WorldWideScience

Sample records for include coal preparation

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  3. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  4. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  5. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  6. Preparation of slightly hydrogenated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1943-05-03

    Processes serving as producers of slightly hydrogenated coal are discussed. It was established that the working process of an extracting hydrogenation from coal alone did not present optimal conditions for production of slightly hydrogenated coal, and therefore led to unfavorably high costs. More favorable operating costs were expected with the use of larger amounts of gas or with simultaneous production of asphalt-free oils in larger quantity. The addition of coal into the hydrogenation of low temperature carbonization tars made it possible to produce additional briquetting material (slightly hydrogenated coal) in the same reaction space without impairment of the tar hydrogenation. This was to lower the cost still more. For reasons of heat exchange, the process with a cold separator was unfavorable, and consideration of the residue quality made it necessary to investigate how high the separator temperature could be raised. 3 tables.

  7. Application of artificial intelligence in coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Y.; Deng, J.; Liu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-11-01

    The general situation of using AI (Artificial intelligence) technology in coal preparation was introduced. The expert systems of coal preparation plant design, the expert management system of coal preparation plant, and the intelligent data-drawing bank were discussed. Some opinions about their foundation and method of knowledge expressing, inference, knowledge discovery of databases were presented. It is pointed out that an industrial system such as coal preparation is big and complex, so it is necessary and also difficult to use AI technology in these systems. Because the types of knowledge are different, there are various knowledge expressions and model of knowledge inference, hence only comprehensive methods suitable for the characters of the system may be used. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  9. 30 CFR 827.12 - Coal preparation plants: Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.12 Coal preparation plants...: (a) Signs and markers for the coal preparation plant, coal processing waste disposal area, and water-treatment facilities shall comply with § 816.11 of this chapter. (b) Any stream channel diversion shall...

  10. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  11. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  12. Coal blending preparation for non-carbonized coal briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo; Fatimah, D.; Estiaty, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Referring to the national energy policy targets for the years 2025, the government has launched the use of coal briquettes as an alternative energy replacement for kerosene and firewood. Non-carbonized briquettes in the form of coal briquettes as well as bio-coal briquettes are used in many small-medium industries and households, and are rarely used by large industries. The standard quality of coal briquettes used as raw material for non-carbonized briquettes is a minimum calorific value of 4,400 kcal/kg (adb); total sulfur at a maximum of 1% (adb), and water content at <12% (adb). The formation of coal deposits depends on the origin of the coal-forming materials (plants), the environment of deposition, and the geological conditions of the surrounding area, so that the coal deposits in each region will be different as well as the amount and also the quality. Therefore, the quantity and the quality of coal in each area are different to be eligible in the making of briquettes to do blending. In addition to the coal blending, it is also necessary to select the right materials in the making of coal briquettes and bio-coal briquettes. The formulation of the right mixture of material in the making of briquettes, can be produced of good quality and environmental friendly.

  13. Preparation of samples for coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucada, E.; Pazos, C.

    1986-11-01

    Taking and preparing coal samples for analysis is fundamental to obtaining reliable data. The sensitivity and precision of the monitoring equipment (calorimeters, devices for measuring sulphur content and for immediate elemental analysis, etc) are of little use if the samples analysed, normally less than 1 g, are not representative of the batch from which they are taken, a batch usually being of several tonnes. Moreover, as even the slightest error in results has major economic repercussions for the suppliers (mining companies) and buyers (power stations, cement works, etc), it is clear that sound criteria for use in the selection of equipment and sampling and preparation methods are of prime importance. The aim of this article is to give a general survey of this process describing the fundamental characteristics of each stage and, in terms of these, to provide basic selection criteria for the equipment. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The preparation of sorbents from black coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojak, A.; Roubicek, V.; Kaloc, M.; Lacny, Z. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

    1994-12-31

    In this research project, different types of activated carbons were studied. The activated carbons were used as sorbents for phenol-ammonia waste water treatment. The basic parameters of coal, including specific surfaces, are shown in a table. The coals underwent carbonization under temperatures ranging from 500 C to 1,000 C. After cooling, the char was treated to achieve fineness ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 mm and was activated by a water stream. The active carbon was then used for biological-sorptional cleaning of waste water on model equipment. Results led to the following conclusions: (1) The sorption-biological refining process for phenol-ammonia waste waters from coking plants was suitable; (2) An activated coke has to be used as an input filter to acquire the highest efficiency during this biological process; and (3) During the sorption-biological refining of phenol-ammonia waters, phenol content was reduced significantly (90%), and chemical oxygen consumption was reduced (10%) in comparison with the unrefined phenol-ammonia water.

  15. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  16. Certified reference materials - Coal - Preparation and certification of ASCRM 011-7 (Hardgrove grindability index)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The document describes the preparation and certification of the set of four coal samples, ASCRM 11-7A to D with Hardgrove grindability indexes of 31, 47, 67 and 94. Included with purchase of ASCRM 011-7-2002.

  17. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  18. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Partitioning of elements and macerals during preparation of Antaibao coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Qin, Yong; Wei, Chongtao; Li, Zhuangfu; Guo, Yinghai; Zhu, Yanming

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of the macerals, ash, sulfur and 43 major and trace elements were performed on samples of feed coal, cleaned coal, middlings and slime collected from the Antaibao coal preparation plant, China, and also on samples from coal preparation experiments. This study is focused on the partitioning of elements and macerals during coal preparation and potential environment aspects of the elements. The conclusions are as follows: (1) in comparison with the feed coal, the cleaned coal has a higher vitrinite content and relatively lower inertinite and exinite contents, whereas the middlings and slime have lower vitrinite and exinite contents, and relatively higher inertinite contents. The vitrinite contents in the size-segregated cleaned coals were observed to show a slightly increasing tendency with increasing particle size, while the inertinite contents decreased. (2) Physical coal cleaning is not only effective for removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most elements. As, Cd, Co, Cs, Hg, Fe, K, Mg, Nb and Ni are observed to show a high degree of removal, while Br, Be, Cu, U, Mn, Zn and organic sulfur are enriched in the cleaned coal and show a lower degree of removal. The large-sized cleaned coal is cleaner than the smaller sized fractions. (3) The middlings, especially the slime, are enriched in S, Hg, Cr, V, Zn, etc., so that these fractions should not be directly used as fuel. In addition, the concentration of Pb and V in the process water exceeds the limit of relevant environmental water quality standard. Consequently, it is necessary to develop new processes to remove ash, sulfur and hazardous trace elements to the maximum extent. Further studies on deep processing of the middlings and slime and cleaning of the process water should also be performed. (author)

  20. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  1. An overview of coal preparation initiatives with application to coal conversion in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, C.F.; Bunt, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    in heating value, making then more suitable for use in power generation. From the foregoing it is clear that initiatives are currently underway in South Africa aimed at more effectively managing coal resources by maximizing the utilization potential thereof. It is the purpose of this paper to present an overview of Sasol's efforts aimed at more-effectively managing their coal resources, with particular emphasis on coal preparation

  2. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  4. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  5. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  6. Analysis of operational risk in a Polish coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.; Sablik, J.; Martyniak, J.; Wycisk, H. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    The article presents methodology and results of studies, which allow one to characterise a coal preparation plant by means of operational risk analysis and to draw conclusions which could be used for making production management and investment decisions. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Cost estimating relationships for coal conversion process units. Volume 1. Technical report. [Includes in some cases dependence on capacity and data references from which estimates were derived

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, E.N.; Carden, H.W.; Curtis, R.L.; Heidler, L.M.; Roppel, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Cost estimating relationships for commercial-scale coal conversion process units are developed in this study. The specific units include: coal preparation, oxygen plant, gasification, shift conversion, acid gas/CO/sub 2/ removal, sulfur recovery, and the dissolver. Also set forth is a detailed Cost Chart of Accounts, together with a discussion of cost analysis procedures and problems.

  9. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Overview of United States coal export terminals. [Includes description of present coal port terminal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Existing coal export ports in the United States are in general not designed to the standards compatible with the current state of the art. The United States has a current coal export capacity in the order of 83 million tons per year. This could be increased to 138 million tons per year through a process of modernization and expansion which would take about six to eight years for full realization. Even if this expansion program took place it would not result in an overall coal export system that was economically competitive due to the fact that our export terminals are generally outmoded and cannot accommodate the large vessels engaged in the world coal trade and which can be accommodated at the major coal destination ports in Europe and Japan. In order for the United States to achieve an economically competitive posture in the world coal trade, new ports that will handle 150,000 to 250,000 DWT ships are needed. The new terminals must be designed to receive coal efficiently and minimize the demurrage costs for both railcars on the delivery side and ships on the load out side. There are port sites available in the US which could be developed to effectively handle the increased requirements. Each major new port could easily be designed to handle 20 to 50 million tons per year at ultimate capacity subject to the availability of coal from the source at a reasonable cost. New port construction is needed to satisfy the projected demand at a reasonable cost and to provide for the obsolescence of existing facilities. Decisions are needed now so that the ports will be operating 20 years from now and serve as replacements for present facilities which are becoming obsolete. The government of the United States can and must play a major role if success is to be achieved.

  11. Application of the Matrix Model of Hydrocyclone in Coal Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leško Michal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes mathematical model of the ”water only” cyclone function on the basis Of experimental data. The experiments have been realized in a pilot plant cyclone. The model was verified in the case of steam coal preparation from the Cíge¾, Handlová and Nováky localities. The obtained results confirmed that the applied model is suitable for the design of cyclones parameters under the operating condition.

  12. [A coal mine and coal preparation plant coal dust workplace present situation investigation and analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Wei; Sun, Yuan-Han; Xiu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ling

    2011-04-01

    Through a detection of dust in the coal mines workplace, to understand the status of occupational hazards, and the evaluation of occupational hazards, provide subject to control occupational hazards. According to production process and "hazardous substances in workplace air monitoring, sampling norms" and other standards to determine the sampling points and sampling of coal dust. Underground mining operations in 21 subjects with time-weighted average concentration of dust types pass rate of 28.6%, of which five types of dust hazard grade II, six types of dust hazard rating of 0, and the remaining types of grade I dust hazard levels. Coal dust test six types of time-weighted average concentration of 83.3% pass rate, only one types of dust hazard grade I, all the rest is 0. Calculated by the detection of dust overrun 18 times operating sites, the pass rate of 72.2% results. Purified water spray and air flow curtain of dust control has played a certain role, but the work of underground working conditions and environmental constraints, most of the dust concentration in workplace occupational exposure limits do not meet the requirements, recommended the strengthening of dust or Dust the daily management and maintenance of equipment, strengthen the ventilation, personal protection officers to strengthen operations.

  13. Sensitivity problems of control system of coal preparation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaula Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of technological processes of coal preparation takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. No less important problem in the control process is the tuning of the controller parameters. In the paper the analysis of influence of changes in object model parameters on the course of the controlled value was carried out. For the controller settings, calculated according to model parameters research was carried out on object with other values of parameters. In the studies a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning PI controller for control systems of coal preparation processes characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay was presented. Considerations were performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of the set point. The assessment of the considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality was realized.

  14. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  15. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Cristina; Herzog, Howard J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.; Field, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. Nevertheless, preparation of the CO[subscript 2] slurry is challenging and the losses associated with this process have not been accounted for in previous analyses. This work introduces the Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry (PHICCOS) feeding system, in which coal-CO...

  16. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  17. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  18. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  19. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 30 CFR 50.30 - Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2-Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2..., AND COAL PRODUCTION IN MINES Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report § 50.30 Preparation and submission of MSHA Form 7000-2—Quarterly Employment and Coal Production Report. (a) Each operator of a mine...

  1. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  2. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  3. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  4. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  5. Preparation of three South African coals for use as reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, E.J.; Hansen, R.G.

    1984-12-21

    This report describes the preparation, analysis, and certification of three South African coals as South African reference materials (SARMs). The materials are designated SARM 18, SARM 19, and SARM 20. Approximately 150 kg of each coal was prepared. Certified values were assigned to 29 elements for SARM 18 and to 35 elements for each of SARM 19 and SARM 20. The analytical data, which were obtained by a wide variety of analytical techniques, were supplied by 28 laboratories in 10 countries. 7 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  7. Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malito, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the testing to be performed on field collected coal slurry samples by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy). A total of 20 samples (8 from an Upper Freeport coal and 12 from an Oklahoma coal) are to be analyzed in triplicate for the elements S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg. For each of the two coal slurry types (Upper Freeport and Oklahoma), a container of slurry labeled calibration'' has been prepared. These calibration slurries may be used to get the system tuned'' (note that the volume of the field collected slurries is relatively small and cannot be used to tune'' the system). The calibration slurries were made from the slurry collected from the drain from the second sampling stage during the field testing.

  8. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  9. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  10. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Influence of coal batch preparation on the quality of metallurgical соkе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олегівна Шмельцер

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of coal batch properties on coke strength we have considered the quality of the coke produced at the plant in Krivoy Rog from 2008 till 2012. Such factors as the large number of coal suppliers, imprecise selection of the optimal degree of batch crushing result in the decline in coke quality, the batch density and contents of the lean class (<0,5 mm are not optimum; poor blending of the batch after crushing; increased moisture and ash content of the coking batch; and extreme fluctuation in the coal and batch characteristics. It was found that high humidity of coal batch and its large fluctuations has most profound effect on the mechanical properties of coke. Under deteriorating resource base the quality of the coking batch preparation is important, To have batch of proper quality the following key aspects must be taken into account: the batch must be crushed to an optimum degree that will result in leaning components decrease and increased contents of vitrivite in it which improves the sinterability and coking, and hence the quality of coke; the degree of mixing of the coking batch in all indices must be up to 98-99%, for uneven distribution in the coal chamber worsens the quality of coke

  13. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Utilization of the Baker soil test in synthetic soil preparation for reclamation of coal ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, J.P.; Baker, D.E.; Amistadi, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Application of procedures developed for preparation of synthetic soils for reclamation of two coal ash disposal sites in Pennsylvania is presented. These procedures include determination of water holding properties, lime requirement, and the Baker Soil Test (BST) for chemical element analysis. Results from soil and plant analyses following establishment of vegetation on the sites have shown that the BST predicts plant incorporation of chemical elements from the synthetic soils. The results confirm the utility of the BST in planning and executing successful reclamation on disturbed lands in a manner which protects the soil-plant-animal food chain

  15. ICP-MS determination of 45 trace elements in whole coal using microwave oven acid digestion for sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadda, S.; Rivoldini, A.; Cau, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    The microwave oven acid digestion technique has been routinely applied to the ICP-MS multielement analysis of whole powdered coal. Samples were treated with a mixture of HF/aqua regia/HClO{sub 4} in closed Teflon PFA vessels without any pretreatment. Complete dissolution of the coal matrix is not required, but only one that results in quantitative and reproducible recovery of more than 40 trace elements with minimum digestion time, minimum use of reagents and minimal operator attendance. The precision of the analysis as well as the repeatability of the sample preparation procedure and precision of instrumental measurements have been evaluated. Eight coal standards, including NBS SRM 1632b, 3 South Africa Reference Materials (SARMs) 18 to 20 and 4 USA ARs 1800 to 1803 were analysed in this manner providing data for all the 14 rare earth elements along with others of geochemical interest, technological relevance as well as environmental and health concern. The results, from the ppb level to several ppm, are discussed for all the elements including detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. In general, good agreement was achieved with the certified and/or available published values.

  16. Enhancement of Operating Efficiency Of The Central Coal-Preparation Plant of "MMK - UGOL" Ltd. Under Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarygin, Maksim

    2017-11-01

    In this article the subject of enhancement of operating efficiency of the central coal-preparation plant of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is encompassed. Modern trends in the development of technologies and equipment for coal beneficiation are due to the following requirements: improving competitiveness of coal products, improvement of quality of marketable products, reduction of coal production cost, environmental requirements: polluting emission abatement, prepared coal saving, improvement of the effectiveness of resource conservation; complex mechanization and beneficiation process automation. In the article the contemporary problems of raw coal benefication under current conditions of the increased dilution of withdrawable coals with rock fractions are considered. Comparative analysis of efficiency of application of modern concentrating equipment under the conditions of the CCPP of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is carried out on the basis of research works. Particular attention is paid to dehydration of produced coal concentrate with content of volatile agents of more than 35.0% and content of fine-dispersed particles in flotation concentrate of more than 50.0%. Comparative analysis of the coal concentrate dehydration technologies is conducted.

  17. Preparation of carbonized biomass water mixture and upgraded coal water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, D.F.; Usui, H.; Komoda, Y.; Daulay, B. [Research & Development Centre for Mineral & Coal Technology, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2006-11-15

    Biomass is the third largest primary energy resource in the world after coal and oil. Due to its huge potential, the renewable and the corresponding positive role for CO{sub 2} reduction, the use of carbonized biomass for energy purpose is expected to increase. The carbonized biomass comes from agricultural waste and forest by-product. Carbonized plant and carbonized coconut cell biomass were mixed with water to study the possibilities of slurry preparation as a carbonized biomass water mixture (CBWM). Beside that, the upgraded coal by an upgraded brown coal (UBC) process was also studied to produce a UBC water mixture (UBCWM) with high coal concentration. The rheological characteristics of CBWM and UBCWM have been conducted by using a stress controlled rheometer. The results indicate that the maximum concentrations of the carbonized plant, carbonized coconut cell biomass, and UBC were 35.9, 51.2, and 61.5 wt%, when respectively using 0.3 wt% of naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSF), polymethacrylate (PMA), and NSF as dispersing additives, and 0.1 wt% of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizing additive.

  18. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... proposed rule is an important element in MSHA's Comprehensive Initiative to ``End Black Lung--Act Now..., and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  1. Preparation of steel slag porous sound-absorbing material using coal powder as pore former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare a porous sound-absorbing material using steel slag and fly ash as the main raw material, with coal powder and sodium silicate used as a pore former and binder respectively. The influence of the experimental conditions such as the ratio of fly ash, sintering temperature, sintering time, and porosity regulation on the performance of the porous sound-absorbing material was investigated. The results showed that the specimens prepared by this method had high sound absorption performance and good mechanical properties, and the noise reduction coefficient and compressive strength could reach 0.50 and 6.5MPa, respectively. The compressive strength increased when the dosage of fly ash and sintering temperature were raised. The noise reduction coefficient decreased with increasing ratio of fly ash and reducing pore former, and first increased and then decreased with the increase of sintering temperature and time. The optimum preparation conditions for the porous sound-absorbing material were a proportion of fly ash of 50% (wt.%), percentage of coal powder of 30% (wt.%), sintering temperature of 1130°C, and sintering time of 6.0hr, which were determined by analyzing the properties of the sound-absorbing material. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The effect of Jatropha torrified biomass and coal preparation on steam co-gasification in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloqaili, Mashal Mohammed

    Coal fired power stations produce vast amounts of harmful products that may affect our health and environment. Co-gasification of coal and biomass could be a solution to this issue as an emerging technology. Biomass may reduce emissions significantly and it may contribute to reducing capital operational cost while providing high gas yields. This research tests the co-gasification of coal and biomass blended chars. Coal and biomass were both prepared. Coal Illinois No #6 was prepared as coal semi-char and coal-char while Jatropha biomass was torrefied at six different temperatures ranging from [200-300] ºC. The co-gasification experiments was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. A gasification temperature was 900 ºC and a constant flow rate of 100 mL/min. Carbon conversion, maximum char reactivity, products yield and amount of hydrogen produced were evaluated and studied based on data obtained from the G.C. Additionally, weight of bed material and ash leftover weight from gasification process were significantly contributed in calculating the carbon conversion percentages.

  3. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Geochemistry of Toxic Elements and Their Removal via the Preparation of High-Uranium Coal in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaopiao Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-uranium (U coal is the dominant form of coal in Southwestern China. However, directly utilizing this resource can also harm the environment because this element is radioactive; it is, therefore, necessary to clean this kind of coal before burning. This research studied the geochemistry of toxic elements and their partitioning during the preparation of high-U coal in China. The results show that high-U coals are mainly distributed in Southwestern China and are characterized by a high organic sulfur (S content and vanadium (V-chromium (Cr-molybdenum (Mo-U element assemblage. These elements are well-correlated with one another, but are all negatively related to ash yield, indicating that all four are syngenetic in origin and associated with organic materials. A mineralogical analysis shows that U in Ganhe and Rongyang coal occurs within fine-grained anatase, clay minerals, guadarramite, and pyrite, while V occurs in clay minerals, pyrite, and dolomite, and Cr occurs in dolomite. Other elements, such as fluorine (F, lead (Pb, selenium (Se, and mercury (Hg, mainly occur in pyrite. By applying a gravity separation method to separate minerals from coal, the content of the enrichment element assemblage of V-Cr-Mo-U in Rongyang coal is still shown to be higher than, or close to, that of the original feed because this element assemblage is derived from hydrothermal fluids during syngenetic or early diagenetic phases, but other elements (beryllium [Be], F, manganese [Mn], zinc [Zn], Pb, arsenic [As], Se, Hg can be efficiently removed. Once cleaned, the coal obtained by gravity separation was subject to a flotation test to separate minerals; these results indicate that while a portion of V and Cr can be removed, Mo and U remain difficult to extract. It is evident that the two most commonly utilized industrialized coal preparation methods, gravity separation and flotation, cannot effectively remove U from coal where this element occurs in large

  5. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  6. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.

  7. Geological and economic characteristics of Yugoslav coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicic, S.; Cveticanin, R.; Ercegovac, M.; Knezevic, V. (Rudarski Fakultet, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Yugoslav coal reserves, which amount to 486 t of coal equivalent per capita. Since exploration started in 1804, 22 hard coal, 13 lignite and more than 40 brown coal basins have been discovered. Their geological condition and average calorific value of the coal are given, as are recommendations to improve geological exploration of all types of basin, with a view to bettering coal production, preparation and processing. Descriptions of individual mines are given, including geological, hydrogeological and tectonic properties, coal quality, coal reserves and other parameters. 14 refs.

  8. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  9. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  10. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; rescheduling of public hearings; correction. SUMMARY... also corrects one error in the preamble to the proposed rule. On November 15, 2010, MSHA published the... from any interested party, including those not presenting oral statements. Comments must be received by...

  11. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... concentrations that exceed proposed standards. For example, the proposed plan would include pre-operational examination, testing and set-up procedures to verify the operational readiness of the CPDM before each shift...

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  13. Preparation of thiol-functionalized activated carbon from sewage sludge with coal blending for heavy metal removal from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xing, Xing; Li, Jiao; Shi, Mei; Lin, Aijun; Xu, Congbin; Zheng, Jianzhong; Li, Ronghua

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment is a pressing environmental issue. Mismanagement of the massive amount of sewage sludge would threat our valuble surface and shallow ground water resources. Use of activated carbon prepared from carbonization of these sludges for heavy metal removal can not only minimize and stabilize these hazardous materials but also realize resources reuse. In this study, thiol-functionalized activated carbon was synthesized from coal-blended sewage sludge, and its capacity was examined for removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from water. Pyrolysis conditions to prepare activated carbons from the sludge and coal mixture were examined, and the synthesized material was found to achieve the highest BET surface area of 1094 m 2 /g under 500 °C and 30 min. Batch equilibrium tests indicated that the thiol-functionalized activated carbon had a maximum sorption capacity of 238.1, 96.2, 87.7 and 52.4 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) removal from water, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that thiol-functionalized activated carbon prepared from coal-blended sewage sludge would be a promising sorbent material for heavy metal removal from waters contaminated with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  15. 11th annual conference on clean coal technology, proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include coal combustion technology, multi-purpose coal conversion technology (including entrained-bed coal flash pyrolysis process (CPX), hydrogen production from coal and coal liquefaction), coal ash utilization technology, next general technology (including dry coal cleaning technologies and coal conversion by supercritical water) and basic coal utilization technology (including ash behaviour during coal gasification).

  16. 78 FR 52973 - ICG Knott County, LLC, a Subsidiary of ICG, Inc., a Subsidiary of Arch Coal, Inc.; Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of ICG Knott County, LLC, a... Officer, a mis- interpretation of facts or of the law justified reconsideration of the decision. The... increased use of natural gas instead of bituminous coal by customers of the subject firm and customers of...

  17. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  18. Localized interaction between coal-included minerals and Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents during the high-pressure steam coal gasification (HyPr-RING) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, K.; Ohtomo, K.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Shibano, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hatano, H.; Yamada, O.; Shi-Ying, L.; Harada, M.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-12-08

    Pulverized Japanese bituminous coal (Taiheiyo coal) samples with diameter ranges of 38-75 {mu}m and 180-250 {mu}m were gasified with high-pressure steam in the presence of Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents. The experiments were carried out at 873 and 973 K and at holding times ranging from 0 to 120 min using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor, and the solid-solid reaction between the Ca-based sorbents and the coal-included minerals during the steam gasification was investigated. Local scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the solid residues obtained under different conditions showed that some constituents of the coal-included minerals, such as Si and Al, were contained in the sorbent particles. The solid-solid interaction between the Ca-based sorbents and coal-included minerals became significant at the higher temperature and at longer holding periods. This interaction will locally decrease the CO{sub 2} sorption ability of the sorbents. However, when a holding time of less than 10 min was employed, the solid-solid reaction between the minerals and the sorbents was suppressed, even at 973 K, because the rate of formation of inorganic compounds through solid-solid reaction was low. In this case, our target carbon conversion (about 50%) was attainable, owing to the devolatilization during the heating period. Our results indicate that the holding time of the feedstock in the reactor should be shortened to avoid deactivation of the Ca-based sorbents during high-pressure steam gasification.

  19. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  20. Preparation of Fe-intercalated Graphite Based on Coal Tailings, Dimensional Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Gustian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercalated graphite from coal tailings have been modified through the intercalation of iron. Coal tailings which is a byproduct of the destruction process and flakes washing results from mining coal. Intercalation of iron goal is to improve the physical properties of graphite and modifying sizes of crystal lattice structure with thermal method. Modification process begins with the carbonization of coal tailings at 500ºC and activated with phosphoric acid. Activation process has done by pyrolysis at 700ºC. The results of pyrolysis was soaked in mineral oil for 24 hours, then pyrolysis again with variations in temperature 800°C and 900ºC for 1 hour and subsequent intercalation iron at 1% and 2%. Material before activated, after activated, and the results of pyrolysis still indicates order nano: 29, 25 and 36 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction characterization results indicate that change in the structure, the sizes crystal lattice structure of the material The greater the concentration of iron was added, the resulting peak at 2θ = 33 and 35 also will be more sharply. The results of SEM showed different morphologies from each treatment.

  1. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  6. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  8. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  12. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  13. Viscoelasticity of various gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents in coal; Sekitanchu no yobai kayoseibun kara sakuseishita shushu no gel maku no nendansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, T.; Isoda, S.; Doi, S.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Viscoelasticity of gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents without ash of coal using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP) was measured to study the network structure of the constituents. In experiment, Upper Freeport coal and Zao Zhuang coal were used as specimens. Viscoelasticity of various gels with different weight fractions of solvent was measured by creep measurement under a fixed load and stress-strain analysis under variable loads. In the 2nd and 3rd creep measurements, although no large changes in elastic strain and viscoelastic strain were found, viscous strain gradually decreased with an increase in viscosity. In the case of small weight fraction of solvent, small viscous strain and viscoelastic strain were found, while slightly large elastic strain was found. It was thus suggested that this elastic strain is derived from not only physical cross-linked networks by coal-solvent interaction but also those by coal-coal interaction in polymer chains of coal itself. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswantoro; Sutanto, W.W

    2013-01-01

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  15. Fractionation of chemical elements including the REEs and 226Ra in stream contaminated with coal-mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, L.M.; Faure, G.; Lee, G.; Talnagi, J.

    2004-01-01

    Water draining from abandoned open-pit coal mines in southeastern Ohio typically has a low pH and high concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn, as well as of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, etc.) and of the rare earth elements (REEs). The cations of different elements are sorbed selectively by Fe and Al hydroxide precipitates which form with increasing pH. As a result, the trace elements are separated from each other when the hydroxide precipitates are deposited in the channel of a flowing stream. Therefore, the low-energy environment of a stream contaminated by mine effluent is a favorable site for the chemical fractionation of the REEs and of other groups of elements with similar chemical properties. The interpretation of chemical analyses of water collected along a 30-km-stretch of Rush Creek near the town of New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, indicates that the abundances of the REEs in the water appear to change downstream when they are normalized to the REE concentrations of the mine effluent. In addition, the Ce/La ratios (and those of all REEs) in the water decrease consistently downstream. The evidence indicates that the REEs which remain in solution are enriched La and Ce because the other REEs are sorbed more efficiently. The solid Fe(OH) 3 precipitates in the channel of Rush Creek upstream of New Lexington also contain radioactive 226 Ra that was sorbed from the water. This isotope of Ra is a decay product of 238 U which occurs in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) coal and in the associated shale of southeastern Ohio. The activity of 226 Ra of the Fe(OH) 3 precipitates increases with rising pH, but then declines farther downstream as the concentration of Ra remaining in the water decreases

  16. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining in the State of Texas AGENCY: Department of... responsibility. These coal and lignite mining activities may eventually require authorization from the USACE... by mail. Surface coal and lignite mining projects in the USACE Fort Worth's area of responsibility...

  18. Characterization of carbon/carbon composites prepared by different processing routes including liquid pitch densification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekeyrel, Alixe; Dourges, Marie-Anne; Weisbecker, Patrick; Pailler, Rene; Allemand, Alexandre; Teneze, Nicolas; Epherre, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites with an apparent density higher than 1.80 g/cm 3 were prepared using a multi-step densification process. This consists of a pre-densification step followed by pitch impregnation/pyrolysis (I/P) cycles carried out under moderate pressure. Three pre-densification methods were investigated to significantly increase the apparent density of a raw preform to about 1.4 g/cm 3 . These were:(i) impregnation by carbonaceous powder slurry, (ii) film boiling chemical vapor infiltration, (iii) impregnation with a combination of synthetic pitch I/P and carbonaceous powder slurry. Composites were prepared from each of these three pre-densified materials, using a liquid pitch processing route with four I/P cycles with M50 petroleum pitch, under moderate pressures (10 MPa). As a reference a carbon/carbon composite was prepared using four I/P cycles with pitch. All four composites had different microstructural characteristics and different thermal properties. The influence of processing on thermal properties is discussed in relation to the microstructural characteristics. (authors)

  19. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  20. Annotated bibliography on selected areas of coal mining research and development. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Congressional Research Service has completed an annotated bibliography on coal mining research and development. Although the completion of the study was delayed in order to permit CRS analysts to search the libraries of Bituminous Coal, Research Inc., and the Bureau of Mines in the Pittsburgh area, current re-emphasis on the use of coal as an energy source indicates a sustained relevance. The bibliography presents key references to coal-mining R and D under six subject headings keyed to issues of central concern in coal production: (1) mine health and safety, (2) methane recovery, (3) 1-hour rescuer, (4) use of diesels underground, (5) coal preparation, and (6) manpower development in coal mining.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  2. Preparation, Characterization of Coal Ash Adsorbent and Orthogonal Experimental Rsearch on Treating Printing and Dyeing Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyu; He, Lingfeng; Shi, Liang; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Using high temperature activated sodium flying ash and carboxymethyl chitosan as raw material to prepare carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent (CWF), combined with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis treatment of simulated and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The conditions for obtaining are from the literature: the best condition for CWF to treat simulated printing and dyeing wastewater pretreated with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis is that the mixing time is 10min, the resting time is 30 min, pH=6, and the adsorbent dosage is 0.75 g/L. The results showed that COD removal efficiency and decoloration rate were above 97 %, and turbidity removal rate was over 90 %. The optimum dyeing conditions were used to treat the dyeing wastewater. The decolorization rate was 97.30 %, the removal efficiency of COD was 92.44 %, and the turbidity removal rate was 90.37 %.

  3. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  4. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  5. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  6. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  7. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  8. Research of a possibility of receiving sorbents for a sewage disposal from a wastage of coal preparation factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Y.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and porosity of the coal cake processed by electric arc plasma. The main limiting factor in processing of coal cakes sorbents is their high water content. As a result of coal washing, the main share of water introduced into the cake falls on hard-hydrate and colloidal components. This makes impossible application of traditional processes of manufacturing from a cake of coal sorbents. Using the electric arc intensifies the processes of thermal activation of coal cakes associated with thermal shock, destruction and vapor-gas reactions occurring at the surfaces of the particles at an exposure temperature of up to 3000 °C, which increases the title product outlet (sorbent) and thereby reduces manufacturing costs and improves environmental performance. The investigation of the thermal activation zone is carried out in the plasma reactor chamber by thermal imaging method followed by mapping-and 3D-modeling of temperature fields. the most important physical and chemical properties of the sorbents from coal cake activated by plasma was studied. The obtained results showed the possibility of coal cake thermal activation by electric arc plasma to change its material composition, the appearance of porosity and associated sorption capacity applied for wastewater treatment.

  9. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  10. Inclusion of Haul Road Emissions in PSD Applicability Determination for Coal Mine and Preparation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  12. Synthesis of Zeolites Prepared from Coal Bottom Ash: Influence of Time, Temperature and NaOH Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Matsinhe,J. V.; Macuvele,D. L.P.; Santos,E.S.W.; Moreira,J. C.; Uamusse, M. M.; Muller,L.; Martins,G. J.M.; Riella,H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the main application of coal mine in the world is to produce energy through thermoelectric power plants. Energy generation is always associated with the production of enormous amounts of ashes, both bottom and fly ashes. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of time, temperate and concentration on Synthetic zeolites produced from utilizing minerals of coal bottom ash. However, for the factor significance analysis, factorial planning of two levels and three factors w...

  13. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  14. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The European coal industry is at a crossroads. The European Commission (EC) Energy Policy by 2020, the 20/20/20 targets, is not favourable to coal: a 20% decrease in CO 2 emissions does not favour coal compared with natural gas, its main competitor in electricity generation; a 20% increase in energy efficiency will lead to a decrease in energy/coal consumption; a 20% increase in renewables will displace other energy sources, including coal. The recent EC Energy road-map to 2050 targets a cut in GHG emissions by 80-95%. Under such a tough emissions reduction target, the future use of coal is tied with CCS technologies for which public acceptance and an adequate CO 2 price are crucial. The Large Combustion Plants Directive has already had a huge impact on EU coal-fired electricity generation. In UK, a third of coal-fired power capacity will be closed by the end of 2015 at the latest. Phase III of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme requires CO 2 allowances to be auctioned from January 2013, adding a new burden on fossil fuel power plants. The end of state aid to European hard coal production by 2018, in line with EC Council Decision 2010/787/EU, means that domestic production is going to decrease. Does this mean the end of coal in Europe? Maybe not, and certainly not by 2020, although its future after that date is quite uncertain. Coal provides 17% of the EU s primary energy supply, and represents 25% of electricity generation. With the phasing out of nuclear energy in some countries (mainly Germany), coal has gained a period of grace before the transition to a less-carbonised economy. Its consumption by European power utilities increased by 7% in the first half of 2012, boosted by low CO 2 prices and relatively high gas prices. European production still accounts for 60% of the total coal supply in the EU. Coal therefore gives the EU a certain degree of independence and contributes to its security of supply. Hard coal and lignite represent approximately 80% of EU

  15. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram, E-mail: sadasivams@cardiff.ac.uk; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-15

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  16. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-01-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  17. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  18. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  19. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  20. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  1. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  2. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  3. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Adsorbents from Coal and Irvingia gabonensis Seed Shell for the Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokonkwo, Mercy A.; Ofor, Okechukwu F.; Ani, Julius U.

    2018-01-01

    Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions removal using adsorbents prepared from sub-bituminous coal, lignite, and a blend of coal and Irvingia gabonensis seed shells was investigated. Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analyses implicated hydroxyl, carbonyl, Al2O3, and SiO2 as being responsible for attaching the metal ions on the porous adsorbents. The optimum adsorption of carbonized lignite for the uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous media were 80.93 and 87.85%, respectively. Batch adsorption was done by effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, temperature, particle size, and initial concentration. Equilibrium for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was established within 100 and 120 min respectively. Blending the lignite-derived adsorbent with I. gabonensis seed shell improved the performance significantly. More improvement was observed on modification of the blend using NaOH and H3PO4. Pb(II) was preferentially adsorbed than Cd(II) in all cases. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics was best described by pseudo-second order model. The potential for using a blend of coal and agricultural byproduct (I. gabonensis seed shell) was found a viable alternative for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. PMID:29435444

  5. Mesoporous activated carbons with metal-oxide particles prepared from Morwell coal; Morwell tan wo genryo to shita kinzoku sankabutsu tanji kasseitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Kojima, S.; Tamai, H.; Yasuda, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The metal dependence of mesoporous activated carbons with various metal acetylacetonate (acac) particles prepared from Morwell coal was studied. In experiment, the mixture of Morwell coal and acac metal complexes were dissipated into tetrahydrofuran, and after agitation in Ar atmosphere, the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. Coal specimens with Fe(acac)3, Ni(acac)2 and Co(acac)2 as acac complexes were activated by exchanging flow gas with water vapor after heat treatment in N2 gas flow at 900{degree}C. The pore sizes of the specimens were obtained from N2 adsorption isotherms by BET method and BJH method. Conditions of pores and metals in the specimens were examined by XRD measurement and TEM observation. The relation between the above conditions and pore characteristics obtained from adsorption experiment was also examined. As a result, the difference in mesopore ratio between the specimens and blank specimens was larger in the order of Fe, Co and Ni, and the effect of added metal complexes was also larger in this order. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Adsorbents from Coal and Irvingia gabonensis Seed Shell for the Removal of Cd(II and Pb(II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy A. Ezeokonkwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd(II and Pb(II ions removal using adsorbents prepared from sub-bituminous coal, lignite, and a blend of coal and Irvingia gabonensis seed shells was investigated. Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analyses implicated hydroxyl, carbonyl, Al2O3, and SiO2 as being responsible for attaching the metal ions on the porous adsorbents. The optimum adsorption of carbonized lignite for the uptake of Cd(II and Pb(II ions from aqueous media were 80.93 and 87.85%, respectively. Batch adsorption was done by effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, temperature, particle size, and initial concentration. Equilibrium for the removal of Pb(II and Cd(II was established within 100 and 120 min respectively. Blending the lignite-derived adsorbent with I. gabonensis seed shell improved the performance significantly. More improvement was observed on modification of the blend using NaOH and H3PO4. Pb(II was preferentially adsorbed than Cd(II in all cases. Adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics was best described by pseudo-second order model. The potential for using a blend of coal and agricultural byproduct (I. gabonensis seed shell was found a viable alternative for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  7. Adsorptive removal of organics from aqueous phase by acid-activated coal fly ash: preparation, adsorption, and Fenton regenerative valorization of "spent" adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Jiaqing; Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Han

    2018-02-20

    Raw coal fly ash was activated to an adsorbent by sulfuric acid impregnation. The activation condition, the adsorption capacity, and the regenerative valorization of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions of the adsorbent are [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1 mol L -1 , activation time = 30 min, the ratio of coal fly ash to acid = 1:20 (g:mL), calcination temperature = 100 °C. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol on the adsorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the adsorption rate constant is 0.089 g mg -1  min -1 . The adsorption on this adsorbent can be considered enough after 35 min, when the corresponding adsorption capacity is 1.07 mg g -1 (85.6% of p-nitrophenol removal). Compared with raw coal fly ash, the adsorbent has a stable adsorption performance at low pH range (pH = 1-6) and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol is an exothermic process. Ninety minutes is required for the regenerative valorization of saturated adsorbent by Fenton process. The regenerative valorization for this saturated adsorbent can reach 89% under the optimal proposed conditions (30 °C, pH = 3, [H 2 O 2 ] = 5.0 mmol L -1 , [Fe 2+ ] = 5.5 mmol L -1 ). Within 15 experimental runs, the adsorbent has a better and better stability with the increase of experimental runs. Finally, the mechanism of activating coal fly ash is proposed, being verified by the results of the SEM and BET test.

  8. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Torries, T.; Labys, W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  9. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on radioactivity associated with coal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    A workshop on radioactivity in coal use was held on September 15 through 17, 1981, under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Programs, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the workshop was to identify research issues associated with radioactivity resulting from the use of coal for electric power generation. The concensus of the 10 scientists participating in the workshop was that a moderate to strong need exists for research in solubility of fly ash in different fluids and for determination of radioactivity in construction materials. Several additional research issues were identified but were given a lower priority. Summaries of each presentation are included. Titles are: some effects of coal combustion on the radiation environment; radionuclides in western coal at Mound; low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities; radioactivity from coal use - where are the problems; chemistry of radionuclides in coal preparation; uranium daughters in natural atmospheric aerosols and coal-fired power plant emissions; possible contributions of coal extraction and utilization to radioactivity contributions in drinking water; and impact on water quality from radionuclides in coal. One paper has been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  11. A STUDY ON THE GRINDABILITY OF SERBIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslava D Stojiljković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia are making considerable efforts and even more considerable investments, not only to maintain electricity production at maximum design levels, but even to additionally increase the power output of existing generating units. Capacities of mills used in pulverized coal preparation are identified as one of the main constraints to achieving maximum mill plant capacity, while coal grindability is seen as one of the factors that directly affect capacities of the coal mills utilized in thermal power plants. The paper presents results of experimental investigation conducted for the purpose of determining Hardgrove grindability index of coal. The investigation was conducted in accordance with ISO 5074 and included analysis of approximately 70 coal samples taken from the open pit mine of Kolubara coal basin. Research results obtained indicate that coal rich in mineral matter and thus, of lower heating value is characterized by higher grindability index. Therefore, analyses presented in the paper suggest that characteristics of solid fuels analyzed in the research investigation conducted are such that the use coals less rich in mineral matter i. e. coals characterized by lower grindability index will cause coal mills to operate at reduced capacity. This fact should be taken into account when considering a potential for electricity production increase.

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  14. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  15. Graphene quantum dots, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and graphite nanocrystals in coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongqiang; Lin, Jianpeng; Chen, Yingmei; Fu, Fengfu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-06-01

    Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of S-GQDs. The production yield of S-GQDs from the six investigated coals decreased from 56.30% to 14.66% when the coal rank increased gradually. In contrast, high-ranked coals had high production yield of CoalB and might be more suitable for preparing other CNMs that were contained in CoalB, although those CNMs were difficult to separate from each other in our experiment.Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of

  16. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  17. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  18. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  19. Adapting palynological preparation methods in subbituminous and bituminous coals from Colombia to improve palynofacies and hydrocarbon source rock evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandon, Astrid; Arango, Fredy [Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 65, 78-28, Medellin (Colombia); Parra, Norberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 59A, 63-020, Medellin (Colombia); Gorin, Georges E. [Dpmt. Geology-Paleontology, University of Geneva, 13 rue des Maraichers, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-01-21

    Apart from their potential as fossil fuel, bituminous and subbituminous coals in Colombia may prove to be potential source rocks for the generation of hydrocarbons. The assessment of such properties requires the combination of petrographic and palynofacies studies. The latter correspond to the microscopic investigation in transmitted white and reflected UV lights of sedimentary organic matter insoluble in organic and inorganic solvents. To date, mineral acid and Schulze methods have failed to produce good samples of palynofacies constituents from Cenozoic coals in Colombia, so that the latter method had to be modified. The main modifications consist in adapting the KClO{sub 3} to HNO{sub 3} ratio in the Schulze mixture and introducing two extra phases of oxidation with NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH, which permit the washing off of humic substances. This method yields the full spectrum of palynofacies constituents, which are not destroyed or damaged by the alkali treatment. Neither is their fluorescence colour affected by the initial acid treatment. On the contrary, the particle fluorescence intensity tends to increase because of the dissolution of humic acids, making their identification easier. The achievements of the modified method are threefold: 1) it permits the correlation between macerals in petrographic polished sections and their equivalent in palynofacies slides, making the two methods complementary; 2) palynofacies provides a better identification of sporomorphs than petrography, resulting in better paleoenvironmental interpretations; 3) palynofacies tend to give a more precise quantitative evaluation of the liptinitic constituents, and consequently, of the coal hydrocarbon generation potential. (author)

  20. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  1. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  2. Preparation of amidoxime-functionalized mesoporous silica nanospheres (ami-MSN) from coal fly ash for the removal of U(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangda; Zhou, Yuexi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yi

    2018-06-01

    It is usually difficult to control the microstructure of mesoporous silica materials using coal fly ash as raw materials. In this study, amidoxime-functionalized mesoporous silica nanospheres (ami-MSN) were prepared from coal fly ash using a novel interfacial cohydrolysis-condensation method in an alkane-aqueous system. Characterizations suggested a regular microstructure, high specific surface area (676 m 2 /g) as well as stable and uniformly distributed amidoxime groups in the ami-MSN framework. Furthermore, ami-MSN displays a high U(VI) removal capacity in sorption experiments (98.9% removal efficiency of 50 ppm U(VI) at a dosage of 600 mg/L). The sorption showed significant pH dependence. Introducing various cations and anions showed differing effects on sorption, which can be attributed to differing complexation abilities of ions/ami-MSN/U(VI). The sorption mechanism was also studied. In pursuit of the strategy of "treating wastewater with materials derived from waste," this work suggests that ami-MSN can be an effective and low-cost sorbent for U(VI) removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal resources in environmentally-sensitive lands under federal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William D.; Tully, John K.; Moser, Edward N.; Dee, David P.; Bryant, Karen; Schall, Richard; Allan, Harold A.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents estimates of coal-bearing acreage and coal tonnage in environmentally-sensitive areas. The analysis was conducted to provide data for rulemaking by the Federal Office of Surface Mining (Watson and others, 1995). The rulemaking clarifies conditions under which coal can be mined in environmentally-sensitive areas. The area of the U.S. is about 2.3 billion acres. Contained within that acreage are certain environmentally-sensitive and unique areas (including parks, forests, and various other Federal land preserves). These areas are afforded special protection under Federal and State law. Altogether these protected areas occupy about 400 million acres. This report assesses coal acreage and coal tonnage in these protected Federal land preserves. Results are presented in the form of 8 map-displays prepared using GIS methods at a national scale. Tables and charts that accompany each map provide estimates of the total acreage in Federal land preserve units that overlap or fall within coal fields, coal-bearing acreage in each unit, and coal tonnage in each unit. Summary charts, compiled from the maps, indicate that about 8% of the Nation's coal reserves are located within environmentally-sensitive Federal land preserves.

  4. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Preparation of briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of fine-grained coal and coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabský Štefan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the preparation of small-diameter briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of coal and coke. The phyto-materials are classified as a dry biomass that can be, on the one hand, the wastes from wood-working industry,(sawdust, chips, bark, etc. or dried mass from the plant production and, on the other hand, the mass of quick-growing plants cultivated on special plantations. In present time this renewable energy resource attracts attention by its heating value ranging from 10 to 16 MJ.kg-1 (EkoWATT, 2001, a low ash content of 0.5 – 6.5 % and by a low sulphur content in a water free sample of 0.05 –0.12 %.As a phyto-material the spruce sawdusts having a grain size of –2 mm were used. The admixture of brown coal, hard coal and coke with a grain size of 0.040 mm was added to the sawdust and in such way prepared mixtures were subjected to briquetting with the aim to obtain small-diameter briquettes. The influence of admixtures amount on the density, and the suitable briquetting press have been studied. A saleability of briquettes on the basis of phyto-materials is conditioned by their density that must be higher than 1,000 kg.m-3. Thus, an adding of denser material with a relatively high calorific value would enable to attain the required density as well as to retain and/or to improve the main utility properties, i.e. calorific value and ash content.The adding evinces itself in an enhancement of briquetting press, but also density of obtained briquettes is often much higher that required by the market. It was showed that in the case of clear spruce sawdust the density of 1,059 kg.m-3 under the briquetting press of 250 MPa can be attained. According to other results, an admixture of brown coal is not very favourable because briquetting press exceeds the value of 300 MPa. As to hard coal adding, the presses under 250 MPa were achieved at the content of 25 – 30 %. The density of these

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  7. Clean coal : DOE should prepare a comprehensive analysis of the relative costs, benefits, and risks of a range of options for FutureGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    According to various energy experts, for the foreseeable future, because coal is abundant and relatively inexpensive, it will remain a significant fuel for the generation of electric power in the United States and the world. However, coal-fired power...

  8. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  10. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  11. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  12. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  13. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhufeng; Zheng Xingzhou

    2005-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  14. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  15. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B. J.; Torak, E. R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  17. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  18. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  19. The evaluation of geopolymer properties prepared by alkali activation of black coal ashes with high content of loss on ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fly ashes in Slovakia is lower than in other countries and dumping of fly ashes prevails. The dumping changeschemical and phase composition of fly ashes and so it decreases possibilities for their utilization. Fly ashes are mainly used in buildingindustry, where the content of loss on ignition (LOI is limited due to standards. Black coal fly ashes produced in Slovakia have a highcontent of loss on ignition – more than 20 % - so they straight utilization in building industry is not possible. The current possibility fortheir utilization is in geopolymer synthesis. Products with 28-day compression strength of 35.7 MPa and 180-day compression strengthof 55.0 MPa were obtained by alkali activation of fly ashes with 23.25 % LOI with 8 wt% Na2O and their next hardening in temperatureof 80 °C during 6 hours. Products have a great frost-resistance and aggressive environments resistance (NaCl a H2SO4 solutions.

  20. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  1. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semi-annual report, March 28, 1996--September 27, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scarone, A.W. [and others

    1996-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included continuing bench-scale tests to identify an NO{sub x} reduction catalyst which is appropriate for industrial boiler applications. In addition, installation of a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler started. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was procured for installation on the demonstration boiler. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations,surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  2. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  3. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  4. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  5. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  6. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  7. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  8. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  9. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  10. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  11. Effect of precursor and preparation method on manganese based activated carbon sorbents for removing H2S from hot coal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Qiu, Biao; Han, Lina; Feng, Gang; Hu, Yongfeng; Chang, Liping; Bao, Weiren

    2012-04-30

    Activated carbon (AC) supported manganese oxide sorbents were prepared by the supercritical water impregnation (SCWI) using two different precursor of Mn(NO(3))(2) (SCW(N)) and Mn(Ac)(2)·4H(2)O (SCW(A)). Their capacities of removing H(2)S from coal gas were evaluated and compared to the sorbents prepared by the pore volume impregnation (PVI) method. The structure and composition of different sorbents were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and XANES techniques. It is found that the precursor of active component plays the crucial role and SCW(N) sorbents show much better sulfidation performance than the SCW(A) sorbents. This is because the Mn(3)O(4) active phase of the SCW(N) sorbents are well dispersed on the AC support, while the Mn(2)SiO(4)-like species in the SCW(A) sorbent can be formed and seriously aggregated. The SCW(N) sorbents with 2.80% and 5.60% manganese are favorable for the sulfidation reaction, since the Mn species are better dispersed on the SCW(N) sorbents than those on the PV(N) sorbents and results in the better sulfidation performance of the SCW(N) sorbents. As the Mn content increases to 11.20%, the metal oxide particles on AC supports aggregate seriously, which leads to poorer sulfidation performance of the SCW(N)11.20% sorbents than that of the PV(N)11.20% sorbents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  13. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mariana Sato de Souza de Bustamante; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption.

  14. Heterogeneously catalyzed coal hydroliquefaction: screening of catalysts and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.; Arias, P.L.; Marco, I. de; Chomon, M.J.; Caballero, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Guemez, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Escuel de Ingenieros de Bilbao)

    1994-03-01

    This project is centred upon the study of the activities of different catalysts in one-step coal liquefaction processes. A series of alumina supported catalysts was prepared by multistep impregnation, including a conventional CoMo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and other preparations containing Zn as a second promoter, and the alumina was acidified with different fluorine contents. These catalysts were extensive physicochemically characterized and their hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) activities were tested using a model compound (thiophene). The results obtained indicate that partial substitution of Co by Zn does not affect the HDS and HYD activities and that fluorination diminishes these activities because of textural changes of the carrier. The prepared catalysts were tested in coal liquefaction and their activities were compared to those of cheap iron containing dispersion catalysts such as red mud, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] aerosol, and Cottrell and pyrite ashes (by-products of the sulphur acid industry). Prior to the study and comparison of the catalyst activities and exploration of the influence of various operating conditions (temperature, tetralin/coal ratio, type of solvent and operating pressure) on catalytic and non-catalytic coal liquefaction was performed. The coal used in most of the experiments was a Spanish subbituminous A coal. Additionally, a comparison of all the catalysts was carried out with a standard high volatile bituminous coal. Supported catalysts present higher activities than iron-based catalysts. Among these catalysts, red mud proved to be the most active. Catalytic experiments using anthracene oil as solvent and CoZnMo/fluorinated alumina catalysts present maximum yields indicating that Zn as second promoter and carrier acidification to be beneficial in coal liquefaction with solvents similar to those used in real plants. 41 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered

  16. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  17. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  18. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1995--September 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Hatcher, P.; Knicker, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-21

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through the Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Mixture Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, preparation of the Phase I final report continued. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included initiating a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work started on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filter device will be used to demonstrate a more compact and efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Coal preparation and utilization activities, and the economic analysis were completed and work focused on preparing the final report. Work on Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on selecting incentives for commercialization of coal using technologies, community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  19. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  20. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and : lime kiln dust. The laboratory program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, : resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud C...

  1. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction-including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and lime kiln dust. The laboratory : program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud Com...

  2. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  3. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  5. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  7. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.

  8. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  9. Organization, activities, and issues with particular emphasis on coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses Colorado's coal industry; the Colorado Mining Association; lobbying and legislative actions; industry networking, information, and communications; coal issues and activities; and Colorado issues and activities. Some of the latter include: land reclamation of mined lands; oil and gas drilling and coal mine conflicts; wild and scenic river designations; general permitting of coal mining discharges; and coal mine land reclamation awards

  10. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  11. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwala, W.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors' development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs

  12. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  13. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  14. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  15. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

  16. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  17. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.; Ramesh, R.

    1989-01-01

    This project is designed to develop an understanding of the fundamentals involved in flotation and flocculation of coal, and of coal in various states of oxidation. The main objective of this study is to accurately characterize the coal surface and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance beneficiation of coals. Effects of oxidation on the modification of surface characteristics of coal by various reagents will also be studied. This quarter, the following studies were conducted in order to further develop our understanding of the role of heterogeneity in interfacial phenomena. (1) Since surface characterization is an important aspect in this project, ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) study of the coal surface was conducted. Surface derivatization, a technique often used in the preparation of organic compounds for gas-liquid chromatography, uses site specific molecular tags'' that bond to key chemical groups on the surface. Application of derivatization in conjunction with ESCA is a relatively new technique for quantifying functional groups on the surface which has not been possible till now. (2) A distribution of contact angles on the surface of coal (pseudo theta map) is presented based on our earlier results and other published information. The role of heterogeneity in contact angle studies is also examined. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  19. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  20. Indaba 2009. Clean coal technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include coal reserves/mining beneficiation, combustion and power generation, underground coal gasification, coalbed methane, coal gasification and conversion, coke, and emission reduction. The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) are included on the CD-ROM, along with 12 of the papers, and a delegates list.

  1. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining

  2. Preparation of combustible material from high sulphur coal by means of pyrolysis: magnetic separation; Obtencion de combustibles limpios a partir de carbones con altos contenidos en azure mediante procesos de pirolisis: separacion magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Basic studies on coal desulphurization by pyrolysis have been carried out with a series of low rank coals with high total sulphur contents and differences in the distribution of sulphur forms. The evolved sulphur compounds were studied by sulphide selective electrode H{sub 2}S and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanisms affecting the sulphur removal during pyrolysis have been studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). A sample coal of 11 Tm, representative of the Teruel basins was processed at pilot scale in a rotary kiln (coal HR). A series of pyrolysis runs simulating the experimental conditions of the rotary kiln were also carried out in laboratory scale. The magnetic behaviour of the chars from the rotary kiln and from the lab-scale pyrolysis was tested. The efficiency of the desulphurization, including pyrolysis and magnetic separation, was calculated. Chars from rotary kiln were tested by thermogravimetric analysis, air reactivity and carbon efficiency combustion in fluidized bed.

  3. Coal investment and long term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia's coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia

  4. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstone, D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  5. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  6. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and 'information' values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of 'certified' values was confirmed for several elements using 'very accurate' methods developed in this Laboratory. (author)

  7. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-12-31

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and `information` values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of `certified` values was confirmed for several elements using `very accurate` methods developed in this Laboratory. (author). 47 refs, 28 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  9. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  10. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  11. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  12. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  13. World coal prices and future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments will create some important changes in the US domestic steam coal market, including price increases for compliance coal by the year 2000 and price decreases for high-sulfur coal. In the international market, there is likely to be a continuing oversupply which will put a damper on price increases. The paper examines several forecasts for domestic and international coal prices and notes a range of predictions for future oil prices

  14. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  15. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  16. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  17. The World Coal Quality Inventory: South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Alex W.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Bragg, Linda J.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary-Introduction: The concepts of a global environment and economy are strongly and irrevocably linked to global energy issues. Worldwide coal production and international coal trade are projected to increase during the next several decades in an international energy mix that is still strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Therefore, worldwide coal use will play an increasingly visible role in global environmental, economic, and energy forums. Policy makers require information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding domestic coal resource allocation, import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy objectives, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. The development of a worldwide, reliable, coal quality database would help ensure the most economically and environmentally efficient global use of coal. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with many agencies and scientists from the world's coal producing countries, originally undertook a project to obtain representative samples of coal from most of the world's producing coal provinces during a limited period of time (roughly 1998-2005), which is called the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). The multitude of producing coal mines, coal occurrences, or limited accessibility to sites in some countries can preclude collecting more than a single sample from a mine. In some areas, a single sample may represent an entire coal mining region or basin. Despite these limitations in sampling and uneven distribution of sample collection, the analytical results can still provide a general overview of world coal quality. The USGS intends to present the WoCQI data in reports and, when possible, in Geographic Information System (GIS) products that cover important coal bearing and producing regions.

  18. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  19. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  20. Determination of inorganic elements in coal and coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koklu, U.; Akman, S.; Ruppert, L.F. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    Many different methods are applicable to the analysis of inorganic elements in coal and other geological materials. There are only a few elements, namely Cl, F, and P, that are still routinely determined by chemical methods; the majority of elements are determined by instrumental methods. The instrumental techniques commonly employed by coal analysts which will be briefly reviewed here include: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mass spectroscopy (MS), electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). All of these methods, with the possible exception of electron microscopy, offer rapid and accurate multielement results for the bulk analyses of coal and coal products. There is no single method that can be used to determine all of the elements found in coal. However, nowadays AAS may be the most commonly used instrumental technique. For example, in 1983 about 70% of the geochemical exploration samples collected annually were analyzed with AAS. 105 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Coal terminal developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2008-02-15

    The article reports developments at many coal terminals worldwide. These include Bulgaria's Port of Bourgas Temrinal 2A, Spain's Tarragona Port Services (TPS) terminal, New Zealand's Lyttleton Port of Christchurch (LPC), Kinder Morgan's terminals in the USA (the International Marine terminal, Cora terminal, Grand Rivers terminal and Fairless Hills terminal) and Croatia's Port of Ploce. Developments at coal terminals in France and Belgium are also summarized. Global transportation services offered by Rhenus are described. 12 photos.

  2. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  3. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  4. Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.

    1998-01-01

    Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) at their first conference in 1995 agreed that the commitments entered into under the Convention were 'not adequate' to achieve its objective. These nations determined to proceed to strengthen those commitments under a protocol to be prepared for the third conference at Kyoto. Also it was to contain 'quantified emissions limitation objectives' (binding targets) on the industrial countries. For such targets to be consistent with Australia's interests, they would need to recognise Australia's relatively fast population and economic growth (both of which imply relatively faster growth in emissions), the increasing preponderance of energy intensive industries in the Australian economy, and our dependence on the export of energy intensive manufactures (like aluminium and other metals) and direct export of fossil fuels (including coal and natural gas). Major parties to the protocol negotiations - the USA and the EU - were advocates of uniform percentage emissions reductions from 1990 levels. Uniform percentage reductions, however intuitively appealing, impose widely different costs on different parties on account of their different circumstances. Australia would have been penalised by uniform reductions because our projected business-as-usual emissions trajectory is relatively steep, and measures adopted internationally to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions impact disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C0 2 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact

  5. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  6. Methanol from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  7. World coal outlook to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of the World Coal Outlook to the Year 2000 examines the worldwide impact of lower oil prices and lower economic activity on the demand, production, and international trade in coal. The report includes detailed regional forecasts of coal demand by end-use application. Regions include the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Other Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia/New Zealand, Communist Europe, and Communist Asia. In addition, regional coal production forecasts are provided with a detailed analysis of regional coal trade patterns. In all instances, the changes relative to Chase's previous forecasts are shown. Because of the current situation in the oil market, the report includes an analysis of the competitive position of coal relative to oil in the generation of electricity, and in industrial steam applications. The report concludes with an examination of the impact of an oil price collapse on the international markets for coal.

  8. Coal-fired water pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, J.E.; Kawa, W.; Lewis, P.S.; Hiteshue, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using energy from explosive ignitions of coal dust to pump water was demonstrated in an exploratory investigation. Ignition of small amounts of pulverized coal that were dispersed in air over columns of water pumped 5.3 gallons of water per cycle when operated against a head of 30.75 feet. Water displacement was accomplished by either manual or automatic operation through a single cycle and by automatic operation through a continuous series of cycles of 1-minute duration. Operating through single cycles, slurries containing up to 3 pounds of coal and 4.6 gallons of water were also pumped. Possible uses of an efficient coal-fired pump would include pumping water for irrigation purposes, removing water from mines, transporting coal from mines in the form of a slurry, and pumping water to elevated reservoirs at electric power-plants so that it could be used to generate electricity during peak periods of demand.

  9. Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-04

    In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

  10. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  11. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  12. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  13. Experience in coal sampling parameters calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Tomanec

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the selection of parameters neccessary for the calculation of minimal representative quantity of coal sample for various investigations in the field of mineral processing. The procedure is illustrated on the example case of the Drmno coal field, from where the coal is delivered to the thermal power plant Kostolac. Two primary samples of coal, crushed down to different sizes and prepared (homogenized and divided, are analyzed for the ash content and the results were statisticaly processed. The analytical results are statistically processed. Analytical and graphical solutions, at the lowest sampling error, give an optimum range of the representative minimal sample mass for the given coal size. The coefficient of proportionality, k, which characterizes the kind of mineralization in the given material, and α exponent for the Drmno coal type, are determined.

  14. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  15. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  16. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  17. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  18. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  19. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  20. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  1. Coal and coke - analysis and testing. Higher rank coal. Hardgrove grindability index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-04

    The Standard specifies the method for determining the grindability index of hard coal using the Hardgrove machine. It also specifies the procedure for calibrating the test machine and for preparing the standard reference coal samples. The Standard is identical with ISO 5074:1994.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Alborz structural zone in northern Iran is the host of a number of important coal deposits. The Gheshlagh coal mine is one of them, which is located 35 km southeast of Azadshahr. Coal bearing strata in the Gheshlagh mining district occur in the middle part of the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation which consists mainly of shales, siltstones and sandstones. The Geshlagh coals have a low sulfur content and a low ash yield. The ash content of coal and its geochemical character depends on the environment of deposition and subsequent geological history (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the texural and mineralogical characteristcs of the Ghashlagh coals and to identify the geochemistry of the major and trace elements and their relationship to specific mineralogical components. These results are necessary to improve the understanding of coal characterization and to relate the mineralogy of different materials to their potential for producing acidic or alkaline mine waters associated with mining and preparation processes. Materials and methods About 20 samples were collected from the main coal seams. These samples were taken from fresh faces of the mine to avoid weathered surfaces and get fresh samples. The petrography of the samples was carried out by the conventional microscopic methods at the Golestan University. Mineralogical analyses were done by a X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα tube and monochrometer (XRD Philips PW 1800 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. The coal samples were initially crushed to less than 200 μm and homogenized. Then, 50 g from each sample was heated to 525 oC according to the United States Geological Survey procedure(Bullock et al., 2002. The concentration of the major and trace elements in the resulting ash samples was determined using a wavelength Xray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF Philips PW1480 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. Results The Coal

  3. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  4. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  5. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  6. Influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of ag /gama-al/sub 2/o/sub 3/ for hydrogenation of coal slime pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Rong, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper, introducing variable conditional factors with Ag/AL/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst, selects five variables to investigate the influences of experimental conditions on Ag/Al2O/sub 3/ catalytic activity and define the optimal process conditions. These variables include Ag loading amount, calcinations temperature, calcinations time, reduction temperature, reduction time. X ray diffraction (XRD), hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to characterize the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, active center structure and state and those of carrier were emphatically studied, In the meantime the effects of active center and carrier on catalytic activity are studied. The results showed that: (1) In the range of 600 degree C-900 degree C, the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different loading showed little difference when changing loading amount, in the range of 900 degree C-1100 degree C, when the loading was 5%, the catalytic activity was very high; From the XRD and SEM characterizations, when the loading was 5%, it showed strong intensity diffraction peak of Ag crystal, crystal Ag is the most important activity center to promote hydrogen yield. (2) the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 450 degree C was considerably higher than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C. By BET, XRD and SEM characterization, it can be seen, the diffraction peaks intensity of Ag crystal at 450 degree C is higher and sharper than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C and with the increase of calcinations temperature, the specific surface area of catalysts also increased. (3) In the range of 600 degree C - 1000 degree C, the effects of calcinations time can be negligible, while, with temperature higher than 1000 degree C, 4-hour-calcinations-time catalyst exhibits a more noticeable catalytic activity than 3-hour and 5-hour catalyst do; From the XRD

  7. Summary of coal production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper contains two tables which give data on coal production for both 1990 and 1991. The states included are: Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming. Data on the following are given: number of active mines (total, underground, surface, and auger mines), average number of men working, man hours, total production, number of fatalities, and average value per ton of coal

  8. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  9. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  10. Studies on structural coal characteristics. Part 2. Parameters of electron absorption by coal and their links with reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.K.; Rys' yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with determining black coal rank on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity are discussed. Correlations between coal rank and vitrinite reflectivity are analyzed. Factors which disturb coal rank analyses are reviewed. A method for determining absorption spectra in ultraviolet spectra, visible spectra and infrared spectra using radiation which is diffused-dispersed by coal is evaluated. The method is used for investigations into nature of changes in parameters of electron spectra of vitrinites depending on coal rank, which is determined on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity. Method for coal sample preparation, measurements using the MPS-5000 system and evaluating measurement results are discussed. Investigation results are given in 3 schemes. Correlations between radiation absorption and coal microstructure are analyzed. Recommendations are made for use of the method in black coal rank determination.

  11. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  12. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

  13. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  14. Proceedings of the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-26

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Terrigal, Australia in November, 1996. Keynote addresses, three sessions for discussions, and presentations by members economies are included. `Future investment requirements for coal in the APEC region,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC region coal chain,` `International commercial financier`s perspective on coal,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment issues affecting the uptake of clean coal technology (CCT),` `Role of multilateral development banks in financing CCT to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,` and `Strategies for addressing regional coal issues` were presented as keynote addresses. In the sessions, investment issues facing coal power development, financing coal and investment, and investment strategies for CCT were discussed. 58 refs., 42 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. The state of documentation of methane resources of coal mines in the Upper Silesian coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwarcinski, J. [Polish Geological Institute, Sosnowiec (Poland). Upper Silesian Branch

    1995-08-01

    The Polish Ministers` Council Economic Committee Resolution of 27 July 1962 required that coalbed methane reserves should be treated as a coal associated resource. Thus it is necessary to estimate the reserves of methane occurring within mining properties or coal exploration projects. The methodology for methane resource calculation is described. As of 1 January 1994, 22 coal mines had documented methane reserves as a coal associated resource. However, considerable reserves of coalbed methane in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are not yet documented according to formal procedures and are not included into the State Resource Balance Sheets. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1 at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2 the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3 the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4 the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5 different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6 the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h.

  17. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  18. Coal: a South African success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  19. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  20. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo.9 No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This article includes `JAPAC International Symposium: Coal Flow 1997,` `Study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal,` and `China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects.` The theme of Coal Flow 1997 was `The supply and demand of coal up to 2020 - Its outlook and related issues.` The main subject for discussion was `a review of the long-term outlook for coal supply and demand from now into the year 2020 in coal producing and consuming members of the Asia-Pacific community, of which economic growth rate is expected to continue.` For the study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal, subjects for stable Australian coal supply under environmental constraints are outlined. Coal resources and reserves in Australia, Australia`s coal supply capabilities, and export markets for Australian coal and its supply capabilities to Japan are discussed. For China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects, subjects of coal-fired thermal power, coal-fired thermal power development plans and foreign-funded projects, and Japan`s cooperation and subjects are outlined. 26 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  2. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  3. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  4. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of the Bismuth and Antimony Occurrence in Some Coal Seams in the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzentny, Henryk R.; Róg, Leokadia

    2017-06-01

    The study included 24 samples of coal with 7 cores, boreholes (7 coal seams), made by the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw at the site of a Chelm field and 6 coal samples taken from 2 decks in the Lublin Coal mine "Bogdanka" S.A. in LCB. Based on performed tests found generally low levels of Sb and Bi in coal. In the vertical profile of the LCB contents of Bi and Sb in coal generally increases from coal seams younger to older age. Content of Bi in coal from roof part coal seams is usually higher, and ash content in the coal content of Sb are generally lower than in the carbon of the middle part decks. The content of Bi in the lateral coal deposits is unlikely to vary, and the gap in the coal content of Bi between the sampling regions coal do not exceed 1.7 g / Mg. In contrast gap Sb content in coal on the extent LCB is from 1.7 g / Mg of 5.8 g / Mg. The biggest influence on the content of Bi and Sb in coal from the LCB is probably organic matter in which these elements are scattered and do not form their own minerals.

  6. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  7. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  8. Bulk analysis of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12 C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60 Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  9. 76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... but by the coal lessee. The surface estate of the tract is owned by Alpha Coal West, Inc. The tract... main seam mentioned above but does not include any tonnage from localized seams or splits containing...

  10. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  11. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  12. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig

  13. The New South Wales coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The New South Wales coal industry contributes about $3.3 billion, or 43%, to Australia's coal export income. It is stated that the industry has made many changes in its 200 years history and prepares to adjust to new circumstances and practices. Among the changes outlined has been the move from hand mining to advanced technology and in the new approach to minesite rehabilitation

  14. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, ''Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs

  15. COAL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  16. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  17. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  18. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  19. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  1. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  2. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  3. Processing of bituminous coal tar at high temperature with bituminous coal additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.B.; Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.

    1943-05-10

    In short tests, results of the effects of a bituminous coal addition to the processing of tar and pitch were obtainable. Coal used was that from the Heinitz Mines (Upper Silesian), saturated with 1--1.2% iron sulphate. On a mixture of bituminous coal tar residue and tar oil, with a relatively low level of solids and asphalt, a substitution was made for the addition of 2% alkalized iron-grude-catalyst with 20% coal. The same yield was reached using a straight-run procedure. The coal gave somewhat more gasification and additional asphalt in the sludge without increasing the solids content correspondingly. In spite of this, the carbonization results were somewhat improved, which led one to conclude that the coal addition fostered the decomposition of the tar asphalt, and, that the asphalt from the coal could be better carbonized than that out of the tar. One found, also, that the tar mixture with coal additive permitted trouble-free hydrogenation to gasoline and middle oil. Still another short test met with success. A bituminous coal tar pitch containing 24% benzene solids and 36% asphalt, which could not be processed with iron catalyst or even molybdenum-grude, was hydrogenated to gasoline and middle oil with a usable yield of .25 by a 20--25% addition of coal. Here too, the carbonization results were good. The addition of coal had no notable influence on the properties of the resulting oils. The document included test procedures. 11 tables.

  4. Separation of three anthraquinone glycosides including two isomers by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Denglang; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Guoying; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  6. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  7. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  8. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  9. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R. [and others

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  10. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  11. Minor element distribution in iron disulfides in coal: a geochemical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam microanalysis of coal samples in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) labs confirms that As is the most abundant minor constituent in Fe disulfides in coal and that Se, Ni, and other minor constituents are present less commonly and at lower concentrations than those for As. In nearly all cases, Hg occurs in Fe disulfides in coal at concentrations below detection by electron beam instruments. Its presence is shown by laser ablation ICP-MS, by selective leaching studies of bulk coal, and by correlation with Fe disulfide proxies such as total Fe and pyritic sulfur. Multiple generations of Fe disulfides are present in coal. These commonly show grain-to-grain and within-grain minor- or trace element compositional variation that is a function of the early diagenetic, coalification, and post-coalification history of the coal. Framboidal pyrite is almost always the earliest Fe disulfide generation, as shown by overgrowths of later Fe disulfides which may include pyrite or marcasite. Cleat- (or vein) pyrite (or marcasite) is typically the latest Fe disulfide generation, as shown by cross-cutting relations. Cleat pyrite forms by fluid migration within a coal basin and consequently may be enriched in elements such as As by deposition from compaction-driven fluids, metal enriched basinal brines or hydrothermal fluids. In some cases, framboidal pyrite shows preferential Ni enrichment with respect to co-occurring pyrite forms. This is consistent with bacterial complexing of metals in anoxic sediments and derivation of framboidal pyrite from greigite (Fe3S4), an Fe monosulfide precursor to framboidal pyrite having the thio-spinel structure which accommodates transition metals. Elements such as As, Se, and Sb substitute for S in the pyrite structure whereas metals, including transition metals, Hg and Pb, are thought to substitute for Fe. Understanding the distribution of minor and trace elements in Fe disulfides in coal has important implications for their availability to

  12. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  13. The role of new technologies in expanding useful coal reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligar, J. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The range of new high efficiency coal utilisation technologies for power generation will have a marked effect in increasing marketable coal reserves from world sources as the technologies are integrated into new and retrofitted power stations. These technologies are substantially more efficient than pulverised coal technology; so if marketable coal reserves are viewed as energy reserves there will be an increase of at least 28% due to this factor alone. In addition, the new technologies use coals with different sets of properties to present internationally traded coals. In many cases reserves of these coals exist but are not presently included in reserves for power generation but which will need to be included in the future. These changes, which require a reassessment of marketable resources for the reliable generation of cheap and environmentally friendly energy and generally extend coal resources by a conservative 33%.

  14. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  15. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  16. Coal Transition in the United States. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Irem

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. Over the past decade, the US started to cut down the production and the use of coal, which was affected by unfavorable market dynamics and changing federal regulatory environment. Even before the shale gas revolution and uptake of renewables diminish the use of coal in power generation, coal communities were struggling to meet ends. The regional cost differences between producing states, such as the Appalachian and the Powder River Basins, indicates that coal-impacted communities and workers have lived through the impacts of coal transition at varying magnitudes and time periods. In the period between 2014 and 2016, we have seen the crash of major US coal companies due to declining demand for US coal domestically and internationally. Furthermore, Obama administration's climate change policies negatively impacted coal-fired power plants with additional GHG emission requirements, contributing to declining domestic demand for coal. Combined with market downturn, US coal producers already struggle to pay for high operational costs and legal liabilities under bankruptcy conditions. With under-funded state budgets, coal states are also grappling with financial exposure resulting from pension, health care and reclamation liabilities of bankrupt coal companies. In 2016, former President Obama announced the Power Plus Plan to aid coal-impacted communities and workers to prepare for a low carbon future. The federal budget plan targeted diversification of local economies, funding of health and pension funds of miners and retraining for

  17. Assessment of coal technology options and implications for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Elcock, D.; Elliott, T.J. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The mandate of this research report was to provide the state of Hawaii with an assessment of the potential opportunities and drawbacks of relying on coal-fired generating technologies to diversify its fuel mix and satisfy future electric power requirements. This assessment was to include a review of existing and emerging coal-based power technologies-including their associated costs, environmental impacts, land use, and infrastructure requirements-to determine the range of impacts likely to occur if such systems were deployed in Hawaii. Coupled with this review, the report was also to (1) address siting and safety issues as they relate to technology choice and coal transport, (2) consider how environmental costs associated with coal usage are included in the integrated resource planning (ERP) process, and (3) develop an analytical tool from which the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism of the State of Hawaii could conduct first-order comparisons of power plant selection and siting. The prepared report addresses each element identified above. However, available resources and data limitations limited the extent to which particular characteristics of coal use could be assessed. For example, the technology profiles are current but not as complete regarding future developments and cost/emissions data as possible, and the assessment of coal technology deployment issues in Hawaii was conducted on an aggregate (not site-specific) basis. Nonetheless, the information and findings contained in this report do provide an accurate depiction of the opportunities for and issues associated with coal utilization in the state of Hawaii.

  18. Fibre Optics In Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    1984-08-01

    Coal mines have a number of unique problems which affect the use of fibre optic technology. These include a potentially explosive atmosphere due to the evolution of methane from coal, and a dirty environment with no cleaning facilities readily available. Equipment being developed by MRDE to allow the exploitation of optical fibres underground includes: A hybrid electrical/fibre optic connector for the flexible power trailing cable of the coal-face shearer; An Intrinsically Safe (IS) pulsed laser transmitter using Frequency Shift Key (FSK) data modulation; An IS Avalanche Photo Diode Receiver suitable for pulsed & continuous wave optical signals; A mine shaft and roadway cable/ connector system incorporating low loss butt-splices and preterminated demountable connectors.

  19. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P2 preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P 2 preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-[ 3 H]nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-[ 3 H]nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine

  20. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  1. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  2. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  4. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  5. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.

    1998-01-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication

  6. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  7. Coal: Bonn saddling the economy with new burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.

    1993-01-01

    The prospects of an energy consensus between the p[arties have faded away. The Social Democrats and Christian Democrats are jeopardizing the possible compromise between coal and nuclear energy. Now there are efforts to concoct a new energy tax. The economy must prepare to cope with higher costs for nuclear energy and coal. (HP) [de

  8. Contraction behaviour of coals and binary blends during coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. MacPhee; L. Giroux; J.F. Gransden; J.T. Price [CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Contraction of coals during coking is of major practical interest since the longevity of industrial coke ovens depends on facilitating smooth coke pushes. Consequently, the prediction of the contraction behaviour of blends from single coal properties is of great importance to cokemakers. The situation is often complicated by the non-additivity of component coal properties. Our approach to simplify this problem involves the examination of the expansion/contraction behaviour of a number of binary coal blends and single coals (Appalachian coals mainly) for which a suite of coal and coke properties has been measured. These properties include coal and coke chemistry; coal petrography; coke optical textures; apparent and true specific gravities; CSR and CRI, etc. Coke yields from the sole-heated oven (D 2014-97) have also been carefully measured and almost all cases indicate that the yield of coke from the binary blends is greater than is predicted from the yields of the component coals. The coke yield data presented provides evidence supporting synergistic interaction between macerals in different coals during pyrolysis. Blends of high- and low-volatile coal coked in a sole-heated oven often produce a larger coke yield than expected from coking the single coals alone. Coke microscopy confirms interaction between the coals in the blend. Flow type textures are increased at the expense of either mosaic or domain textures or both. The sole-heated contraction of the blend may be less than that expected from the single coals. Based on limited observations it is tentatively concluded high-volatile coals with high contractions are the cause of the non-additivity of blend contraction values. They tend to have high thermal rheological properties and be of moderately low rank. Their high contraction values must be discounted in calculations of a blend contraction from the contraction or expansion of the coals in the blend. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  10. Proceedings of the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Shanghai in December, 1995. Three keynote speeches were presented, and two panel discussions were held. `Medium-term outlook for coal trade,` `Energy and the environment,` and `Progress with environmental control technology and technical exchanges between economies` were presented as keynote speeches. In the panel discussions, `Achieving low environmental impact from coal production and utilization` and `How to tackle environmental issues related to coal` were discussed. The Panel 1 was divided into Part 1 and Part 2. In the Part 1, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in economies where coal consumption has been increasing significantly. In the Part 2, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in major coal producing and consuming economies. 38 refs., 64 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  12. Effect of hydrothermal dewatering on the slurryability of brown coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yujie; Liu Jianzhong; Wang Ruikun; Zhou Junhu; Cen Kefa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Brown coals are upgraded by hydrothermal dewatering. ► The moisture content and oxygen functional groups decrease during the process. ► The point of zero charge and the contact angle rise as the temperature increases. ► The products were highly hydrophobic. ► The improvement on slurryability of solid products were examined. - Abstract: Two brown coals from China were dewatered under hydrothermal dewatering (HTD) conditions at 250–320 °C for 1 h in a 2 L autoclave. The hydrothermally dewatered products were used to prepare coal water slurry (CWS) with a lower viscosity than brown raw coal slurry. Moreover, the coal rank and heat value of the brown coal increased as the inherent moisture and oxygen content decreased during the HTD process. The maximum solid concentration of CWS prepared from XiMeng coal increased from 45.7% to 59.3%, whereas that of CWS prepared from BaoTou coal increased from 53.7% to 62.1%, after being dewatered at 320 °C. The improvement in the slurryability of brown coal significantly depended on the final temperature of the HTD process, the mechanism of which can be explained by the chemical analysis of oxygen functional groups, zeta potential, and the contact angle of the surface between coal and water. The oxygen functional groups, the oxygen/carbon ratio and hydrogen/carbon ratio in brown coal decreased, indicating that the coal rank was upgraded during the HTD process. As a result, both the point of zero charge and the contact angle increased, implying that the HTD products were highly hydrophobic.

  13. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  14. Study of the Feasibility of a Coal-to-Liquids Plant in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Syngas Treatment – Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis & Upgrading...200 MW of electricity to export – Export waste heat for district heating – Use of technologies that recover as much waste heat as possible in the...Separation Unit Coal Preparation Gasifier Syngas Treatment F-T and Upgrading Power Generation oxygen dried coal or slurried coal raw syngas syngas

  15. Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on coal and slurry technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of this conference are grouped under the following headings: Update in operating slurry pipeline systems; Environmental aspects; Materials and equipment; Indirect coal, liquefaction, Pipeline technology; Coal preparation and beneficiation; Direct coal liquefaction; Rheology characterization and formulation; Atomization and combustion; Demonstrations and evaluations; Small scale applications

  16. Protection of the hydrosphere from negative effects of highly sulphurous overburden of coal production and preparation; Schutz der Hydrosphaere vor der negativen Einwirkung von hochschwefelhaltigen Deponien der Kohlengewinnungs- und Aufbereitungsabgaenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilberchmidt, M.G.; Agafonov, J.F.; Dmitriev, A.P. [Moscow State Mining Univ. (Russian Federation); Spirt, M.J. [Institut fuer brennbare Fossilien, Moskau (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    There have been accumulated in dumps vast amounts (near 100 mln.t.) of sulfur-coal bearing solid wastes (SSCW) as a result of mining and preparation in Moscow lignite basin. Relatively high contents of sulphur (>1.5-2%) and harmful trace elements (Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, As, V and oth.) in them create ecological problems (pollutions of ground, underground waters and soils and oth.). The laboratory experiments were fulfilled with working out the prognosis of probable phase transformations of storing SSCW wastes under the influence of air and waters flowing through dump. It was shown that the decreasing of oxidation rates of sulphides therefore the formation of water soluble toxic compounds may be achieved if natural and technogenic mineral raw (limestone, fly ashes and others) may be used as such additives. The experimental plot was constructed near one of the dump to check these conclusions. It is the square (8 x 8m) divided in four equal sections. Each section is partitioned from neighbor sections with the special wall and contains nearly 10m{sup 3} of wastes. The thickness of wastes layer is 0.7 - 0.8 m. These sections have 0, 10, 20 or 30% (mas) of local limestone. So the waters filtering through the wastes or wastes with limestone go to the separate tube and then are collected in the separate tank outside of the section. There were determined volumes of collected waters, chemical compositions, pH and amounts of soluble substances in collected waters. The methods of chemical and physical methods were used. It was determined after 3 month observation that the limestone adding provides pH increasing of water from 3 - 3.2 till 7.0 - 7.2 with simultaneous decreasing more than in 10 times concentrations of the majority of toxic trace elements compounds, e.g. natural waters filtrating through wastes with limestone are ecologically safe. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of Turkish coals. A nationwide perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Curtis A.; Dennen, Kristen O.; Finkelman, Robert B. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Tuncali, Ertem [Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration 06520, Ankara (Turkey); Coburn, Timothy C. [Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX 79699 (United States)

    2004-12-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Turkish General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Mudurlugu, MTA) are working together to provide a better understanding of the chemical properties of Turkish coals from major Turkish lignite producing areas.The coals in Turkey are generally low rank (lignite or subbituminous) formed in several different depositional environments at different geologic times and have differing chemical properties. Eocene coals are limited to northern Turkey; Oligocene coals, found in the Thrace Basins of northwestern Turkey, are intercalated with marine sediments; Miocene coals are generally located in Western Turkey. The coal deposits, which have limnic characteristics, have relatively abundant reserves. Pliocene-Pleistocene coals are found in the eastern part of Turkey. Most of these coals have low calorific values, high moisture, and high ash contents. Analysis of 143 coal channel samples (most are lignite and subbituminous in rank, but a few are bituminous and one is anthracitic in rank) has been completed for up to 54 elements and other coal properties using a variety of analytical techniques, including inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, and various single element techniques and ASTM standard procedures. Many of these coals have elemental concentrations similar to U.S. lignites found in the Gulf Coast and Fort Union regions. However, maximum or mean concentrations of B, Cr, Cs, Ni, As, Br, Sb, Cs, and U in Turkey are higher than the corresponding maximum or mean values found in either the Fort Union or Gulf Coast regions.

  18. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...

  19. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  20. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  1. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  2. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing [Cranbury, NJ; Parasher, Sukesh [Lawrenceville, NJ; Hare, Jeffrey J [Provo, UT; Harding, N Stanley [North Salt Lake, UT; Black, Stephanie E [Sandy, UT; Johnson, Kenneth R [Highland, UT

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  3. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  4. Power from Coal. A Student Handbook Recommended for Upper Elementary and Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coal Association, Washington, DC.

    The contributions of coal as an important energy source are reviewed in this booklet for teachers. It provides background information on coal, activities for classroom use, and an answer key for all the exercises. The introductory section includes information on: (1) coal and electricity; (2) reasons for using coal; (3) methods for extracting…

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Study of China's coal supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is funding a joint research project between ABARE and the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission, China's leading organisation undertaking policy-related energy sector research. Together, the two organisations will analyse the economic costs and impacts of moving large quantities of coal from China's northern coal fields to, power stations in the rapidly growing south-eastern coastal provinces. The study will also compare the true economic costs of using domestic coal - including the costs of subsidies on coal production and transport - with the costs of using imported coal. ABARE will use its dynamic model, MEGABARE, to undertake ky parts of the study, taking into account the complex linkages between sectors in an economy and between different economies

  7. Technical problems of coal-liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, T.

    1974-10-01

    A discussion based partly on the author's experience with a 60 kg/day pilot plant for coal paste liquefaction operated by the Japan National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources from 1956 to 1961 covers the hydrogenation technology developed by I.G. Farbenindustrie in the 1930's, including composition and properties of the coal and the coal/oil/catalyst paste, heat exchange and energy requirement, and reaction conditions, catalysts, and products of the German industrial plants of the 1930's and 1940's, the demonstration plant of the U.S. Bureau of Mines (1949 to 1952), and the Japanese test plant; and brief surveys of the process developed by Carbide and Carbon Chem. Co., the CSF method by Consolidated Coal Co., and the H-Coal process by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.

  8. Coal conversion technologies: some health and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C; Moskowitz, P D; Sevian, W A; Silberstein, S; Hamilton, L D

    1979-11-09

    Several technologies to convert coal to liquid and gaseous fuels are being developed in the United States, some with support from the Department of Energy. Substitution of these technologies for those currently being used will produce different health and environmental hazards. In this article, selected health and environmental effects of four coal conversion and four existing technologies are compared. For each technology, the emission estimates for complete fuel cycles, including all steps in fuel use from extraction to the end use of space and water heating by electricity or direct combustion, were prepared by means of the Brookhaven Energy System Network Simulator model. Quantitative occupational health and safety estimates are presented for the extraction, transportation, distribution, processing, and conversion activities associated with each technology; also included are some public health damage estimates arising from fuel transportation and air pollution impacts. Qualitative estimates of health damage due to polycyclic organic matter and reduced sulfur are discussed. In general, energy inefficiencies, environmental residuals, and hence implied environmental effects and health damage increase in the order: (i) direct combustion of natural gas and oil, (ii) direct combustion of synthetic gas and oil, (iii) central-station electric power produced from synthetic gas, (iv) central-station electric power produced from coal, and (v) central-station electric power produced by the combustion of synthetic liquid fuels. The compliance and conflict of these technologies with the amendments of the Clean Air Act and other legislation are discussed.

  9. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  10. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  11. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  13. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  14. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, John A.; Simpson, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  15. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  16. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite

  17. Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

  18. Aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

  19. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  20. Question marks of the Czech coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.; Pesek, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of brown and black coal mining in the Czech Republic is presented, and problems of the extent of coal reserves and of the profitability of deep black coal mining are discussed. Costs of coal mining in foreign countries are given. Coal mining in the Czech Republic can be expected to be loss-making unless coal prices are increased. Since coal resources in the Czech Republic are limited, additional nuclear power plants will have to be constructed or else coal for power generation will have to be imported. The environmental aspects of coal mining and burning are discussed. Medium-term and long-term solutions to reduce the environmental burden include thermal power plant desulfurization, application of the fluidized-bed combustion regime to coals with large ash and/or sulfur contents, and introduction of gas in towns and power plants. In the short run, large-scale consumers in towns and coal basins should be obliged to accumulate reserves of low-sulfur coal for later use. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  1. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  2. Assessment of shrinkage-swelling influences in coal seams using rank-dependent physical coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, Huseyin Onur [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gumrah, Fevzi [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)]|[Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)

    2009-01-07

    Characterization of coal reservoirs and determination of in-situ physical coal properties related to transport mechanism are complicated due to having lack of standard procedures in the literature. By considering these difficulties, a new approach has been developed proposing the usage of relationships between coal rank and physical coal properties. In this study, effects of shrinkage and swelling (SS) on total methane recovery at CO{sub 2} breakthrough (TMRB), which includes ten-year primary methane recovery and succeeding enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery up to CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and CO{sub 2} sequestration have been investigated by using rank-dependent coal properties. In addition to coal rank, different coal reservoir types, molar compositions of injected fluid, and parameters within the extended Palmer and Mansoori (P and M) permeability model were considered. As a result of this study, shrinkage and swelling lead to an increase in TMRB. Moreover, swelling increased CO{sub 2} breakthrough time and decreased displacement ratio and CO{sub 2} storage for all ranks of coal. Low-rank coals are affected more negatively than high-rank coals by swelling. Furthermore, it was realized that dry coal reservoirs are more influenced by swelling than others and saturated wet coals are more suitable for eliminating the negative effects of CO{sub 2} injection. In addition, it was understood that it is possible to reduce swelling effect of CO{sub 2} on cleat permeability by mixing it with N{sub 2} before injection. However, an economical optimization is required for the selection of proper gas mixture. Finally, it is concluded from sensitivity analysis that elastic modulus is the most important parameter, except the initial cleat porosity, controlling SS in the extended P and M model by highly affecting TMRB. (author)

  3. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  4. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  5. Extraction of low rank coals by coal derived oils at 350 degrees C for producing clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Mae, K.; Shindo, H.; Ashida, R.; Ihara, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The authors have recently presented a new coal solvent extraction method that enhances the extraction yield dramatically. The method extracts coal using a flowing stream of either tetralin or 1-methylnaphthalene under 10 MPa at 200 to 400{sup o}C. The extract yield reached 65 to 80% for bituminous coals at 350{sup o}C, and the extract was almost free from mineral matter. Thus, this method was found to be effective to recover clean fuels from bituminous coals under rather mild conditions. To extend the extraction method to low rank coals and to make the method practically applicable, coal derived oils, carbol oil and creosote oil, were used in addition to tetralin in this study. Twenty kinds of coals were subjected to the extraction by tetralin and the coal derived oils at 350{sup o}C. Almost all sub-bituminous coals and brown coals examined were surprisingly extracted by 80% in the carbol oil at 350{sup o}C. It was also found that the extract was almost free from mineral matter and that most of sulfur was retained in the coal through the extraction by tetralin, whereas most of sulfur including pyritic sulfur was transferred into the soluble fraction through the extraction by the carbol oil. Thus, it was clarified that the proposed method was effective to produce a large amount of clean fuels from low rank coals under rather mild conditions.

  6. Memorandum on coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struss

    1942-10-27

    The first test facility was built in Ludwigshafen in Building 35 in 1924. During the Technical Committee meeting of February 4, 1926, Carl Bosch reported briefly for the first time on the status of coal hydrogenation and promised a comprehensive report to follow. Next, in connection with the Technical Committee meeting of July 13, 1926, Bosch arranged for the Committee to tour the test facility. Subsequently, the first industrial facility, for a yearly output of 100,000 tons, was built in Leuna with great speed and began production in April 1927. For this facility RM 26.6 million in credit was appropriated during 1926 and 1927 (the costs, including associated units, were estimated at RM 46 million; the RM 26.6 million covered only erection of the plant). A further RM 264 million was written off to hydrogenation in the years 1926 to 1931 on tests in new areas. At the end of 1929 the large scale tests at Merseburg were interrupted. On April 7, 1932, in the Nitrogen Branch discussion at Ludwigshafen, Dr. Schneider reported on the improvement in coal decomposition percentage which had meanwhile been achieved: from 60% to 95%. He proposed a last large-scale test, which was to require RM 375,000 up to the starting point and RM 170,000 per month during the six-month test period. This last test then led to definitive success in 1933.

  7. Coal pile leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  8. McCloskey's Australian coal markets and forecasting conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include: ports (Port of Gladstone and Port Waratah Coal Services); coking coal outlook (global coking coal outlook, pros and cons of ultra low volatile coals for PCI, Japanese viewpoint, outlook for India, Gujarat NRE's investment in New South Wales, Mozambique and Southern Africa as coking coal source) and thermal coal outlook (market in China and Japan, and Indonesian coal supply). A review of the coal market of 2006 and 2016, and Australia' primary markets and coal cost are also included. The papers only consist of the presentations (in pdf format), except for one paper on Australian coal cost changes June 2003 - June 2006 (D. Barnett).

  9. Preliminary studies on the observation of oxygen-18 exchange in coal by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, investigations in the use of FTIR for coal ultimate analysis, and a fast pneumatic transfer system for 0-18 determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeKeyser, C.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Use of isotope exchange kinetics for functional group determination in coal is investigated. Net exchange kinetics determined by time dependent Neutron Activation Analysis measurements (NAA) would be related to individual functional group exchange kinetics determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. The work described herein can be grouped into three categories: 1) work relating to the FTIR spectroscopy of coal, 2) work relating to oxygen exchange in coal, and 3) work relating to measurements of O-18 by NAA. Methods are discussed for preparing IR observable samples of coal and ash, obtaining FTIR spectra of these samples, and reducing the spectral data to numerical form. Also included in this category is an investigation into the use of IR spectroscopic methods for the ultimate analysis of coals. An initial attempt at the observation of oxygen exchange in coal is described which includes two exchange schemes and the FTIR spectroscopic observation of their end products. A facile exchange between O-18 water and O-16 in coal was attempted with and without catalysts. Also, the design and construction of a fast pneumatic transfer system for the determination of O-18 is described

  10. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  11. Enhanced coalbed methane recovery with respect to physical properties of coal and operational parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, H.O. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Gumrah, F. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Desorption-controlled reservoirs are difficult to model because of the complex nature of hydrocarbon transport processes. In the literature, there are parametric simulation studies that investigate the effect of each coal property on primary and enhanced coalbed methane recoveries. The normal trend is to change a model parameter in its range and to observe its impact on total methane recovery. This paper discussed a new approach that was followed during preparation of input data for a commercial compositional simulator. Rather than using a real field or a hypothetical data set, rank-dependent coal properties in the literature were chosen to construct a database which allowed more realistic outputs from the simulator. The paper described the methodology that was followed during preparation of the rank-dependent coal properties. After determining rank and component dependent simulation parameters, seven vertical-well cases were run in order to observe the behavior of the data set. Horizontal well cases were also simulated and compared to vertical well cases. Simulation cases that were presented included reservoir types; rank of coal; well pattern; drainage area; cleat permeability; anisotropy; molar composition of injected fluid; and horizontal well. Although at first glance the 100-acre drainage area seemed to be better than others, an economical analysis is needed before selecting the optimized one. 41 refs., 11 tabs., 25 figs., 1 appendix.

  12. Model optimizing production structure of coal enterprise and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Business and Adminsitration

    2000-05-01

    The models which optimize the product structure and maximize the profit of a coal enterprise were established. These models are mainly the increment and total analysis model for determining the optimum coal preparation scheme, the model of management risk analysis, and the linear plan model for deciding the optimum product structure under the condition of a given technology. They have been applied to coal enterprise in practice and obtained obvious economic benefit. This shows that the models are scientifically reasonable and efficient, and are valuable in designing preparation plant and in planning production under the condition of market economy. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  14. Nuclear energy versus coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm van Leeuwen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  15. Consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including examinations of bacteria risks; Konsekvenser ved solvarmeforberedte beholdere i bygningsreglementet herunder undersoegelse af risici for bakteriegener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Kaersgaard, K. [Teknologisk Inst., SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Bagh, L. [Teknologisk Inst., Miljoedivisionen (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A larger dissemination of solar heating units must be expected, if requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating are introduced in the building regulations. However, this may have effects, which have to be discussed beforehand, just as it has to be decided how the regulations can be put into practice. 1) The aim is to examine and discuss the consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including connections with other legislation, potential, consequences for the building services sector and proposals for rules in the building regulations (exceptions etc.) 2) Furthermore, the aim is to explain the risk of bacteria in tanks prepared for solar heating according to existing or new additional studies. It must be explained whether tanks prepared for solar heating will result in an increased number of bacteria in the water compared to traditional hot water tanks and - if possible - whether the change is caused by the increased volume of the tank (the water stays in the tank for a longer period) or changed temperature conditions which favours growth of bacteria at a certain incubation temperature. (EHS)

  16. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  17. Oil from coal by flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.W. (and others)

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the final stage of the NERDDP-funded work on coal liquefaction by flash pyrolysis. A working model pyrolyser, simulating a full-scale unit, has been operated over extended periods with Liddell and Piercefield (NSW), Acland, Millmerran and Macalister (Qld), and Loy Yang (Vic) coals. For several of the coals pyrolysed process heat was generated by combustion of some of the by-product char. Tar from Millmerran, Piercefield, Loy Yang, and Yallourn coals, produced in a separate pilot-scale pyrolyser, have been hydrogenated in continuous reactors to produce synthetic crude oils. Chars from Millmerran and Macalister sub-bituminous coals have been burned in the pilot-scale furnace with results as satisfactory as for the parent coals. The report shows that the flash pyrolysis method of making oil from coal is technically feasible, but cost studies show that in the present economic environment this method produces oil some three to four times more costly than natural oil. The report includes a summary of the overall CSIRO project of which this project formed a part, with emphasis on recent work of significance: e.g. methods of control of coke lay-down on tar hydrogenation catalysts; the combustion reactivity of pyrolysis chars; and various alternative uses of the flash pyrolysis method. Also included is an outline of related work carried out in other Australian and overseas laboratories, and a complete (to end of 1985) bibliography of all publications arising from the project.

  18. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  19. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  20. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g.

  1. Gas associated to coal in Colombia. An energetic alternative of non-conventional gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gonzalez, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Colombia possesses the biggest coal reserves of Latin America, in such a way that the potential reserves of Gas Associated to the Coal (GAC) they are of great magnitude; the paper includes topics like the generation of the gas associated to the coal, geologic factors that control the gas occurrence, development of the gas associated to the coal in the world, and potential reserves of gas associated to the coal in Colombia

  2. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate

  3. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  4. Measurement of the Industrial Collaboration of the Diversified Coal Industry: China Coal Energy Company as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Mao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development of coal enterprises in China, the industries related to coal, including coal chemical, electric power, transportation, and building materials, have witnessed rapid development. There is a collaboration relation between the coal industries and most of the aforementioned industries. Based on the synergy theory and the theory of industrial cooperation, the collaboration among coal industries is assessed in this research. Examining China Coal Energy Company as an example, this research divides the compound enterprise system into subsystems such as coal-electric, coal-chemical, and coal-equipment. Next, collaboration indices, including market, scale, and management, are created for each subsystem. Then, the overall collaboration degree of the China Coal Energy Company since it was listed was calculated by standardizing data and estimating the order degree of order parameters and subsystems. Thus, a model measuring the industrial collaboration degree of coal enterprises was established to quantitatively reflect the collaboration degree between various industries. At the same time, the factors influencing the collaboration effect between various industries were analyzed so as to improve this effect, which then can provide a decision basis for enterprises.

  5. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  6. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  7. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  8. Clean Coal and Gasification Technology: How it Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is the oldest method for the production of hydrogen. Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to produce chemicals, fertilizers, and/or the electric power [1]. Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury, solid wastes, and wastewater.Due to its high efficiencies, gasification also uses less coal to produce the same amount of energy, resulting in lower carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Some scientists believe that CO2 in the atmosphere contributes to a "greenhouse effect" that will lead to the global warming. Coal gasification has a proven technology for capturing CO2 at a fraction of the cost required for coal combustion technologies.

  9. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  10. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  11. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  12. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  13. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  14. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  15. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Coal technology program. Progress report, May 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Two successful operability tests with sustained operation of the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer were achieved with Illinois No. 6 coal diluted with char. Several activities in the area of nondestructive testing of coatings are reviewed. Failure analysis activities included examination of several components from the solvent refined coal plants at Wilsonville, Alabama, and Tacoma, Washington. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project, all of the design work were completed except for several of the instrument and control drawings. In the design studies of a coal-fired alkali metal vapor topping cycle, the first phase of a cycle analysis and the design and analysis of a metal vapor turbine were completed. A report entitled ''Critical Component Test Facility--Advance Planning for Test Modules'' presents the planning study for the conceptual design of component test modules on a nonsite-specific basis. Engineering studies, project evaluation and process and program analysis of coal conversion processes were continued. A report on the landfill storage of solid wastes from coal conversion is being finalized. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a series of successful tests of the coal feeding system and a report on the analysis of 500-hr fire-side corrosion tests in a fluidized bed combustor were completed.

  17. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  18. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  19. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  20. Is there an association of circulatory hospitalizations independent of mining employment in coal-mining and non-coal-mining counties in west virginia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Sharma, Ravi K; Buchanich, Jeanine; Stacy, Shaina L

    2015-04-01

    Exposures associated with coal mining activities, including diesel fuel exhaust, products used in coal processing, and heavy metals and other forms of particulate matter, may impact the health of nearby residents. We investigated the relationships between county-level circulatory hospitalization rates (CHRs) in coal and non-coal-mining communities of West Virginia, coal production, coal employment, and sociodemographic factors. Direct age-adjusted CHRs were calculated using West Virginia hospitalizations from 2005 to 2009. Spatial regressions were conducted to explore associations between CHR and total, underground, and surface coal production. After adjustment, neither total, nor surface, nor underground coal production was significantly related to rate of hospitalization for circulatory disease. Our findings underscore the significant role sociodemographic and behavioral factors play in the health and well-being of coal mining communities.

  1. Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1996-02-01

    The two key threats to coal's long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it's believed it will become Asia's largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China's coal-related pollution problems

  2. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  3. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  4. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  5. Laboratory determination of the ash content of some Australian coals using radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.E.; Fookes, R.A.; Gardner, K.J.; Gravitis, V.L.; Steffner, E.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two radioisotope techniques suitable for the rapid laboratory determination of the ash content of coal have been tested on unwashed coal samples from four Australian coal seams. In one technique, measurements of backscattered 238 Pu L X-rays and iron K X-rays from finely ground coal samples have been combined to determine ash content in unwashed coals to +- 0.5 weight per cent ash for three seams and +- 0.9 weight per cent ash for the fourth. The second technique, which involves measurements of the transmission by the coal of narrow beams of 241 Am 60 keV and 133 Ba 356 keV ν-rays, requires less sample preparation. The ash was determined to within the range of 0.8 to 2.6 weight per cent for the four seams (unwashed coal). For washed coals, errors are expected to be <+-0.5 weight per cent ash

  6. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  7. Coal-Powered Electric Generating Unit Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Coal continues to play a critical role in powering the Nation’s electricity generation, especially for baseload power plants. With aging coal generation assets facing decreased performance due to the state of the equipment, and with challenges exacerbated by the current market pressures on the coal sector, there are opportunities to advance early-stage technologies that can retrofit or replace equipment components. These changes will eventually result in significant improvements in plant performance once further developed and deployed by industry. Research and development in areas such as materials, fluid dynamics, fuel properties and preparation characteristics, and a new generation of plant controls can lead to new components and systems that can help improve the efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants significantly, allowing these assets to continue to provide baseload power. Coal stockpiles at electricity generation plants are typically large enough to provide 30 to 60 days of power prior to resupply—significantly enhancing the stability and reliability of the U.S. electricity sector. Falling prices for non-dispatchable renewable energy and mounting environmental regulations, among other factors, have stimulated efforts to improve the efficiency of these coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). In addition, increased reliance on natural gas and non-dispatchable energy sources has spurred efforts to further increase the reliability of coal EGUs. The Coal Powered EGU Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue brought together stakeholders from across the coal EGU industry to discuss methods for improvement. Participants at the event reviewed performance-enhancing innovations in coal EGUs, discussed the potential for data-driven management practices to increase efficiency and reliability, investigated the impacts of regulatory compliance on coal EGU performance, and discussed upcoming challenges for the coal industry. This report documents the key

  8. Global Coal Trade. From Tightness to Oversupply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past four years, international coal trade has been reshaped by China's surging imports. China, which was still a net exporter in 2008, became the world's first coal importer in 2011, taking over the position that Japan has occupied for three decades. Its imports have continued their rising trend and reached a record level in 2012, despite the country's economic slowdown. China imported 289 million tons of coal in 2012, up 30% over 2011. It now accounts for 23% of global imports. Although China is the world's largest coal producer, several factors have contributed to the sudden rise in its imports, including the higher cost of domestic coal relative to international prices and bottlenecks in transporting domestic coal to south-eastern provinces. More recently, another event shook the international coal business: the United States have been back on the market. The collapse of U.S. gas prices, to $4/million Btu in 2011 and even $2.75/million Btu in 2012, linked with the 'shale gas revolution', has made coal uncompetitive in the electricity sector, its main outlet on the U.S. market. U.S. coal demand dropped 4% in 2011 and 11% in 2012. The reduction in domestic demand has forced U.S. miners to look for overseas outlets. Their exports surged by 31% in 2011 and 16% in 2012. They reached 112 million tons in 2012, more than twice the level of 2009. The United States, which almost disappeared from the international steam coal market in the 2000's, have regained a larger share of the total coal export market, 9% in 2012, against 6% in 2009. These developments, although not directly linked, have a huge impact on the global market and pricing of coal. Chinese imports have helped the market to quickly recover from its low level of 2008-2009. The speed and magnitude of China's coal imports even shifts the market from a sluggish to a tight situation. Prices started to rise after their collapse in the second half of 2008 caused by the economic and financial crisis

  9. Coal at the crossroads : energy panacea or environmental sunset?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provided information on the global scene for climate change and coal reserves. While the trend of rising prices for declining conventional oil and gas reserves is expected to continue, the index of coal reserves remains high, therefore the price for coal is rising more slowly. New environmental regulations will soon be mandated in both Canada and the United States for emissions of carbon dioxide, sodium oxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury, as well as water use and water quality. Coal reserves in Canada and around the world were presented along with rates of growth in global coal markets and its price advantage. Coal was noted as being essential for Canada's energy future. Although it is the least expensive generating fuel in Alberta, followed by natural gas, the gap between the two fuels is gradually widening, not because of the cost of coal for existing super-critical pulverized coal steam boilers, but because of the additional costs associated with new environmental technologies and cost overruns for construction. The reliability of new technologies to maximize hours on line and avoid unplanned stoppages or interruptions is also a cost factor. This presentation also addressed other topics involving the coal sector and the geo-political situation, including coal in Alberta; the sustainability challenge; and new federal regulations. The presentation included a schematic indicating the polygeneration potential of coal gasification. Another environmental solution to coal use includes carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in which carbon dioxide is captured and pipelined to an underground storage site or used for enhanced oil recovery. It was concluded that the coal industry must do a much better job at communicating its message, addressing its critics, and influencing the public. figs

  10. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-09-30

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized.

  11. India clamours for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-10-01

    The steadily deteriorating quality of coal provided by government-owned companies in India has persuaded coal users to follow the lead of the World Bank and call for deregulation of the sector to allow quality coal to be procured at competitive prices from the global market.Some 24 opencast mines belonging to Coal India Limited subsidiaries were to be expanded to produce 112 mta of coal but the World Bank terminated a loan of 507 million dollars from the total sanctioned loan of 1.06 bn. CIL refuses to accept that the loan was terminated because the government failed to meet the terms and conditions imposed at the time of the loan sanction. In addition to slow demand from the power sector, the state-owned coal companies have found the World Bank terms impossible to meet. The favourable debt market in India has come to their aid but even this will not enable the quality of coal to be improved for use in many power plants. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board has called for the formation of a joint venture with the private sector to explore for and supply quality coal. 1 photo.

  12. Imported coal remains flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, F.

    1982-01-01

    The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.

  13. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  14. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  15. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  16. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  17. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  18. Correlation between gas permeability and pore structure of coal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, Y.; Niu, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in unminable coal seams represents a promising option for CO2 geologic storage, because the injected CO2 may enhance coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM), which could partly offset the costs of the storage process. The CO2-ECBM technology is based on the relative affinity of CO2 and CH4 to coals under given pressure and temperature conditions. The excess sorption capacity of coals for CO2 is generally higher than the sorption capacity for methane. The coal seams are characterized by a dual porosity structure including cleat and matrix pores. The cleats in the coal seams are considered as highways for gas and water flow, while the matrix is the storage location of gas by adsorption. The slow transport process of gas in coal matrix may constrain the efficiency of the displacement of CH4 by CO2 due to the compacted pore structure of the coal matrix. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the correlation between permeability of gas and pore structure in coal matrix is crucial for the CO2-ECBM processes. Yangquan coals originating from the Qingshui basin, which contains gas-rich coals in China, were selected for the tests in this study. Yangquan coals are classified as anthracite. In order to avoid the influence of coal cleats on fluid flow, small coal plugs (~6 mm in diameter, ~13 mm in length) were selected and fixed in the sample compartment by special glue. A test system for simultaneously measuring adsorption-porosity-permeability on the coal matrix blocks in its free state is constructed. The permeability of gas and porosity in coal plugs to He under different gas pressure and temperature conditions were simultaneously investigated. The permeability and excess sorption capacity of the coal plugs to He, N2, CH4 and CO2 were compared at a constant gas pressure and temperature. It is expected that gas break through a cleat-plug is much faster than that through a coal matrix-plug. Different sample plugs with the different pore structure results

  19. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  20. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  1. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  4. More accurate determination of coal stockpile inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.L.; Hernadi, N.

    1978-08-01

    The coal density within a 12 m high stockpile can range from 836 kg/m/SUP/3 to 948 kg/m/SUP/3. Thus the use of a constant density to calculate the stockpile inventory could lead to a variation on a nominal 100,000 tonne stockpile of 12,500 tonnes. At present day metallurgical coal prices, this represents a range in inventory value of over 600,000 dollars. A more accurate evaluation of the stockpile inventory can easily be achieved by the simple expedient of including the density variations in the calculations. Laboratory compression tests at different moisture contents have been used to simulate the coal compaction, and to derive practical densities for coal at various heights within the stockpile. The resulting graphs of density variation with stockpile height at different moisture contents can be combined with accurate cross sections to volumetric surveys to produce on accurate quantification of the stockpile for inventory purposes.

  5. Washability of Indian coals - a scenerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Selvakumaran; A. Rajamohan; R. Pattabhi Raman; M. Karunakara Reddy [Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd., Tiruchirapalli (India)

    2005-07-01

    Recent mine scale washability test results indicate other wise that, many coals from India used in Power generation could be economically washed (with yields of 70% to 80%) to levels of 24% to 32% ash in the final product. These test results are in line with bore hole sample test results conducted by the Central Mine Planning Development Institute. A super thermal power station using ROM coal was selected for the purpose of our study. On site samples were collected from BOBR/Box-n rail wagons, (both merry go round & distant rail) and Power plant belt conveyors. Huge quantities of coal samples from all the four sources were encountered during screen analysis and the quantity has to be reduced before transporting for washability tests in reputed lab. Washability and M curves were prepared mine wise & size wise. Specific gravities used ranged from 1.40 to 1.90. Investigations on proximate, ultimate analysis, gross calorific value, ash composition analysis, Hardgrove Grindability Indices, YGP Indices, {alpha}-Quartz contents, and petrographic analysis on both washed coals and corresponding unwashed coals were studied. Considering the present economics of boiler operation with high ash, highly abrasive coals, we can envisage that considerable reduction of the ash content of coal will result in, increase in rated capacity of the boilers, increase in peak load capacity and finally increase in boiler availability for existing units. For new units it will reduce investment costs and consequent reduction in Electricity tariff to ultimate customers and it will ease the effort in building larger capacity thermal units say 660 to 800 MW. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Asia's energy future: The case of coal - opportunities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author presents his views about the changing energy mix in Asia to the year 2020, and why the importance of coal will continue. The topics of the paper include Asia's energy mix compared with the rest of the world including nuclear power, hydropower, solar and wind energy, oil, coal, and natural gas; the economics of coal and natural gas; coal production and consumption; new energy sources; Asia's energy mix in the year 2020; resource depletion and conclusions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  8. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  9. The World Coal Quality Inventory: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, S.J.; Willett, J.C.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    National and international policy makers and industry require accurate information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding international import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. Unfortunately, the information needed is generally proprietary and does not exist in the public domain. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in conjunction with partners in about 60 countries, is developing a digital compilation of worldwide coal quality. The World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) will contain coal quality information for samples obtained from major coal beds in countries having significant coal production, as well as from many countries producing smaller volumes of coal, with an emphasis on coals currently being burned. The information that will be incorporated includes, but is not limited to, proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur-form data; major, minor, and trace element analysis; and semi-quantitative analyses of minerals, modes of occurrence, and petrography. The coal quality information will eventually be linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that shows the coal basins and sample locations along with geologic, land use, transportation, industrial, and cultural information. The WoCQI will be accessible on the USGS web page and new data added periodically. This multi-national collaboration is developing global coal quality data that contain a broad array of technologic, economic, and environmental parameters, which should help to ensure the efficient and environmentally compatible use of global coal resources in the 21st century.

  10. The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grawe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that ash particles from coal combustion can trigger ice nucleation when they interact with water vapor and/or supercooled droplets. However, data on the ice nucleation of ash particles from different sources, including both anthropogenic and natural combustion processes, are still scarce. As fossil energy sources still fuel the largest proportion of electric power production worldwide, and biomass burning contributes significantly to the global aerosol loading, further data are needed to better assess the ice nucleating efficiency of ash particles. In the framework of this study, we found that ash particles from brown coal (i.e., lignite burning are up to 2 orders of magnitude more ice active in the immersion mode below −32 °C than those from wood burning. Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was shown to be the most efficient at nucleating ice. Furthermore, the influence of various particle generation methods on the freezing behavior was studied. For instance, particles were generated either by dispersion of dry sample material, or by atomization of ash–water suspensions, and then led into the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS where the immersion freezing behavior was examined. Whereas the immersion freezing behavior of ashes from wood burning was not affected by the particle generation method, it depended on the type of particle generation for ash from brown coal. It was also found that the common practice of treating prepared suspensions in an ultrasonic bath to avoid aggregation of particles led to an enhanced ice nucleation activity. The findings of this study suggest (a that ash from brown coal burning may influence immersion freezing in clouds close to the source and (b that the freezing behavior of ash particles may be altered by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation.

  11. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for application in the separation of gas molecules that vary in size and shape. A study is in progress at the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine whether Illinois basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate their potential application in gas separation processes of commercial importance. Chars were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of heat treatment and activation conditions. The effects of various coal/char pretreatments, including coal demineralization, preoxidation, char activation, and carbon deposition, on the molecular sieve properties of the chars were also investigated. Chars with commercially significant BET surface areas of 1500 m2/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high-surface-area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial carbon and zeolite molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N2, O2, CO2, CH4, CO and H2, on these chars at 25??C was measured. The O2/N2 molecular sieve properties of one char prepared without chemical activation were similar to those of a commercial CMS. On the other hand, the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon, i.e., essentially unity. Carbon deposition, using methane as the cracking gas, increased the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char, but significantly decreased its adsorption capacity. Several chars showed good potential for efficient CO2/CH4 separation; both a relatively high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/CH4 selectivity were achieved. The micropore size distribution of selected chars was estimated by equilibrium adsorption of carbon dioxide, n-butane and iso-butane at O??C. The extent of adsorption of each gas corresponded to the effective surface area contained in pores with diameters greater than 3

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  13. Mineralogic and element association of coals from the Gevra mine, Korba coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Powell, M.A.; Fyfe, W.S.; Sahu, K.C.; Tripathy, S.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of a project to study the content and distribution of trace elements in coals and coal by-products from coal mining areas of India, the mineral and elemental composition of the whole coal and concentration of the selective elements in the whole coal mined from the Gevra mine of the Korba coal field in Madhya Pradesh are studied. The vertical trend of the selected elements are defined and possible relationships of these elements to the minerals present in or associated with the above coal are examined. The Gevra Coals have ash contact ( 3 times world average) and low sulphur content (1/4 of world average). Most elements are found to be positively correlated with ash indicating an inorganic association. Elements which show organic affinity include S, Cl, I and In. Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb occur in sulfide phases, the dominant Fe phase identified is siderite which also contain Mn and Mg. Th and U along with varying proportions of rare earths, Ce, Dy, La and Y have been identified with discrete phosphate minerals. Most trace elements have been found to be concentrated in the upper and lower portions of the coal seam exposed in Gevra mine and in partings. It is, therefore, suggested that selective mining and removal of high ash/inorganic material, particularly the upper and lower portion of the seam, will greatly reduce the mobilization of Al, As, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Si, Ti and to a lesser degree Cr, La, Mn, Th U and V during combustion of coal in power plants and consequently will reduce the influx of trace elements to the environment. (M.G.B.). 23 refs., 5 figs

  14. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  15. A new South Africa: coal exports in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botha, R.F. [Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa)

    1995-11-01

    Discusses aspects of the coal industry in South Africa particularly in the light of the recent political changes i.e. the ending of apartheid and the election of the South African Government of National Unity. Areas covered include: increased foreign investment; the Government`s Reconstruction and Development Programme; improved health and safety; production of coal based liquid fuels; coal reserves; power generation; and exports and terminal facilities.

  16. Proceedings of the First APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-04

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the First APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Tokyo in October, 1994. In this seminar, two keynote speeches were presented, and three panel discussions were held. `Role of coal in energy supply and demand` and `Coal: the only long term option` were presented as keynote speeches. `Role of coal in energy supply and demand,` `Forecast for coal demand,` and `Forecast for coal supply` were discussed in the panel discussions. The objective of the Panel 1 was to put into focus the role of coal in the APEC region against the backdrop of the world situation. The key issue which came out of the discussion was the difference between Europe and Asia. China was identified as the main reason for the difference. The objective of the Panel 2 was to look at the forecast for coal demand in the APEC region, with particular focus on Asia. In the Panel 3, representatives from five leading coal producing countries presented their views on coal reserves and production. 121 figs., 96 tabs.

  17. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  18. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  19. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  20. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  1. A new method to assess mercury emissions: a study of three coal-fired electric-generating power station configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Helen M; Cain, Randy D; Kingston, H M

    2003-11-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy has proved successful for use in Hg assessment at coal-fired power stations. In an analysis time of approximately 5 min per sample, this instrumental methodology can directly analyze total Hg--with no discrete sample preparation--in the solid matrices associated with a coal-fired power plant, including coal, fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material. This analysis technique was used to investigate Hg capture by coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) in three different coal-fired power plant configurations. Hg capture and associated emissions were estimated by partial mass balance. The station equipped with an FGD system demonstrated 68% capture on FGD material and an emissions estimate of 18% (11 kg/yr) of total Hg input. The power plant equipped with low oxides of nitrogen burners and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) retained 43% on the fly ash and emitted 57% (51 kg/yr). The station equipped with conventional burners and an ESP retained less than 1% on the fly ash, emitting an estimated 99% (88 kg/yr) of Hg. Estimated Hg emissions demonstrate good agreement with EPA data for the power stations investigated.

  2. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  3. Aquatic ecosystems in the coal mining landscape of the upper Olifants River, and the way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available can provide guidance on managing water ecosystems in the future at various stages of mining operations, which include understanding the interface between water ecosystems and coal mining activities, assessing the likelihood of coal mining activities...

  4. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Leaching of trace elements may raise environmental concerns when using coal fly ash in road construction. US EPA is in the process : of creating the first national rule on coal ash management, including beneficial use. Meanwhile, driven by the tighte...

  5. The Steam Coal Market in 2016: the Supply Shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    Surprising coal markets: while the world coal demand is diminishing, the steam coal price doubled in 2016. After five years of uninterrupted price decline and a sluggish world demand, this strong price hike might appear as paradoxical. This paper explains the principal reasons for this situation. After five consecutive years of decline, international steam coal prices doubled in 2016. The main reason is not an increase in global coal consumption, which has been declining since 2014, including in 2016, but the tightening of supplies in the narrow international coal market. Policy changes in China have played a key role. To limit production over-capacity and halt the decline in domestic coal prices, the Chinese government has mandated a reduction in the number of working days in Chinese mines from 330 to 276. This decision has led to a fall in domestic production. Faced with rising coal demand in summer 2016, and surging domestic coal prices from end of June, China once again turned to the international market to cover its supply needs. It thus became again the world's largest coal importer, outpacing India. The increase in Chinese imports did not prevent Chinese demand from falling for the third consecutive year. On the supply side, after five years of declining prices, the export capacities of the main coal supplying countries have been reduced by mine closures, corporate bankruptcies and investment reductions in the sector. This led to the scissor effect observed in 2016, characterized by a sudden and unexpected increase in Chinese imports combined with a supply squeeze. Coal prices surged in the third quarter of 2016, before starting to decline. They have stabilized since December 2016, albeit at high levels. The decline could continue after winter 2016-17. The Chinese government intends to control the level of domestic coal prices to limit their impact on electricity prices and inflation. It has, therefore, relaxed its control on coal production, which has

  6. X-ray structural analysis of some Indian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binoy K Saikia, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources and has the capability to meet future energy needs with high reliability. The use of coal as an energy source and as a source of organic chemicals feedstock may become more important in the future. It is physically and chemically a heterogeneous and carbonaceous rock which consists of organic and inorganic materials. Assam coal has been, and continuous to be, a valuable energy source, especially for the various industry in India and for liquefactions of coal. The basic chemical structure of coal that has been widely accepted today was built up from the synthesis of results obtained from X-ray diffraction data. The present paper reports a comparative investigation of coals from different collieries/areas of Makum coal field, Assam viz. Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries Makum coal field, Assam with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the coals are amorphous in nature. The present XRD method includes the evaluation of Function of Radial Distribution of Atoms (FRDA) and structural interpretations of the coals from their Radial Distribution Function (RDF) plots after proper corrections for air scatter, absorption by sample and polarization. The curve intensity profiles in FRDA clearly show quite regular molecular packets for these coals. The first maxima in the FRDA curves was obtained at r= 0.4 Amstrong for Ledo, Baragolai and Tipong coals whereas for Tikak coal it was observed at r= 0.5 Amstrong. The first maximum in the pair distribution function plots, G (r) of Ledo, Tikak, and Tipong coals was obtained at r=0.15 nm whereas for Baragolai and Tirap coals it was observed at r=0.14 nm and r=0.12 nm respectively, which relates to the C=C (aliphatic/aromatic) bonds in coal matrix. The Assam coal samples from Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries of Makum coalfield have almost the same RDF inter-atomic distances except slight differences. This

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  8. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  9. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  10. Determination of mineral matter in coal by target transformation factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    There is an increasing need to determine the nature of mineral matter in coal. The mineral matter is composed of all inclusions in the coal whether or not they are distinct from the coal. The need for this information is based on the increased use of coal and the problems associated with its use such as boiler tube fouling, air pollution, and coal liquefaction. By utilizing target transformation factor analysis, it is possible to identify the number of mineral phases that may be present in the coal as well as the composition of these mineral phases including major, minor, and trace elements. It is thus possible to determine the mineral phases and reconstruct the mineralogy of the coal sampled such that general characteristics of the mineral phases can be determined. From this information, insight into the formation of the coal can be obtained and better methods of utilizing the coal can be devised

  11. PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Stencel

    1999-11-12

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units is examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler is quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model is extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through coal transport pipes and triboelectrostatic separation zone. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling are employed in a conceptual design and a 4--40 kg/hr laboratory-scale separator is constructed and tested. This laboratory unit is used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on coals during pulverization and transport typical in utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary and conceptual design for a 15 ton/hr, in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for applications to PC units is assessed.

  12. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  13. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  14. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  15. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  16. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  17. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  19. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  20. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  1. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  2. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  3. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-09-15

    As the energy demand grows, coal is more and more exported and its trade is very flourishing. Asian countries produce 61% of the world production and Japan is the biggest coal importer: 27% of the world exports. The world reserves are huge: 860 billions tonnes which represents 130 years of today's production. The use of coal is very polluting and the quest of a clean coal is a challenge for the next decade. Different ways of improvement are currently developed: -) the use of more efficient filters to block polluting releases, -) the recovery of the energy of the smokes, -) a higher thermal yield through the use of supercritical cycles, or the addition of a gasification step to a combined cycle, or the simultaneous production of power, heat and chemical by-products, and -) the storage of CO{sub 2} produced in deep geological reservoirs. (A.C.)

  4. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  5. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  6. Mercury in Eastern Kentucky coals: Geologic aspects and possible reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Quick, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury emissions from US coal-fired power plants will be regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) before the end of the decade. Because of this, the control of Hg in coal is important. Control is fundamentally based on the knowledge of the amounts of Hg in mined, beneficiated, and as-fired coal. Eastern Kentucky coals, on a reserve district level, have Hg contents similar to the USA average for coal at mines. Individual coals show greater variation at the bench scale, with Hg enrichment common in the top bench, often associated with enhanced levels of pyritic sulfur. Some of the variation between parts of eastern Kentucky is also based on the position relative to major faults. The Pine Mountain thrust fault appears to be responsible for elemental enrichment, including Hg, in coals on the footwall side of the thrust. Eastern Kentucky coals shipped to power plants in 1999, the year the USEPA requested coal quality information on coal deliveries, indicate that coals shipped from the region have 0.09 ppm Hg, compared to 0.10 ppm for all delivered coals in the USA. On an equal energy basis, and given equal concentrations of Hg, the high volatile bituminous coals from eastern Kentucky would emit less Hg than lower rank coals from other USA regions. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facer, J.F. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons U 3 O 8 , assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1 to 3 percent of the domestic uranium requirement could be met from coal ash, provided processing technology could be developed for uranium recovery at acceptable costs. However, the environmental problems for disposal of the slimy leached ash would be enormous. The average uranium grade of coal in the United States is less than half of that of the Earth's crust. Burning the coal concentrates the contained uranium in the ash from 2 to 20 times. However, even at 20 times concentration, the percent uranium in coal ash is less than 1/100 of the grade of the uranium ore being processed today from conventional deposits. Although it is conceivable that some coal ash might contain enough uranium to make the ash an economic source of uranium, this is not now the case for ash from any major coal-fired power plant in the United States. During 1963 to 67, about 180,000 tons of uranium-bearing carbonaceous rock from the southwestern part of the Williston Basin were mined and processed to recover about 1 million pounds of U 3 O 8 . None of this material has been mined since 1967. The uranium reserves of the area are small, and the environmental problems with calcining the lignitic material may be prohibitive. Some other uraniferous coal and lignite could be mined and processed as a uranium ore, but less than half of one percent of the domestic $30 reserves are in coal. A few samples of mid-continent coal have been reported to contain about 100 ppM U but little is known about the size of such deposits or the likelihood that they will be mined and used for power plant fuel to produce a high-uranium ash

  8. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  9. Coal utilization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.C.D.; Formoso, M.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts at presenting a database on environmental pollution due to coal-fired power plants and coal-mining, according to regional and national bibliography available to the authors. Data on air, water and soil pollution in Rio Grande do Sul and Pollution due to mining in Santa Catarina are presented. The paper consists of a bibliographic compilation, with the quantification of polluting factors. (author)

  10. Coal pillar design procedures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available ). ..................................................................................................................25 Figure 1-3 Stress in coal pillar versus pillar compression. After Wagner (1980).......................27 Figure 1-4 Frequency of pillar collapse versus the design safety factor. ..................................38 Figure 1-5 Frequency... ......................................................................................57 Table 2-6 Calculation of factor of safety of pillars at collapsed sites in Klip River coal field.......................................................................................................................58 Table 2-7 Summary...

  11. Coal transporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevski, Goce; Sazdov, Dushko; Tasevski, Apostol

    1999-01-01

    Installation of transporting systems in coal open pits in Macedonia was connected with construction and purchasing of the equipment from foreign companies. During 1998 Electric Power Company of Macedonia in connection with needs of the Oslomej Thermal Power Plant and delivery conditions,decided to give this task to domestic companies. This paper presents the planning activities an the implementation of the new coal transporting system. (Author)

  12. Improvements in monitoring coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.R.C.; Tulloch, A.T.; Basterfield, A.

    1984-01-01

    An instrument for determining a first characteristic of a material, eg ash in coal, by X-radiation comprises a turntable with material feeding means. An X-radiation source and detector unit determines the first characteristic, and a microwave source and detector unit, determine a second characteristic of the material, eg moisture in coal. The turntable is transparent to microwaves in at least the region traversed by the microwaves. (author)

  13. Oil from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurlow, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    Our great-grandchildren will view the petroleum age as a brief perturbation in the life-style of mankind, less than a hundred years in which we discovered, exploited, squandered and exhausted the natural resource of liquid petroelum laid down over many million years of pre-history. What the sources of energy in common use in our great-grandchildren's day will be is something we cannot know. By then, the need for liquid hydrocarbon fuels may have passed. What is more sure, however, is that for a while, man will want to continue to use the equipment and the methods familiar to him from this petroleum-product dominated age beyond the time when natural petroleum sources become scarce. During these decades there will be a need to produce liquid hydrocarbons from other sources and one of these sources, abundantly available at this time, will be coal. Converting coal to liquid basically entails accomplishing two steps: (1) the separation of the coal substance from the ash and impurities associated with the coal, and (2) breaking down the complex coal molecules into simpler molecules and increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. It is also necessary, of course, to develop processes which will lead to the production of a range of liquid products to meet the demands of the commerical market, whether as fuels or as chemical feedstocks. Converting coal to a liquid needs energy, both heat and power, and hydrogen; if all these have to be generated starting from coal, their production may use approaching half of the Btu value of the coal fed to the plant. The economic advantage of one process over another will be mainly dependent on the products required and the price assigned to them and on the effectiveness with which the plant can be engineered to minimize energy loss and to operate effectively.

  14. A supply chain based assessment of water issues in the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lingying; Liu Pei; Ma Linwei; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Shortages of water and geographically uneven distribution of coal and water pose great challenges to sustainable development of the coal industry in China. In this paper, we illustrate the major challenges existing in the coal industry from a supply chain viewpoint, and propose technical and policy suggestions to address them. First, we provide quantitative information about water withdrawal, consumption, waste water recycling and treatment and pollution from coal mining, preparation, to final conversion for China's power generation and coal-to-chemical industry. We then analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. Our results show that water issues are becoming increasingly severe constraints for coal development in China, especially in North and West China, where water is more scarce and ecological systems are more vulnerable than other regions. Without implementing effective water-saving measures or regulations the water demand in the coal industry could dramatically increase and probably exceed China's water supply capacity in the near-term future, bringing substantial uncertainty to sustainable development of China's energy economy. We also illustrate that coal-fired power generation, with appropriate technical improvement and proper policy supports, has the greatest potential for water savings in the coal industry. Our conclusions also underscore the importance of expanding energy efficiency and renewable energy in China so as to limit the country's dependence on coal. - Highlights: ► We provide information of water supply and use in the coal industry in China. ► We analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. ► Water issues are becoming severe constrains for the coal industry in China. ► The water demand in the coal industry could exceed China's water supply capacity. ► Coal-fired power generation has great potential for water savings.

  15. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  16. Rescue complex for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungmeyster, D. A.; Urazbakhtin, R. Yu

    2017-10-01

    The mining industry was potentially dangerous at all times, even with the use of modern equipment in mines, accidents continue to occur, including catastrophic ones. Accidents in mines are due to the presence of specific features in the conduct of mining operations. These include the inconsistency of mining and geological conditions, the contamination of the mine atmosphere due to the release of gases from minerals, the presence of self-igniting coal strata, which creates the danger of underground fires, gas explosions. The main cause of accidents is the irresponsibility of both the manager and the personnel who violate the safety rules during mining operations.

  17. Effects of main parameters on rheological properties of oil-coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yong-gang; Hao Li-fang; Xiong Chu-an; Sun Xiu-ying [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  19. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  20. Coal resources of the eastern regions of Russia for power plants of the Asian super ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Aleksander; Takaishvili, Liudmila

    2018-01-01

    The eastern regions of Russia have a substantial potential for expansion of steaming coal production. The majority of coal deposits in the eastern regions are located close enough to the objects of the Asian super ring. The large coal reserves make it possible to consider it as a reliable fuel source for power plants for a long-term horizon. The coal reserves suitable for using at power plants of the Asian super ring are estimated in the paper by subject of the federation of the eastern regions for operating and new coal producers. The coal deposits of the eastern regions that are promising for the construction of power plants of the Asian super ring are presented. The paper describes both the coal deposits of the eastern regions that are considered in the projects for power plant construction and included in the program documents and the coal deposits that are not included in the program documents. The coal reserves of these deposits and the possible volumes of its production are estimated. The key qualitative coal characteristics of the deposits: heating value, and ash, sulfur, moisture content are presented. The mining-geological and hydrological conditions for deposit development are briefly characterized. The coals of the eastern regions are showed to contain valuable accompanying elements. It is noted that the creation of industrial clusters on the basis of the coal deposits is the most effective from the standpoints of the economy and ecology. The favorable and restraining factors in development of the described coal deposits are estimated.

  1. Westmin Resources signs multi-million dollar coal lease. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    This paper gives details of a 40-year coal lease encompassing 971 hectares containing 120 million tonnes of coal near Lake Wabamun signed by Westmin Resources Limited with Transalta Utilities Corporation. A map is included. The agreement also makes provision whereby Westmin can join with Transalta in future development of liquid hydrocarbon extraction projects.

  2. China’s Strategic Choice of the Coal Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Daojuan

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry is one of the most influential industries on environment pollution. In recent years, most studies have shown that green and circular economy is the way to solve the deteriorative environment issue. After introducing green economy theory, including background, concept...... of circular economy model, promoting coal industrial technological progress, improving management and security technological innovation....

  3. 76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    .... The surface estate of the LBA tract is largely owned by Antelope Coal Company except for six lots in... splits into several seams and, at various locations on the LBA tract, individual splits are either absent... not include any tonnage from localized seams or splits containing less than 5 feet of coal. It does...

  4. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... this lease offering contains split estate lands. There are qualified surface owners as defined in the... estate of the tract is owned by Alpha Coal West, Inc., as well as private individuals and entities. The... above but does not include any tonnage from localized seams or splits that are less than 5 feet of coal...

  5. 77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... out by the coal lessee. The majority of the surface estate of the tract is within the Thunder Basin National Grasslands and managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The remainder of the surface estate is owned by... localized seams or splits containing less than 5 feet of coal. It does not include the adjacent State of...

  6. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify the...

  7. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  8. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D. [United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, CT (United States); Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  11. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  12. The possibilites of coal seam underground excavation in Republic of Macedonia with high productive excavation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents mining and geology properties of coal deposits in R.Macedonia predetermined for underground exploitation. Also it will be shown the way of coal seams preparation and development for underground excavation with longwall mining methods. Based on mining and geology properties of coal and it’s caloric value it will be observed the possibilities for application on the longwall mining which is among excavation methods with highest production and capacity applied in the contemp...

  13. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  14. Issues and prospects for coal utilization in Zimbabwe's rural households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing shortage of traditional fuels in Zimbabwe has prompted government to consider seriously the use of coal in rural households. In this regard, both government and the privately owned coal industry have begun pilot projects in selected rural areas to initiate the introduction of coal stoves and coal fuels. These efforts by government and the coal industry need to be informed by knowledge of the financial and economic dimensions of coal diffusion to rural economies, the environmental implications of widespread coal use in rural households, and the general acceptability of coal as a fuel to households with a long tradition of free fuels. This paper summarizes the results of a study undertaken to provide such background information. Conducted over six months during 1988, the study included field surveys of four districts in Zimbabwe: Murewa, Shurugwi, Mberengwa, and Mazoe Citrus Estates. All but the Mazoe district are rural settings with severe shortages of fuelwood. Mazoe Citrus Estates is a semi-urban plantation community which has had over twenty years' experience with coal use in households under a company-sponsored programme which supplies both fuels and stoves free of charge

  15. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  16. Gas and coal competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Despite its many assets, a confluence of factors - including flat electricity demand, rising use of renewable energy sources, falling wholesale electricity market prices, high gas prices relative to coal and low CO 2 prices - has eroded the competitiveness of natural gas in the EU power sector. The share of natural gas in the EU electricity mix has decreased from 23% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2012. By contrast, coal-fired power stations have been operating at high loads, increasing coal demand by the sector. This thorough analysis by CEDIGAZ of gas, coal and CO 2 dynamics in the context of rising renewables is indispensable to understand what is at stake in the EU power sector and how it will affect future European gas demand. Main findings of the report: - Coal is likely to retain its cost advantage into the coming decade: The relationship between coal, gas and CO 2 prices is a key determinant of the competition between gas and coal in the power sector and will remain the main driver of fuel switching. A supply glut on the international coal market (partly because of an inflow of US coal displaced by shale gas) has led to a sharp decline in coal prices while gas prices, still linked to oil prices to a significant degree, have increased by 42% since 2010. At the same time, CO 2 prices have collapsed, reinforcing coal competitiveness. Our analysis of future trends in coal, gas and CO 2 prices suggests that coal competitive advantage may well persist into the coming decade. - But coal renaissance may still be short-lived: Regulations on emissions of local pollutants, i.e. the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) and the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) that will succeed it in 2016, will lead to the retirement of old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the rapid development of renewables, which so far had only impacted gas-fired power plants is starting to take its toll on hard coal plants' profitability. This trend is reinforced by regulation at EU or

  17. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  18. Coal quality monitoring at Whitewood Operations coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.C. [Fording Coal Limited, Wabamun, AB (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    The development of a Live Stockpile model to simulate the stacking and draw down features of a stockpile at the Wabamun power plant in Alberta, Canada is described. The model is used as an inventory management tool to optimize quality of fuel fed to the plant and to improve power generation and plant efficiency. Background of the Wabamun power plant and the associated Whitewood mine, programme objectives and development, critical limitations, results of the coal quality management programme, and recent improvements that include commissioning of an on-line ash and moisture analyzer are described. 6 figs.

  19. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  20. Fuel supply investment cost: coal and nuclear. Commercial electric power cost studies (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This study presents an accounting model for calculating the capital investment requirements for coal and nuclear fuel supply facilities. The study addresses mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of coal and nuclear fuels. A generic example is provided, for coal from different sources, and for nuclear fuel. The relationship of capital investment requirements to delivered prices is included in each example

  1. Coal: geology, resources and reserves. Political economy of mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, Maurice; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2014-04-01

    A first article indicates the different types of coal (lignite, coking coal, thermal coal) and their calorific power. The author discusses the geology and genesis of coal, and then evokes the various extraction techniques. He comments the definition used regarding resources and reserves, comments various resource assessments, and discusses the future evolution of resources and reserves. He comments the consequences of coal geology for perspectives and costs of production. The second article comments the strong increase of World coal consumption since 1980 (a table is given with data for each continent), outlines that thermoelectricity is the engine of coal demand, that extraction costs and transport costs remained limited (when extraction costs become too high, the mining site is generally closed). The author comments the development of international trade on very competitive markets, and outlines that national coal policies are much different among countries

  2. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Payne, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  3. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns

  4. Effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index of Western Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B.; Zhang, D.K.; Yan, H.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box 1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Brooke, R.J. [Wesfarmers Premier Coal Limited, P.O. Box 21, Premier Road, Collie, Western Australia 6225 (Australia)

    2003-04-15

    Investigations into the effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) were carried out on Collie coal of Western Australia. Experiments were conducted in a standard Hardgrove apparatus on four individual Premier seam coals (namely P2, P3, P4 and Hebe) and several blends (namely Hebe/P2, Hebe/P3, Hebe/P4, Hebe/P2/P4) prepared at various blending ratios. The experiments comprised of 5 days of air-drying followed by oven drying. Among the coal seams tested, Hebe showed the highest HGI (58) whereas P4 was the lowest (47). HGI was found to correlate well with residual moisture, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 depending on the type of coal seam or blend. In contrast, moisture measurements on the samples loaded into the HGI apparatus (size 0.600 to 1.180 mm), referred to as the 'coarse fraction' showed erratic trends with HGI. The experimental results suggest that no relationship exist between the coarse fraction moisture and HGI. Measured HGI values of binary and ternary blends were found to correspond well with the weighted average values of HGI within {+-}2 HGI units. This effect was confirmed by a further investigation with a range of 11 binary (P3/Hebe) blends of various proportions.

  5. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoko, E.; McLellan, B.; Dicks, A.L.; da Costa, J.C. Diniz

    2006-01-01

    Although coal may be viewed as a dirty fuel due to its high greenhouse emissions when combusted, a strong case can be made for coal to be a major world source of clean H 2 energy. Apart from the fact that resources of coal will outlast oil and natural gas by centuries, there is a shift towards developing environmentally benign coal technologies, which can lead to high energy conversion efficiencies and low air pollution emissions as compared to conventional coal fired power generation plant. There are currently several world research and industrial development projects in the areas of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) systems. In such systems, there is a need to integrate complex unit operations including gasifiers, gas separation and cleaning units, water gas shift reactors, turbines, heat exchangers, steam generators and fuel cells. IGFC systems tested in the USA, Europe and Japan employing gasifiers (Texaco, Lurgi and Eagle) and fuel cells have resulted in energy conversions at efficiency of 47.5% (HHV) which is much higher than the 30-35% efficiency of conventional coal fired power generation. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are the front runners in energy production from coal gases. These fuel cells can operate at high temperatures and are robust to gas poisoning impurities. IGCC and IGFC technologies are expensive and currently economically uncompetitive as compared to established and mature power generation technology. However, further efficiency and technology improvements coupled with world pressures on limitation of greenhouse gases and other gaseous pollutants could make IGCC/IGFC technically and economically viable for hydrogen production and utilisation in clean and environmentally benign energy systems. (author)

  6. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  7. Mill performance of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett; G. O' Brien; D. Holcombe [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends for use as pulverised fuel (PF) in power plants and pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of the component coals. The size distribution of the organic matter impacts on combustibility of thermal and PCI coal blends and handleability of PCI coal blends. Petrography techniques were used to examine four size fractions from the PF of single coals and blends to measure the size distribution of maceral groups. For most coals, a good estimate of a blend's size distribution can be made assuming that the size distribution of the individual coals, milled under the same conditions, are added together in the proportions of the blend. The exception is when a very soft coal (HGI 90) is blended with a very hard coal (HGI 35). In this case preferential milling (more reporting to the smaller size fractions) of the softer coal occurred. All coals studied in this project show some sign of preferential grinding of the softer maceral group when the coal was milled individually or in a blend. It is only when there is a large difference in the relative strength of the maceral groups of the coals blended that the preferential milling of a coal in a blend is observed in the size distribution of the blend. The results indicate that the breakage characteristics (change in size reduction per unit of energy) of maceral groups in individual coals do not change when they are blended with other coals. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  9. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force

  10. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  11. Coal processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  12. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  13. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  14. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Genderen, J.L.; Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Van Veen, B.; Liding, Chen; Tao, Tang Xiao; Feng, Guan

    2000-07-01

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  15. Early-age characteristics of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Henghu; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jixiu

    2009-08-15

    This experimental research was to investigate the possibility of incorporating red mud and coal gangue as raw materials for the production of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material, abbreviated as RGC, including analyses of its chemical composition, physical properties, mechanical properties and hydration products. The red mud and coal gangue (at a ratio of 3:2) were mixed together and shaped in small spheres with a water to solid ratio of 0.30 and then calcined at 600 degrees C for 2h. Subsequently, the RGC was prepared by blending 50% the resultant red mud-coal gangue mixtures, 24% blast-furnace slag, 20% clinker and 6% gypsum. The hydration products of RGC were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM-EDS. The results showed that it is feasible to use red mud and coal gangue to replace up to 50% of the raw materials to produce cementitious material, which can be called as silica-alumina based cementitious material. The hydration products of RGC are mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel. As the dominant products, C-S-H gel and ettringite are principally responsible for the strength development of RGC in early hydration process. The content of Ca(OH)(2) initially increased but later was depleted after reaching the peak value at 21 days. Moreover, it is found that the composition of the C-S-H gel shifted towards higher Si, Al and Na contents with the increase of hydration age, whereas that of Ca shifted towards lower content.

  16. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  17. Exchange of experience: sieve analyses of coal and coal paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-02-01

    This report consisted of a cover letter (now largely illegible) and a graph. The graph showed percentages of material left behind as residue on sieves of various mesh sizes, graphed against the mesh sizes themselves. The materials for which data were shown were both dry coal and coal paste from Ludwigshafen, Scholven, Gelsenberg, and Poelitz. The dry coal from Poelitz seemed to be by far the least finely-ground, but the coal paste from Poelitz seemed to be the most finely-ground. The values for coal paste from the other three plants were very close together over most of the range of mesh sizes. The dry coal from Gelsenberg seemed to be the most finely-ground dry coal, while the dry coals from Scholven and Ludwigshafen gave similar values over most of the range of mesh sizes. In all cases, the coal paste from a plant was more finely-ground than the dry coal from the same plant, but for Gelsenberg, the difference between the two was not nearly as great as it was for the other plants, especially Poelitz. For example, for a sieve with about 3,600 cells per square centimeter, only about 10% of the Poelitz coal paste was retained versus about 85% of the Poelitz dry coal retained, whereas the corresponding figures for Gelsenberg materials were about 36% versus about 53%.

  18. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  19. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  20. Analysis of ecological environment impact of coal exploitation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliu; Luo, Hong; Lv, Lianhong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Baoshi

    2018-02-01

    Based on the theory of life cycle assessment, the ecological and environmental impacts of coal mining, processing, utilization and transportation will be analyzed, with analysing the status of china’s coal exploitation and utilization as the basis, it will find out the ecological and environmental impact in the development and utilization of coal, mainly consist of ecological impact including land damage, water resource destructionand biodiversity loss, etc., while the environmental impact include air, water, solid waste pollutions. Finally with a summary of the ecological and environmental problems, to propose solutionsand countermeasures to promote the rational development and consumption of coal, as well as to reduce the impact of coal production and consumption on the ecological environment, finally to achieve the coordinated development of energy and the environment.