WorldWideScience

Sample records for include coal gasification

  1. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  2. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  3. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  4. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  5. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  6. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  7. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  8. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  9. Clean Coal and Gasification Technology: How it Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is the oldest method for the production of hydrogen. Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to produce chemicals, fertilizers, and/or the electric power [1]. Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury, solid wastes, and wastewater.Due to its high efficiencies, gasification also uses less coal to produce the same amount of energy, resulting in lower carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Some scientists believe that CO2 in the atmosphere contributes to a "greenhouse effect" that will lead to the global warming. Coal gasification has a proven technology for capturing CO2 at a fraction of the cost required for coal combustion technologies.

  10. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  11. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  12. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  13. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  14. Coal gasification fluidized bed (Winkler gasification) under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwer, J.; Boegner, F.

    1976-01-01

    Due to the 'oil crisis', the gasification of lignite and coal for the production of fuel and synthetic gas has reached increased importance. The present state of the Winkler gasification which has successfully operated for a long time is described. After the basic design of a Winkler gasification plant, the various chemical engineering problems are shown: the design characteristics of a fluidized bed, the reaction kinetics, the dependance of the products on the gasification pressure, and the economics of the process. Finally, the development trend in the USA and the future possibility of heating by nuclear heat is dealt with. (orig.) [de

  15. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  16. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  17. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  18. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  19. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  20. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas(trademark) technology (E-Gas(trademark) is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas(trademark) process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T.; Raghavan, V.; Ajilkumar, A.; Vijay Kumar, K.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is by far the most commonly employed fuel for electrical power generation around the world. While combustion could be the route for coal utilization for high grade coals, gasification becomes the preferred process for low grade coals having higher composition of volatiles or ash. Indian coals suffer from high ash content-nearly 50% by weight in some cases. Instead of transporting such high ash coals, it is more energy efficient to gasify the coal and transport the product syngas. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants and Underground Gasification of coal have become attractive technologies for the best utilization of high ash coals. Gasification could be achieved in fixed beds, fluidized beds and entrained beds; faster rates of gasification are possible in fluidized beds and entrained flow systems, because of the small particle sizes and higher gas velocities. The media employed for gasification could involve air/oxygen and steam. Use of oxygen will yield relatively higher calorific value syngas because of the absence of nitrogen. Sequestration of the carbon dioxide after the combustion of the syngas is also easier, if oxygen is used for gasification. Addition of steam can increase hydrogen yield in the syngas and thereby increase the calorific value also. Gasification in the presence of suitable catalysts can increase the composition of methane in the product gas. Several competing heterogenous and homogenous reactions occur during coal major heterogenous reaction pathways, while interactions between carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide result in several simultaneous gas-phase (homogenous) reactions. The overall product composition of the coal gasification process depends on the input reactant composition, particle size and type of gasifier, and pressure and temperature of the gasifier. The use of catalysts can also selectively change the product composition. At IIT Madras, over the last one decade, both

  2. Treatment of coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1987-03-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed bioreactor was operated for over 4 months to characterize the biooxidation of major organic pollutants in coal gasification wastewater obtained from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Monohydric phenol was degraded first, followed by more complex phenolics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Organic components were assayed by methylene chloride extraction followed by gas chromatography. Genetic capability for degradation of naphthalene by the biofilm was identified by gene probe analysis. Further studies were conducted to determine if the existing biofilm could be enhanced for naphthalene degradation by supplemental inoculation with a microbial culture having good naphthalene-degrading capabilities. The biofilm response was monitored using gene probe techniques. An assessment of wastewater treatment technologies for coal conversion wastewaters was initiated. A bibliography was compiled, arrangements were initiated to collaborate with other investigators doing wastewater treatability studies, and a site visit was made to the Great Plains plant. 201 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available -going investigation into one potential Clean Coal Technology (CCT), namely fluidised bed gasification. Coal gasification holds the potential benefits of increased efficiency, reduced water consumption and co-production of liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals...

  4. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. New projects for CCGTs with coal gasification (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovskii, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW.

  6. Localized interaction between coal-included minerals and Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents during the high-pressure steam coal gasification (HyPr-RING) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, K.; Ohtomo, K.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Shibano, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hatano, H.; Yamada, O.; Shi-Ying, L.; Harada, M.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-12-08

    Pulverized Japanese bituminous coal (Taiheiyo coal) samples with diameter ranges of 38-75 {mu}m and 180-250 {mu}m were gasified with high-pressure steam in the presence of Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents. The experiments were carried out at 873 and 973 K and at holding times ranging from 0 to 120 min using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor, and the solid-solid reaction between the Ca-based sorbents and the coal-included minerals during the steam gasification was investigated. Local scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the solid residues obtained under different conditions showed that some constituents of the coal-included minerals, such as Si and Al, were contained in the sorbent particles. The solid-solid interaction between the Ca-based sorbents and coal-included minerals became significant at the higher temperature and at longer holding periods. This interaction will locally decrease the CO{sub 2} sorption ability of the sorbents. However, when a holding time of less than 10 min was employed, the solid-solid reaction between the minerals and the sorbents was suppressed, even at 973 K, because the rate of formation of inorganic compounds through solid-solid reaction was low. In this case, our target carbon conversion (about 50%) was attainable, owing to the devolatilization during the heating period. Our results indicate that the holding time of the feedstock in the reactor should be shortened to avoid deactivation of the Ca-based sorbents during high-pressure steam gasification.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers......This work deals with the gasification of coal and heavy oil for syngas production using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Gasification which includes complex physical and chemical processes such as turbulence, multiphase flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions has been modeled using...... dioxide is overestimated. The deviation is fairly small, particularly for the improved chemical kinetics scheme. The heavy oil gasification model has been validated for a pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier operating under different oxygen ratios. A gasification model similar to that developed for coal...

  9. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  10. Gasification behavior of coal and woody biomass: Validation and parametrical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemi, Idowu; Janajreh, Isam; Arink, Thomas; Ghenai, Chaouki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental diagnostics of entrained flow gasification. • Obtain the effect of gasification of Kentucky coal and wood waste. • Obtain the effect of equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. • Kentucky coal produced higher gasification efficiency as compared to wood. • The gasification efficiency most sensitive to equivalence ratio. - Abstract: The entrained flow gasification of two feedstocks (Kentucky coal and woody biomass) have been investigated in this study both numerically and experimentally. Previously, there had been no study that investigated the centerline parameters during the experimental gasification of Kentucky coal and biomass utilizing drop tube reactor (DTR). These high quality centerline experiments provide enough data for high fidelity model development and used for an innovative gasifier design. This work investigates the gasification behavior of Kentucky coal and wood waste under different gasification parameters including equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. The experimental study was conducted in the air-blown atmospheric DTR experimental facility at the Waste-2-Energy Laboratory at Masdar Institute. The measured centerline temperature, exit gas composition, and SEM images was obtained for model validation and to gain better insight into the gasification of the two different feedstock particles. The Lagrangian–Eulerian based numerical model predicted the experimental results reasonably. The effect of the fuel type on the gas composition along the centerline of the gasifier indicated that Kentucky coal attained higher gasification efficiency when compared to that of wood waste. Moreover, the gasification efficiency was most sensitive to the equivalence ratio.

  11. Development of coal hydro gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Nomura, Kazuo; Asaoka, Yoshikiyo; Kato, Shojiro; Seo, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    Taking a potential future decrease in natural gas supply into consideration, we are looking for a way to secure a stable supply of high quality substitute natural gas made from coal (which occurs abundantly throughout the world) in large volumes at low cost. We are working towards our goal of commercializing coal hydro gasification technology in the 2010's and have started developing elemental technology from FY, 1996 as a part of the governmental new energy program. (au)

  12. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  13. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Drilling in Underground Coal Gasification with Coiled Tubing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blišťanová

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification is the potential to provide a clean, efficient and convenient source of energy from coal seams where traditional mining methods are either impossible or uneconomical. The latest drilling technology – drilling directional injection well with down well assembly. The is used world- wide from 1990 injection well is transmitting the coal seam along its location. The coil – tubing equipment transport the gasification agents (oxygen and water into the coal cavity, where give out gasification.

  15. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  16. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  17. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2017-12-18

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  19. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-01-01

    In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG–) is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national G...

  1. Drilling in Underground Coal Gasification with Coiled Tubing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Blišťanová; Lucia Sciranková

    2006-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is the potential to provide a clean, efficient and convenient source of energy from coal seams where traditional mining methods are either impossible or uneconomical. The latest drilling technology – drilling directional injection well with down well assembly. The is used world- wide from 1990 injection well is transmitting the coal seam along its location. The coil – tubing equipment transport the gasification agents (oxygen and water) into the coal cavity, wher...

  2. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  3. Purification processes for coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.; Primack, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is apparent from the discussion that many routes can be taken to achieve acid-gas removal and sulfur recovery from coal gas. The selection of the optimum purification system is a major task. The type of coal, type of gasifier and the upstream processing all strongly influence the selection. Several generalizations can be made: (1) The cost of the purification sections of a high-Btu gas plant is significant--perhaps 10 to 30% of the capital cost of the coal conversion facility. (2) The cost of purifying gas produced from high-sulfur coal feed is more expensive than the cost for purifying gas produced from low-sulfur coal. (3) The choice of an acid-gas removal system will often be a function of system pressure. The economical choice will usually be: (a) amine-based systems at atmospheric pressure; (b) hot-carbonate systems at moderate pressure or (c) physical-solvent systems at higher pressure. (4) For a high-Btu, high-sulfur case: (a) A selective acid-gas removal system with a Claus plant is probably more economical than a non-selective acid-gas system with liquid oxidation of the H/sub 2/S in the regenerator off-gas. (b) Even moderately selective systems can produce an H/sub 2/S-rich gas suitable for a Claus plant. The CO/sub 2/-rich gas may or may not require further sulfur removal, depending on the selectivity. (5) For a high-Btu, low-sulfur case: (a) The hot carbonate and tertiary amine systems may not be sufficiently selective to produce a gas suitable for feed to a Claus process while a physical solvent system may be. Therefore, the physical solvent system may be expected to be more economical. (b) The regenerated gas from the bulk CO/sub 2/ removal system following a selective physical solvent system may require further sulfur removal, depending upon the sulfur level in the initial feedstock and the selectivity of the system selected.

  4. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  5. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  6. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  7. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Technological innovations on underground coal gasification and CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Gama, Carlos D; Navarro T, Vidal; Falcao N, Ana P

    2010-01-01

    A brief description of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process, combined with the possibility of CO 2 sequestration, is presented. Although nowadays there are very few active industrial UCG plants, a number of new projects are under way in different parts of the world aimed to produce regular gas fuel derived from in situ coal combustion, despite the environmental advantages resulting from this process. A brief review of those projects is included. The possibility of underground CO 2 storage, either with or without simultaneous UCG, is analyzed by taking into consideration the main challenges of its application and the risks associated with integrated solutions, thus requiring innovative solutions.

  9. The study on coal gasification process with high ash fusion temperature coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobusuke Kobayashi; Miku Tanaka; Piao Gulin; Jun Kobayashi; Shigenobu Hatano; Yoshinori Itaya; Shigekatsu Mori [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Coal gasification experiment was conducted with high ash fusion temperature coal in an entrained flow gasifier to evaluate the dry-ash removal process. In the conventional entrained type coal gasification process, coal ash was removed as the molten slag at the bottom of gasifier. Therefore, comparatively low fusion ash temperature coal was usually used in these gasification processes. However, it is very important to use the high ash fusion temperature coal in the coal gasification process in the near future to achieve the high power generation efficiency. Form these reasons, new gasification process with high ash fusion temperature was proposed and gasification experiment was conducted. In the proposed process, the ash was removed without melting. Therefore, the gasification condition on each coal characteristics was very important. In this study, the gasification experiment with different operation condition, such as O{sub 2}/Coal, was conducted with two different types of coal. To evaluate the gasification performance and ash behavior, produced gas composition was measured and recovered ash after the gasification experiment was analyzed. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  11. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... with steam/carbon ratio of 5, the syngas components are similar with that in equilibrium. A synergistic effect exists between coal and bio-oil in coal/bio-oil slurry gasification which might be caused by the catalysis effect of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in bio-oil....

  14. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  15. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  16. Sensing underground coal gasification by ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the results of research on the applicability of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for remote sensing and monitoring of the underground coal gasification (UCG) processes. The gasification of coal in a bed entails various technological problems and poses risks to the environment. Therefore, in parallel with research on coal gasification technologies, it is necessary to develop techniques for remote sensing of the process environment. One such technique may be the radar method, which allows imaging of regions of mass loss (voids, fissures) in coal during and after carrying out a gasification process in the bed. The paper describes two research experiments. The first one was carried out on a large-scale model constructed on the surface. It simulated a coal seam in natural geological conditions. A second experiment was performed in a shallow coal deposit maintained in a disused mine and kept accessible for research purposes. Tests performed in the laboratory and in situ conditions showed that the method provides valuable data for assessing and monitoring gasification surfaces in the UCG processes. The advantage of the GPR method is its high resolution and the possibility of determining the spatial shape of various zones and forms created in the coal by the gasification process.

  17. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  18. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  19. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  20. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  1. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  2. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  3. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  4. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  5. Underground coal gasification : a promising alternative for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.P.; Singh, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) offers a potentially economic means of extracting energy content of coals which currently cannot be recovered through conventional mining technique with least environmental pollution. The status of UCG technology and its technical and economic feasibility in the Indian context for commercial utilisation are discussed. (author). 3 refs

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  7. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygourakis, K.

    1992-02-10

    The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

  8. Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

  9. APPRAISAL OF THE POPULATION THREAT RISK BY CARBON LEAKAGE PRODUCED BY UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Šofranko, Marian; Škvareková, Erika; Laciak, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The UCG /underground coal gasification/ technology could increase energy production resulting in improving the economic situation. Even if the risk of accidents may occur in the both coal gasification and underground mining, the other parameters suggest that the coal gasification method is much safer that the underground mining.

  10. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  11. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  12. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  13. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  14. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    concerns about climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is being considered as a promising carbon mitigation technology, especially for large point sources such as coal power plants. Gasification of coal helps in better utilization of this resource offering multiple advantages such as pollution prevention, product flexibility (syngas and hydrogen) and higher efficiency (combined cycle). It also enables the capture of CO2 prior to the combustion, from the fuel gas mixture, at relatively lesser cost as compared to the post-combustion CO2 capture. CCS in gasification projects is considered as a promising technology for cost-effective carbon mitigation. Although many projects (power and non-power) have been announced internationally, very few large-scale projects have actually come up. This paper looks at the various aspects of CCS applications in gasification projects, including the technical feasibility and economic viability and discusses an Indian perspective. Impacts of including CCS in gasification projects (e.g. IGCC plants) have been assessed using a simulation tool. Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) - a modelling framework to simulate power plants - has been used to estimate the implications of adding CCS units in IGCC plants, on their performance and costs.

  15. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  16. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  17. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  18. Characterisation of coal and chars in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available gasification of high-ash Chinese coal in a pilot plant. The data also shows that the mean particle sizes of the various residual char were smaller than the feed coal and the particle size of the bed char were higher than the particle of the cyclone char... and ultimate analysis Results consisting of proximate and ultimate analyses together calorific value of the parent coals and chars are presented in Table 4. The ash content of the different coal samples ranges from 33.4- 40.4 wt %, the calorific value...

  19. Exergoeconomical analysis of coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avgousti, A.; Knoche, K.F.; Poptodorov, H.; Hesselmann, K.; Roth, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on combined cycle power plants with integrated coal gasification for a better utilization of primary energy sources which gained more and more importance. The established coal gasification technology offers various possibilities e.g. the TEXACO or the PRENFLO method. Recommendation for processes with these gasification methods will be evaluated energetically and exergetically. The pure thermodynamical analysis is at a considerable disadvantage in that the economical consequences of certain process improvement measures are not subjected to investigation. The connection of the exergetical with the economical evaluation will be realized in a way suggested as exergoeconomical analysis. This consideration of the reciprocal influencing of the exergy destruction and the capital depending costs is resulting in an optimization of the process and a minimization of the product costs

  20. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bassani; Giula Bozzano; Carlo Pirola; Caterina Frau; Alberto Pettinau; Enrico Maggio; Eliseo Ranzi; Flavio Manenti

    2018-01-01

    In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in t...

  1. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  2. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  4. Characteristics of Malaysian coals with their pyrolysis and gasification behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fadzilah Othman; Mohd Hariffin Bosrooh; Kamsani Abdul Majid

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted since comprehensive study on the gasification behaviour of Malaysian coals is still lacking. Coals were characterised using heating value determination, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and ash analysis. Pyrolysis process was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. While, atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the gasification behaviour. Three Malaysian coals, Merit Pila, Mukah Balingian, Silantek; and Australian coal, Hunter Valley coals were used in this study. Thermal degradation of four coal samples were performed, which involved weight loss profile and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The kinetic parameters, such as maximum reactivity value, R max , Activation Energy, E a and Arrhenius constant, ln R o for each coal were determined using Arrhenius Equation. Merit Pila coal shows the highest maximum reactivity among other Malaysian coals. E a is the highest for Merit Pila coal (166.81kJmol -1 ) followed with Mukah Balingian (101.15 kJmol -1 ), Hunter Valley (96.45 kJmol -1 ) and Silantek (75.23 kJmol -1 ) coals. This finding indicates direct correlation of lower rank coal with higher E a . Merit Pila coal was studied in detail using atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Different variables such as equivalence ratio (ER) and gasifying agents were used. The highest H 2 proportion (38.3 mol.%) in the producer gas was reached at 715 degree Celsius and ER=0.277 where the maximization of LHV pg (5.56 MJ/Nm 3 ) was also detected. ER and addition of steam had shown significant contributions to the producer gas compositions and LHV pg . (author)

  5. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  7. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million

  8. Energy analysis of technological systems of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K.; Szczerbowski, R. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper presents the energy analysis of technological systems of combined cycle power plants integrated with coal gasification. The mathematical model of the coal gasification process allows to calculate the composition and physical properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification. The paper presents an energy analysis of various technological systems of the gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification, based on energy and mass balances of gas generator, gas cooler, combustion chamber of gas turbine, gas turbine, steam generator, and steam turbine. The paper contains the following results of calculations: properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification, energy parameters of particular devices of power plants, total electric power, and efficiency of electric energy generation in the gas-steam power plants. The conclusions compare the efficiencies of electric energy generation in various technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification. 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  9. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  10. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  11. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  12. Scrubbing King Coal's dirty face : a new gasification project southeast of Edmonton hopes to make coal cleaner now and for future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-15

    This article described the proposed Dodds-Roundhill Coal Gasification Project. This first commercial coal gasification plant in Canada will be developed by Edmonton-based Sherritt International Corporation, in a 50/50 partnership with the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan. The project will include a surface coal mine and a coal gasification facility located approximately 80 km southeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Coal gasification is emerging as a clean alternative for converting coal into energy products. It involves the gasification process which breaks down coal to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, collectively known as synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can then be used for fuel, as a petrochemical feedstock, or it can be further processed into hydrogen for use by bitumen upgraders and crude oil refineries in Alberta. Carbon dioxide, which is highly concentrated are relatively easy to capture will be either sequestered or used in enhanced oil recovery. Construction will begin in mid-2009 following project application and an environmental impact assessment. 3 figs.

  13. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  14. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  15. Energy-recuperative coal-integrated gasification/gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchonthara, P.; Tsutsumi, A. [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2006-05-15

    Coal-integrated gasification/gas turbine (CIG/GT) based power plants are well known for achieving electricity more efficient and at a lower cost than direct combustion based power plants. Since the gasification is an endothermic, thermochemical conversion process, it requires heat to proceed. In general, this heat is furnished by internal combustion taking place in the gasifier by virtue of oxygen-blown or air-blown gasification. However, the direct combustion of the solid fuel is seen to be inefficient because of the large amount of exergy destruction posed during the combustion, especially at relatively low temperatures like gasification temperatures. This causes the overall performance deterioration of the CIG/GT system. Therefore, a decrease in the destruction of exergy during the combustion can contribute to improve overall system efficiency. In this paper, an innovative concept of energy-recuperative gasification was proposed and incorporated in the CIG/GT system. The idea is to make use of the waste heat from the gas turbine exhaust as the reaction heat for the gasification instead of the internal combustion. This type of energy recuperation is also called thermochemical recuperation. In addition, the proposed CIG/GT incorporates other effective energy recuperation, including heat and steam recuperation, in order to maximize the generation efficiency. The feasibility of the concept implementation and the system improvement were preliminarily examined and discussed.

  16. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  17. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  18. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H 2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98 percent conversion of water and coal at only 1500 0 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H 2 O to CO 2 and H 2 . Furthermore, it is shown the H 2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23 percent greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H 2 , fresh water and sea salts from coal

  19. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  20. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  1. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  2. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Salam, L.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed is observed through thermocouples mounted at various radial and axial locations. Product gas compositions are also monitored as a function of time. Results of gasification runs using Wyoming coal are included in this report. In parallel with the experimental study, a two-dimensional model of moving bed gasifiers was developed, coded into a computer program and tested. This model was used to study the laboratory gasifier by setting the coal feed rate equal to zero. The model is based on prior work on steady state and dynamic modeling done at Washington University and published elsewhere in the literature. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results. These are also included in this report. 23 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per mass of dry ash free coal (DAF)), and oxygen consumption per volume of pure gas produced. The actual measured conditions during each test gasifier run deviated slightly from the experimentally planned conditions. Therefore, depending on which variable is classified as the controllable variable, measured process ...

  5. Analysis of green liquor influence on coal steam gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a clean and efficient technology with a long history dating up to the 19th century. The possible application of this process ranges from gas production and chemical synthesis to the energy sector and therefore this technology holds noticeable potential for future applications. In order to advance it, a new efficient approaches for this complex process are necessary. Among possible methods, a process enhancing additives, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals seems to be a promising way of achieving such a goal, but in practice might turn to be a wasteful approach for metal economy, especially in large scale production. This paper shows alkali abundant waste material that are green liquor dregs as a viable substitute. Green liquor dregs is a waste material known for its low potential as a fuel, when used separately, due to its low organic content, but its high ash content that is also abundant in alkali and alkaline earth elements seems to make it a suitable candidate for application in coal gasification processes. The aim of this work is an evaluation of the suitability of green liquor waste to work as a potential process enhancing additive for coal steam gasification process. During the experiment, three blends of hard coal and green liquor dregs were selected, with consideration for low corrosive potential and possibly high catalytic activity. The mixtures were gasified in steam under four different temperatures. Their energies syngas yield, coal conversion degree and energies of activation were calculated with use of Random Pore Model (RPM and Grain Model (GM which allowed for their comparison.

  6. Mathematical Modelling of the Fixed-Bed Biomass-Coal Co-Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers mathematical modelling of downdraft fixed-bed gasification process of the mixtures of woody biomass and coal. Biomass/coal ratio, biomass moisture content and air equivalence ratio are varying parameters. Boundaries of the efficient gasification regimes are estimated.

  7. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  8. Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

  9. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temporal release of Se from coal combustion and gasification was measured. • Kinetic laws for Se release from coal combustion and gasification were determined. • The influences of temperature and chemical composition of flue gas were clarified. • The interactions of Se species with mineral affect the release kinetics of Se. - Abstract: The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x) = 0.94e −26.58/RT (−0.56 x 2 −0.51 x + 1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x) = 11.96e −45.03/RT (−0.53 x 2 −0.56 x + 1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  10. Modeling of Contaminant Migration through Porous Media after Underground Coal Gasification in Shallow Coal Seam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Čapek, P.; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, DEC (2015), s. 188-197 ISSN 0378-3820 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * transport phenomena modeling * transport parameters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2015

  11. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  12. Final Report: Technoeconomic Evaluation of UndergroundCoal Gasification (UCG) for Power Generationand Synthetic Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This report concerns the technoeconomics of using Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) for power generation and for production of synthetic natural gas. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was retained under the Work for Others Agreement L-13208 for ExxonMobil Upstream Research Laboratoryi to investigate the economics of using UCG for feedstock supply for these two scenarios. The scope included conceptual designs, mass balances, and capital & operating cost estimates.

  13. Using Mathematica software for coal gasification simulations – Selected kinetic model application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Iwaszenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal gasification is recognized as a one of promising Clean Coal Technologies. As the process itself is complicated and technologically demanding, it is subject of many research. In the paper a problem of using volumetric, non-reactive core and Johnson model for coal gasification and underground coal gasification is considered. The usage of Mathematica software for models' equations solving and analysis is presented. Coal parameters were estimated for five Polish mines: Piast, Ziemowit, Janina, Szczygłowice and Bobrek. For each coal the models' parameters were determined. The determination of parameters was based on reactivity assessment for 50% char conversion. The calculations show relatively small differences between conversion predicted by volumetric and non reactive core model. More significant differences were observed for Johnson model, but they do not exceeded 10% for final char conversion. The conceptual model for underground coal gasification was presented.

  14. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  16. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  17. Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

  18. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - IFSA 2008

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand in South Africa is increasing at a rate of 1000 MW per year. Whilst there is increasing pressure to adopt non-fossil fuel electricity generating technologies, the abundant reserves and low cost of coal make it the preferred energy...

  19. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  20. Integrated gasification combined cycle versus supercritical pulverized coal for power generation from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants provide potential performance, environmental, and fuel flexibility advantages over more conventional combustion technologies such as Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) plants. Projected pollutant emissions from IGCC plants are the lowest of all coal power generation technologies. Mercury and carbon dioxide emissions reductions can be achieved at a much lower cost for IGCC plants than for conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Future IGCC developments, such as improvements in process technologies and development of larger, more efficient combustion turbines, offer the potential to further increase the competitiveness and performance of IGCC. For these reasons, IGCC is likely to evolve as the future technology of choice for generation of electricity from coal. An overview is presented of the components of an IGCC plant, along with a discussion of integration options and commercial status. IGCC plant performance and economics are compared against SCPC power generation for Chinese coals. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  2. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  3. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  4. Numerical investigation on performance of coal gasification under various injection patterns in an entrained flow gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I.; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A numerical method is developed to predict coal gasification phenomena. ► Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of injection pattern upon syngas production. ► The parameter of steam/coal ratio is also taken into account. ► The appropriate injection for the performance of coal gasification is suggested. ► The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the operation of coal gasification. -- Abstract: Gasification plays an important role in the development of clean coal technology. To seek appropriate operations for synthesis gas (syngas) formation, the present study develops a numerical method to predict coal gasification phenomena in an entrained-flow gasifier. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of injection pattern upon syngas production. The parameter of steam/coal ratio is also taken into account to evaluate its impact on hydrogen generation. The simulations suggest that the developed numerical method is able to provide an accurate prediction on syngas formation. With oxygen injected from the center inlet and coal from the middle ring inlet of the reactor, the operating pattern gives the best performance of coal gasification where the carbon conversion (CC) and coal gas efficiency (CGE) are 89% and 72%, respectively. Increasing steam into the reactor reduces CC and less CO is generated. Nevertheless, more H 2 is produced stemming from water gas shift reaction. This results in slight variation in CGE with altering steam/coal ratio. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the operation of fuel and oxidant injection for coal gasification.

  5. Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

    2009-10-05

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships

  6. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

  7. Acid-gas removal systems in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    A large number of acid-gas removal systems exist or are under development for the removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ from process gas streams. A few systems have been applied to coal conversion processes; others will require extrapolation of presently-proved commercial operation. The feed to the acid-gas removal system for the generic coal-to-ammonia facility is not well-defined; particularly for minor and trace constituents. This is particularly true in the case of newer gasification processes that may have significant economic advantages in the overall process when evaluated on a total systems analysis approach. A number of species that could be present in the gas fed to the acid-gas removal system are discussed; the design of that subprocess should consider the fate of these species from both an environmental and an economic standpoint. In an overall evaluation, it appears that acid-gas removal systems can be successfully applied in coal conversion; no technical obstacle has yet been discovered to restrict their application.

  8. Fluidised bed gasification of high-ash South African coals: An experimental and modelling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The gasification of two high-ash coals were studied using a pilot scale fluidised bed gasifier using oxygen enrich air and steam as the gasification agents. The results of the tests show that the fixed carbon conversion and calorific value increases...

  9. Fluidised bed gasification of South African coals – experimental results and process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available high-ash coal from the Waterberg coalfield was tested in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier at the CSIR using various gasification agents and operating conditions. The results of the tests show that when air and steam are used as the gasification agents...

  10. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  11. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  12. Investigations of gas explosions in a nuclear coal gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, K.

    1981-01-01

    The safety research program on gas cloud explosions is performed in the context of the German project of the Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat. By the work within this project, it is tried to extend the use of nuclear energy to non-electric application. The programme comprises efforts in several scientific disciplines. The final goal is to provide a representative pressure-time-function or a set of such functions. These functions should be the basis for safe design and construction of the nuclear reactor system of a coal gasification plant. No result yet achieved contradicts the assumption that released process gas is only able to deflagrate. It should be possible to demonstrate that, if unfavourable configurations are avoided, a design pressure of 300 mbar is sufficient to withstand an explosion of process gas; this pressure should never be exceeded by process gas explosions irrespective of gas mass released and distance to release point, except possibly in relatively small areas

  13. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  14. CFD simulation of coal gasification in an entrained-flow gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, V.; Hjertager, B.H.; Solberg, T.

    2010-01-01

    (water and CO being the other major constituents). The abundant availability of coal coupled with the flexibility of feedstock usage, fluctuations in natural gas prices, and increased environmental concerns make gasification an attractive alternative to conventional thermal power plant solutions...

  15. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  17. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  18. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  19. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Zaccariello; Maria Laura Mastellone

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H 2 , CO, and CO 2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV) progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm 3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Hig...

  20. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  1. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  2. Numerical simulations and correlations on the coal -conveying gas flow in pipe for fluidized -bed coal gasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan; Lee, Jin Wook; Kwon, Tae Wan; Kim, Gyoo Tae

    2014-01-01

    CFD modeling and simulation are made on the key flow elements, vertical, horizontal pipes and elbow pipes , used in the pneumatic coal -transport system of fluidized -bed gasification test facility. The coal- gas flow inside the flow elements are modeled by combining Reynolds -stress Averaged Navier- Stokes equations Solver (RANS), k- ε turbulence model and Discrete Phase Model (DPM) in the ANSYS Fluent code. Using the developed coal -gas flow analysis model, computations are carried out to investigate the gas flow path, the coal particle behavior and the pressure loss characteristics in flow element at various coal/ gas loading ratio and coal mass flux. The present prediction results show the coal -gas flow behavior of each flow element is changed from dilute -flow to dense -flow pattern at a specific coal/gas loading ratio where pressure loss is abruptly increased. From the numerical results, the present study also provides the limiting coal/gas loading conditions to secure stable coal feeding and the correlations for pressure losses in horizontal, vertical and elbow pipes, which can be suitable for the design guidelines of actual fluidized -bed coal gasification. Key words : Pneumatic Coal -Transport; Coal -Gas Flow, Dense Phase Flow; Dilute Phase Flow; Pressure Loss; Coal/Gas Loading Ratio; Correlation

  3. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  4. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  5. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  6. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  7. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  8. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  9. 3rd international conference on coal gasification and liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    The third annual international conference on ''Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: What Needs to be Done Now'' was held at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA on August 3-5, 1976. The majority of the papers dealt with coal gasification and liquefaction (often on the basis of process pilot plant experience) and on flue gas desulfurization by a variety of processes; fewer papers involved fluidized bed combustion, combined cycle power plants, coal desulfurization, government policy on environmental effects and on synthetic fuels, etc. Twenty-eight papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Hot treatment and upgrading of syngas obtained by co-gasification of coal and wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Filomena; André, Rui Neto; Carolino, Carlos; Miranda, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays there is a great interest in producing energy through co-gasification of low grade coals and waste blends to increase the use of alternative feedstocks with low prices. The experimental results showed that the viability of co-gasification to process such blends and that by the right manipulation of coal and biomass or waste blends, syngas treatment and upgrading may be simplified and the cost of the overall process may be reduced. Blends of three different coal grades (sub-bitumi...

  11. Glas generator for the steam gasification of coal with nuclear generated heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heat from a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) for the steam gasification of coal saves coal, which otherwise is burnt to generate the necessary reaction heat. The gas generator for this process, a horizontal pressure vessel, contains a fluidized bed of coal and steam. An ''immersion-heater'' type of heat exchanger introduces the nuclear generated heat to the process. Some special design problems of this gasifier are presented. Reference is made to the present state of development of the steam gasification process with heat from high temperature reactors. (author)

  12. The monitoring and control of underground coal gasification in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kačúr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of coal gasification technologies are currently available or under various stages of development. One technology “Underground coal gasification (UCG” is receiving renewed interest around the world. In this paper is provided the analysis of relevant processes during UCG. The laboratory equipment is described. Since experiments have long time response, partial automation has been realised. The structure of monitoring and control system is shown. Analysed are some results of measured data for oxidizing by air. Also, the influence of temperature on the structure of syngas is analysed. In light of the experimental results, potential performance of UCG in Slovak coal seam conditions is discussed.

  13. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  14. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes....... In Europe during World War II, wood-fueled gasifiers (or ‘gas generators’) were used to power cars during shortages of oil-based fuels. Sparked by oil price crises in 1970s and 1980s, further development in gasification technologies focused mainly on coal as a fuel to substitute for oil-based products...

  15. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  16. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  17. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potassium dichromate method of coal gasification the study of the typical organic compounds in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiankang; Qu, Guangfei; Dong, Zhanneng; Lu, Pei; Cai, Yingying; Wang, Shibo

    2017-05-01

    The national standard method is adopted in this paper the water - digestion spectrophotometry for determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), after ultrasonic processing of coal gasification water for CODCr measurement. Using the control variable method, measured in different solution pH, ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic power, reaction conditions of different initial solution concentration, the change of coal gasification water CODCr value under the action of ultrasonic, the experimental results shows that appear when measurement is allowed to fluctuate, data, in order to explain the phenomenon we adopt the combination of the high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry before and after ultrasonic coal gasification qualitative analysis on composition of organic matter in water. To raw water sample chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, combined with the spectra analysis of each peak stands for material, select coal gasification typical organic substances in water, with the method of single digestion, the equivalent CODCr values measured after digestion. Order to produce, coal gasification water contained high concentration organic wastewater, such as the national standard method is adopted to eliminate the organic material, therefore to measure the CODCr value is lower than actual CODCr value of the emergence of the phenomenon, the experiment of the effect of ultrasound [9-13] is promote the complex organic chain rupture, also explains the actual measurement data fluctuation phenomenon in the experiment.

  19. Evaluating the costs and achievable benefits of extending technologies for uneconomical coal resources in South Africa: the case of underground coal gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zieleniewski, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As the South African economy relies heavily on its coal resources, these resources should be utilised and managed in the best possible manner. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of the leading technologies used where conventional mining...

  20. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  1. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  2. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  3. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables | Coetzer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation.

  5. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  6. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  7. Hoe Creek II field experiment on underground coal gasification, preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Cena, R.; Gregg, D.W.; Stephens, D.R.

    1978-02-27

    A second in-situ coal gasification experiment was performed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Hoe Creek in Wyoming. The Linked Vertical Wells scheme for in-situ coal gasification was used. The experiment took 100 days for air flow testing, reverse combustion linking, forward combustion gasification, and post-burn steam flow. Air was used for gasification except for a 2-day test with oxygen and steam. Reverse combustion linking took 14 days at 1.6 m/day. Air requirements for linking were 0.398 Mgmol per meter of link assuming a single direct link. The coal pyrolysed during linking was 17 m/sup 3/, which corresponds to a single link 1.0 m in diameter. There was, however, strong evidence of at least two linkage paths. The detected links stayed below the 3 m level in the 7.6 coal seam; however, the product flow from the forward-burn gasification probably followed the coal-overburden interface not the reverse burn channels at the 3 m level. A total of 232 Mgmols (194 Mscf) of gas was produced with heating value above 125 kJ/mol (140 Btu/scf) for significant time periods and an average of 96 kJ/mol (108 Btu/scf). During the oxygen-steam test the heating value was above 270 kJ/gmol (300 Btu/scf) twice and averaged 235 kJ/gmol (265 Btu/scf). The coal recovery was 1310 m/sup 3/ (1950 ton). Gasification was terminated because of decreasing product quality not because of burn through. The product quality decreased because of increasing underground heat loss.

  8. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    and the feedstock quantity (i.e. coal), the pressure, the gasification and the combustion temperatures. The performance indicators included the composition and the energy content of the product gas as well as the carbon and energy efficiency achieved under each operational scenario. Different operational scenarios for every model configuration facilitated the cross-comparison among different configurations. The proximate and ultimate analysis data for the coal seams modelled were taken from a number of candidate UCG sites (Durucan et al., 2014) .The model findings were validated using the results of field trials reported in the literature. It was found that, increased gasification temperature leads to higher H2 and CO quantities in the product gas. Moreover, CH4 and CO2 concentrations increased as reaction pressure increased, while the CH4 quantity reached its highest value at the highest operational pressure, when combined with the lowest gasification temperature. The simulation models developed can be used to design and validate experimental UCG studies and offer significant advantages in terms of time and resource savings. As the UCG process consists of interrelated stages and a number of diverse phenomena, therefore, the gasification designs developed could act as the basis for an integrated UCG model tailored to the needs of a UCG pilot plant.

  9. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  10. The underground coal gasification First step of community collaboration; Gasification Subterranea del Carbon. Primer Intento en el Ambito de una Colaboracion Comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification in coal seams at 600 metre depth, in order to asses its potential as a means of energy exploitation in Europe. The trial was based on the use of deviated boreholes and a retractable injection system techniques, which have both been developed by the oil and gas industries. One borehole, the injection well, was drilled in the coal seam. The other, the vertical production well, was run to intercept it in the lower part of the coal seam as closely as possible, in order to construct a continuous channel for gasification. The well were completed with casing and concentric tubing to provide the necessary paths for production, injection, purging gas and cooling water flows. A coiled tubing located in the injection well was used to execute the retraction (or CRIP) manoeuvre, which is a process in which the injector head for the gasification agents, i. e. oxygen and water, and the ignitor, are directed to a specific section of the coal seam. The gasification products passes to a surface production line for flow measurement and sampling of gas and condensate products. Production gases were either flared or incinerated, while the liquids were collected for appropriate disposal. The first trial achieved its principal objectives of in seam drilling, channel communication, the CRIP manoeuvres and the gasification of significant quantity of coal. The post-gasification study also identified the shape and extent of the cavity. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification at the intermediate depths of European coal and proposals are made for further development and semi-commercial exploitation of this promising extraction technology. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. [Transformation of sulfur forms during coal pyrolysis and partial gasification in a fixed bed reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Jianmin; Huang, Jiejie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Fuyan

    2003-03-01

    The development of various process to the pre-desulfurization of coal was drawn more attention. In present study, the transformation of sulfur forms of three different ranks high sulfur coals during coal pyrolysis and partial gasification were investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The sulfur and carbon content analysis of original coal and coal char produced were determined by LECO SC-444 and wet chemical analysis according to Sugawara's method. The results showed that half of inorganic sulfur and partial of organic sulfur were removed during coal pyrolysis. And the sulfur removal was much more than carbon during pyrolysis process; and the sulfur in the coal char, especially the sulfide sulfur was removed completely during partial gasification process for both Datong coal and Xishan coal, the degree of sulfide sulfur removal could be increased with increasing temperature. At the same time, the results of Yima coal showed that the effect of fixed-sulfur by alkaline metals increased when the temperature was higher than 700 degrees C, which attribute to the increase of the fixed sulfur reaction rate and the decrease of mass-transfer limitation.

  12. Numerical simulation of coal gasification process using the modifying Watanabe - Otaka model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Papadopoulos; M. Losurdo; H. Spliethoff

    2009-07-01

    High-pressure entrained flow coal gasification is becoming increasingly important particularly in the development of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for the production of electricity. However, there is a lack of knowledge worldwide for the gasification process and more especially for the chemical reactions (reactions rates) that take place under high pressure and temperature. Therefore a gasifier has been designed and is being built at the Institute for Energy Systems (Lehrstuhl fuer Energisysteme - LES) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM). This gasifier is an entrained flow gasifier and has the advantage that it can operate to very high conditions of pressure and temperature, up to 50 bar pressure and 1800{sup o}C temperature. In an ongoing project, a great variety of experiments are planned to determine chemical reactions rates at high pressure conditions. In addition to the experimental work, CFD numerical simulations of pulverized coal gasification are being performed. The aim is to use numerical investigations for preliminary assessment of the facility. The goal is to develop a gasification model suitable for high pressure and condition tailored on the experiments to be used in CFD computations to predict chemical reactions, the heat transfer and the turbulence inside the gasifier. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  14. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS AND COAL CO-GASIFICATION OF BRAZILIAN FEEDSTOCK USING A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Coal and biomass are energy sources with great potential for use in Brazil. Coal-biomass co-gasification enables the combination of the positive characteristics of each fuel, besides leading to a cleaner use of coal. The present study evaluates the potential of co-gasification of binary coal-biomass blends using sources widely available in Brazil. This analysis employs computational simulations using a reliable thermodynamic equilibrium model. Favorable operational conditions at high temperatures are determined in order to obtain gaseous products suitable for energy cogeneration and chemical synthesis. This study shows that blends with biomass ratios of 5% and equivalence ratios ≤ 0.3 lead to high cold gas efficiencies. Suitable gaseous products for chemical synthesis were identified at biomass ratios ≤ 35% and moisture contents ≥ 40%. Formation of undesirable nitrogen and sulfur compounds was also analyzed.

  15. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  16. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  17. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  18. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  19. Integrated gasification combined cycle using Egyptian Maghara coal-rice straw feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, A; Ghallab, A O; Ashour, F H

    2017-06-01

    Rice straw is an agricultural waste that causes an annoying problem in Egypt if it is not well exploited. This study focuses on using this waste in power generation by co-gasification of Egyptian Maghara coal and rice straw blends using entrained flow gasifier technology. Aspen Plus was used to conduct a parametric study for investigation of the effect of changing the inputs to the gasifier on the produced gas composition. Three different input parameters, influencing the performance of the gasifier, including the percentage of coal to rice straw in the blend, the fraction of added water to the blend, and the mass percentage of oxygen with respect to the mass of the blend fed to the gasifier were analysed. Two alternative power production schemes (with and without carbon capturing) have been investigated. The obtained optimum feed conditions are: 40% coal in the feed blend, 20% water concentration in the feed slurry, and 80% oxygen with respect to the dry feed blend to the gasifier. For (10 0000 kg per hour) of the feed blend, the power generated was 270.1 MW in the case of non-carbon capturing, while in the case of carbon capturing, 263.52 MW was generated. Although it produces less power, applying carbon capturing techniques means handling less flue gas and thus using smaller gas turbines and results in more environmentally friendly emissions.

  20. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  2. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  3. Vaporization of trace element species from coal under gasification and combustion conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the chemical forms and relative abundance of trace inorganic vapor species in coal during combustion and gasification. A joint experimental and calculational program to observe the vaporization of Illinois No. 6 bituminous and Wyodak subbituminous was performed. Experimental studies were performed by Knudsen cell mass spectroscopy on samples of each coal that were ashed at low temperature by an oxygen plasma. To simulate actual coal more closely, some samples were only partially ashed to retain more of the original organic components. Vapor species were identified and their abundances measured over the temperature range 300-1700 K. In the first year of the program, vaporization from the coal ash alone was studied. Dynamic partial pressures were measured against temperature and time. Vapor species of 32 major or trace elements were identified. During the second year of the program, mass spectrometry experiments addressed the effects of added gases (O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O) on the identities and abundances of trace element vapor species. Coincident with experimental studies, trace element vaporization behavior was evaluated by Gibbs energy minimization calculations. A data base including both solution and pure condensed and gaseous components was compiled. The behavior of Wyodak coal at 1 atm total pressure was evaluated over the temperature range 300--1800 K and the oxygen partial pressure range from 10/sup /minus/1/ to 10/sup /minus/25/ atm. Results were used to evaluate the effects on trace element volatility of several proposed strategies for containment removal. 13 refs., 23 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  5. 11th annual conference on clean coal technology, proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include coal combustion technology, multi-purpose coal conversion technology (including entrained-bed coal flash pyrolysis process (CPX), hydrogen production from coal and coal liquefaction), coal ash utilization technology, next general technology (including dry coal cleaning technologies and coal conversion by supercritical water) and basic coal utilization technology (including ash behaviour during coal gasification).

  6. Gasification of seven coals in carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures and high heating rates: Unification approach of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kato, S.; Kojima, T. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Studies on coal gasification in CO{sub 2} at elevated temperatures and high heating rates are necessary to develop IGCC technology. Coal gasification is a very complicated phenomenon, which makes a generalized understanding and description of gasification reactivity of a coal highly important. With a unique fluidized bed, the reactivity of seven coals was investigated at elevated temperatures and high heating rates. A modified random pore model was proposed to unify the gasification reactivity of coals. It was identified that the coal reactivity can be unified with a master curve described by the new model for all the coals, temperatures and heating rates examined in this work. This model can also satisfactorily unify the experimental gasification data in literature. The modified random pore model can predict the experimental data with an error within about 5%. The error of the prediction by the modified random pore model is about one-third smaller than that of the prediction by the random pore model. It is recommended as a sub-model for simulation of coal gasification in practical gasifiers.

  7. Interaction and its induced inhibiting or synergistic effects during co-gasification of coal char and biomass char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Zhiqing; Huang, Jiejie; Fang, Yitian

    2014-12-01

    Co-gasification of coal char and biomass char was conducted to investigate the interactions between them. And random pore model (RPM) and modified random pore model (MRPM) were applied to describe the gasification behaviors of the samples. The results show that inhibiting effect was observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Hulunbeier lignite coal char, while synergistic effects were observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Shenmu bituminous coal char and Jincheng anthracite coal char. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the intimate contact and comparable gasification rate between biomass char and coal char, and the loss of the active form of potassium caused by the formation of KAlSiO4, which was proved to be inactive during gasification. While the synergistic effect was caused by the high potassium content of biomass char and the significant difference of reaction rate between coal char and biomass char during gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  9. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  10. Effects of fluxing agents on gasification reactivity and gas composition of high ash fusion temperature coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Na-based fluxing agent Na2O (NBFA and a composite fluxing agent (mixture of CaO and Fe2O3 with mass ratio of 3:1, CFA for short were used to decrease the ash fusion temperature of the Dongshan and Xishan coal from Shanxi of China and make these coal meet the requirements of the specific gasification process. The main constituents of the fluxing agents used in this study can play a catalyst role in coal gasification. So it is necessary to understand the effect of fluxing agents on coal gasification reactivity and gas composition. The results showed that the ash fusion temperature of the two coal used decreased to the lowest point due to the eutectic phenomenon when 5 wt% of CFA or NBFA was added. Simultaneously, the gas molar ratio of H2/CO changed when CFA was added. A key application was thus found where the gas molar ratio of H2/CO can be adjusted by controlling the fluxing agent amount to meet the synthetic requirements for different chemical products.

  11. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. The influence of catalytic additives on kinetics of coal gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubek Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic coal gasification is a process that has the potential to become one of the efficient industrial technology of energy production. For this reason, the subject of this study was to analyze the kinetics of catalytic gasification of ‘Janina’ coal with steam. Isothermal measurements were performed at 800 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C and 1000 °C at a pressure of 1 MPa using cations of sodium, potassium and calcium as catalysts. During examination the thermovolumetric method was used. This method allows to determine the formation rates of a gaseous product such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide as well as their contribution to the resulting gas. Moreover, the influence of catalysts on the kinetics of CO and H2 formation at various temperatures was determined and the kinetics parameters were calculated with the use of isoconversional model, Random Pore Model and Grain Model. The obtained results confirmed the positive effect of catalysts on the coal gasification process. The catalytic measurements were characterized by higher reaction rate and shorter duration of the process, and the calculated values of the kinetic parameters were lower than for the gasification process without the addition of catalysts.

  13. Gasification of coal-derived chars in synthesis gas mixtures under intraparticle mass-transfer-controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, A.; Lont, J.C.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1986-01-01

    A model has been formulated to describe the quasi-steady-state gasification of coal-derived chars in gas mixtures where both the reactants carbon dioxide and steam, and the gasification products carbon monoxide and hydrogen are present. As such, these conditions reflect the situation found in most

  14. Thermal energy storage for an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, K.; Antoniak, Z.; Brown, D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-10-01

    This study investigates the use of molten nitrate salt thermal energy storage in an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant allowing the facility to economically provide peak- and intermediate-load electric power. The results of the study show that an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant with thermal energy storage can reduce the cost of coal-fired peak- or intermediate-load electric power by between 5% and 20% depending on the plants operating schedule. The use of direct-contact salt heating can further improve the economic attractiveness of the concept. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Jong, W. de; Hein, K.R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  16. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  17. Gasification of Coal and PET in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej; Staf, M.; Vošta, J.; Koutský, B.; Svoboda, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 17-18 (2006), s. 2458-2468 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fludized bed * gasification * plastic waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  18. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  20. Joint European project on underground coal gasification in Spain; Proyecto europeo conjunto de gasificacion subterranea de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Obis, A.; Menendez, E.; Albeniz, M.A.; Chandelle, V.; Mostade, M.; Bailey, A.C. [ITGE, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-09-01

    Organizations from Spain, Belgium and the United Kingdom are collaborating in a field test of underground coal gasification which is being implemented in the north of Teruel Province (Spain). The test is first phase of a European development programme on in-situ coal gasification, being carried out with financial help from the Commission of the European Communities. This paper covers a forecast of the future energy demand for Europe, the potential of in-situ coal gasification, and a summary of the recent development of in-situ coal gasification. The circumstances which led to the formation of a European organisation (UEE) which will implement the project are described, and its objectives are presented. The geological characteristics of the proposed region are detailed, together with the test programme, and its successive phases in realising the principle parameters of the operations.

  1. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  3. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative experimental study of biomass, lignite and hard coal steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinski, A.; Howaniec, N.; Stanczyk, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    In the paper the results of experimental comparative study on steam gasification of lignite, hard coal and energy crops, such as Spartina pectinata, Helianthus tuberosus L, Sida hermaphrodita R. and Miscanthus X Giganteus in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor at the temperature of 700 {sup o}C were presented. The effectiveness of steam gasification in terms of gas flows, composition and carbon conversion was tested. The ability of coal and biomass to undergo thermochemical transformations was determined based on their chars reactivities. The tested biomass samples were relatively more reactive but produced less synthesis gas and of lower calorific value. Comparison of the reactivities and other physical and chemical properties of coals and biomass, selected based on the gasification process requirements, with a use of the principal component analysis showed that biomass samples differ from the remaining samples due to the highest content of volatiles, oxygen and hydrogen in a sample and the highest amount of carbon dioxide in produced synthesis gas. Hard coals were characterized by the lowest carbon conversion and reactivities R{sub 50} and R{sub max}. Moreover, the negative correlation between the reactivity and the heat of combustion, calorific value, carbon content in a sample and total gas yield produced in the process as well as a positive correlation between R{sub 50} and R{sub max} and volatiles, oxygen content in a sample and carbon dioxide concentration in produced gas were observed.

  5. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  6. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part I: Influence of Coal Properties and Gasification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the entrained-flow gasifiers used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter is entrained (as fly ash with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, a better understanding of slag behavior and the characteristics of the slagging process is needed. Char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio all affect slagging behavior. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. In Part I, we review the main types and the operating conditions of entrained-flow gasifiers and coal properties used in IGCC plants; we identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior; finally, we summarize the coal quality criteria and the operating conditions in entrained-flow gasifiers. In Part II, we discuss the constitutive modeling related to the rheological studies of slag flow.

  7. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  8. On the feasibility of integrating thermochemical processes for the decomposition of water in coal gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preti, U.; Colussi, I.; Fermeglia, A.M.; Gallo, V.; Groppi, G.; Kikic, I.; Pomodoro, C.; Schmid, C.

    1984-01-01

    Two distinct parts from the study presented in this report: their common purpose is to increase hydrogen production in coal gasification processes with non traditional methods. In the first part it has been analysed to produce hydrogen by means of thermochemical cycles of water decomposition and taking advantage of gasification gas heat evolved in the entrained-bed reactor, which operates at high temperature (1700 to 1800 K). The second part deals with the analysis of recovering hydrogen from hydrogen sulphide, which forms in coal gasification, by utilizing processes derived from the 'Mark-13' thermochemical cycle of water decomposition conceived at the Joint Research Centre at Ispra.

  9. Release of inorganic trace elements from high-temperature gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaesing, Marc

    2012-05-30

    The development of cleaner, more efficient techniques in next-generation coal power plants is becoming increasingly important, especially regarding to the discussion of the influence of CO{sub 2} emissions on global warming. A promising coal utilisation process is the integrated gasification combined cycle process. The direct use of the raw gas requires gas clean-up to prevent downstream parts of the gasifier from several problems. An increased efficiency and a decreased amount of harmful species can be achieved through hot fuel gas cleaning. This clean-up technique requires a comprehensive knowledge of the release characteristics of inorganic coal constituents. The aim of this thesis was to provide enhanced knowledge of the effect of key process parameters and of the chemical constitution of coal on the release of Na, K, S, and Cl species from high-temperature coal gasification. The experimental setup consisted of atmospheric flow tube furnaces and a pressurised furnace. In-situ analysis of the product gas was carried out using molecular beam mass spectrometry. A broad spectrum of different coals with assumed qualitative and quantitative differences in the release characteristics was investigated. Additionally, experiments with model substances were performed. The results of the experimental investigation were compared with thermodynamic calculations. Finally, recommendations, for the operation of a high-temperature gasifier are formulated. (orig.)

  10. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  11. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  12. Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

    2013-09-01

    This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  14. The effect of Jatropha torrified biomass and coal preparation on steam co-gasification in a fixed bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloqaili, Mashal Mohammed

    Coal fired power stations produce vast amounts of harmful products that may affect our health and environment. Co-gasification of coal and biomass could be a solution to this issue as an emerging technology. Biomass may reduce emissions significantly and it may contribute to reducing capital operational cost while providing high gas yields. This research tests the co-gasification of coal and biomass blended chars. Coal and biomass were both prepared. Coal Illinois No #6 was prepared as coal semi-char and coal-char while Jatropha biomass was torrefied at six different temperatures ranging from [200-300] ºC. The co-gasification experiments was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. A gasification temperature was 900 ºC and a constant flow rate of 100 mL/min. Carbon conversion, maximum char reactivity, products yield and amount of hydrogen produced were evaluated and studied based on data obtained from the G.C. Additionally, weight of bed material and ash leftover weight from gasification process were significantly contributed in calculating the carbon conversion percentages.

  15. Gas generation by co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass and coal co-gasification were performed on an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier, with air and steam as oxidizing and gasifying media. The experiments were completed at reaction temperatures of 875 °C–975 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.2, and biomass-to-coal ratio of 4. This research aims to determine the effects of reaction temperature on gas composition, lower heating value (LHV), as well as energy and exergy efficiencies, of the product gas. Over the ranges of the test conditions used, the product gas LHV varies between 12 and 13.8 MJ/Nm 3 , and the exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas are in the ranges of 50.7%–60.8% and 60.3%–85.1%, respectively. The results show that high reaction temperature leads to higher H 2 and CO contents, as well as higher exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas. In addition, gas LHV decreases with temperature. The molar ratio of H 2 /CO is larger than 1 at temperatures above 925 °C. Our experimental analysis shows that co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier for gas production is feasible and promising. -- Highlights: • An innovative steam co-gasification process for gas production was proposed. • Co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier was tested. • High temperature favors H 2 production. • H 2 and CO contents increase, whereas CO 2 and CH 4 levels decrease with increase in T. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of gases increase with increase in T

  16. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  17. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix H: Work breakdown structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A work breakdown structure (WBS) is presented which encompasses the multiple facets (hardware, software, services, and other tasks) of the coal gasification program. The WBS is shown to provide the basis for the following: management and control; cost estimating; budgeting and reporting; scheduling activities; organizational structuring; specification tree generation; weight allocation and control; procurement and contracting activities; and serves as a tool for program evaluation.

  18. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  19. A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = A★exp(ft, it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification.

  20. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  1. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  3. Theoretical study on composition of gas produced by coal gasification; Sekitan gas ka de seiseisuru gas no sosei ni kansuru kosatsu (HYCOL data no doteki kaiseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiho, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In relation to considerations on composition of gas produced by coal gasification, the HYCOL hydrogen generation process data were analyzed. From the fact that CO concentration (Y) decreases linearly with CO2 concentration (X), element balance of gasification of reacted coal was used to introduce a reaction analysis equation. The equation includes a term of oxygen excess {Delta}(amount of oxygen consumed for combustion of CO and H2 in excess of the theoretical amount), derived by subtracting the stoichiometric oxygen amount used to gasify coal into CO and H2 from the consumed oxygen amount. The {Delta} can be used as a reference to oxygen utilization efficiency. An equation for the {Delta} was introduced. Also introduced was a term for steam decomposition amount derived by subtracting the generated steam from the supplied steam. These terms may be used as a clue to permeate into the gasifying reaction process. This suggestion was discussed by applying the terms to gas composition value during operation. According to the HYCOL analysis, when a gasification furnace is operated at higher than the reference oxygen amount, coal supply variation is directly reflected to the combustion reaction, making the {Delta} distribution larger. In an inverse case, unreacted carbon remains in the furnace due to oxygen shortage, and shift reaction may occur more easily even if oxygen/coal supply ratio varies. 6 figs., 1 ref.

  4. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  5. A new model for coal gasification on pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Cristian; Arenas, Erika; Chejne, Farid; Londoño, Carlos A.; Cisneros, Sebastian; Quintana, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model was proposed for the simulation of fluidized bed reactors. • The model was validated against experimental data found in the literature. • The model was compared and found to be superior to other models reported in the literature. • Effects of pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios over gas composition were studied. - Abstract: Many industries have taken interest in the use of coal gasification for the production of chemicals and fuels. This gasification can be carried out inside a fluidized bed reactor. This non-ideal reactor is difficult to predict due to the complex physical phenomena and the different chemical changes that the feedstock undergoes. The lack of a good model to simulate the reactor’s behavior produces less efficient processes and plant designs. Various approaches to the proper simulation of such reactor have been proposed. In this paper, a new model is developed for the simulation of a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier that rigorously models the physical phenomena and the chemical changes of the feedstock inside the reactor. In the model, the reactor is divided into three sections; devolatilization, volatile reactions and combustion-gasification. The simulation is validated against experimental data reported in the literature and compared with other models proposed by different authors; once the model is validated, the dependence of the syngas composition on operational pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios are studied. The results of this article show how this model satisfactorily predicts the performance of PBFB gasifiers.

  6. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sutherland, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, Jeremy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hunsacker, Isaac [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Li, Suhui [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Puntai, Naveen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reid, Charles [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schurtz, Randy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  7. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  8. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gas ification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  9. Investigation into the gasification characteristics of SA power station coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand in South Africa is increasing at a rate of 1000 MW per year. Whilst there is increasing pressure to adopt non-fossil fuel electricity generating technologies, the abundant reserves and low cost of coal makes it the preferred...

  10. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of two-stage air-blown and air-steam-blown entrained-flow coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Butakov, E. B.; Burdukov, A. P.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to compare effect of coal and steam supply to the second stage of the entrained-flow gasifiers on their main operating parameters. Two two-stage gasifiers of SB RAS Institute of Thermophysics were used as experimental units. The 5 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first and second stages (air-blown gasification). The 1 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first stage and steam feeding to second stage (air-steam-blown gasification). Experimental studies of air-blown and air-steam-blown gasification with various stoichiometric coefficients, flow rates, temperatures and supply points of secondary media (air-coal and steam) are carried out. Experimental and calculated (thermodynamic and CFD) methods have established that: in the air-blown gasification unit the increase of stoichiometric coefficients (secondary coal flow rate reduction) reduces the syngas heating value and increases the carbon conversion rate; in the air-steam-blown gasification unit the increase of the steam supply nozzle immersion to the gasifier leads to increase of the syngas heating value, the carbon conversion rate and decrease of the syngas H2/CO ratio.

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--September 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygourakis, K.

    1992-02-10

    The macropore structure of chars is a major factor in determining their reactivity during the gasification stage. The major objectives of this contract were to (a) quantify by direct measurements the effect of pyrolysis conditions of the macropore structure, and (b) establish how the macropores affected the reactivity pattern, the ignition behavior and the fragmentation of the char particles during gasification in the regime of strong diffusional limitations. Results from this project provide much needed information on the factors that affect the quality of the solid products (chars) of coal utilization processes (for example, mild gasification processes). The reactivity data will also provide essential parameters for the optimal design of coal gasification processes. (VC)

  14. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  15. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for nuclear aided steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    After intensive investigations on a small scale, the principle of the process has been tested in a semi-technical pilot plant. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approx. 1 m 2 cross-section and of up to 4 m height is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it, which is heated electrically. The plant was commissioned in 1976 and has been in hot operation for approx. 23000 h, over 13000 h whereof account for coal gasification. Roughly 1600 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the processing of German caking long-flame gas coal and the marked improvement of the process by the use of catalysts have been demonstrated successfully. (orig.)

  18. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. First annual progress report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Thomas, J. F.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-07-01

    This project concerns the production of power and synthesis gas from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. Swirling flow in both concentric jet and cyclone gasifiers will separate oxidation and reduction zones. Gasifier performance will be correlated with internally measured temperature and concentration profiles. A literature review of vortex and cyclone reactors is complete. Preliminary reviews of confined jet reactors and pulverized coal reaction models have also been completed. A simple equilibrium model for power gas production is in agreement with literature correlations. Cold gas efficiency is not a suitable performance parameter for combined cycle operation. The coal handling facility, equipped with crusher, pulverizer and sieve shaker, is in working order. Test cell flow and electrical systems have been designed, and most of the equipment has been received. Construction of the cyclone gasifier has begun. A preliminary design for the gas sampling system, which will utilize a UTI Q-30C mass spectrometer, has been developed.

  19. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  20. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    clean gas. The Stretford process , a commercially available liquid phase oxidation process , is capable of removing essentially all HlS in the gas. It...standard sulfur removal process such as the Stretford unit, if necessary. Table 6 Typical Coal Feed Characteristics for Single-Stage Wilputte Gasifier...percent. The cold clean gas can be desulfurized in a standard sulfur removal unit such as Stretford , if necessary. The schematic process flow diagrams for

  1. Cost estimating relationships for coal conversion process units. Volume 1. Technical report. [Includes in some cases dependence on capacity and data references from which estimates were derived

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, E.N.; Carden, H.W.; Curtis, R.L.; Heidler, L.M.; Roppel, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Cost estimating relationships for commercial-scale coal conversion process units are developed in this study. The specific units include: coal preparation, oxygen plant, gasification, shift conversion, acid gas/CO/sub 2/ removal, sulfur recovery, and the dissolver. Also set forth is a detailed Cost Chart of Accounts, together with a discussion of cost analysis procedures and problems.

  2. Underground coal gasification (UCG: A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has a huge demand for energy. Under the present energy structure of rich coal, lean oil, less gas, limited and low-rising rate renewable energy, discussion focus is now on the high-efficient mining of coal as well as its clean-and-low-carbon use. In view of this, based on an analysis of the problems in the coal chemical industry and the present coal utilization ways such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, this paper proposes that underground coal gasification (UCG technology is a realistic choice. By virtue of its advantages in many aspects such as safety & environment, integrated use of superior resources, economic feasibility, etc. this technology can serve as the front-end support and guarantee for coal chemical industry and IGCC. Under the present situation, the following proposals were presented to promote the development of this technology. First, R&D of technical products should be strengthened, a comprehensive feasibility study assessment system should be established, and the relevant criteria in the industry should be formulated. Second, precise market positioning of UCG products should be made with much concern on the integrated economic indicators of each product's complete flow scheme, following the principle of “Technical Feasibility First, Economic Optimization Followed”. Third, a perfect operation and management pattern should be established with strict control over high-efficient, environmentally-friendly, safe, harmonious & compact objectives in the whole industry chain. In conclusion, to realize the large-scale UCG commercial production will strongly promote the optimization and innovation of fossil fuels supply-side economics in China.

  3. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: A study on the influence of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Zhong, Weimin; Du, Wenli; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasification of Shenfu coal in an industrial Texaco gasifier for syngas production. • An equivalent compartment model is developed using Aspen Plus. • Effects of operating parameters on gasification performance indices are studied. • Choosing a reasonable ROC to enhance the gasification efficiency can be flexible. - Abstract: Coal gasifiers are core components of coal-based polygeneration systems for power and chemical production. To study the effects of operational parameters on the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers, this paper presents an equivalent compartment model (CM) using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The CM blocking is established based on gasifier flow field analysis, using a number of compartments. A simple configuration of these compartments involving material recirculation should be able to simulate the main flow and provide the temperature and gas component distributions. The model predictions exhibit good agreement with industrial data in the model validation. The influences of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (ROC) and the coal slurry concentration on the gasification performance are discussed. Within the calculation range, the increase in the coal slurry concentration enhances the yield of the effective compositions in product gas. For a given slurry concentration of 62%, the efficient gas yield is a maximum for ROC of 1.43 kg/kg, whereas the oxygen consumption is a minimum for ROC of 1.37 kg/kg. According to the intended final use, however, choosing a reasonable ROC to obtain a higher efficient syngas yield and lower oxygen consumption can be flexible

  4. PDU scale nitrification/denitrification of pretreated coal gasification wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, J.R.; Shockey, R.E.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling tower tests with the stripped gas liquor (SGL) demonstrated that biological treatment to reduce the organic loading was sufficient for satisfactory operation of the tower at 10 cycles of concentration. However, ammonia stripping remained at high levels, which could result in industrial hygiene and nuisance odor concerns, environmental damage and, after longer periods of acclimation, lead to biofouling in the cooling tower from nitrification. These concerns coupled dishcharge to receiving waters, prompted research into biological nitrogen removal. As a result of this research, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) stripped gas liquor, pretreated by biological oxidation, can be nitrified. Complete nitrification can be obtained at influent concentrations of greater than 500 mg/1 as NH/sub 3/-N. (2) The highest removal rates and best system stability was found at the highest solids retention time (SRT). The low SRT reactor (12 days) did not attain stable operation until after approximately 110 days of operation. The ammonia removals during steady-state operation were 97.7%, 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively for reactors N1 through N3 (SRTs of 37, 21 and 12 days). (3) Influent ammonia-N spikes up to 1020 mg/l were observed. At these high levels, inhibition was observed at all three SRTs. However, when concentrations fell to typical values (500 mg/l NH/sub 3/-N) the systems recovered rapidly. (4) Denitrification of biologically treated and nitrified GPGP SGL was complete in an activated sludge reactor using a 4 day HRT, 10 day SRT and a 2.47:1 molar ratio of methanol to NO/sub 3/-N as the supplemental carbon source. (5) Nitrate-N concentrations in the influent greater than 750 mg/l were completely denitrified demonstrating a maximum observed specific removal rate of 92.8 mg NO/sub 3/-N/mg MLVSS-day. 16 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties

  7. The solar thermal gasification of coal-energy conversion efficiency and CO2 mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedtwitz, P. von; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-01-01

    The steam-gasification of coal (peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite) into syngas is investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The advantages of the solar-driven process are threefold: (1) the discharge of pollutants is avoided; (2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion byproducts; and (3) the calorific value of the fuel is upgraded. A second-law analysis is carried out for a blackbody solar cavity-receiver/reactor operated at 1350 K and subjected to a mean solar flux concentration ratio of 2000. Two technically viable routes for generating electricity using the gasification products are examined: (1) syngas is used to fuel a 55%-efficient combined Brayton-Rankine cycle; and (2) syngas is further processed to H 2 (by water-gas shift reaction followed by H 2 /CO 2 separation) which is used to fuel a 65%-efficient fuel cell. The maximum exergy efficiency, defined as the ratio of electric power output to the thermal power input (solar power+heating value of reactants), reaches 50% for the combined cycle route and 46% for the fuel cell route. Both of these routes offer a net gain in the electrical output by a factor varying in the range 1.7-1.9, depending on the coal type and the power generation route, vis-a-vis the direct use of coal for fueling a 35%-efficient Rankine cycle. Specific CO 2 emissions amounts to 0.49-0.56 kg CO 2 /kWh e , about half as much as the specific emissions discharged by conventional coal-fired power plants. Solar/coal hybrid processes, such as the one examined in this paper, offer important intermediate solutions towards a sustainable energy supply system

  8. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  9. CO{sub 2} gasification of Argentinean coal chars. A kinetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, J.; Cassanello, M.C.; Bonelli, P.R.; Cukierman, A.L. [Programa de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energia (PINMATE), Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Intendente Guiraldes 2620. Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-12-21

    A kinetic characterization of the CO{sub 2} gasification of chars from Argentinean low-rank coals, subbituminous (SB) and high volatile bituminous (HVB), is performed by isothermal thermogravimetry. Temperatures in the range 1173-1433 K and CO{sub 2} concentrations among 50% and 70% v/v are employed. Experimental data obtained for both chars for the whole range of experimental conditions explored were satisfactorily described by a single master curve. Reactivity differences between chars are discussed in terms of carbon content, microporosity and crystallinity of the char carbonaceous part. In addition, potential catalytic effects of inherent minerals on chars gasification reactivity are examined by demineralizing the chars. For the subbituminous char, catalytic effects due to mineral matter content are detected up to 1333 K, whereas at higher temperatures they become considerably less pronounced. For the bituminous char, reactivity seems to depend more on structural and textural features than on catalysis over the whole range of operating conditions. Intrinsic gasification rates for both chars are properly represented by the well-known random capillary and random pore models (RPM). Recent models based on modifications introduced to the latter are also applied and kinetic data description is discussed.

  10. Optimization of hydrogen and syngas production from PKS gasification by using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana; Inayat, Abrar; Patrick, David Onoja; Pratama, Angga; Ammar, Muhamamd

    2017-10-01

    Catalytic steam gasification of palm kernel shell is investigated to optimize operating parameters for hydrogen and syngas production using TGA-MS setup. RSM is used for experimental design and evaluating the effect of temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio, and coal bottom ash wt% on hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen production appears highly sensitive to all factors, especially temperature and coal bottom ash wt%. In case of syngas, the order of parametric influence is: CaO/biomass>coal bottom ash wt%>temperature>particle size. The significant catalytic effect of coal bottom ash is due to the presence of Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and CaO. A temperature of 692°C, coal bottom ash wt% of 0.07, CaO/biomass of 1.42, and particle size of 0.75mm are the optimum conditions for augmented yield of hydrogen and syngas. The production of hydrogen and syngas is 1.5% higher in the pilot scale gasifier as compared to TGA-MS setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition of glass and crystalline phases in coarse coal gasification ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward; David French [Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd., Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    A procedure has been developed for determining the chemical composition and relative abundance of the amorphous or glassy material, as well as crystalline phases, present in coarse coal gasification ash, in order to assist in predicting the behaviour of the material in cement/brick/concrete applications. The procedure is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis and electron microprobe studies. XRD analysis indicates that the clinker samples contain a number of crystalline high temperature phases, including anorthite, mullite, cristobalite, quartz and diopside. Quantitative evaluation using Rietveld-based techniques has been used to determine the percentages of both the individual crystalline phases and the glass component. These data were then combined with the chemistry of the crystalline phases and the overall chemical composition of the ash to estimate the chemical composition of the glass phase, which is typically the most abundant component present in the different materials. Although there is some degree of scatter, comparison between the inferred glass composition from XRD and bulk chemistry and actual data on the glass composition using electron microprobe techniques suggest that the two approaches are broadly consistent. The microprobe further indicates that a range of compositions are present in the glassy and crystalline components of the ashes, including Si-Al-rich glass, metakaolin and Fe-Ca-Mg-Ti phases, as well as quartz, anorthite and an aluminophosphate material. Electron microprobe and XRD studies also show that pyrrhotite (FeS), representing a high temperature transformation product of pyrite, is present in some clinker and partially burnt carbonaceous shale samples. 27 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. The effect of CO{sub 2} partial pressure on coal char gasification rates at high temperature and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Hodge; Daniel Roberts; David Harris; John Stubington [CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Deployment and optimisation of gasification-based technologies on a wider scale requires an improved understanding of the gasification process at high temperatures and pressures. The reactions of coal char with steam and CO{sub 2} (the gasification reactions) are the slowest steps in the gasification process; these reactions therefore limit the rate of coal conversion in the gasifier, making them key design and operating parameters for gasifier systems. As part of a wider study, this work investigates the char-CO{sub 2} reaction at high temperatures and pressures. New data are presented for reaction rates at temperatures of 1273-1673 K, pressures of 10-20 bar and CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 2.5-7.5 bar for a coal char in a pressurised entrained flow reactor. The data are used to investigate the effects of total pressure and CO{sub 2} partial pressure on the char-CO{sub 2} reaction rate at high temperature. The apparent reaction order was found to be 0.2-0.4, consistent with reaction in Regime 2 conditions. The effect of total pressure was found to be negligible, due to the dominance of Knudson diffusion in particles with small pore sizes. Ongoing work in this area is investigating further the links between char structure, intrinsic reactivity, and gasification rates at high temperatures. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB, which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC. The effects of equivalence ratio (1.6<Φ<6.4 and steam-to-fuel ratio (0.4

  14. [Inhibition of Denitrification by Total Phenol Load of Coal Gasification Wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya

    2016-03-15

    High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree.

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  16. Techno-Economic Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Underground Coal Gasification End-Product Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christine Nakaten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG enables the utilisation of coal reserves that are currently not economically exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. Hereby, UCG produces a high-calorific synthesis gas that can be used for generation of electricity, fuels and chemical feedstock. The present study aims to identify economically competitive, site-specific end-use options for onshore and offshore produced UCG synthesis gas, taking into account the capture and storage (CCS and/or utilisation (CCU of resulting CO 2 . Modelling results show that boundary conditions that favour electricity, methanol and ammonia production expose low costs for air separation, high synthesis gas calorific values and H 2 /N 2 shares as well as low CO 2 portions of max. 10%. Hereby, a gasification agent ratio of more than 30% oxygen by volume is not favourable from economic and environmental viewpoints. Compared to the costs of an offshore platform with its technical equipment, offshore drilling costs are negligible. Thus, uncertainties related to parameters influenced by drilling costs are also negligible. In summary, techno-economic process modelling results reveal that scenarios with high CO 2 emissions are the most cost-intensive ones, offshore UCG-CCS/CCU costs are twice as high as the onshore ones, and yet all investigated scenarios except from offshore ammonia production are competitive on the European market.

  17. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  18. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  19. Energy analysis of MHD-steam and MHD-gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents energy analysis of combined two media (MHD-steam) and three media (MHD-gas-steam) power plants of high efficiency of conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electric energy integrated with coal gasification. The goal of this paper is to show the possibility of obtaining the high efficiency (about 60%) of the conversion of chemical energy of coal into electric energy in combined power plants with the open cycle MHD generators. The base of performed energy analysis are the elaborated mathematical models: of gas generator, of combustion chamber of MHD generator, of MHD channel, of high-temperature heater of oxygen, nitrogen and air, of steam generator and the cycle of steam turbine and of the cycle of gas turbine, and also the computer programmes, elaborated on the base of these models for numerical simulation of the processes of energy conversion in these elements. The elaborated mathematical model of the process of coal gasification for MHD-steam power plants allows to calculate: composition, physical properties and energy parameters of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, the consumption and temperature of gasifying medium and both the chemical and energy efficiency of coal gasification. Gas produced in the process of coal gasification is directed to combustion chamber of MHD generator after desulphurization. The mathematical model of physical, chemical and energy processes in combustion chamber of MHD generator allows to determine the temperature of oxidizer and its enrichment in oxygen necessary to obtain the plasma parameters desired for optimum process of energy conversion in MHD channel. The mathematical model of energy conversion in open cycle MHD channel was presented in paper. This model allows to perform numerical simulation of energy conversion process and to determine optimum parameters of plasma at the inlet to the channel necessary to obtain maximum efficiency of energy conversion.

  20. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, B. C.; Langland, R. T.

    1981-08-01

    Surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington were compared. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite difference code match equivalent, implicit finite element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite difference continuum rigid block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together.

  1. Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

  2. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  3. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  4. Deformation properties of sedimentary rocks in the process of underground coal gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Bukowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research into changes in deformation properties of rocks, under influence of temperature, during the process of underground coal gasification. Samples of carboniferous sedimentary rocks (claystones and sandstones, collected in different areas of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW, were heated at the temperature of between 100 and 1000–1200 °C, and then subjected to uniaxial compression tests to obtain a full stress-strain curves of the samples and determine values of residual strain and Poisson's ratio. To compare the obtained values of deformation parameters of rocks, tested in dry-air state and after heating in a given range of temperature, normalised values of residual strain and Poisson's ratio were determined. Based on them, coefficient of influence of temperature on tested deformation parameters was determined. The obtained values of the coefficient can be applied in mining practice to forecast deformability of gangue during underground coal gasification, when in the direct surrounding of a georeactor there are claystones or sandstones. The obtained results were analysed based on classification of uniaxial compression strength of GZW gangue, which formed the basis for dividing claystones and sandstones into very low, low, medium and high uniaxial compression strength rocks. Based on the conducted tests it was concluded that the influence of uniaxial compression strength on the value of residual strain, unlike the influence of grain size of sandstones, is unambiguous within the range of changes in the parameter. Among claystones changes in the value of Poisson's ratio depending on their initial strength were observed. Sandstones of different grain size either increased or decreased the value of Poisson's ratio in comparison with the value determined at room temperature in dry-air conditions.

  5. Determination of Kinetic Parameters of Coal Pyrolysis to Simulate the Process of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Urych

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The devolatilization of a homogenous lump of coal is a complex issue. Currently, the CFD technique (Computational Fluid Dynamics is commonly used for the multi-dimensional and multiphase phenomena modelling. The mathematical models, describing the kinetics of the decomposition of coal, proposed in the article can, therefore, be an integral part of models based on numerical fluid mechanics.

  6. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Indaba 2009. Clean coal technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include coal reserves/mining beneficiation, combustion and power generation, underground coal gasification, coalbed methane, coal gasification and conversion, coke, and emission reduction. The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) are included on the CD-ROM, along with 12 of the papers, and a delegates list.

  8. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  9. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilien kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and airblown gasification are studied. This research project is closely connected to an EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 project. The equilibrium calculations show that the major gaseous alkali compounds emitting from combustion and gasification are chlorides and hydroxides. This applies both to air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes. In all the cases studied the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds is determined mainly by the amount of chlorides. The key parameters, with respect to alkali behaviour, are the temperature of the process and chlorine content of the coal. By cooling the gases down to 600 deg C prior to a ceramic filter the alkali concentration can be kept about at 100 ppbv. In combustion, the addition of calcium carbonate increases the amount of gaseous alkali compounds by decreasing the amount of alkali sulphates. In the case of gasification the importance of limestone is negligible. The difference between air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes, in terms of gaseous alkali emissions, is small. This is because CO{sub 2} concentration of the gas does not have a strong impact on alkali chlorides. Furthermore, the effect of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-ratio of the recirculation process is negligible. (orig.)

  10. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  11. Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhetas, Margarida; Lopes, Helena; Freire, Márcia; Abelha, Pedro; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy. These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The evaluation of environmental toxicity of the char residues was performed through application of different leaching tests (EN12457-2, US EPA-1311 TCLP and EA NEN 7371:2004). The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants. However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical behavior, without presenting any major operational risks. Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. Above 700°C, very high carbon conversion ratios were obtained and it seemed that the thermal oxidation of char residues was easier than that of the coals. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO(2) during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO(X) emissions, the trend was observed to increase NO(X) formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustion, as for coal. Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-10-01

    About 5.5 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory on January 16-17, 1982. Two test runs with molten H-Coal liquefaction residue were completed, each at a different operating temperature. The conversions of carbon in the feed to syngas achieved during the two test runs were 99.4 and 98.6 percent, yielding 35.2 and 35.5 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue feed. The oxygen requirement was about 0.8 pound of oxygen per pound of residue for each run. The dry syngas contained about 93.4 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen. The two short pilot unit runs did confirm the operability of the Texaco Synthesis Gas Generation Process with this feedstock, and the data obtained confirm earlier predictions of performance efficiency. A comparison of the gasification efficiency of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue with the gasification efficiency of H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry revealed that the molten process was more efficient. The molten system required less oxygen for gasification, 0.78 versus 1.00 pounds of oxygen per pound of residue, and produced a greater volume percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen in the product syngas, 93.4% versus 79.2%, than the residue-water slurry.

  13. Rebirth of a 100-year-old technology: underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.C.; Harju, J.A.; Schmit, C.R.; Solc, J. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Boysen, J.E. [B.C. Technologies Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Kuehnel, R.A. [International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands); Walker, L.K. [Innisfree Pty. Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Komsartra, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    1997-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology that was first conceived by Mendeleev in Russia over 100 years ago. It involves the conversion of coal in situ to a low-to-medium grade product gas, avoiding the expense of mining and reclamation. The successful application of UCG is critically dependent on both judicious site selection and process design specific to that site. It requires a detailed knowledge and understanding of those geologic, hydrogeologic, and other site characteristics critical to the technical success and environmental acceptability of the process. This paper addresses the development and key features of UCG and describes a UCG feasibility project now under way in Southern Thailand on a lignite deposit. The relevance of the technology to the long-term supply of gas to the Eastern States of Australia is also discussed. It is concluded that the lack of acceptance of the technology to date follows from a confusion in the interpretation of test results from the different hydrogeologic settings of previous UCG test sites. Successful development of the technology requires the careful assembly of an integrated design team with hydrogeologic, geologic mineralogic, chemical and engineering expertise. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs.

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  16. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  17. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed

  19. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  20. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H(2)-rich gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, J; Arias, B; Gil, M V; Plaza, M G; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-05-01

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H(2) + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production. Co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  2. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO 2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO x emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  3. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  4. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand in South Africa is increasing at a rate of 1000 MW per year. Whilst there is increasing pressure to adopt non-fossil fuel electricity generating technologies, the abundant reserves and low cost of coal make it the preferred energy...

  5. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal radiation characteristics of coal char/ash particles dispersed in a gasification furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, Y.; Saito, Y.; Hatano, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, J.; Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    Thermal radiation dominates the heat transfer in an entrained bed type of coal or wastes gasification furnace operated in high temperature. This study is to evaluate the radiation properties of coal char or ash particles, which are necessary to predict the behavior of heat transfer of a multiphase flow in the furnace. The monochromatic extinction of the sample particles dispersed in carbon tetrachloride or KBr powder was measured spectroscopically under an atmospheric condition by using FT-IR. The spectra of extinction for any particle number density in a dispersion layer can be summarized in the form of the apparent extinction efficiency. The spectral extinction efficiency of fly ash was almost independent of the type of ash, but was influenced significantly by the carbon content in the char. The extinction efficiency measured was equivalent to the apparent extinction efficiency estimated by applying the refractive index from references in the past works into Mie's theory assuming a strong forward scattering of fly ash particles.

  7. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  8. In situ small angle x-ray studies of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K F

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made the first 12 months of a planned 36 month project on small angle x-ray studies of coal and char pore structure. Model carbon studies have been employed to demonstrate the usefulness of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in monitoring the structural changes in porous carbonaceous materials during gasification. Scattering data from particles gasified to varying levels of conversion show increases in the micropore sizes with conversion. This is also supported by surface area measurements by SAXS showing a maximum at intermediate conversion in agreements with previous studies by conventional means. The application of SAXS to PSOC coal samples is also demonstrated. Existing models for the porous structure have been reviewed and percolation theory has been selected as a consistent framework for both the modelling and the data analysis. This theory will make it possible to describe the porous structure in terms of its geometry and connectivity, rather than being limited to a fixed geometry as in conventional approaches. Two graduate students and the PI have been trained in SAXS and the associated theory. Results from the model carbon studies have been published. 18 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  9. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  10. Modelling of Gas Flow in the Underground Coal Gasification Process and its Interactions with the Rock Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janoszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the analysis of gas flow in the underground coal gasification process and interactions with the surrounding rock mass. The article is a discussion of the assumptions for the geometric model and for the numerical method for its solution as well as assumptions for modelling the geochemical model of the interaction between gas-rock-water, in terms of equilibrium calculations, chemical and gas flow modelling in porous mediums. Ansys-Fluent software was used to describe the underground coal gasification process (UCG. The numerical solution was compared with experimental data. The PHREEQC program was used to describe the chemical reaction between the gaseous products of the UCG process and the rock strata in the presence of reservoir waters.

  11. Effect of Injection Flow Rate on Product Gas Quality in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG Based on Laboratory Scale Experiment: Development of Co-Axial UCG System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Hamanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a technique to recover coal energy without mining by converting coal into a valuable gas. Model UCG experiments on a laboratory scale were carried out under a low flow rate (6~12 L/min and a high flow rate (15~30 L/min with a constant oxygen concentration. During the experiments, the coal temperature was higher and the fracturing events were more active under the high flow rate. Additionally, the gasification efficiency, which means the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to the product gas, was 71.22% in the low flow rate and 82.42% in the high flow rate. These results suggest that the energy recovery rate with the UCG process can be improved by the increase of the reaction temperature and the promotion of the gasification area.

  12. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  13. The formation of impurities in fluidized-bed gasification of biomass, peat and coal; Epaepuhtauksien muodostuminen leijukerroskaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Kurkela, M.; Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Oesch, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Alen, R. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this three-year-long project was to study the effects of different process parameters and bed materials on the formation of impurities in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification. The main emphasis of the project was focused on the formation of tars and nitrogen compounds in wood, peat and coal gasification. The aims of the research were to find out such operating conditions, where the formation of problematic high-molecular-weight tars can be minimised and to create a better understanding on the fate of fuel nitrogen in fluidized-bed gasifiers. Main part of the research was carried out in a bench-scale pressurised fluidized-bed reactor (ID 30 mm), where the effects of pressure, temperature, gas atmosphere and bed material were studied with different feedstocks. Most of the test series were carried out using the same feedstocks as earlier used in the PDU-scale fluidized-bed gasification tests of VTT (pine wood, pine bark, wheat straw, two peats, Rhenish brown coal, Polish and Illinois No.6 bituminous coals). The effects of operating parameters on the product yields (gas components, tars, char) were first studied under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The conversion of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN were also determined for the different feedstocks over the different operating conditions. These studies showed that ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen compound of fluidized-bed pyrolysis with all the feedstocks studied. The conversions of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN was highest with the high volatile fuels and lowest with the two hard coals. Gas atmosphere had a dramatic effect on the conversion of fuel nitrogen; much higher ammonia yields were determined in real gasification gas atmosphere than in inert pyrolysis carried out in N{sub 2} or Argon atmosphere. In addition to the pressurised fluidized-bed pyrolysis tests, laboratory scale pyrolysis research was carried out in order to compare the pyrolysis behaviour of the different feedstocks

  14. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for proce...

  15. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  18. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  19. Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g, with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents.

  20. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  1. Physicochemical evolution during rice straw and coal co-pyrolysis and its effect on co-gasification reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Gong, Yan; Guo, Qinghua; Ding, Lu; Wang, Fuchen; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-03-01

    Physicochemical evolution (i.e. pore structure variation, carbon structure change and active AAEM transformation) during rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) co-pyrolysis was quantitatively determined in this work. Moreover, the corresponding char gasification was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and relative reactivity was proposed to quantify the co-pyrolysis impact on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that the development of pore structure in co-pyrolyzed chars was first inhibited and then enhanced with the decrease of SF proportion. The promotion effect of co-pyrolysis on order degree of co-pyrolyzed chars gradually weakened with increasing RS proportion. Co-pyrolysis mainly enhanced active K transformation in co-pyrolyzed chars and the promotion effect was alleviated with increasing RS proportion. The inhibition effect of co-pyrolysis on co-gasification reactivity weakened with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature, which was mainly attributed to the combination of carbon structure evolution and active AAEM transformation in co-pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in a UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Ma, W.C.; Han, H.J.; Li, H.Q.; Yuan, M. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-02-15

    Lurgi coal gasification wastewater (LCGW) is a refractory wastewater, whose anaerobic treatment has been a severe problem due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. Using a mesophilic (35 {+-} 2{sup o}C) reactor as a control, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 {+-} 2{sup o}C) of LCGW was investigated in a UASB reactor. After 120 days of operation, the removal of COD and total phenols by the thermophilic reactor could reach 50-55% and 50-60% respectively, at an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD/(m{sup 3} d) and HRT of 24h: the corresponding efficiencies were both only 20-30% in the mesophilic reactor. After thermophilic digestion, the wastewater concentrations of the aerobic effluent COD could reach below 200 mg/L compared with around 294 mg/L if mesophilic digestion was done and around 375 mg/L if sole aerobic pre-treatment was done. The results suggested that thermophilic anaerobic digestion improved significantly both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of LCGW.

  3. The role of diatomite particles in the activated sludge system for treating coal gasification wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.Q.; Rao, P.H.; Zhang, H.; Xu, J.L. [Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai (China)

    2009-02-15

    Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental results indicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass and also enhance the performance of the sludge settling. The average mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) is increased from 4055 mg.L{sup -1} to 4518 mg.L{sup -1} and the average settling volume (SV) are changed only from 45.9% to 47.1%. Diatomite additive could enhance the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols removal from the wastewater. The COD removal increased from 73.3% to near 80% and the total phenols removal increased from 81.4% to 85.8%. The mechanisms of the increase of biomass and pollutants removal may correlated to the improvement of bioavailability and sludge settlement characteristics by diatomite added. Micrograph of the sludge in the diatomite-activated sludge system indicated that the diatomite added could be the carrier of the microbe and also affect the biomass and pollutant removal.

  4. The O₂-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeay, M.; Cameron, M. [Hemmeram, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elphick, J. [Nautilus Environmental Co., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  6. Operating experiences with heat-exchanging components of a semi-technical pilot plant for steam gasification of coal using heat from HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van

    1984-01-01

    within the framework of the PNP- Project, a semi-technical plant for the development of a process of coal gasification by means of nuclear heat was operated. Here gasification is for the first time implemented in a fluidized bed using heat of an electrically heated helium cycle at pressure up to 40 bar and temperatures normal for HTR. The plant serves for testing and developing various components as immersion heater, insulations, dosing devices, and for compiling sound data for further planning

  7. Basic lay-out, arrangement and design criteria of heat components of the ''nuclear coal gasification prototype plant (PNP)''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschek, R.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1975, the companies Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, GHT Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH und Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG are working jointly on the Project ''Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat (PNP)'', with promotion of the ''Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie'' and of the ''Minister fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen''. The objectives of the project are the development of a high-temperature reactor, with a core outlet temperature of 950 0 C, suitable for various process heat applications, and the development and testing of the appropriate coal gasification technology. The applied gasifications methods comprise endothermal and exothermal reactions. Therefore, various heat transfer components are to be developed. In the context of this Specialists Meeting, only those components will be discussed by which heat is transferred from primary helium to secondary helium or from helium to the working or process fluid

  8. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coal in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FTIR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions of the selected...

  9. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FT-IR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions...

  10. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  11. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  12. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  13. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  14. Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic MBR system treated the coal gasification wastewater. ► COD removal rate was 97.4% with effluent concentration less than 100 mg/L. ► NH 4 + -N removal rate was 92.8% with effluent concentration less than 12 mg/L. ► HRT and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. ► GC/MS analysis found refractory organic removal in anaerobic and anoxic stage. - Abstract: As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic–anoxic–oxic membrane reactor (A 2 O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds.

  15. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    elemental sulfur from H2 S by oxidation. Some of these processes , such as the Claus and Stretford processes , are not classified as acid gas removal... Processes : - Claus - Stretford " Tail Gas Cleanup Processes : - Beavon - SCOT Comparison and operating parameters are shown in Table 4-6, with detail...at SPNC 1-9 1.3 Coal Availability 1-22 1.4 References 1-24 2.0 GASIFICATION PROCESSES 2-1 2.1 General Processes 2-2 1 2.2 Commercially Available

  16. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

  18. Comparative study on combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of walnut shell and bituminous coal by conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Fan, Di; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of bituminous coal (BC) and walnut shell (WS) are comparatively studied with both conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimertric analysis (TGA) methods. The results indicate that BC and WS exhibit additivity in the co-pyrolysis step. However, the gasification reactivity of chars in subsequent gasification step exhibits remarkable sample-mass dependence, which causes the illusions in synergy and inhibition effects when conventional TGA tests are conducted. A congruent-mass TGA method has been developed to overcome the limitations of the conventional TGA mode. One of the advantages of this method is that it can reduce to a minimum the effect of sample mass on reactivity. Thus, the degree of synergy or inhibition can be directly estimated from the deviation of the experimental TG curves between the two separated and blended samples. We recommend this method in studying the co-processing behavior between coal and biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  20. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  1. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds from coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilen kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds has been studied with a chemical equilibrium model. The goal is to evaluate the possibilities to remove the sodium and potassium compounds together with the fly ash particles by using a ceramic honeycomb filter. The studied processes include both CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and air-blown gasification and combustion. The results show that the difference between the processes with flue gas recirculation and air-blown processes is small. This is due to that the equilibrium concentration of the dominant gaseous alkali compound, chloride, is more or less the same in both processes. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali concentration of the fuel gas from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. During the next phase of this research the results from DUT will be compared with the results of this presentation. (author)

  2. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  4. Simulation of Synthesis Gas Production from Steam Oxygen Gasification of Colombian Coal Using Aspen Plus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Preciado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A steady state simulation of syngas production from a Steam Oxygen Gasification process using commercial technologies was performed using Aspen Plus®. For the simulation, the average proximate and ultimate compositions of bituminous coal obtained from the Colombian Andean region were employed. The simulation was applied to conduct sensitivity analyses in the O2 to coal mass ratio, coal slurry concentration, WGS operating temperature and WGS steam to dry gas molar ratio (SDG over the key parameters: syngas molar composition, overall CO conversion in the WGS reactors, H2 rich-syngas lower heating value (LHV and thermal efficiency. The achieved information allows the selection of critical operating conditions leading to improve system efficiency and environmental performance. The results indicate that the oxygen to carbon ratio is a key variable as it affects significantly both the LHV and thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the process becomes almost insensitive to SDG values higher than 2. Finally, a thermal efficiency of 62.6% can be reached. This result corresponds to a slurry solid concentration of 0.65, a WGS process SDG of 0.59, and a LTS reactor operating temperature of 473 K. With these fixed variables, a syngas with H2 molar composition of 92.2% and LHV of 12 MJ Nm−3 was attained.

  5. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Fourth quarterly report, September--November 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, D.A. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    The instrumentation effort for Phases 2 and 3 of the Second Hanna In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment was fielded and background data obtained prior to the initiation of Phase 2 on November 25, 1975. A total of over 600 channels of instrumentation in 15 instrumentation wells and two surface arrays was fielded for the instrumentation techniques under evaluation. The feasibility of the passive acoustic technique to locate the source of process-related noises has been demonstrated; its utility is presently hampered by the inexact definition of signal arrivals and the lack of automated signal monitoring and analysis systems. A revised mathematical model for the electrical techniques has been developed which demonstrates the potential for remote monitoring. (auth)

  6. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  11. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  12. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...... to conduct an energy and exergy analysis of the UCG process. We study the effect of various process parameters on the efficiency of the UCG process, the zero-emission recovery factor of coal, and the total CO2 emission of the process. Moreover, we compare the alternating injection of air...

  14. NH3 Abatement in Fluidized Bed Co-Gasification of RDF and Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Dias, Mário; Lopes, Helena; André, Rui Neto; Cabrita, I.

    Gasification of wastes may come out as an alternative technology to produce a gas with many potential applications, from direct burning in a boiler or motor to the production of synthetic chemicals and hydrogen. High tar production and high operational costs are preventing gasification wider dissemination. Besides these problems, the presence of NH3 in the syngas may have a negative impact as it can be converted into nitrogen oxides if the gas is further burnt. To reduce NH3 formation it is required a full understanding of how operational parameters contribute to the formation/reduction of this pollutant. A full studyon the effect of fuel composition, temperature and equivalence ratio on the formation of NH3 is given. Experimental results are compared to theoretical ones obtained with FactSage software. It is also analyzed the effect of feedstock mineral matterin NH3 release during gasification. Toaccomplish a significant decrease in the release of NH3, different catalysts and sorbents were tested with the aim of achieving high energy conversions and low environmental impact.

  15. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/investigational study of technology/study of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen, sekitan gaska fukugo hatsuden system kento hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the following were conducted: element study of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, survey of technology of the coal gasification power generation, study of the practical scale IGCC, etc. The FY 1991 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d furnace equipment, evaluation test on the test coal for pilot plant was made. In the study of gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine use, measuring duct was fabricated for measurement of combustion gas temperature/pressure, etc. In the simulational study of the total system of combined cycle power generation, review/modification of part of the simulation model and detailing of the model were conducted by comparison with the data on pilot plant operation. In the technology study, joint technology conferences were held for discussions between Japan and Australia, Japan and the U.S., and Japan and Canada. As to the practical scale IGCC, the initially planned output capacity and thermal efficiency were studied based on the knowledge/information obtained through the R and D on the 200t/d pilot plant. (NEDO)

  16. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  17. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  18. Economic efficiency of coal gasification in Poland in reference to the price of CO2 emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopacz Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the impact of prices of carbon dioxide on the economic efficiency of 14 coal gasification technologies employed for producing electricity, hydrogen and methanol measured with the use of NPV method. All technical, technological and economic assumptions in the assessment have been made for Polish conditions. The impact of CO2 prices were examined in the range of 30-200 PLN/Mg. The production capacity of the base technology corresponds with the fuel consumption of indicative coal having the calorific value of 20.5 GJ/Mg, used in the amount of 100 Mg/h. On the basis of the conducted research, with respect to all technical and economic assumptions, it can be stated that for the base scale there is a clear impact of prices of CO2 emission allowances above the 90 PLN/Mg CO2. Such a level of carbon dioxide prices makes the decision concerning construction of geological sequestration systems (CCS, carbon capture and storage worthwhile. This applies in particular to the production of electric energy. For the variants focused on hydrogen production there is a dominance of variants with CCS system only at the price exceeding 120 PLN/Mg CO2, and in the case of methanol such a situation occurs above 150 PLN/Mg CO2.

  19. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  20. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  1. Investigations of the surface tension of coal ash slags under gasification conditions; Untersuchungen zur Oberflaechenspannung von Kohleschlacken unter Vergasungsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Tobias

    2011-10-26

    In the context of CO{sub 2}-emission-induced global warming, greenhouse gases resulting from the production of electricity in coal-fired power plants gain increasing attention. One possible way to reduce such emissions is to gasify coal instead of burning it. The corresponding process is referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and allows for the separation of CO{sub 2} before converting a synthesis gas into electrical energy. However, further improvements in efficiency and availability of this plant technology are needed to render the alternative generation of electricity sensible from an economic point of view. One corresponding approach introduces hot gas cleaning facilities to the gasification plant which guarantee a removal of slag particles from the synthesis gas at high temperatures. The development of such filters depends on the availability of data on the material properties of the coal ash slags to be withdrawn. In this respect, the surface tension is a relevant characteristic. Currently, the surface tension of real coal ash slags as well as of synthetic model systems was measured successfully by means of the sessile drop and the maximum bubble pressure method. With regard to the sessile drop technique, those experiments were conducted in a gasification-like atmosphere at temperatures of up to 1500 C. Furthermore, the pressure inside the experimental vessel was raised to 10 bar in order to allow for deriving the influence of this variable on the surface tension. In contrast, maximum bubble pressure trials were realised at atmospheric pressure while the gas atmosphere assured inert conditions. For performing sessile drop measurements, a corresponding apparatus was set up and is described in detail in this thesis. Three computer algorithms were employed to calculate surface tensions out of the photos of sessile drops and their individual performance was evaluated. A very good agreement between two of the codes was found while the third one

  2. Needed research on the terrestrial effects of coal gasification and liquefaction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J. B.; Harris, W. F.; Haug, P. T.; Kingsbury, G.; Preston, E.; Risser, P.; Scott, R.; Small, R.; Stevens, D.; Taylor, J. E.

    1979-02-01

    The Terrestrial Effects panel discussed the needed direction and techniques for future research in the terrestrial effects of new coal conversion technologies. Panel members concurred on the need for changes in emphasis, approach, and even attitude in environmental research. The following are the basic perceptions of the panel: Our goal is to provide for environmentally amenable technologies in coal conversion and product distribution, especially focusing on pollutants entering pathways to man. Highest research priority, therefore, should be given to solid wastes, and especially their leachates. A shift in research emphasis is needed. Whereas we have been accustomed to investigating acute effects of pollutants immediately surrounding their source, we should now explore the sublethal, long-term effects of pollutants carried farther from their source. These may in fact become the more dangerous of the two through bioconcentration. Research of this kind should help us to predict deleterious effects before they are felt. Another needed reverse in typical environmental research strategy is to perform biological characterization before source characterization. Time for the needed research is running out. In order to make meaningful progress within a short time frame, we will have to narrow the focus of our research to include only the most serious effects and only their most likely causes. To investigate these, just a few best alternative modes of operation could be selected and then constructed on a full commercial scale. Perhaps more than ever before, cooperation between disciplines is essential. Ecologists, biologists, engineers, and statisticians must pool their knowledge and ideas in solving these problems. The panel was encouraged by the success of their own cross-disciplinary efforts as reflected in this summary.

  3. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. In the study by the gasification test on 2t/d furnace, gasification test was conducted for the OM coal newly selected as a coal proposed for the expansion of coal kind. As a result, the pulverized coal/char of OM coal have almost good handling property and showed favorable gasification performance. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstrative machine, with the aim of developing a combustor that makes stable combustion also in the low load region possible, fabrication of the accessory equipment of combustor (choke mechanism, measuring use duct and heat insulating plate) was made for the actual-pressure/actual-size combustion test. In the study by simulation of the total system of combined cycle power generation, etc., the following were conducted: verification of characteristics of the integrated control (state of the ordinary operation, state of the mock load control, etc.), load dump simulation (state of the bleed cooperation, state of the bleed separation (state of the air booster operation, etc.)), etc. (NEDO)

  4. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

    2014-11-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SLAG CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL USING PULSE DETONATION TECHNOLOGY DURING COAL GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DANIEL MEI; DR. JIANREN ZHOU; DR. PAUL O. BINEY; DR. ZIAUL HUQUE

    1998-07-30

    Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. Conventional slag removal methods including soot blowers and water lances have great difficulties in removing slags especially from the down stream areas of utility power plant boilers. The detonation wave technique, based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. A slight increase in the boiler efficiency, due to more effective ash/deposit removal and corresponding reduction in plant maintenance downtime and increased heat transfer efficiency, will save millions of dollars in operational costs. Reductions in toxic emissions will also be accomplished due to reduction in coal usage. Detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability, important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results describe the parametric study of the input parameters in removing the different types of slag and operating condition. The experimental results show that both the single and multi shot detonation waves have high potential in effectively removing slag deposit from boiler heat transfer surfaces. The results obtained are encouraging and satisfactory. A good indication has also been obtained from the agreement with the preliminary computational fluid dynamics analysis that the wave impacts are more effective in removing slag deposits from tube bundles rather than single tube. This report presents results obtained in effectively removing three different types of slag (economizer, reheater, and air-heater) t a distance of up to 20 cm from the exit of the detonation tube. The experimental results show that the softer slags can be removed more easily. Also closer the slag to the exit of

  8. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  9. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of in situ gasification-chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) of Indian coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Menon, Kavitha G; Prakash, K S; Prudhvi, S; Anudeep, A

    2016-10-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an inherent CO 2 capture technology. It is gaining much interest in recent years mainly because of its potential in addressing climate change problems associated with CO 2 emissions from power plants. A typical chemical looping combustion unit consists of two reactors-fuel reactor, where oxidation of fuel occurs with the help of oxygen available in the form of metal oxides and, air reactor, where the reduced metal oxides are regenerated by the inflow of air. These oxides are then sent back to the fuel reactor and the cycle continues. The product gas from the fuel reactor contains a concentrated stream of CO 2 which can be readily stored in various forms or used for any other applications. This unique feature of inherent CO 2 capture makes the technology more promising to combat the global climate changes. Various types of CLC units have been discussed in literature depending on the type of fuel burnt. For solid fuel combustion three main varieties of CLC units exist namely: syngas CLC, in situ gasification-CLC (iG-CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). In this paper, theoretical studies on the iG-CLC unit burning Indian coal are presented. Gibbs free energy minimization technique is employed to determine the composition of flue gas and oxygen carrier of an iG-CLC unit using Fe 2 O 3 , CuO, and mixed carrier-Fe 2 O 3 and CuO as oxygen carriers. The effect of temperature, suitability of oxygen carriers, and oxygen carrier circulation rate on the performance of a CLC unit for Indian coal are studied and presented. These results are analyzed in order to foresee the operating conditions at which economic and smooth operation of the unit is expected.

  11. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in a bubbling fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure. 2. Results and recommendations for scaling up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-19

    A gasification gas with an H{sub 2} content as high as 80 vol %, dry basis has been obtained by gasification of coal with pure steam at 600-800{sup o}C. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed operating with CaO in the bed as the CO{sub 2} sorbent. The research was carried out at a small pilot plant scale with continuous feeding of coal and batch mode introduction of the CaO. The gas composition and gas quality (tar content) is given for the following variables of operation: (a) type of in-bed sorbent used, (b) the amount of CaO in the bed related to the amount of coal fed, (c) temperature in the gasifier bed, (d) weight hourly space velocity (h{sup -1}) of the coal in the gasifier, and (e) time(-on-stream). To capture CaO at atmospheric pressure, the gasification with in-bed CaO had to be carried out at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) gasification temperatures. For this reason, the tar content in the gasification gas was high (up to 52 g/Nm{sup 3}), which lowered the value of the H{sub 2}-rich gasification raw gas. It is demonstrated that a gas rich in H{sub 2} (80 vol % H{sub 2}, dry basis), and with very low CO{sub 2} and tar contents, can be obtained only if the coal gasification, at atmospheric pressure and with pure steam, is carried out at (CaO/coal) ratios above 10-15.

  13. Rapid co-pyrolysis of rice straw and a bituminous coal in a high-frequency furnace and gasification of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Dai, Zheng-hua; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Chen, Xue-li; Yu, Guang-suo; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-04-01

    Rapid pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SB) separately, and rapid co-pyrolysis of RS/SB blends (mass ratio 1:4, 1:4, and 4:1), were carried out in a high-frequency furnace which can ensure both high heating rate and satisfying contact of fuel particles. Synergies between RS and SB during rapid co-pyrolysis were investigated. Intrinsic and morphological structures of residual char from co-pyrolysis, and their effects on gasification characteristics were also studied. Synergies occurred during rapid co-pyrolysis of RS and SB (RS/SB=1:4) resulting in decreasing char yields and increasing volatile yields. Synergies also happened during gasification of the char derived from co-pyrolysis of RS and SB with mass ratio of 1:4. The increased mass ratio of RS to SB did not only weaken synergies during co-pyrolysis, but significantly reduced the gasification rates of the co-pyrolysis char compared to the calculated values. Results can help to optimize co-conversion process of biomass/coal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Characteristics of Kiwira Coal Waste with Rice Husk Blends for Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatus Kazawadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eminent depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution are the key forces driving the implementation cofiring of fossil fuels and biomass. Cogasification as a technology is known to have advantages of low cost, high energy recovery, and environmental friendliness. The performance/efficiency of this energy recovery process substantially depends on thermal properties of the fuel. This paper presents experimental study of thermal behavior of Kiwira coal waste/rice husks blends. Compositions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% weight percentage rice husk were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer at the heating rate of 10 K/min to 1273 K. Specifically, degradation rate, conversion rate, and kinetic parameters have been studied. Thermal stability of coal waste was found to be higher than that of rice husks. In addition, thermal stability of coal waste/rice husk blend was found to decrease with an increase of rice husks. In contrast, both the degradation and devolatilization rates increased with the amount of rice husk. On the other hand, the activation energy dramatically reduced from 131 kJ/mol at 0% rice husks to 75 kJ/mol at 100% rice husks. The reduction of activation energy is advantageous as it can be used to design efficient performance and cost effective cogasification process.

  16. Push-pull test: a method of evaluating formation adsorption parameters for predicting the environmental effects on in situ coal gasification and uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drever, J.I.; McKee, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The push-pull test, which is a simple injection and pumping sequence of groundwater spiked with solutes of interest, is presented as a method of determining the adsorption characteristics of a formation. Adsorption properties are necessary to predict restoration from both in situ coal gasification and in situ uranium extraction. The major problems in applying laboratory measurements to the field concern scaling the effect of particle size and obtaining representative samples. Laboratory measurements are conducted on gram to kilogram scale samples, whereas the push-pull test evaluates a sample weighing approximately 130 to 1000 metric tons, depending on volume injected and porosity. The problem in translating laboratory results to the field appear to be less severe for sedimentary uranium bodies than for coal. Laboratory measurements are useful in delineating ranges in adsorption properties and in planning the field experiment. Two field push-pull tests were conducted on uranium formations in Wyoming. Adsorption properties estimated from these tests on the basis of a simple cell model were compared to the laboratory values. In the first case, excellent agreement was observed between the values estimated from the field test and the values measured in the laboratory. In the second case, the value for K/sub d/ determined in the laboratory was five times higher than the field value. It is recommended that push-pull tests be conducted on coal formations being considered for in situ gasification in view of the great uncertainty in extrapolating laboratory adsorption properties to the field

  17. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and

  18. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H 2 ), with and without carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO 2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO 2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO 2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO 2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H 2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  20. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  1. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  2. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  3. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The results of model studies involving numerical simulation of underground coal gasification process are presented. For the purpose of the study, the software of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was selected for simulation of underground coal gasification. Based on the review of the literature, it was decided that ANSYS-Fluent will be used as software for the performance of model studies. The ANSYS- -Fluent software was used for numerical calculations in order to identify the distribution of changes in the concentration of syngas components as a function of duration of coal gasification process. The nature of the calculations was predictive. A geometric model has been developed based on construction data of the georeactor used during the researches in Experimental Mine "Barbara" and Coal Mine "Wieczorek" and it was prepared by generating a numerical grid. Data concerning the georeactor power supply method and the parameters maintained during the process used to define the numerical model. Some part of data was supplemented based on the literature sources. The main assumption was to base the simulation of the georeactor operation on a mathematical models describing reactive fluid flow. Components of the process gas and the gasification agent move along the gasification channel and simulate physicochemical phenomena associated with the transfer of mass and energy as well as chemical reactions (together with the energy effect). Chemical reactions of the gasification process are based on a kinetic equation which determines the course of a particular type of equation of chemical coal gasification. The interaction of gas with the surrounding coal layer has also been described as a part of the model. The description concerned the transport of thermal energy. The coal seam and the mass rock are treated as a homogeneous body. Modelling studies assumed the coal gasification process is carried out with the participation of separately oxygen and air as a gasification agent

  4. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of key elements and techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Element techniques were studied and surveyed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle. In fiscal 1995, E coal (coal of high ash fluid point) gasification was tested in the 2 tons/day furnace for the effect of its properties on furnace operation and for its properties relating to gasification and slagging and for changes in such properties due to flux admixed with the E coal. It was then found that the ash fluid point was so high as 1500 degrees C and that flux admixing, recovered oxygen reinjection, etc., would be necessary for the assurance of stable slag discharge. In a study using combined cycle system simulation, a comparison was made between results from tests conducted on a real system and results from the simulation, based on the detailed model completed by the preceding fiscal year. The model was reviewed and improved, and simulations were conducted in the respective operating states and operating modes. In the survey of element techniques, information was gathered at a Japan-U.S. joint technical conference held in Japan in October this year. Studies were also made about technical guidelines, or the like, involving coal gasification power generation. (NEDO)

  5. Biomass gasification using nickel loaded brown coal char in fluidized bed gasifier at relatively low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, D.D.; Xiao, X.B.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gumma (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Our work focuses on developing nickel loaded brown coal char as a new catalyst to decompose tar and to enhance quality of product gas delivered from woody biomass pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures of 823 K and 923 K. It is carried out in two-stage fixed-bed reactor and a lab scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) under various conditions. Inside of gasifier is constructed by two beds, the primary one is a fluidized bed with sand. and the second one is a catalyst bed. The catalyst bed is used to evaluate and to compare catalytic activity between the new catalyst and a conventional Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The new catalyst is prepared by ion exchange method, dried at 380 K in nitrogen for 24 h, and is then calcined at 923 K in nitrogen for 90 min. The temperature as a function of gas yield and the effect of catalysts on gas yield in presence and absence of steam are investigated in this study. The new catalyst has shown high catalytic activity and stable activity and given the high quality of product gas in presence of steam.

  6. Overview of United States coal export terminals. [Includes description of present coal port terminal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Existing coal export ports in the United States are in general not designed to the standards compatible with the current state of the art. The United States has a current coal export capacity in the order of 83 million tons per year. This could be increased to 138 million tons per year through a process of modernization and expansion which would take about six to eight years for full realization. Even if this expansion program took place it would not result in an overall coal export system that was economically competitive due to the fact that our export terminals are generally outmoded and cannot accommodate the large vessels engaged in the world coal trade and which can be accommodated at the major coal destination ports in Europe and Japan. In order for the United States to achieve an economically competitive posture in the world coal trade, new ports that will handle 150,000 to 250,000 DWT ships are needed. The new terminals must be designed to receive coal efficiently and minimize the demurrage costs for both railcars on the delivery side and ships on the load out side. There are port sites available in the US which could be developed to effectively handle the increased requirements. Each major new port could easily be designed to handle 20 to 50 million tons per year at ultimate capacity subject to the availability of coal from the source at a reasonable cost. New port construction is needed to satisfy the projected demand at a reasonable cost and to provide for the obsolescence of existing facilities. Decisions are needed now so that the ports will be operating 20 years from now and serve as replacements for present facilities which are becoming obsolete. The government of the United States can and must play a major role if success is to be achieved.

  7. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  8. Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure: The effect of inorganic species. 1. Literature review and comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-08-30

    This paper addresses the H{sub 2} production with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture by steam gasification of coal in a fluidized bed, at low/medium temperatures (600-800{sup o}C) and atmospheric pressure. This work is mainly aimed at reviewing the effects of the inorganic species present in the matrix of the coal or added to the gasifier bed. The most promising species seems to be the calcined limestone (CaO), which intervenes in the overall gasification reaction network in at least five different types of reactions. The effectiveness of the CaO for CO{sub 2} capture in the coal gasifier is, therefore, affected/influenced by the other four simultaneous or competitive types of reactions in the gasifier. The effects of the temperature in the gasifier and of the (CaO/coal) ratio fed to the gasifier are finally reviewed and discussed in detail.

  9. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  10. Materials of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  11. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  12. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  13. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  14. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  15. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  16. Application of a validated gasification model to determine the impact of coal particle grinding size on carbon conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mayank

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a comprehensive, previously validated multiscale model of entrained flow gasification to examine the impact of particle size on the gasification process in two different gasifier designs; the MHI and the GE gasifier. We show that the impact of the particle size depends on whether the char conversion process is kinetically limited or boundary layer diffusion-limited. Fine grinding helps accelerate char conversion under diffusion-control conditions, whereas the impact is not as noticeable under kinetic-control operation. The availability of particular gasification agents, namely O2 in the earlier sections of the gasifier or CO2 and H2O in the latter sections, as well as the temperature, are shown to have an impact on the relative importance of kinetics versus diffusion limitation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Pilot plant operation edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the operation achievements in fiscal 1993. The plant operation record in fiscal 1993 was as follows: 430 hours 27 minutes in the gasification furnace (ten gasification operations), 233 hours 51 minutes in the gas refining facility, 140 hours 31 minutes in the gas turbine facility (power generation amount of 746.8 MWh with nine actuations), 1,263 hours 09 minutes in the processing furnace in the safety environment facility, and 427 hours 22 minutes in the NOx removal equipment. Descriptions were given with detailed graphs on the actuation and shutdown record with respect to the run D2, the run D3 (1 and 2), the run D4, the run D5, the run D6, and the run D7 (1 through 4). The operation procedures were prepared for the plant startup and shutdown schedule, the generalization report, the gasification furnace facility, the gas refining facility (dry type desulfurizing facility), the gas refining facility (dry type dust removing facility), the gas turbine facility, the combustor testing facility with actual pressure and size, and the safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In fiscal 1995, 1328 hours and 3 minutes (8 gasification operations) was recorded with gasification furnace facility, 899 hours and 53 minutes with the gas clean-up facility, 831 hours and 27 minutes with the gas turbine facility (11 startups for the generation of 6657 MWh), and 1958 hours and 2 minutes with the treatment furnace and 1331 hours and 10 minutes with the denitration unit of the safety/environment-related facility. The details of starts and stops were described in graphs which covered Runs D13, D14-1, D14-2, E1, D15, and A14. Operating procedures were studied and compiled for the plant start/stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and the safety/environment-related facility. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for the establishment of the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation was operated for testing, and the results are put together. Operating hours recorded were 1347 hours and 7 minutes for the gasification furnace facility (7 gasification operations), 752 hours and 22 minutes for the gas clean-up facilities, 425 hours and 20 minutes for the gas turbine facility (6 startups for generating 2616.1 MWh), and 1852 hours for the treatment furnace and 1304 hours and 32 minutes for the denitration system in the safety/environment-related facility. Detailed graphs were drawn for the description of starts and stops in Run D8, Run D9 (1-3), Run D10, Run D11, and in Run D12. Operating procedures were studied and then compiled for the plant start-stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and for the safety/environment related facility. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1989 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (assembly drawing of the pressure part of gasifier, drawing of machinery arrangement of gasifier facilities, system diagram of raw coal receiving device, system diagram of pulverized coal feed equipment, system diagram of char feed equipment, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry desulfurizer (assembly drawing of desulfurizing agent carrying filter, assembly drawing of regeneration tower filter, structural drawing of SO{sub 2} reduction tower filter, assembly drawing of start-up heater, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry dust removal system (assembly drawing of No.1 dust separation filter, installation drawing of elevator, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural cross section of gas turbogenerator, etc.), actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of test stand, structural drawing of exhaust temperature reduction device, assembly/sectioned drawing of low-pressure air compressor, etc.) (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  2. Comparative study of gasification of wood of coffee and coal plant fruit for dehydration; Estudo comparativo da gaseificacao da lenha de cafe e do carvao vegetal para desidratacao de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], Emails: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Renewable energy sources, in particular the biomass, has been gaining more space in the national and global energy matrix, mainly by reducing dependence on fossil fuels and being ecologically correct. The gasification is a process that has been viable and more efficient than conventional ovens and burners. In this context, this work is justified and has its importance in studying various kinds of biomasses used as raw material for production of heated air through the gasification. The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the gasification of the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal, with heating air purpose for dehydration of fruit. The temperature of the drying air was kept in approximately 70 deg C, through the control of air entrance in the mixer. It was concluded that both the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal have potential as a fuel for gasification, with purpose of fruits dehydration. However it is recommended the use of the vegetal coal as the fuel to supply hot and clean air for food drying processes. (author)

  3. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton (3DCEF, catalyst of sewage sludge based activated carbon which loaded Fe3O4) integrating with membrane bioreactor (3DCEF-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated that 3DCEF-MBR represented high efficiencies in eliminating COD and total organic carbon, giving the maximum removal efficiencies of 80% and 75%, respectively. The integrated 3DCEF-MBR system significantly reduced the transmembrane pressure, giving 35% lower than conventional MBR after 30 days operation. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation and bacteria self repair function were the mechanisms for 3DCEF-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated 3DCEF-MBR was expected to be the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  6. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  7. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  8. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  9. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of dismantling and surveys of techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the establishment of technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, studies were made for the dismantling of the 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant and surveys were conducted of overseas technologies. In the gasification furnace facility, 40 devices were selected, and dismantled, from the locations corresponding to the factors of damage expected to occur involving important equipment. Although no significant damage was detected in the gasification pressure vessel, peripheral walls, or the like, malfunctions due to corrosion or abrasion were discovered in some pipes and members. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (desulfurization facility), damage due to heat stress or corrosion was detected in the regeneration tower inner cyclone, regeneration tower filter flexible tubes, and in circulation gas cooler cooling tubes. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (dedusting facility), damage was found in the dust collector gas seal valve, dust collector filter materials cut valve, and in the separator A/B. In the gas turbine facility, no abnormality was discovered but for some damage in some initial stage static vanes. (NEDO)

  10. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  11. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A record was summarized of the operation of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. As to the actual results of operation hours, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities which were collected from April 1991 to January 1993. Relating to the actual results of start-up/stop, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, generalization, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  12. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  14. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  15. Carbon stable isotope analysis as a tool for tracing temperature during the El Tremedal underground coal gasification at great depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasseur, A.; Antenucci, D.; Bouquegneau, J.-M.; Coeme, A.; Dauby, P.; Letolle, R.; Mostade, M.; Pirlot, P.; Pirard, J.-P. [Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium). Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Institut de Chimie

    2002-01-01

    The new opportunity given by the underground gasifier developed at Alcorisa in Spain (Province of Teruel) in the framework of an European experiment has promoted a better understanding of gasification in a natural reactor. The thermodynamical equilibria of gasification reactions and the repartition of the stable isotopes of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in the produced gases have been used to monitor the process. An estimation of the temperatures inside the gasifier and at the exhaust gas been performed. As shown by the isotopic balances, the tar formation is negligible or null and the pyrolysis zone spreads continuously. The study has confirmed the reality of the {sup 13}C isotopic abundance measurements for the system CO/CO{sub 2} as an indicator of the temperature inside the gasifier. During the gasifier expansion, the temperature at the exhaust decreases whereas the temperature inside the gasifier is practically constant showing a slight increasing trend. As pointed out by the data, the oxygen enrichment of the gasifying agent plays an important role on the estimated temperatures. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  18. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  19. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  20. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  1. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by a two-continuous UASB system with step-feed for COD and phenols removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Han, H.J.; Yuan, M.; Li, H.Q.; Fang, F.; Wang, K. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-05-15

    A two-continuous mesophilic (37 {+-} 2{sup o}C) UASB system with step-feed was investigated as an attractive optimization strategy for enhancing COD and total phenols removal of the system and improving aerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater. Through the step-feed period, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD and total phenols reached 55-60% and 58-63% respectively in the system, at an influent flow distribution ratio of 0.2 and influent COD concentration of 2500 mg/L; the corresponding efficiencies were at low levels of 45-50% and 43-50% respectively at total HRT of 48 h during the single-feed period. The maximum specific methanogenic activity and substrate utilization rate were 592 {+-} 16 mg COD-CH{sub 4}/(gVSS d) and 89 {+-} 12 mg phenol/(gVSS d) during the step-feed operation. After the anaerobic digestion with step-feed, the aerobic effluent COD concentration decreased from 270 {+-} 9 to 215 {+-} 10 mg/L. The results suggested that step-feed enhanced the degradation of refractory organics in the second reactor.

  2. Microbial nitrate removal in biologically enhanced treated coal gasification wastewater of low COD to nitrate ratio by coupling biological denitrification with iron and carbon micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengwen; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Zheng, Mengqi; Zhu, Hao; Ma, Weiwei

    2018-04-21

    Mixotrophic denitrification coupled biological denitrification with iron and carbon micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) is a promising emerging bioprocess for nitrate removal of biologically enhanced treated coal gasification wastewater (BECGW) with low COD to nitrate ratio. TN removal efficiency in R1 with IC-ME assisted was 16.64% higher than R2 with scrap zero valent iron addition, 23.05% higher than R3 with active carbon assisted, 30.51% higher than R4 with only active sludge addition, 80.85% higher than R5 utilizing single IC-ME as control. Fe 2+ generated from IC-ME decreased the production of N 2 O and enriched more Nitrate-reducing Fe(Ⅱ) oxidation bacteria (NRFOB) Acidovorax and Thiobacillus, which could convert nitrate to nitrogen gas. And the presence of Fe 3+ , as the Fe 2+ oxidation product, could stimulate the growth of Fe(III)-reducing strain (FRB) that indicated by redundancy analysis. Microbial network analysis demonstrated FRB Geothrix had a co-occurrence relationship with other bacteria, revealing its dominant involvement in nitrate removal of BECGW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced degradation of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) under the micro-oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Wang, Dexin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study an integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) for strengthening removal of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated MEBR achieved high efficiencies in removal of COD and phenolic compounds as well as improvement of biodegradability of CGW under the micro-oxygen condition. The integrated MEBR process was more favorable to improvement of the structural stability of activated sludge and biodiversity of specific functional microbial communities. Especially, Shewanella and Pseudomonas were enriched to accelerate the extracellular electron transfer, finally facilitating the degradation of phenolic compounds. Moreover, MEBR process effectively relieved passivation of Fe-C filler surface and prolonged lifespan of Fe-C filler. Accordingly, the synergetic effect between iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and biological action played a significant role in performance of the integrated process. Therefore, the integrated MEBR was a promising practical process for enhancing CGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  5. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO 2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋ ten ), total exergy efficiency (ŋ tex ) and carbon sequestration rate (R cs ) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋ ten and ŋ tex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and R cs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The pollutants removal and bacterial community dynamics relationship within a full-scale British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater treatment using a novel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    The novel system of EBA (based on external circulation anaerobic (EC) process-biological enhanced (BE) process-anoxic/oxic (A/O) process) was applied to treat the British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in Erdos, China. After a long time of commissioning, the EBA system represented a stable and highly efficient performance, particularly, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile phenols in the final effluent reached 53, 0.3, 18, 106mg/L and not detected, respectively. Both the GC-MS and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses revealed significant variations of organic compositions in the effluent of different process. The results of high-throughput sequencing represented the EBA system composed 34 main bacteria which were affiliated to 7 phyla. In addition, the canonical correspondence analysis indicated high coherence among community composition, wastewater characteristics and environmental variables, in which the pH, mixed liquid suspended solids and total phenols loading were the most three significant variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater using a novel anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR)-biological aerated filter (BAF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian; Hou, Baolin

    2014-04-01

    A novel system integrating anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) with short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) process was investigated as advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results showed the system had efficient capacity of degradation of pollutants especially nitrogen removal. The best performance was obtained at hydraulic residence times of 12h and nitrite recycling ratios of 200%. The removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon, NH4(+)-N, total phenols and total nitrogen (TN) were 74.6%, 70.0%, 85.0%, 92.7% and 72.3%, the corresponding effluent concentrations were 35.1, 18.0, 4.8, 2.2 and 13.6mg/L, respectively. Compared with traditional A(2)/O process, the system had high performance of NH4(+)-N and TN removal, especially under the high toxic loading. Moreover, ANMBBR played a key role in eliminating toxicity and degrading refractory compounds, which was beneficial to improve biodegradability of raw wastewater for SBNR process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sewage sludge modified by coal gasification slag and electron beam irradiation on the growth of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. and transfer of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng; Li, Xin

    2018-02-10

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate the feasibility of sewage sludge modified by coal gasification slag pretreatment and electron beam irradiation in soil application for cultivation of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The results showed that modified sewage sludge had an active effect on the growth of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . The sandy soil and modified sludge at the volume ratio of 2:1 were optimal, and the growth potential of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . was highest. In the sandy soil, the values of bioconcentration factor of most heavy metals were below 1.0 except for Zn and Cu. The average bioconcentration factor values of heavy metals in Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . decreased in a sequence of Zn>Cu>Ni> Mn>Co>Pb>Cr>Fe>V>Cd>Mo for all treatments. Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . could decrease the eco-toxicity and bioavailability of Ni, Fe, and Mo in all mixed soil, and Alhagi sparsifolia Shap . could reduce the eco-toxicity and bioavailability of all heavy metals discussed in this study (except for Mn) in the mixed soil of SS:MSS = 2:1.

  11. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    A record was summarized of the operation test study in FY 1992 of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. The operating hour of gasifier facilities in FY 1992 was 635 hours 19 minutes, and the number of times of gasification operation was 9. The operating hour of letting gas through to gas refining facilities was 549 hours 14 minutes. The operating hour of gas turbine facilities was 310 hours 18 minutes, and the generated output was 1,366.2 MWh. The operating hour of treatment furnace of safety environment facilities was 1,401 hours 4 minutes, and that of the denitrification system was 621 hours 24 minutes. As to the actual results of the start-up/stop, the paper detailedly recorded those of RUNs 10, 11, 12, 13 and D1. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  12. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  13. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1990 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (system diagram of the main pipe of gasifier, system diagram of gasifier air, system diagram of slag processing, system diagram of recycle gas, diagram of starting light oil pipe system, etc.), gas refining facilities (flow sheet of dry desulfurizer process, structural drawing of desulfurizing tower dust hopper, structural drawings of regeneration tower/rotary valve, etc.), gas refining facilities (flow sheet of dry dust removal system process, structural drawing of No.1 dust discharger, assembly drawing of protection filter, outline drawing of coarse powder discharger, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural drawing of air booster, flow sheet of process, system diagram of the main piping, scheme drawing of equipment layout, logic diagram of sequential control, block diagram of protection interlock, logic diagram of gas turbine control, etc.) (NEDO)

  14. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  15. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  16. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  17. Combining coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and external carbonless heat for efficient production of gasoline and diesel with CO2 capture and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkuyeh, Yaser Khojasteh; Adams, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Several systems are presented which convert NG, coal, and carbonless heat to fuel. • Using nuclear heat can reduce the direct fossil fuel consumption by up to 22%. • The use of CCS depended on the carbon tax: above $20-30/t is sufficient to use CCS. • CTL is only the most economical when the price of NG is more than $5 /MMBtu. • Compared to a traditional CTL plant, total CO 2 emission can be reduced up to 79%. - Abstract: In this paper, several novel polygeneration systems are presented which convert natural gas, coal, and a carbonless heat source such as high-temperature helium to gasoline and diesel. The carbonless heat source drives a natural gas reforming reaction to produce hydrogen rich syngas, which is mixed with coal-derived syngas to produce a syngas blend ideal for the Fischer–Tropsch reaction. Simulations and techno-economic analyses performed for 16 different process configurations under a variety of market conditions indicate significant economic and environmental benefits. Using a combination of coal, gas, and carbonless heat, it is possible to reduce CO 2 emissions (both direct and indirect) by 79% compared to a traditional coal-to-liquids process, and even achieve nearly zero CO 2 emissions when carbon capture and sequestration technology is employed. Using a carbonless heat source, the direct fossil fuel consumption can be reduced up to 22% and achieve a carbon efficiency up to 72%. Market considerations for this analysis include prices of coal, gas, high-temperature helium, gasoline, and CO 2 emission tax rates. The results indicate that coal-only systems are never the most economical choice, unless natural gas is more than 5 $/MMBtu

  18. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  19. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/Technical survey; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant was made, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In the gasification test using a 2 t/d furnace equipment, study was made of the extraction of subjects on the operation, performance of gasification, slagging characteristics and characteristics of flux addition. In the study of slag utilization technology, chemical analysis, test on fine aggregate and test on fine particle were carried out to study applicability of the slag discharged from the entrained bed coal gasification power plant to various materials. In the study of a large gas turbine combustor for the demonstrative machine, the demonstrative machine use large gas turbine combustor testing equipment was installed at actual pressure/actual size combustion testing facilities in the pilot plant and further the test use combustor was integrated into them. By using them, the real gas combustion test was made using the adjusted coal for evaluation of combustion performance of the test use combustor. In the simulation study of the total pilot plant system, the comparative study was made between the data on the test using the actual machine and the results of the simulation. (NEDO)

  20. Effects of Design/Operating Parameters and Physical Properties on Slag Thickness and Heat Transfer during Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Ye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the slag layers formed by the deposition of molten ash onto the wall are important for the operation of entrained coal gasifiers. In this study, the effects of design/operation parameters and slag properties on the slag behaviors were assessed in a commercial coal gasifier using numerical modeling. The parameters influenced the slag behaviors through mechanisms interrelated to the heat transfer, temperature, velocity, and viscosity of the slag layers. The velocity profile of the liquid slag was less sensitive to the variations in the parameters. Therefore, the change in the liquid slag thickness was typically smaller than that of the solid slag. The gas temperature was the most influential factor, because of its dominant effect on the radiative heat transfer to the slag layer. The solid slag thickness exponentially increased with higher gas temperatures. The influence of the ash deposition rate was diminished by the high-velocity region developed near the liquid slag surface. The slag viscosity significantly influenced the solid slag thickness through the corresponding changes in the critical temperature and the temperature gradient (heat flux. For the bottom cone of the gasifier, steeper angles were favorable in reducing the thickness of the slag layers.

  1. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    The overall objective of the current project was to investigate the high pressure gasification characteristics of a feed containing both coal and biomass. The two feed types differ in their ash contents and ash composition, particularly the alkali content. Gasification of a combined feed of coal and biomass has the potential for considerable synergies that might lead to a dramatic improvement in process economics and flexibility. The proposed study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the chemistry, kinetics, and transport effects during high pressure gasification of coal-biomass blend feed. Specifically, we studied to develop: (a) an understanding of the catalytic effect of alkali and other inorganic species present in the biomass and coal, (b) an understanding of processing conditions under which synergistic effects of the blending of coal and biomass might be observed. This included the role of particle size, residence time, and proximity of the two feed types, (c) kinetics of high pressure gasification of individual feeds as well as the blends, and (d) development of mathematical models that incorporate kinetics and transport models to enable prediction of gasification rate at a given set of operating conditions, and (e) protocols to extend the results to other feed resources. The goal was to provide a fundamental understanding of the gasification process and guide in optimizing the configurations and design of the next generation of gasifiers. The approach undertaken was centered on two basic premises: (1) the gasification for small particles without internal mass transfer limitations can be treated as the sum of two processes in series (pyrolysis and char gasification) , and (2) the reactivity of the char generated during pyrolysis not only depends on the pressure and temperature but is also affected by the heating rates. Thus low heating rates (10-50 °C/min) typical of PTGA fail to produce char that would typically be formed at high heating rates

  2. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  4. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1994 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research edition and technology survey edition; 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    With an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D has been carried out on the elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1994. In the research on the large gas turbine combustor for the demonstration plant, combustion tests were carried out by using the actual gas from the designed coal (coal D). In addition, the minimum gas flow rate test, fuel calory change test, and fuel switching test were performed from the viewpoint of evaluating the low load stability. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the combustion performance of the tested combustor, such tests were conducted as the combustor pressure loss characteristics test, bypass valve flow rate characteristics test, light oil ignition and light oil combustion test, and tests on the characteristics to switch from light oil to coal gas and the coal gas combustion characteristics. Evaluations were given on the NOx conversion rate, CO, THC, combustion efficiency, metal temperatures, pattern factors, pressure loss, internal pressure variation, and vibration stress. In the simulation research of the composite power generation system, the simulation models were varied according to the actual plant requirements in association with the progress of the tests on the pilot plant. The results of the simulations were reflected to the general load pressure control equipment. (NEDO)

  6. Integrated gasification combined cycle and the capture of CO{sub 2}: a solution for the mitigation of the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal fired power plants at large scale in the short term?; O ciclo combinado com gaseificacao integrada e a captura de CO{sub 2}: uma solucao para mitigar as emissoes de CO{sub 2} em termeletricas a carvao em larga escala no curto prazo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2010-03-15

    The power sector of many big economies still relies heavily on coal fired plants and emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology which holds advantages over current conventional coal technologies, including higher efficiency, pathway to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and higher product and fuel flexibility. The most critical obstacles for commercialization of IGCC technology are higher costs, lower reliability, and little operating experiences. The present work aims to analyze the maturity and the costs of the IGCC technology, with and without CCS, in order to evaluate its potential to be introduced in the generation fleet at big scale in the short term and, hence, its potential to guarantee the possibility to use coal in the power sector without compromising the effort to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The focus of the analysis of the technical viability concentrates strongly on the gasification process, since it the most critical process for the operation of the plant. The cost analysis contains three steps: a revision of cost estimates in scientific literature, a revision of reported cost for actually planned projects and a cost simulation that aims to analyze the influences of assumptions regarding the additional technology risk of IGCC plants. (author)

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  10. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  11. Thermodynamic considerations in the application of reverse mode gasification to the destruction of hazardous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.W.; Washington, M.D.; Manahan, S.E.; Medcalf, B.; Stary, F.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies by the authors have demonstrated the effectiveness of reverse mode gasification using a granular coal char matrix for treatment of hazardous wastes. Calculations pertaining to this gasification are presented, including a one-dimensional temperature profile and a thermodynamic analysis. Equilibrium compositions were calculated by free energy minimization using commercially available software. The calculated results were compared with experimental data for gasification of mixtures containing water, selected hydrocarbons, and used motor oil. Batch and continuous feed reactors were used with optimized operating parameters to generate the data. The dry gas product obtained from gasification of water and selected hydrocarbons contains carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, in agreement with thermodynamic predictions, and the compositions agree well with predictions obtained assuming that chemical equilibrium is attained at a temperature of 650{degree}C. The dry gas product from gasification of motor oil contains small amounts of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, which are not thermodynamically stable, but the composition of the major products generally agrees with the thermodynamic predictions. Under optimized conditions, the aqueous condensate contains between 1 and 100 ppm organics. Heat balance terms for the process were also calculated, and these demonstrate the efficiency of gasification as a treatment method. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    } separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  13. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  14. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  15. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Detailed Design Specification (DDS). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    The software modules which comprise the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program are described. A hierarchical input processing output (HIPO) chart for each user command is given. The description consists of: (1) function of the user command; (2) calling sequence; (3) moduls which call this use command; (4) modules called by this user command; (5) IGDS commands used by this user command; and (6) local usage of global registers. Each HIPO contains the principal functions performed within the module. Also included with each function are a list of the inputs which may be required to perform the function and a list of the outputs which may be created as a result of performing the function.

  16. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Kinetics of gasification and combustion of residues, biomass and coal in a bubbling fluidized bed; Die Kinetik der Vergasung und Verbrennung unterschiedlicher Abfaelle, Biomassen und Kohlen in der blasenbildenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, S.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    1998-09-01

    The combustion and gasification characteristics of Rhenish brown coal, domestic waste, waste plastics, wood and sewage sludge were investigated in a bubbling atmospheric fluidized bed in the laboratory scale. The materials were pyrolyzed in the fluidized bed in a nitrogen atmosphere. The residual coke was combuted in the presence of oxygen with varying operating parameters or else gasified in the presence of carbon dioxide. The different materials were characterized by global combustion rates, and kinetic parameters were determined for residual coke combustion. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Verbrennungs- und Vergasungsverhalten von Rheinischer Braunkohle, Hausmuell, Restkunststoff, Holz und Klaerschlamm wurde in einer blasenbildenden, atmosphaerischen Laborwirbelschicht untersucht. Die Einsatzstoffe wurden in der mit Stickstoff fluidisierten Wirbelschicht pyrolysiert. Der verbleibende Restkoks wurde anschliessend unter Variation der Betriebsparameter mit Sauerstoff verbrannt oder mit Kohlendioxid vergast. Die unterschiedlichen Einsatzstoffe wurden durch globale Vebrennungsraten charakterisiert. Fuer die Restkoksverbrennung wurden kinetische Parameter ermittelt. (orig.)

  18. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  19. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  20. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  1. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  2. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO x reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO x reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO x reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO x reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed economic benefits of the FFR

  3. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-09-10

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed

  4. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  5. Studies on biomass char gasification and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhanping; You, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    The gasification performances of two kinds of biomass char by experiment methods are studied, including conversion rate and gasification gas component with temperature and time. Experimental results show that gasification temperature has important effects on the conversion rate and gas component. In the range of experimental temperature, char conversion rates are no more than 30.0%. The apparent activation energies and apparent reaction frequency factors of two biomass chars are obtained through kinetic studies.

  6. Literature survey of mild gasification processes, co-products upgrading and utilization, and market assessment: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M.; Nawaz, M.; Duthie, R.G.; Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Bair, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this DOE-sponsored project is to develop an advanced mild gasification process to produce coal-derived co- products that can readily open new markets for coal in both the utility and nonutility sectors. The study will incorporate novel and innovative concepts for process development and for co-products utilization. The former includes the development of a means to promote the rapid, continuous devolatilization of caking coals, the use of inexpensive reactor additives for capturing sulfur compounds, and the use of inexpensive reaction gases to produce co-products of optimal quality and quantity. It is the ultimate goal of this project to commercialize the advanced mild gasification technology in the next 5 to 10 years. 109 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char from different rank of coal blended with lignocellulosic biomass: Effects of the cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Luo, Zhengyuan; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu; Zhao, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of cellulose on the physicochemical properties and the gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. A specific surface area analyzer and an X-ray diffraction system were used to characterize the pore structure and the micro-crystalline structure of char. Fractal theory and deconvolution method were applied to quantitatively investigate the influence of cellulose on the structure of co-pyrolysis char. The results indicate that the improvements in the pore structure due to the presence of cellulose are more pronounced in the case of anthracite char with respect to bituminous char. Cellulose promotes the ordering of micro-scale structure and the uniformity of both anthracite and bituminous char, while the negative synergetic effect was observed during gasification of co-pyrolysis char. The exponential relationships between fractal dimension and specific surface area were determined, along with the relations between the gasification reactivity index and the microcrystalline structure parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EXPERIMENT OF PEAT GASIFICATION IN PLASMA REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Lázár, Marián; Lengyelová, Marta; Kurilla, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gasification of solid and low quality fuel from the economic point is not a new idea or a new technology. Industrial applications for the production of energo gas from coal dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century, whilst the construction of several large industrial plants for producing the electricity from coal and heavy oil fractions have been launched in the United States and Europe in the last 40 years. The aim of this contribution is to verify the assessment of u...

  9. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has propertie...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....... similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  11. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... proposed rule is an important element in MSHA's Comprehensive Initiative to ``End Black Lung--Act Now..., and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  12. Simulation analysis of wastes gasification technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year a significant growth in the amount of wastes generated is observed. Due to this fact technologies enabling utilization of wastes are needed. One of the ways to utilizes wastes is thermal conversion. Most widely used technology for thermal conversion is gasification that enables to produce syngas that can be either combusted or directed to further synthesis to produce methanol or liquid fuels. There are several commercially available technologies that enable to gasify wastes. The first part of this study is subjected to general description of waste gasification process. Furthermore the analysis and comparison of commercially available gasification technologies is presented, including their process arrangement, limits and capabilities. Second part of the study is dedicated to the development of thermodynamic model for waste gasification. The model includes three zones of gasification reactors: drying, gasification and eventually ash melting. Modified Gibbs minimization method is used to simulate gasification process. The model is capable of predicting final gas composition as a function of temperature or equivalence ratio. Calculations are performed for a specified average wastes composition and different equivalence ratios of air to discuss its influence on the performance of gasification (temperature of the process and gas composition. Finally the model enables to calculate total energy balance of the process as well as gasification and final gas temperature.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research and technology survey edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    With an objective of establishing a coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D works have been carried out on elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. In the research on the slag utilization technology, discussions were given on the applicability of slag discharged from a 200 t/d pilot plant to fine aggregate for concrete. In the research on a large gas turbine combustor for a demonstration plant, the test conditions were discussed and the reliability of the combustor was analyzed to conduct an actual gas combustion test using the coal D in continuation from the test in the previous fiscal year. In the research on the simulation of a composite power generation system, the simulation models were reviewed and corrected. Load variation simulations were carried out on every operation mode to have conducted comparison with and discussion on the actual plant data. In order to clarify the slagging phenomenon in the 200 t/d pilot plant, a characteristics test was performed by using a 2 t/d furnace. As a result, the combustor ash load and the dynamic pressure in the axial direction in the throat section were presumed to be the large factors for the occurrence of slagging. (NEDO)

  14. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  15. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  16. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  17. Processing of bituminous coal tar at high temperature with bituminous coal additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.B.; Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.

    1943-05-10

    In short tests, results of the effects of a bituminous coal addition to the processing of tar and pitch were obtainable. Coal used was that from the Heinitz Mines (Upper Silesian), saturated with 1--1.2% iron sulphate. On a mixture of bituminous coal tar residue and tar oil, with a relatively low level of solids and asphalt, a substitution was made for the addition of 2% alkalized iron-grude-catalyst with 20% coal. The same yield was reached using a straight-run procedure. The coal gave somewhat more gasification and additional asphalt in the sludge without increasing the solids content correspondingly. In spite of this, the carbonization results were somewhat improved, which led one to conclude that the coal addition fostered the decomposition of the tar asphalt, and, that the asphalt from the coal could be better carbonized than that out of the tar. One found, also, that the tar mixture with coal additive permitted trouble-free hydrogenation to gasoline and middle oil. Still another short test met with success. A bituminous coal tar pitch containing 24% benzene solids and 36% asphalt, which could not be processed with iron catalyst or even molybdenum-grude, was hydrogenated to gasoline and middle oil with a usable yield of .25 by a 20--25% addition of coal. Here too, the carbonization results were good. The addition of coal had no notable influence on the properties of the resulting oils. The document included test procedures. 11 tables.

  18. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  19. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  20. The technology of extracting gaseous fuel based on comprehensive in situ gasification and coalbed degassing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Шабаров

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study considers a comprehensive technology (designed and patented by the authors of developing coal and methane deposits which combines in situ gasification of lower coalbeds in the suite of rock bump hazardous gassy beds, extraction of coal methane and mechanized mining of coal. The first stage of the technology consists in mining gaseous fuel that enables one to extract up to 15-20 % of total energy from the suite of coalbeds. Geodynamic zoning is used to select positions for boring wells. Using the suggested technology makes it possible to solve a number of tasks simultaneously. First of all that is extracting gaseous fuel from the suite of coalbeds without running any mining works while retaining principal coalbeds in the suite and preparing them for future processing (unloading and degassing. During the first phase the methane-coal deposit works as a gas deposit only, the gas having two sources – extracted methane (which includes its locked forms, absorbed and adsorbed and the products of partial incineration of thin coalbeds, riders and seams from thee suite. The second stage consists in deep degassing and unloading of coal beds which sharply reduces the hazards of methane explosion and rock bumps, thus increasing the productivity of mechanized coal mining. During the second stage coal is mined in long poles with the account of degassing and unloading of coal beds, plus the data on gas dynamic structure of coal rock massif.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  2. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  3. Proceedings of the papers of the 33rd Coal Science Conference (1996); Dai 33 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi happyo ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-28

    This is a proceedings of the papers made public in the 33rd (fiscal 1996) Coal Science Conference held by the Japan Institute of Energy. The number of the papers included is 82. The processes such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification and pyrolysis are largely influenced by reaction of the carbon compound in coal. However, coal, which is different in reaction characteristics depending on its producing area, is a comprehensive compound. Therefore, the trial has been made for clarifying the molecular structure and skeleton. In the sense, the following papers are taken notice of: Suzuki and others` Estimation for origin of coals by biomaker analysis; Sugimoto and others` Change of unit skeletons during the artificial coalification; Hirado and others` Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Okawa and others` Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kanbayashi and others` Analysis of the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction characteristics by using the coal database.

  4. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cogasification of Coal and Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Brar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been significant research interest in cogasification of coal and various types of biomass blends to improve biomass gasification by reducing the tar content in the product gas. In addition, ash present in biomass catalyzes the gasification of coal. However, due to the fibrous nature of biomass and the large difference in gasification temperature of coal and biomass, cogasification in existing systems presents technical challenges. This paper documents research studies conducted on the cogasification of various types of coal and biomass using different types of gasifiers under various sets of operating conditions. In addition, the influence of cogasification on upstream and downstream processing is presented.

  6. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  7. Coal Technology Program progress report for April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Several modifications were made in the bench scale hydrocarbonization system in an attempt to develop a procedure for handling of caking coals. Experimental work on the pyrolysis of large blocks of coal, on pressurized carbonization of residues, and on three-phase mixing was continued. Impact testing of 10-in.-thick pressure vessel steel disclosed major gradients in impact properties. Development of a variety of methods for nondestructive testing of wear- and process-resistant coating was continued. The development of welding techniques for cladding of carbon steels with Alloy 320 stainless steel has been successful. A microprobe examination of high alloy steel tubes that had been exposed in a fluidized bed combustor for 500 hr revealed about 0.001-in.-thick scales of predominantly calcium sulfate. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project design, fabrication, and installation of equipment needed for initial operations with potassium was continued. Similarly, the design study of a coal-fired boiler for an alkali metal vapor topping cycle was continued. Engineering study and technical support work continued with activities in process modeling; a survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities; and studies of processes for heat recovery, rapid hydrogenation, and purification of hot gas. Process and program assistance work included studies on low-Btu gasification, high-Btu gasification, liquefaction, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, and in-situ gasification of coal.

  8. Addition to the Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program to allow computation from coal composition data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, R.

    1980-01-01

    Changes made to the Coal Gasification Project are reported. The program was developed by equilibrium combustion in rocket engines. It can be applied directly to the entrained flow coal gasification process. The particular problem addressed is the reduction of the coal data into a form suitable to the program, since the manual process is involved and error prone. A similar problem in relating the normal output of the program to parameters meaningful to the coal gasification process is also addressed.

  9. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specified conversion behavior is ARF's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (1) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (2) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (3) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  11. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  13. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  14. Effects of coal related development on communities in the Mendota region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenholz, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Coal related development has been experienced by the two county Mendota coal region on northern Missouri during the 1970's. Coal surface mining has increased until nearly one million tons were mined in 1977. A coal gasification facility is expected to be constructed in the region during the early 1980's. This facility will use 1.4 million tons of coal annually to produce low Btu gas which, in turn, will be used to produce electricity. The anticipated employment and labor income effects from coal related development in the Mendota region are examined. The study objectives embrace the coal related development and include: appraising the potential effects on local employment, population and income; examining the potential community adjustments and the timing of these adjustments; examining the potential economic and social implications for the community.

  15. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  16. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  17. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  18. CO{sub 2} and steam gasification of a grapefruit skin char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Montesinos, F.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [University of Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-03-01

    A kinetic study on the gasification of carbonized grapefruit (Citrus Aurantium) skin with CO{sub 2} and with steam is presented. The chars from this agricultural waste show a comparatively high reactivity, which can be mostly attributed to the catalytic effect of the inorganic matter. The ash content of the carbonized substrate used in this work falls around 15% (db) potassium being the main metallic constituent. The reactivity for both, CO{sub 2} and steam gasification, increases at increasing conversion and also does the reactivity per unit surface area, consistently with the aforementioned catalytic effect. Lowering the ash content of the char by acid washing leads to a decrease of reactivity thus confirming the catalytic activity of the inorganic matter present in the starting material. Saturation of this catalytic effect was not detected within the conversion range investigated covering in most cases up to 0.85 - 0.9. Apparent activation energy values within the range of 200-250 kJ/mol have been obtained for CO{sub 2} gasification whereas the values obtained for steam gasification fall mostly between 130 and 170 kJ/mol. These values become comparable with the reported in the literature for other carbonaceous raw materials including chars from biomass residues and coals under chemical control conditions. 28 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  20. Etudes préliminaires à la gazéification souterraine profonde des charbons. Perspectives et problèmes Preliminary Research on the Deep Underground Gasification of Coal. Outlook and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après création dans une couche de charbon d'une communication entre deux forages, la gazéification in situ vise à réaliser l'extraction de l'énergie du charbon grâce au soutirage par l'un des puits de gaz combustible résultant de la combinaison du charbon en place avec les réactifs gazeux injectés par l'autre puits. Si une méthode de mise en communication des forages peut être découverte pour des couches de charbon profondes (plus de 800 m il restera à déterminer comment conduire l'opération de gazéification et à évaluer la quantité de gaz, susceptible de méthanation, récupérable, dans un gisement donné, par un doublet de forages ; cette quantité gouverne en effet l'intérêt économique de l'opération. Un recensement des couches de charbon situées en France au delà de 800 m de profondeur, d'épaisseur au moins égale à 2 m et que rien n'empêche actuellement de considérer comme utilisables pour le procédé fournit une estimation totale, avec pondération suivant l'incertitude, de 2 milliards de tonnes. L'ampleur de ces ressources incite sur le plan français à s'efforcer d'établir si le procédé de gazéification souterraine permet leur récupération à un coût acceptable. Sur le plan mondial l'enjeu est, bien entendu, encore plus considérable. After a communication has been created between two boreholes in a Goal bed, insitu gasification is a way of trying to extract the energy contained tn the coal by with-drowing, via one of the wells, the combustible gas resulting from the combination of the Goal in place with gaseous reactants injected via the other well. If a method con be discovered for creating a communication betwen boreholes for deep Goal beds (deeper than 800 m, a method will still have ta be discovered for carrying out the gasification operation and for evaluating the amount of gas available for methanationthot is recoverable in a given deposit via a pair of boreholes. This amount effectively

  1. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorpor