube excitation and response, flow conditions, and the fretting process in such exchangers, tube plugging techniques, and eddy current scanning systems for inside bores of full-length tubes. (E.C.B.)

  8. Minneapolis and Brittany: A Cultural Exchange Revisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Janine

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, Learning Languages published an article describing a cultural exchange that occurred from 1991 to 1993 between Breck School, a private school in Minneapolis, and Paul Dukas School, a high-needs school in Brest, France. Much of that exchange was carried out through online telecommunications using the Minitel. The result of a two-year…

  9. Information Exchange Procedures: Overview and General Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Leonard C.

    The Information Exchange Procedures (IEP) project creates the capability for exchange and reporting of that information, both financial and otherwise, necessary to calculate and evaluate costs (1) by discipline and course level, (2) by student major and student level, and (3) per unit of output. Most uses of comparable information and analysis can…

  10. Deuterium exchange between fluoroform and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The selective multiphoton dissociation of fluoroform by IR laser results in the dissociation of deuterium-bearing molecules, thereby leading to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. The deuterium exchange between depleted fluroform and natural water has been investigated and the separation factors for this exchange have been calculated over a wide range of temperature. (author)

  11. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange of macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, C.J.

    1982-06-01

    An infra red spectroscopic technique has been developed which allows the hydrogen-deuterium exchange between a polymer and absorbed heavy water to be monitored with the polymer in contact with liquid heavy water. This method extends the existing methods to the highest possible internal water concentration. The results of Moore on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of poly(N-t-butylacrylamide) have been extended to the lower homologues of the series. The rate and extent of the exchange of these polymers is dependent upon the pH of the conditioning solution in which the polymer is exposed prior to the exchange study. The exchange is acid and base catalysed with the latter only apparent in the lower homologues. The features of the acid catalysed exchange have been tentatively explained in terms of the mobility of the hydrogen ion in the polymer matrix, whilst the restricted base exchange is attributed to the lack of hydration stabilisation of the intermediate ion complex of the base catalysed mechanism. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange properties of nylon, silk and cellulose have also been studied and these polymers show far less sensitivity to the pH of the conditioning treatment. The results are discussed. (author)

  12. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  13. Intervention Analysis of Nigeria's Foreign Exchange Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical. Bulletin for empirical verification. The data considered for the analysis is the monthly average official exchange rate of the naira vis-à-vis the. United State dollar for the period 1980 to 2014. Research Problems: In September 1986, the Second-. Tier Foreign Exchange ...

  14. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...

  15. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING AIR EXCHANGE IN TWO HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air exchange rate is critical to determining the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of hazardous pollutants. Approximately 150 air exchange experiments were completed in two residences: a two-story detached house located in Redwood City, CA and a three-story...

  17. STATISTICS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-02-11

    Feb 11, 2009 ... KEY WORDS: Exchange Rate Regime; ARIMA Model, Stationarity, Random Walk Model. INTRODUCTION. Exchange rate has been defined as the price of one currency in terms of another. It can be expressed in one of two ways: as units of domestic currency per unit of foreign currency; or units of foreign ...

  18. Exchange Rate and the PRC Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stages of exchange rate regulation and foreign trade systems reforming in PRC during the period 1978-2008 are examined. A quantitative assessment of PRC foreign trade parameters reactions to the currency rate dynamics on the national and regional levels is made. Also the import and export impact of potential exchange rate changes is estimated

  19. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  20. The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984), we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.