van Zee, Emily H.
In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.
Altemueller, Lisa; Lindquist, Cynthia
The flipped classroom is a teaching methodology that has gained recognition in primary, secondary and higher education settings. The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, delivering lecture instruction outside class, and devoting class time to problem solving, with the teacher's role becoming that of a learning coach and…
Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591
Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga
This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics...... workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and in depth explanations, and can engage the learner. However, students stated that they miss just......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...
Broderick, Alicia; Mehta-Parekh, Heeral; Reid, D. Kim
Differentiating instruction, a comprehensive approach to teaching, enables the successful inclusion of all students, including the disabled, in general-education classrooms. As inclusive educators, we argue that disability is an enacted, interactional process and not an empirical, stable fact or condition. We recommend planning responsive lessons…
Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two…
The purpose of this paper is to examine research intended to facilitate the instruction of writing in second language classrooms. Since writing is both a skill and an art, empirical studies of writing present some uncertainty. Traditionally, research on composition has viewed writing as a product. These studies consequently examined the efficacy of one grammar over another under the assumption that a pedagogical approach that would best develop students' writing should focus on usage, structu...
Yamashita, Mika Yoder
This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.
Ritzenthaler, Mark Daniel
Technology has become increasingly saturated into the very fabric of students' daily lives. They are exposed to and use technology in every facet of their lives, including their schoolwork. With millions of dollars being spent by school districts on technology and its infrastructure, this study used an on-line survey to gather data on how teachers…
This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking
Full Text Available While a great deal has been written on the advantage and benefits of online teaching, little is known on how..assessment is implemented in online classrooms to monitor and inform performance and progress. The..purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of WebCT classroom assessment by analyzing the..perceptions and experience of the instructors. Grounded theory method was employed to generate a - process..theory- . The study included 10 faculties who taught WebCT classes, and 216 students in the College of..Education in an urban university in the Mid west. Interviews and classroom observations were undertaken..on line. The findings indicated that, performance-based assessment, writing skills, interactive assessment..and learner autonomy were major assessment aspects to inform teaching and enhance learning. If one of..the major roles of online instruction is to increase self-directed learning, as part of the pedagogical..mechanism, web-based classroom assessment should be designed and practiced to impact learner autonomy.
Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012
Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…
Hindman, Annemarie H; Wasik, Barbara A
In the current study, we employed the 2006 cohort of the large-scale, nationally representative, Head Start Family and Child Experiences (FACES) dataset to construct a snapshot of vocabulary instruction and learning in high-poverty preschools. Specifically, we examined Head Start teachers' reports of the frequency of vocabulary instruction in their classrooms as well as the overall quality of their classroom instruction. We also explored the teacher- and center-level factors that predicted these dual aspects of instruction, and the role of that instruction in children's vocabulary development over the preschool year. Participants included 293 teachers in 116 Head Start centers, as well as 2501 children in their classrooms. Results showed that, whereas there was notable variation, most teachers reported providing a variety of vocabulary-focused instructional activities nearly every day. The quality of their classroom instruction was generally modest. Classroom instructional quality was predictive of children's vocabulary learning, with stronger relations apparent for children with lower initial skills and for classrooms with higher quality instruction. The frequency of instruction in vocabulary was not related to children's word learning. Results provide new descriptive data about the state of vocabulary instruction in Head Start preschools and highlight both areas of success and opportunities for additional support. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, the modes of presentation in classic DE seemed to hinder the kinds of human interactions normally experienced in the traditional classroom, fostering individualized and isolated learning experiences.Online learning is a hybrid between the traditional classroom and the DE experience. Like the traditional classroom, instruction is teacher-facilitated. The student is enrolled in a conventional course with topic (lecture presentations, reading and homework assignments, classroom discussions, and class projects. Unlike the traditional classroom, courses are web-based and distributed from a distance, using an assortment of synchronous and asynchronous computer technologies and offered anywhere and anytime. In this way, online learning is different from the classic DE model by encouraging decentralized and collaborative learning environments. So that in this presentation will be discuss design principles for online instruction as being a new kind of classroom.
Instructional strategies such as Think-Pair-Share and Socratic questioning are powerful ways to get students engaged in thinking processes. In this talk, tips and techniques that help students make sense of physics concepts in lecture-based classes are presented with specific examples. The participants will see the effectiveness of the instructional strategies by actually experiencing the process as learners with the use of clickers.
Featro, Susan Mary; DiGregorio, Daniela
Theories on emerging technologies have stated that using blogs in the classroom can engage students in discussion, support peer learning, and improve students' literacy skills. Research has pointed to many ways that blogging is beneficial to student learning when used as an instructional tool. The researchers conducted a project that investigated…
This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…
van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.
This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these
Frankel, Katherine K.
At the end of the twentieth century, genre theorists and practitioners debated the possibility of explicitly teaching genres in classrooms. Though the debate is decades old, it continues to be relevant to contemporary discussions about literacy instruction because it addresses questions about how to provide all students with access to genres of…
Bautista, Romiro G.
This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students' learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was…
Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah; Muhamad, Aminuddin
This critical assessment attempts to define a good instructional design through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars and the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller, Jerome Bruner, and Richard E. Mayer and so on. This examination also discusses ways in directing the mental map of students for better knowledge…
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas
In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…
Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J
This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Utilizing digital technology as a medium for educational instruction has now become one of the 21 century pedagogy trends. Numerous researches suggested that using digital technology provides positive impacts as it gives more access to resources for the learning. In Foreign language pedagogy, using digital technology fosters learners’ autonomy by self-managing the amount of learning inputs outside the classroom. However, many studies emphasize more on the communicative and the vast resources accessible for the learners. Very limited attention given to the impact of the visual aid that focuses on aesthetic values of instructional design. English Grammar is one of many subjects that often received complaints by learners and claimed as a “boring” subject. Many English teachers especially in developing countries still utilize traditional method in teaching grammar. They introduce sentence structure using grammar formulas. Although, this method is still very popular, it often considered monotonous by many learners. This paper discusses about the study of using Prezi.com presentation to deliver grammar instruction materials in an English language classroom. From the study, it was found that the majority of the students involved in the study are fond of the materials and the post-test results showed grammar mastery improvement after receiving a grammar lesson that shows instructional materials using prezi. On the other hand, the control class that uses only writing boards and worksheets showed less improvement. This research provides new technique in developing grammar instruction design using a web tool called Prezi in enhancing the display of the instruction material. The experiment was given to students of English Language Education. The result of the study shows students’ positive perception toward the use of Prezi in English grammar instructional material.
Eyerly, William J., Jr.
Theatre instructional techniques, including reader's theatre and process drama teaching strategies, have been employed as instructional strategies in classrooms to enhance reading comprehension and vocabulary learning in students. In this era of increasing accountability for educational outcomes, quantifying what, if any, impact such instructional…
Clary, R. M.; Walker, R. M.; Wissehr, C.
Environmental education (EE) facilitates students' scientific and environmental literacy, and addresses content areas including sustainability, ecology, and civic responsibility. However, U.S. science content compartmentalization and EE's interdisciplinary nature historically made it a fragmented curriculum within U.S. schools. To gain a better understanding of effective EE instruction that can be transferred to traditional K-12 classrooms, we researched the interactions between a recognized environmental residential camp and students and teachers from six participating schools using grounded theory methodology. Our research identified the residential learning center's objectives, methods of instruction, and objectives' alignment to the delivered curricula. Data generated included lesson plans, survey responses, and interviews. Students (n = 215) identified wilderness and geology activities as the activities they wanted to experience more; they also identified developing curiosity and a sense of discovery as the most meaningful. Whereas most student-identified meaningful experiences aligned with the center's curricular objectives within the optional units, categories emerged that were not explicitly targeted in the unit activities but were embedded throughout the curriculum in sustainable practices, data collection, and reflections. We propose that embedded activities and implicit instruction can be included across content areas within K-12 classrooms. Teacher modeling and implicit instruction will require minimal classroom time, and facilitate students' scientific and environmental literacy in topics such as sustainability and citizen responsibility.
Full Text Available Students in today’s mixed ability classrooms come from diverse backgrounds with needs. In such a scenario, differentiated instructions are of prime importance for teachers to deal with in mixed ability classrooms. The teaching experiences and academic life mould perceptions of teachers which effects their teaching style; therefore, it is important to know teachers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding teaching in a mixed ability classroom at middle school level so as to guide educators and heads inside and outside the institution. For this study, quantitative research method was used to explore and understand the beliefs and perceptions of the teachers of middle schools regarding implementing differentiated instructions. The sample size included 120 teachers who were sent a survey questionnaire through online Google form and was constructed by customizing the questionnaire from Ballone and Czerniak (2001. The analysis of quantitative inquiry revealed that there is a positive association between teachers’ beliefs about their intentions and stakeholders’ expectations to implement differentiated instruction. It was highlighted that all stakeholders wanted teachers to implement differentiated strategies; however, the teachers were found to be short of planning and instructional time for differentiation.
Carpenter, Christopher S.; Bruckner, Tim A.; Domina, Thurston; Gerlinger, Julie; Wakefield, Sara
Objectives We examine whether state educational standards regarding tobacco correspond with teacher reports of classroom instruction. Methods We test this relation with data on tobacco use prevention standards, reports of middle and high school teachers from the 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles study, and logistic regression models. Results State education standards are significantly related to increased likelihood of a lead health education teacher in that state reporting that the specific topic was taught in the school. These relationships are stronger for middle school teachers than for high school teachers. Conclusions Associations between state standards and teacher reports of actual instruction are consistent with education standards influencing the teaching of these health education topics. PMID:29552575
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or
Künsting, Josef; Neuber, Victoria; Lipowsky, Frank
In this longitudinal study, we examined teachers' self-efficacy as a long-term predictor of their mastery goal orientation and three dimensions of instructional quality: supportive classroom climate, effective classroom management, and cognitive activation. Mastery goal orientation was also analyzed as a predictor of instructional quality.…
Long, Taotao; Cummins, John; Waugh, Michael
The flipped classroom model is an instructional model in which students learn basic subject matter knowledge prior to in-class meetings, then come to the classroom for active learning experiences. Previous research has shown that the flipped classroom model can motivate students towards active learning, can improve their higher-order thinking…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B
This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each classroom were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups on the basis of their performance on a narrative test. Narrative and vocabulary instruction was provided by an SLP in 1 classroom for three 30-min periods per week for 6 weeks. The children in the experimental classroom made clinically significant improvements on narrative and vocabulary measures; children in the comparison classroom did not. Within the experimental classroom, children in the high-risk subgroup demonstrated greater gains in narration and fewer gains in vocabulary than children in the low-risk subgroup. There were no subgroup differences in the comparison classroom. These preliminary results provide early evidence of the feasibility of implementing a narrative instruction program in a classroom setting. Children at a high risk for language difficulties appeared to profit more from the narrative instruction than from the embedded vocabulary instruction. More extensive research on this instructional program is warranted.
Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others
Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga; Kofoed, Lise
The flipped classroom approach is an instructional method that has gained momentum in the last years. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. We believe that the flipped classroom, which employs computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom...... and devotes classroom time to group activities with the teacher as facilitator is well justified by the core principles of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and therefore we applied for two consecutive years the flipped classroom approach to an undergraduate statistics course during a whole semester. This paper...... presents data from the second year, where we conducted a survey study among students participating in the flipped statistics course. This study consisted of two surveys designed to gather student perceptions on the out-of-classroom preparation material (videos and quizzes) and the flipped classroom...
This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.
Chen, Xi; Li, Yeping
In this study, we examined the instructional coherence in a Chinese mathematics classroom by analyzing a sequence of four videotaped lessons on the topic of fraction division. Our analysis focused on the characteristics of instructional coherence both within and across individual lessons. A framework was developed to focus on lesson instruction in…
Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Chris D.; Rivera Chavez, Wendy
Astronomy: State of the Art is a MOOC specifically developed to study student participation in an online learning environment. The project aims to serve multiple audiences of learners. For this project we focused on college students who use the online environment for lectures and quizzes but whose classroom time is devoted to hands-on activities and group work; this is the “flipped classroom” model.In spring 2014, Astronomy: State of the Art was co-convened with “The Physical Universe,” a Natural Sciences course taught at the University of Arizona that satisfies a General Education requirement for non-science majors. Using the same core material as Astronomy - State of the Art (with additional modules on the physics of radiation, atomic structure, energy, and gravity that are not necessary for the informal learners), the local course employed a “flipped” model where the students access lectures and podcasts online but are in a face-to-face classroom two times a week for labs and hands-on activities, lecture tutorials, group discussions, and other research-validated tools for enhancing learning. A flipped or hybrid model gives students flexibility, uses the online medium for the aspects of instruction where interaction with an instructor isn’t required, and optimizes the scarce resource of time in a large classroom.Final student grades were closely related to their attendance, however, performance in this class was not correlated with completion of the online video lectures, even though the quizzes were closely tied to the content of these videos. The course will next be taught using Coursera which allow instructors to more closely examine the relationship between students use of course materials and understanding of course topics. The eventual goal is to recruit undergraduates from anywhere in the United States and award them transferrable credit for completing the class.
Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine
Purpose: This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent-community ties, and the school's learning climate. It identifies paths through which leadership explains differences in achievement and…
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the teacher’s instructional language, kinds of nonverbal communication and effects in EFL Classroom. The objects of the research were the teacher and students of one primary school in Merauke. The approach employed was qualitative approach. The type of this research applied discourse analysis (DA. Data collection was conducted through observation by recording and interview. Data from observa tion was used to know the teacher’s instructional Language and kinds of nonverbal communication. Interview was used to know the effects of using the teacher’s instructional Language and nonverbal communication to the students. The research findings showed that (1 the teacher’s instructional language in the classroom activities covered explanations, asking questions, giving feedback, and giving corrections. In term of explanation, the teacher used English, switched and mixed the Indonesian language. The teacher used display question to know the students understanding related to the material. She used referential question to start the classroom and when she checked the progress of the students’ activity. In giving feedback, mostly same with explanation, the teacher also used English even she switched and mixed her language with Indonesian. The teacher used direct correction and indirect correction in giving correction. Repetition was also found in explanation, asking question, giving feedback and giving correction. (2 that the kind The findings revealed s of nonverbal communication used by the teacher in the classroom included gesture, body movement and posture, eye contact and facial expression. These nonverbal were applied to explain some unclear verbal communication. (3 The last, the findings showed that there were positive and negative effects of the teacher’s instructional language The positive effects included motivating the students in studying, increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery
Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. PMID:22229058
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.
Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert
Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural ...
Romiro Gordo Bautista
Full Text Available This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students’ learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was conducted, scored and analyzed which served as the basis in determining the initial learning schema of the respondents. A questionnaire was adopted to find the learning motivation of the students in science. Using Pearson-r correlation, it was found out that there is a highly significant relationship between their internal drive and their academic performance. Moreover, a post-test was conducted after self-paced learning prototype was used in the development of select topics in their curricular plot. It was found out that the students who experienced the self-paced learning prototype performed better in their academic performance as evidenced by the difference of their mean post-test results. ANCOVA results on the post-test mean scores of the respondents were utilized in establishing the causal-effect of the learning prototype to the academic performance of the students in Chemistry. A highly significant effect on their academic performance (R-square value of 70.7% and significant interaction of the models to the experimental grouping and mental abilities of the respondents are concluded in the study.
Barley, Leah M.
Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…
The flipped classroom, a teaching method that delivers lecture content to students at home through electronic means and uses class time for practical application activities, may be useful for information literacy instruction. This article describes many of the characteristics of the flipped classroom teaching model, illustrated with examples from…
Akpan, Sylvester J.; Etim, Paulinus J.; Udom, Stella Ogechi
The virtual classroom and distance education have created new teaching pedagogy. This study was carried out to investigate Virtual Classroom Instruction on Academic Performance of Educational Technology Students in Distance Education, Enugu State. The population for this study was limited to the Students in National Open University, Enugu study…
Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda
Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…
Thrasher, Evelyn H.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Atkinson, J. Kirk
Higher education expenditures are being increasingly targeted toward distance learning, with a large portion focused specifically on web-based instruction (WBI). WBI and classroom-based instruction (CBI) tend to offer students diverse options for their education. Thus, it is imperative that colleges and universities have ample, accurate…
Kleen, Betty; Shell, L. Wayne
The researchers, using a variation of the SERVQUAL instrument, repeated a 1999 study to measure students' satisfaction with instructional technology tools used in their classrooms. Student satisfaction varied by course discipline, by instructional technology, by anticipated grade, and by frequency of use. Female respondents were less satisfied…
Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele
The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…
Background/Context: East Asian schools receive much attention for the comparatively high achievement of their students. To account for this success, scholars and commentators advance broad claims about the rote character of instruction or the complexity of classroom practice, typically generalizing to an entire nation. Yet little is known about…
Templin, Mark Arnold
This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed
Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.
Reports on a study of six fourth grade reading groups that were observed to see if vocabulary instruction was a priority, what kinds of vocabulary instruction occurred, and what shaped teaching decisions. (JC)
Yarbro, Jessica; McKnight, Katherine; Elliott, Stephen; Kurz, Alexander; Wardlow, Liane
Research that examines technology use in the context of daily classroom practices is needed to support the effective digital conversion of classrooms. In this study, 65 seventh- through 10th-grade Mathematics and English Language Arts teachers from six districts across six states logged information about digital strategies they incorporated into…
Protacio, Maria Selena; Sarroub, Loukia K.
In this article, we describe the reading practices in a public and high-achieving 6th grade English classroom in the Philippines. By utilizing a four resources model, we discuss the different roles that students assume in this classroom. Students in this class are mainly code breakers and text users and have limited opportunities to assume the…
Houff, Suzanne G.
Using William Glasser's five basic needs as a foundation, "The Classroom Manager" provides a theoretical base to guide readers in the understanding and development of an effective classroom management program. The topics of survival, belonging and love, power, fun, and freedom are explored through definitions, practical recommendations and case…
Skiba, Russ; Ormiston, Heather; Martinez, Sylvia; Cummings, Jack
Psychological science has identified positive classroom management and climate building strategies as a key element in developing and maintaining effective learning environments. In this article, we review the literature that has identified effective strategies that build classroom climates to maximize student learning and minimize disruption. In…
Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.
The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
Sezer, Baris; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Yilmaz, Ramazan
In this study, to present an instructional model by considering the existing models of instructional design (ARCS, ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey, Seels and Glasgow, Smith and Ragan etc.) with the nature of technology-based education and to reveal analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, and to revise levels with lower levels of…
A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period
Hardy, Shanon D.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new
Orban, Sarah A; Rapport, Mark D; Friedman, Lauren M; Eckrich, Samuel J; Kofler, Michael J
Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during 'preferred' activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction. Boys ages 8-12 (M = 9.62, SD = 1.22) with ADHD (n = 32) and typically developing boys (TD; n = 30) completed a counterbalanced series of working memory tests and watched two videos on separate assessment days: an analogue math instructional video, and a non-instructional video selected to match the content and cognitive demands of parent/teacher-described 'preferred' activities. Objective, reliable observations of attentive behavior revealed no between-group differences during the non-instructional video (d = -0.02), and attentive behavior during the non-instructional video was unrelated to all working memory variables (r = -0.11 to 0.19, ns). In contrast, the ADHD group showed disproportionate attentive behavior decrements during analogue classroom instruction (d = -0.71). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped, serial mediation revealed that 59% of this between-group difference was attributable to ADHD-related impairments in central executive working memory, both directly (ER = 41%) and indirectly via its role in coordinating phonological short-term memory (ER = 15%). Between-group attentive behavior differences were no longer detectable after accounting for ADHD-related working memory impairments (d = -0.29, ns). Results confirm anecdotal reports of intact sustained attention during activities that place minimal demands on working memory, and indicate that ADHD children's inattention during analogue classroom instruction is related, in large part
Harris, Christopher J.; Rooks, Deborah L.
Effectively enacting inquiry-based science instruction entails considerable changes in classroom management practices. In this article, we describe five interconnected management areas that need to be addressed when managing an inquiry-oriented K-8 science classroom. We introduce a pyramid model as a framework for thinking about these management areas and present a brief review of what the research literature says about each area. We propose that enacting inquiry-based instruction requires a different kind of approach to classroom management that takes into account the close-knit relationship between management and instruction. This perspective recognizes the pervasive nature of managing the classroom for inquiry learning.
Riedell, Kate Elizabeth
also provided an in-depth interview as part of the data collection. This comprehensive set of over 200 pieces of data, which includes observations and interviews, as well as artifacts and annotations from the ePortfolios, was analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Six central themes emerged from the data. The findings indicated that teachers incorporated some elements of differentiation, personalization and a limited number of components under UDL to support all learners, including students with special needs. There was no indication that the teachers implemented individualization. In other words, there was limited evidence that teachers planned specifically for meeting the needs of students with a specific disability; rather, they focused on collectively meeting the needs of all learners. They recognized the importance of accounting for student motivation and sought to provide hands-on, authentic learning opportunities to motivate and engage students. Yet, they did not survey and/or ask students for their perception of their classroom experiences. While teachers did utilize the electronic portfolio and found it valuable to varying degrees, they indicated that collaboration and visiting other classrooms were essential to their professional development. Implications from this study include (1) ensuring that teachers understand the differences among differentiation, personalization, individualization and universal design for learning; (2) training for teachers on how to properly differentiate, personalize and individualize instruction, as well as how to implement universal design for learning; (3) providing teachers with follow-up support within the classroom to properly implement the approaches mentioned above; (4) training for teachers on the importance of eliciting students' perceptions and how to gauge those perceptions; (5) properly disseminating information to policymakers on the realities of the classrooms and the challenges in
Mattis, Kristina V.
Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…
Wasko, Christopher W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…
Lau, Carrie; Rao, Nirmala
Vocabulary instruction during English language learning was observed for one week in six classrooms (three K2 classes for four-year olds and three K3 classes for five-year olds) from three kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong. From 23 sessions of observations and 535 minutes of data, field notes were coded to identify instances of…
Martinez, Jose Felipe; Borko, Hilda; Stecher, Brian M.
With growing interest in the role of teachers as the key mediators between educational policies and outcomes, the importance of developing good measures of classroom processes has become increasingly apparent. Yet, collecting reliable and valid information about a construct as complex as instruction poses important conceptual and technical…
Kablan, Zeynel; Topan, Beyda; Erkan, Burak
In this study, the aim was to combine the results obtained in independent studies aiming to determine the effectiveness of material use. The main question of the study is: "Does material use in classroom instruction improve students' academic achievements?" To answer this question, the meta-analysis method was employed.…
Dwyer, David C.; And Others
Beginning in 1985, Apple Computer, Inc., and several school districts began a collaboration to examine the impact of computer saturation on instruction and learning in K-12 classrooms. The initial guiding question was simply put: What happens when teachers and students have constant access to technology? To provide "constant access,"…
Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…
Zhu, Wenlong; Xie, Wenjing
Flipped classroom provides the new ideas and ways for the innovation of university pedagogical mode. Nowadays instructors may apply this new approach to liberal arts majors in university class in order to make up for the problems of low instructional effects in traditional teaching method. From the subjective and objective perspectives, this…
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of…
Tas, Yasemin; Balgalmis, Esra
The goal of this study was to describe Turkish mathematics and science teachers' use of computer in their classroom instruction by utilizing TIMSS 2011 data. Analyses results revealed that teachers most frequently used computers for preparation purpose and least frequently used computers for administration. There was no difference in teachers'…
Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Townsend, Michael A. R.
Investigates how a select group of New Zealand teachers organize their classrooms for reading instruction to avoid the pitfalls that may be associated with ability grouping and yet meet the needs of students of diverse backgrounds and abilities. Offers 3 fundamental reasons why these groups may provide effective contexts for learning as one part…
Gardner, William F., Jr.
Seven school districts in North-Central Florida determined that there was a need to provide elementary school children with more opportunities for experience and participation in arts, crafts, dance, drama, and music. Materials developed to assist elementary classroom teachers in bringing the five arts activities into their instructional programs…
Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane
The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…
Brown, Glenda Maria
Lecture methods in higher education continue to be the most often used form of lesson delivery, although they seem to be less effective in promoting adult students' learning and engagement. Many higher education instructors have incorporated inverted classroom (IC) methods to increase student engagement and learning. The purpose of this…
The purpose of this paper is to study, the extent of constructivist classroom characteristics that exist in ELT (English Language Teaching) Methodology. It is an attempt to explore the constructivist learning activities and evaluation strategies, whether they are useful to the students and the instructors. This paper elevates the contrast of…
Anderson, Charlise Askew
The purpose of this study was to analyze undergraduate teacher candidates' perceptions on integrating technology in the classroom. The study was embedded in the "Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge" theoretical model. A sample of 143 undergraduate teacher candidates participated in the study. They were asked to address items on a…
This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…
The issue of teaching pragmatics in foreign and second language classrooms has received a lot of attention in the recent years. Its origins can be dated back to the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSRAP) led by Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989) and the research on interlanguage speech acts that followed (for a comprehensive…
Algozzine, Kate; Algozzine, Bob
Addressing increasing levels of disruptive behavior and improving discipline is a national matter. The challenge is intensified by teachers' concerns about the growing inclusion of students with emotional and behavioral problems in general education classrooms and the general levels of diversity common in America's schools. Removing children with…
Minter, Mary Kennedy
The emphasis in this paper is on basic principles of pedagogy and communication in the classroom. An underlying need for faculty development emerges because the majority of college professors have not had training in "how to teach." Faculty are products of master and doctorate degree programs where the emphasis is on research and writing…
Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron
There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…
Toporski, Neil; Foley, Tim
In the 1900s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or "canned" broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed distance education (DE) to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where…
Abrams, Gene; Haefner, Jeremy
Describes the MathOnline system at the University of Colorado (Colorado Springs), a learning delivery method that, in addition to blending synchronous and asynchronous learning, combines traditional mathematics instruction with distance learning. Student surveys indicate the system greatly enhances traditional learners' educational experiences…
In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…
Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Enam, Syed Ather
In this study we implemented the "flipped classroom" model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey. Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04). Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools.
Reuter, Jamie M.
The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to
Hunzicker, J.; Lukowiak, T.
The authors present initial findings from a collaborative self-study exploring student engagement as a measure of teaching effectiveness. Focused on their college classrooms during one semester, the study pilots a peer observation model of the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) (Valentine, 2005). Data collection included IPI codes, anecdotal…
Jerich, Kenneth F.
This study identified strengths and weaknesses of the components in the general methods course, "Micro-teaching: Practice in Teaching Techniques", prior to a curriculum reorganization. The course included four basic components: (1) classroom instruction; (2) laboratory pre-conference; (3) laboratory teaching practice; and (4) laboratory…
Cutler, Stephanie Leigh
The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…
Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter
The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…
Janet E. McIntosh
Full Text Available The study described in this paper examines how five novice intermediate English language arts teachers implemented reader response journals, an instructional strategy they learned about in their pre-service English methods course. While using response journals in their classrooms, novice teachers provided student encouragement, thoughtful reflection on their approach, modification as needed, and a consistent positive attitude, even in the face of challenges. Study findings indicate that the theory and practice acquired in their pre-service course was beneficial to them, and that gaining confidence in themselves as teachers through further practice and experiences would enhance their effective use of this classroom strategy.
Full Text Available The “flipped classroom” teaching model has emerged in a variety of educational settings. It provides many advantages for students and exploits the affordances of modern technology. This article describes some of the pedagogical and logistical characteristics of the flipped teaching model. It situates the flipped classroom in higher education and library instruction, and make the case that there are characteristics of information literacy instruction that fit well with the flipped teaching model, in addition to providing some unique challenges.
Crouse, Tricia Lynn
Recent advancements in the speed and availability of the Internet have catapulted distance education into the forefront of possible economic education alternatives. Distance learning courses are taught exclusively over the Internet. Economics distance courses provide alternatives for economics students to traditional classroom instruction, and also invite new students to the discipline who may not have otherwise enrolled. An increase in the number of distance courses in the economics field ha...
Black, Crystal Day; Watties-Daniels, A Denyce
Educational technologies have changed the paradigm of the teacher-student relationship in nursing education. Nursing students expect to use and to learn from cutting edge technology during their academic careers. Varied technology, from specified software programs (Tegrity and Blackboard) to the use of the Internet as a research medium, can enhance student learning. The authors provide an overview of current cutting edge technologies in nursing classroom instruction and its impact on future nursing practice.
Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Ting; Lee, Wei-I
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the flipped classroom approach to OpenCourseWare instruction on students' self-regulation. OpenCourseWare was integrated into the flipped classroom model (experimental group) and distance learning (control group). Overall, 181 freshmen taking a physics course were allowed to choose their…
Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Rasheed, Saleem
The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6.0 software) and a guided notes format as an instructional strategy in inclusive world history classrooms. Students' completed a six item 3 choice student satisfaction survey (agree, undecided, disagree)…
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.
In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…
May, Laura A.
Comprehension (or cognitive) strategy instruction has considerable literacy research supporting it as an instructional practice. Additionally, it has become more common in elementary classrooms, in part, because of the popularity of professional advisement books on the topic. This focus on teaching cognitive strategies also occupies center stage…
Rybarczyk, B; DeMarco, G; DeLaCruz, M; Lapidos, S
Two versions of a multicomponent mind-body wellness intervention were tested. One hundred seventy-eight physician-referred HMO patients (mean age = 64.5) were randomly assigned to a classroom intervention, a home study intervention, or a wait-list control group. Both interventions provided instruction on mind-body relationships, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, communication, behavioral treatment for insomnia, nutrition, and exercise. The home version was delivered by class videotapes and readings. Compared with the control condition, both interventions led to significant decreases in self-reports of pain, sleep difficulties, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The home course also led to a significant decrease in self-reported frequency of medical symptoms, and the classroom program resulted in a significant decrease in "chance" health locus of control beliefs. No effects were obtained for health behaviors, life satisfaction, HMO satisfaction, and other health locus of control beliefs. A lower cost, more accessible home study version of a mind-body wellness program can be an effective alternative to classroom instruction.
Keel, Marie C.; Dangel, Harry L.; Owens, Sherie H.
This article discusses factors involved in selecting appropriate inclusion intervention strategies for students with mild disabilities. Teacher-directed and student-directed interventions include direct instruction, precision teaching, time delay, story maps, advance organizers, student-directed task engagement, student-directed instruction,…
Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah; Li, Weidong; Manson, Mara; Beale, Angela
As part of a larger study, this paper describes teachers' perspectives and strategies on including overweight and obese students (OWS) in instruction related to motor skill/game play and fitness development in physical education. Using the Social Ecological Constraints framework, a qualitative multicase study was conducted using multiple in-depth…
Dr. N. Ramakrishnan; Mrs. J. Johnsi Priya
Flipped Classroom is an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures, collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance o...
Early, Diane M.; Rogge, Ronald D.; Deci, Edward L.
This paper investigates engagement (E), alignment (A), and rigor (R) as vital signs of high-quality teacher instruction as measured by the EAR Classroom Visit Protocol, designed by the Institute for Research and Reform in Education (IRRE). Findings indicated that both school leaders and outside raters could learn to score the protocol with…
Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.
Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.
Carter, Nina Leann
The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.
Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.
Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…
Full Text Available Discourse features that promote the generation of interactionally modified input and output, such as negotiation for meaning, have been shown to significantly enhance second language acquisition. Research has also identified several characteristics of instructional practices that render them more or less propitious to the generation of these discourse features. While various classroom observation studies have successfully measured the communicative orientation of classroom environments, most of the indicators of interactivity analyzed in those studies were obtained through micro-level discourse analyses and not through macro-level analyses of task-related factors shown to directly influence the interactivity of instructional practices. Such a macro-level scale has potential practical implications for teachers and administrators seeking an efficient tool for assessing and improving the interactivity afforded by a given curriculum. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop macro-level scale to determine the extent to which teachers of French and English as a second language use interaction-friendly instructional practices. Using an observation scheme designed to code data on factors shown to influence interactivity, 63 hours of FSL and ESL classes from secondary schools in the Montreal area were observed and analyzed. Results indicate clear differences between the two groups. While both ESL and FSL classes were less teacher-centered than those observed in previous studies, they were still rated as not-very-interactive. Target language differences showed that the FSL classes were more teacher-centered and characterized by fewer interaction-friendly tasks and activities than the ESL classes. Task characteristics, reasons for ESL and FSL differences and recommendations for improvement are discussed.
Puse, Judeza S.; Awata, Takaaki; Atobe, Kozo
The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60 Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)
This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…
Results obtained revealed the effective classroom management techniques included among others constant engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, teachers acting as models, monitoring, effective communication, stimulating classroom environment and regular use of ...
Moranski, Kara; Kim, Frederic
Flipped or inverted classroom (IC) models are promising for foreign language instruction in that they appear to promote well-regarded practices that bridge both sociocultural and cognitive theoretical frameworks, such as allowing for higher degrees of learner agency and facilitating deeper levels of processing. To date, the majority of work on IC…
Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate
Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…
Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve
We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…
Varzaneh, Soheila Shafiee; Baharlooie, Roya
This study investigated the effect of virtual vs. traditional classroom instruction on creative thinking among Iranian High school EFL Learners. One-hundred and forty three female of high and low level of proficiency, who were selected randomly, were assigned to two VLI (N = 60) and TCI group (N = 60) based on their scores in OPT. Then, each group…
Moyer-Packenham, Patricia; Baker, Joseph; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson, Katie; Shumway, Jessica; Rodzon, Kati; Jordan, Kerry
The study reported here examined virtual manipulatives as an instructional treatment in 17 third- and fourth-grade classrooms. Students were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: texts and physical manipulatives, and virtual manipulatives. Results revealed no significant differences in achievement between the treatments. Additional results…
Evans, Stephen; Morrison, Bruce
Research into the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong has traditionally focused on years 7-9; thus, little is known about school policies and classroom practices in the crucial senior-secondary years which fall beyond the ambit of government diktats. This lacuna is particularly conspicuous in the case of Chinese-medium schools, whose students…
The purpose of this qualitative action research study was to explore middle school inclusion teacher perceptions to overcome barriers to successful DI implementation in reading for students with special needs. Inclusion reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing classroom instruction to students with varying abilities, levels, and…
Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Craddock, Caitlin; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study assessed the effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rd-grade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problem-solving instruction (Hot Math, schema-broadening instruction). Students identified as at…
Galway, Lindsay P; Corbett, Kitty K; Takaro, Timothy K; Tairyan, Kate; Frank, Erica
In 2013, a cohort of public health students participated in a 'flipped' Environmental and Occupational Health course. Content for the course was delivered through NextGenU.org and active learning activities were carried out during in-class time. This paper reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of this novel approach. Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students' self-perceived knowledge after participation in the course. We used pre- and post-course surveys to measure changes in self-perceived knowledge. The post-course survey also included items regarding learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model. We also compared standard course review and examination scores for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped Classroom students to previous years when the course was taught with a lecture-based model. We conducted a focus group session to gain more in-depth understanding of student learning experiences and perceptions. Students reported an increase in knowledge and survey and focus group data revealed positive learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model. Mean examination scores for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students were 88.8% compared to 86.4% for traditional students (2011). On a scale of 1-5 (1 = lowest rank, 5 = highest rank), the mean overall rating for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students was 4.7/5 compared to prior years' overall ratings of 3.7 (2012), 4.3 (2011), 4.1 (2010), and 3.9 (2009). Two key themes emerged from the focus group data: 1) factors influencing positive learning experience (e.g., interactions with students and instructor); and 2) changes in attitudes towards environmental and occupation health (e.g., deepened interest in the field). Our results show that integration of the flipped classroom model with online NextGenU courses can be an effective innovation in public health higher education
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.
Kramer, David C., Ed.
Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)
Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G
Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.
Tolbert, Sara E.
This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching
Cunha, Thais B. P. da
Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for
I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…
Vowell, Julie E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which debriefing impacts the level of cognitive understanding among students in the fifth-grade science classroom. This mixed methods study involved two fifth-grade science classrooms (N = 39) in a one month exploration of rocks and minerals. Two fifth-grade science classrooms participated in a unit using identical content, but had different pedagogical orientations. The experimental class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do-Debrief" instructional method and the control class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do" instructional method without the "Debrief" (metacognitive component). Research for the quantitative portion of this study was conducted using a pretest-posttest control-group design. The design was used to test the hypothesized relationship between an activity-based instructional method with debriefing and students' achievement. Two intact, equivalent fifth-grade classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Prior to the beginning of the study, a researcher-developed pretest was administered to all participants to assess the students' prior knowledge of rocks and minerals. A posttest measure was given to the participants upon conclusion of the unit to measure knowledge and understanding. Following the posttest, the participants did not receive additional instruction over rocks and minerals. A similar posttest was administered to both groups two weeks later as an added measure for retention. A t-test for independent samples was used to examine differences on the pretest between the experimental and control groups. Likewise, a t-test was used to compare the mean scores on the first posttest (achievement). A separate t-test was conducted on the second posttest (retention) and was followed by a Pearson Product Moment Correlation, conducted by group. Research for the qualitative portion of this study involved classroom observations throughout the rock and mineral unit followed by a teacher
Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY
Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.
Mary Jo Garcia BIGGS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the results of a project that examined student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in a distance education classroom. The study utilized a survey instrument, Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES that was distributed as a pre-test/post-test to three sections of the same course taught in three distinct formats: traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, and hybrid (partially on-line/partially face-to-face. The DELES survey is a web-based tool specifically designed to assess the learning environment using a standardized, validated instrument. At the beginning of the project, the DELES-Preferred was administered to the three pilot groups. It measures the perception of the “actual” environment, perceptions of the preferred environment, or the “ideal” learning environment of the students. In addition, a brief overview of the DELES instrument is described as well as the implications of the research project findings. Project results, based on the DELES administration, indicate that Instructor Support was rated highest by the students enrolled in the course taught in the traditional manner (4.68 mean closely followed by the Hybrid course (4.66 mean while the course taught totally at a distance averaged a 3.62 mean. However, Student Interaction and Collaboration averaged higher scores in the course taught in the Hybrid manner (4.23 followed by the traditional course (3.97 and then the distance course (3.12. Specific scales of Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active Learning, Student Autonomy and Satisfaction (scale of affect are further addressed in the article.
Myers, Diane; Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George
Effective and engaging instruction is the cornerstone of any well-managed classroom. Even the best behavior support practices will not lead to academic achievement if the academic instruction is ineffective. Specific teacher practices associated with improved student behavior include high rates of opportunities to respond, direct instruction, and…
Chen, Jennifer J.; Liang, Xiaoting
This study investigated the extent to which preschool teachers and children (ages 4-6) used literal and inferential language within the context of whole-group instruction in four kindergarten classrooms in Hong Kong. A total of 20 sessions of videotaped classroom observations of linguistic interactions between teachers and children were…
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…
Although multicultural education scholars and the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) have encouraged the implementation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender themes in the classroom (NAME, 2005), many classroom educators look the other way because of fear, retaliation, or personal discomfort. The following article will…
Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are
Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler
A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…
Luehmann, April Lynn; Frink, Jeremiah
Science teachers struggle with meeting curricular goals outlined by professional organizations within the constraints of traditional school. Engaging science learners as a community who collaboratively and creatively co-construct scientific understanding through inquiry requires teachers to adopt new tools as well as a different mindset about the kind of classroom culture they need to nurture. Classroom blogs (i.e., blogs that are managed by a teacher for his/her students to post their work and exchange ideas) have been purported in the literature as offering unique opportunities to achieve this goal, although with little empirical support thus far. To fill this gap, nine classroom blogs were selected through an extensive search, and systematically analyzed to determine how the teachers' instructional designs and classrooms' enactment were able to capitalize on the specific affordances blogging may offer to support reform-based learning goals. The shift in teacher mindset needed to realize blogging affordances occurred as teachers engaged with students in the process of `living' the classroom blog.
Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.
Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.
Amber Danielle Mazur
Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent
In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that connects students to their communities and their world. Therefore, teachers are in need of instructional support for science teaching that can enable them to achieve these higher expectations. This dissertation explored whether implementing a Project-Based Learning (PBL)-centered science specialist changed classroom teachers' frequency of science instruction and use of instructional strategies that support NGSS science delivery. In addition, this study examined how providing a PBL science specialist supported teachers in their comfort with using these more rigorous instructional strategies. Five elementary teachers participated in an action research project conducted over the course of a school year. The frequency with which teachers used the following instructional strategies was analyzed: connecting science to real world phenomena, accessing community resources, integrating science into other subject areas, and using inquiry in science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that a PBL science specialist does support classroom teachers in implementing teaching practices aligned to the conceptual shifts implicated by the NGSS; however, individual growth rates varied by instructional strategy. The results of this study provide a foundation for the legitimacy of utilizing a PBL-focused science specialist to support teachers in shifting their instructional practices in order to achieve the Next Generation Science Standards.
Waight, Noemi; Liu, Xiufeng; Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa
This paper reports on a case study of an immersive and integrated multi-instructional approach (namely computer-based model introduction and connection with content; facilitation of individual student exploration guided by exploratory worksheet; use of associated differentiated labs and use of model-based assessments) in the implementation of coupled computer-based models and assessment in a high-school chemistry classroom. Data collection included in-depth teacher interviews, classroom observations, student interviews and researcher notes. Teacher conceptions highlighted the role of models as tools; the benefits of abstract portrayal via visualizations; appropriate enactment of model implementation; concerns with student learning and issues with time. The case study revealed numerous challenges reconciling macro, submicro and symbolic phenomena with the NetLogo model. Nonetheless, the effort exhibited by the teacher provided a platform to support the evolution of practice over time. Students' reactions reflected a continuum of confusion and benefits which were directly related to their background knowledge and experiences with instructional modes. The findings have implications for the role of teacher knowledge of models, the modeling process and pedagogical content knowledge; the continuum of student knowledge as novice users and the role of visual literacy in model decoding, comprehension and translation.
Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy
The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…
This article outlines a rational for responsive, differentiated writing instruction that targets students' identified needs with respect to various dimensions of the writing process. Discussed is a cycle that requires ongoing assessment, instructional decision-making, responsive, differentiated instruction, guided practice, and assessment.…
Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor
Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive
Mautone, Jennifer A; DuPaul, George J; Jitendra, Asha K
The present study examines the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of three second-through fourth-grade students with ADHD. A controlled case study is used to evaluate the effects of the computer software on participants' mathematics performance and on-task behavior. Participants' mathematics achievement improve and their on-task behavior increase during the CAI sessions relative to independent seatwork conditions. In addition, students and teachers consider CAI to be an acceptable intervention for some students with ADHD who are having difficulty with mathematics. Implications of these results for practice and research are discussed.
Ajuwon, Paul M.; Lechtenberger, DeAnn; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Sokolosky, Stephanie; Zhou, Li; Mullins, Frank E.
In this empirical study, the authors compare the perceptions of future general educators on two dichotomous scales (hostility/receptivity and anxiety/calmness) regarding the teaching of students with exceptionalities in their classrooms. A total of 116 teacher candidates from one southwestern and two Midwestern universities in the United States…
Reeves, Jenelle R.
Researchers have given limited attention to teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English-language learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. The author explored 4 categories within secondary teacher attitudes toward ELL inclusion: (a) ELL inclusion, (b) coursework modification for ELLS, (c) professional development for working with ELLs, and (d)…
Pressure for students to produce writing perfection in the classroom often eclipses the emphasis placed on the need for students to practice writing. Occasions for students to choose, challenge, and reflect--to actually risk risking--are too often absent from conversations among students and teachers in countless English classrooms. Tom Romano…
Strasser, Katherine; Darricades, Michelle; Mendive, Susana; Barra, Gabriela
Research Findings: This study examines the association between preschool classroom activity and the quality of the language spoken by teachers and children. Eighteen classrooms serving low-income children between the ages of 3 and 4 in Santiago de Chile were audio-recorded during one morning shift. Recordings were transcribed and segmented into…
Gunpinar, Yasemin; Pape, Stephen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways that teachers use connected classroom technology (CCT) in conjunction with the Texas Instruments Nspire calculator to potentially support achievement on Algebra problems that require translation between representations (i.e., symbolic to graphical). Four Algebra I classrooms that initially…
Özpinar, Ilknur; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan; Gökçe, Semirhan
A natural outcome of change in technology, new approaches towards teaching and learning have emerged and the applicability of the flipped classroom method, a new educational strategy, in the field of education has started to be discussed. It was aimed with the study to examine the effect of using flipped classroom method in academic achievements…
Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.
Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…
General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.
Full Text Available The study compares English Second Language (ESL learners' (Zambian primary, secondaryschool and tertiary students intuitions on a number of semantic and grammatical phenomena.Using the Semanticity & Grammatical Judgement Test, a modified version of the GrammaticalityJudgement Test often used by researchers within the Chomskyan tradition (cf Hyams, 1986;White, 1986; Schachter, 1989, this study investigates the possibility of an accessibility hierarchyranging from semantic dimensions to formal dimensions of language. The implications of such ahierarchy for the conceptualization of classroom ESL instruction in a multilingual context arediscussed. Although Zambia serves as the principal point of reference, there are many elementsof relevance to classroom second or third language instruction in South Africa.Hierdie studie vergelyk Engels Tweede Taal (E1T leerders (Zambiese primere, sekondere skool en tersiere studente se intuisies oor verskeie semantiese en grammatikale verskynsels. Deur gebruik te maak van die Semantiese en Grammatikale Oordeel Toets, 'n veranderde uitleg van die Grammatikale Oordeel Toets wat gereeld gebruik word deur navorsers in die Chomskyan tradisie (cf Hyams, 1986; White, 1986; Schachter, 1989. Die studie doen navorsing oor die moontlikheid van 'n toeganklike hierargie wat wissel van semantiese dimensies tot formele dimensies van taal. Die implikasies van so 'n hierargie vir die begrip van klaskamer Err onderrig in 'n meertalige konteks word sowel bespreek. Alhoewel Zambie as die vernaamste punt van verwysing dien. is daar elemente van relevansie tot die klaskamer tweede of derde taal instruksie in Suid-Afrika.
Computers increasingly are being integrated into nursing education. One method of integration is through computer managed instruction (CMI). Recently, technology has become available that allows the integration of keypad questions into CMI. This brings a new type of interactivity between students and teachers into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in achievement between a control group taught by traditional classroom lecture (TCL) and an experimental group taught using CMI and keypad questions. Both control and experimental groups consisted of convenience samples of junior nursing students in a baccalaureate program taking a medical/surgical nursing course. Achievement was measured by three instructor-developed multiple choice examinations. Findings demonstrated that although the experimental group demonstrated increasingly higher test scores as the semester progressed, no statistical difference was found in achievement between the two groups. One reason for this may be phenomenon of vampire video. Initially, the method of presentation overshadowed the content. As students became desensitized to the method, they were able to focus and absorb more content. This study suggests that CMI and keypads are a viable teaching option for nursing education. It is equal to TCL in student achievement and provides a new level of interaction in the classroom setting.
Rutledge, Lorelei; LeMire, Sarah
This article proposes that libraries reimagine their information literacy instructional programs using a broader conceptualization and implementation of information literacy that promotes collaborative and personalized learning experiences for students, faculty, and staff, while embracing scalable instruction and reference strategies to maximize…
Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana; Cederlund, Katarina
Education is in the process of transforming traditional print-based instruction into digital formats. This multi-case study sheds light on the challenge of coping with the old and new in literacy teaching in the context of technology-mediated instruction in the early years of schooling (7-8 years old children). By investigating the relation…
There is gap in passing rates on the standardized science assessment between European American and Hispanic American students. The purpose of this study was to examine student performance in science and the closing of the achievement gap between European American and Hispanic American students based upon receipt of an inquiry or noninquiry instruction method. Guided by the theoretical framework of constructive learning, this quantitative ex post facto research design gathered data from 8 teachers who had already implemented 1 of the 2 methods of instruction. The teachers were chosen through purposive sampling based on previous observations of instructional method and were placed into 2 groups depending upon the type of instruction: inquiry or noninquiry. Descriptive statistics were used to determine mean differences and a 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine mean differences in science test scores between European American and Hispanic American students and between the instructional methods to which they had been exposed. Results found that the inquiry instructional method was related to a significant increase in mean scores for both ethnic groups, but the achievement gap between the two groups was not closed by the inquiry instruction method. This study can promote positive social change for students by informing the efforts of educational leaders and teachers to create professional development using inquiry instruction. Students may perform higher on standardized tests when they are allowed to explore science by asking questions and answering their own questions through the collection and analysis of data.
...) classes into NBL modules. This thesis performs a cost effectiveness analysis on converting the two modules and discusses the intangible costs and benefits associated with converting traditional classroom courses...
Saiboon, Ismail M; Qamruddin, Reza M; Jaafar, Johar M; Bakar, Afliza A; Hamzah, Faizal A; Eng, Ho S; Robertson, Colin E
To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method. Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00); 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00) in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00) in the individual's personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month). At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03) in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47) in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03) in confidence level. In NCCN's, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation.
Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey
This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.
An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invitt responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching ...
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters reiated to ...
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues arid sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
CLASSROOM. Environmental Education in a 'Green Classroom'. Keywords. Environmental attitudes, expe- riential learning, learning outside school, small animals (inverte- brates, insects). Jürgen Drissner1, Hans-Martin. Haase2, Mara Nikolajek3 and. Katrin Hille4. 1,3 Botanical Garden, University of Ulm, D–89081 ULM, ...
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. How Stimulating Ideas Can Generate An Attitude of Inquiry.
Pennycook, J.; LaRue, M.; Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.
Recognizing the need to bridge the gap between scientific research and the classroom, we have developed an exciting activity which engages students in grades 5-12 using high-resolution satellite imagery to observe Weddell seal populations in Antarctica. Going beyond the scope of the textbook, students experience the challenge researchers face in counting and monitoring animal populations in the field. The activity is presented in a non-expert, non-technical exercise enriched for students, with background information, tutorials, and satellite imagery included. Teachers instruct their class in how to use satellite imagery analysis techniques to collect data on seal populations in the McMurdo Sound region of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Students participate in this inquiry-based, open-ended exercise to evaluate changes in the seal population within and between seasons. The activity meets the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through inquiry-based, real-world application and supports seven Performance Expectations (PE) for grade 5-12. In addition, it offers students a glimpse into the work of a field biologist, promoting interest in entering the STEM career pipeline. As every new Antarctica season unfolds, new imagery will be uploaded to the website allowing each year of students to add their counts to a growing long-term dataset for the classroom. The activity files provide 1) a tutorial in how to use the images to count the populations, 2) background information about Weddell seals in the McMurdo Sound region of the Ross Sea for the students and the teachers, and 3) collections of satellite imagery for spatial and temporal analysis of population fluctuations. Teachers can find all activity files to conduct the activity, including student instructions, on the Polar Geospatial Center's website (http://z.umn.edu/seals). Satellite image, Big Razorback Island, Antarctica Weddell seals,Tent Island, Antarctica
Telford, Mark; Senior, Emma
This article describes the experiences of undergraduate healthcare students taking a module adopting a 'flipped classroom' approach. Evidence suggests that flipped classroom as a pedagogical tool has the potential to enhance student learning and to improve healthcare practice. This innovative approach was implemented within a healthcare curriculum and in a module looking at public health delivered at the beginning of year two of a 3-year programme. The focus of the evaluation study was on the e-learning resources used in the module and the student experiences of these; with a specific aim to evaluate this element of the flipped classroom approach. A mixed-methods approach was adopted and data collected using questionnaires, which were distributed across a whole cohort, and a focus group involving ten participants. Statistical analysis of the data showed the positive student experience of engaging with e-learning. The thematic analysis identified two key themes; factors influencing a positive learning experience and the challenges when developing e-learning within a flipped classroom approach. The study provides guidance for further developments and improvements when developing e-learning as part of the flipped classroom approach.
Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.
Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative
Hine, Jeffrey F; Ardoin, Scott P; Foster, Tori E
Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined the effects of the intervention on the latency to on-task behavior of 4 students in 2 classrooms. Data also were collected on students' on-task behavior during activities and teachers' use of prompts and praise statements. Implementation of the intervention substantially decreased students' latencies to on-task behavior and increased on-task behavior overall. Further, the 2 teachers used fewer prompts to cue students to transition and stay on task and provided more praise during intervention phases. We discuss how automating classroom interventions may affect student and teacher behavior as well as how it may increase procedural fidelity. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria
Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…
Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of…
Larson, Sue C.
This chapter describes an empirical study that tests the motivational and learning effects of an intervention designed to initiate and sustain interest and engagement in high school biology classrooms. Positive effects were demonstrated for conceptual understanding, vocabulary acquisition, and perceptions of the learning experiences. [This article…
Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia
Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…
This mixed-methods study explores the differences in 1st-year urban teachers' classroom management beliefs and actions. The teachers in this study were in their first year of teaching in an urban context concurrent with their participation in a teacher education program offered at a large public university. Using program-wide surveys of 89…
Siegel, Christine; Claydon, Jennifer
The current work seeks to explore University professors' perspectives on teaching and learning in an innovative classroom characterized by flexible design of space, furniture and technology. The study took place during the 2015-2016 academic year at Fairfield University, a Masters comprehensive university in the Northeastern United States.…
Al-Bataineh, Adel; Brooks, Leanne
Presents a twenty-year history of computer-based technology integration, focusing on print automation, learner-centered approaches, and virtual learning via the Internet. Discusses integration strategies applicable in the present-day classroom, the hierarchy of teacher effectiveness, and current challenges and trends. Asserts that the ultimate…
Henke, Mitchell E.; Latendresse, Frank
The availability of digital media technology for consumer use has increased students' exposure to technology that was once limited primarily to educational and business environments. As students become more adept consumers and developers of digital media, their expectations in the classroom increasingly involve digital media as an instructional…
Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit
Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…
Allar, Ishonté; Jones, Emily; Bulger, Sean
Quality teacher-child interactions are characteristic of effective classrooms resulting in benefits for all children, but may be particularly important for children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of Illinois Head Start teachers related to how "I am Moving, I am Learning" (IMIL) could…
Ni, Yujing; Zhou, Dehui; Li, Xiaoqing; Li, Qiong
This study, based on observation of 90 fifth-grade mathematics classes in Chinese elementary schools, examined how the task features, high cognitive demand, multiple representations, and multiple solution methods may relate to classroom discourse. Results indicate that high cognitive demand tasks were associated with teachers' use higher order…
Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.
Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…
Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Rodríguez, Mónica Pérez
This paper aims to discuss the impact on promoting student satisfaction and improving their involvement in their own learning when applying a "Flipped classroom" design in a first-year bilingual, English-taught module in a non-English-speaking country. "World Economy" is taught in the Faculty of Business and Economics at a…
Yongue, Imogene T.; And Others
Tested two types of career training (field exposure and didactic classroom) to determine which is more effective in bringing about the development of career maturity. Results indicated that field exposure career training is an effective method to increase career maturity. (Author)
Classroom" section of Resonance, February 1996. As a teacher of chemistry, I read the author's observations on the textbook experiment to determine the percentage of oxygen in air, with great interest. I carried out this experiment carefully, as follows:.
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. 5 N Moitra. Mathematics Department. National Defence Academy. Khadakvasla ...
Vite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and 'Viewpoints on matter·s related to teaching and learning science. , Teaching and Learning Genetics with Drosophila. 2.
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. N Kumar. Raman Research Institute. C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore. 560 080, India.
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and 'Viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. R Vasudeva, Department of. Statistics, University of Mysore,. Mysore 570006, India ...
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Ashok Singh. Department of Mathematics. Government Nehru Memorial. College.
Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. P H Talapadtur c/o Secretary. School of Mathematics. TlFR, Homi Bhabha Road.
Singleton, Royce Jr.
Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)
Ismail M. Saiboon
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN. Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014 at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE method. Results: Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00; 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00 in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00 in the individual’s personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month. At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03 in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47 in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03 in confidence level. Conclusion: In NCCN’s, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation.
Hvidsten, Connie J.
Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their
This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…
The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…
Alex, Jogymol Kalariparambil; Mammen, Kuttickattu John
This paper reports on a part of a study which was conducted to determine the effect of van Hiele theory based instruction in the teaching of geometry to Grade 10 learners. The sample consisted of 359 participants from five conveniently selected schools from Mthatha District in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. There were 195 learners in…
The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…
Cohen, LeoNora M.
This paper discusses four assumptions and four concerns regarding instruction using the World Wide Web. The assumptions address: the novice status of the Web course developer; the developer's appreciation for various aspects of the Web; her high expectations for doing it right; and her commitment to not incurring more costs for distance learners.…
Morris, Lajuana Trezette
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…
Boynton, Christine Mary
In 2006, the California legislature released $14 million to the schools of California to create school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Bill (CA Assembly Bill 1535, 2006). This study examined the differences and similarities of school gardens as learning spaces by exploring a fifth grade school standards-based mathematics…
Kandies, Jerry; Stern, Margaret B.
This paper addresses a range of issues that teachers must consider when designing and developing a World Wide Web-enhanced course. It offers a guiding philosophy for Web-enhanced course design, presents a discussion of improved instruction and course management, outlines design issues that are involved for a course Web environment, and proposes…
Garcia-Nevarez, Ana G.; Stafford, Mary E.; Arias, Beatriz
This study focused on the attitudes that elementary teachers have toward their English language learner (ELL) students' native languages (e.g., Spanish) and their use in instruction. A 27-item Likert-scale survey was administered to 152 first- through fourth-grade teachers from five school districts in Maricopa County, Arizona. These school…
Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia
Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…
This paper will provide a review of research--regarding explicit grammar instruction--that groups recent studies into three main categories and then sub-categorizes these studies under key terms in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The overall purpose of this paper is to argue that in light of these issues, recent studies have shown that…
This study investigates designing and implementing a speaking course in which face-to-face instruction informed by the principles of Task-Based Learning is blended with the use of technology, the video, for the first-year student teachers of English in Turkish higher education. The study consisted of three hours of task-based classroom…
Siebert, Daniel K.; Draper, Roni Jo; Barney, Daniel; Broomhead, Paul; Grierson, Sirpa; Jensen, Amy P.; Nielson, Jennifer; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Wimmer, Jennifer
Current reforms in content area education present new challenges for literacy educators. These reforms promote engaging students in the practices of the disciplines--teaching students how to participate in an activity in which disciplinary content is produced. Content area literacy (CAL) instruction that supports only the learning of general…
Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther
This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a
Sherry, Tammie L.
The purpose of this study was to examine a first grade teacher's instruction during interactive and independent writing times as she taught and prompted her students how to go about spelling unfamiliar words and employ various writing strategies while they were composing. I used a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. Results of…
van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie
In this article, we investigate the integration of concept-based pragmatics instruction, grounded in Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, in an intact second-semester French class (n = 13) over the course of an academic term. Our focus is on learners' appropriation of the concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power with respect…
Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.
Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…
Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour; Campbell, Deborah
Reading and Writing for Adolescence and Adulthood is a course for teacher candidates that introduces them to arts-based literacy instruction. The purpose is to train teachers to enhance reading and writing skills in adolescents. The pre-service teachers were encouraged to study theory and perform practical exercises using the arts so that they…
This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…
This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…
Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.
College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…
Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of a continuum of regulation being also important to understanding Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development which clearly suggests that communicative collaboration with adults or more skilled peers contributes to the development of self-regulation, that is, the capacity for independent problem solving and self-directed activity. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the language classroom, using sociocultural theory and its tenets as a framework, we would see a highly interactive classroom, where the students’ zone of proximal development is identified through strategies such as portfolios, and dialogue journals. Necessity of compiling a textbook based on the above-mentioned principles is stressed.
Morreale, Sherwyn P.; Staley, Constance M.
The essays that comprise "Communication Education's" Forum on Instructional Communication and Millennial Students provide excellent summaries of existing research on this new generational cohort as college students. Taken as a whole, the writings paint an intriguing picture of this cohort, including both challenges and opportunities to…
Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann
This study explores the use of historical short stories as nature of science (NOS) instruction in thirteen secondary science classes. The stories focus on the development of science ideas and include statements and questions to draw students' and teachers' attention to key NOS ideas and misconceptions. This study used mixed methods to examine how…
"Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. School in the forest. A joint experiment between Centre for Learning and Gurukula. Botanical Sanctuary. What do a school in Bangalore and a forest garden in the.
ite image of the Mercury. Transit, taken by Domin- ique Derrick, Belgium, on the 7th of May 2003. (repro- duced with permission). CLASSROOM scale in our understanding of the Universe - the Astronomical. Unit, or the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Historically, the transits of Venus were the first opportunity.
In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...
responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally ti forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. .... Rate (R) = k [Acid]P [NaHC0. 3. ] q. The values of p and q for HCOOH-NaHC0. 3 reaction are calculated as follows as an illustration. Rset - I.
them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters ... find the values taken by f at some n distinct points ao, aI,. ,an-I, one can determine the values of the Ci'S from the usual method of solving a system of linear equa- tions.
classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Surya Majjana ... MES College of Arts, Com- merce and Science ...
classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Pythagorean Theorem From Heron's Formula: Another Proof.
Reduction in dimensionality of bio- logical diffusion pro- cesses, in Structural. Chemistry and Molecular. Biology, (Edns) N David- son and A Rich, W H. Freeman, San Francisco,. 1968. From Uday Maitra, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. ClASSROOM what happens. Given any point, however far away from the origin,.
tum associated with such an apparently simple purely oscillatory 1D harmonic lattice system. The classroom exercise will conclude with a sug- gestion for the possibility that the 'Concrete' case may well correspond to that of hard nanopar- ticulate crystallites embedded in a 1D elastic con- tinuum, e.g., a spider dragline silk, ...
"Classroom" is equally a foru11J. for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Point Set Topological Proof of 'no-retraction'. Theorem for 2 and 3 Dimensional Cases. Sourav Chakraborty. C/o Suprakash Chakraborty. D-138, Grissom Street.
"Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Jyoti Ramakrishnan. M.Stat. lind Year. Indian Statistical Institute ... is, as evident from the normal meaning of the English word, a correspondence which associates ...
manipulate and gain experimental knowledge from. The minds-on examples serve to consistently stimulate the mind of both the self-starter student and the bored/disinterested student to develop an attitude of inquiry. Motivation in the Classroom. What, exactly, is a discrepant event? A discrepant event is a phenomenon that ...
Julie A. Belz
Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.
Oslick, Mary Ellen; Pearson, Mary
To help students see their worlds differently and to expand those views beyond their own backyards, educators can expose them to quality multicultural children's literature. In this article, we focus on a subtopic within the genre of multicultural children's literature: literature including people with disabilities. We chose seven recent texts…
1048. RESONANCE │ November 2011. CLASSROOM. Recall that spheres are smooth and there is no force along the ^z-axis. Therefore viz = v0iz and vjz = v0jz : (6). Using the above equations we can show that v0in = vin1 − e. 2. + vjn. 1 + e. 2. ;. (7) v0jn = vin. 1 + e. 2. + vjn1 − e. 2. : (8). The change in kinetic energy can ...
CLASSROOM. The subscript on S corresponds to the value of n in (4). Various distances are measured. The angle of grazing incidence can be calculated from. 2fJ = tan-1 (OS/PO). (6). Note that () is not pre-decided. The scale is fixed at a certain inclination and () is obtained by measuring OS and PO. The angle d ()n can be ...
are told to take a pair of bunsen burners and keep them burning at a distance of roughly six ... burners. We were expecting to demonstrate that within the six inch aseptic zone there would be fey.l or no bacteria. To our great surprise, this didn't happen. CLASSROOM .... else can we do if there is no power?). One teacher said ...
Skoning, Stacey N.
Benefits to using creative movement and dance as teaching tools in the classroom include increased student understanding of content, improved classroom behavior, and the development of new forms of assessment. Integration of these activities within the instructional day will meet the needs of a variety of learners, especially kinesthetic learners,…
Rybakova, Katie; Whitt, Kate Cook
The classic image of a college classroom often includes a professor standing at the front of a room or hall, often standing near a chalkboard or projector screen, lecturing to a room full of 30 to 100 students diligently taking notes. This model of instruction, often referred to as direct instruction, however, is grounded in somewhat-outdated…
Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies
Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.
As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…
Lo, Chung Kwan; Hew, Khe Foon
Flipping the classroom is a current pedagogical innovation in many schools and universities. Although interest in flipped classroom (or Inverted Classroom) continues to grow, its implementation so far has been driven more by teachers' intuitive beliefs, rather than empirically-based principles. Many studies merely replace in-class instructions…
The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive
Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren
As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…
Anderson, Karen; May, Frances A.
The researchers, a librarian and a faculty member, collaborated to investigate the effectiveness of delivery methods in information literacy instruction. The authors conducted a field experiment to explore how face-to-face, online, and blended learning instructional formats influenced students' retention of information literacy skills. Results are…
"Learner centered" term points out environments that attention to the learners brings to the educational setting. This term includes teaching practices: effort to uncover what learners think in a specific problem on hand, talking about their misconceptions and, giving them situations to readjust their ideas. In Learner centered…
This paper presents a checklist that scaffolds teachers' professional decision-making with regard to differentiated instruction. It discusses the way the concept of differentiated instruction may be applied in an evidence-informed way by presenting a checklist for high-quality differentiated instruction (DI). We tried to tackle the question of how…
Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy
To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…
Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…
Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob
Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…
Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.
Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracts/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…
Three types of instructional games (learning, practice, and creative) are distinguished and discussed, and their place in the second language classroom is considered. It is emphasized that instructional games should complement, not repeat, classroom instruction. (MSE)
Hewett, Beth L.; Ehmann, Christa
This book offers a theoretical justification for online writing instruction (OWI) and a fully developed approach to training educators for such instruction--whether in networked classrooms, distance learning, e-mail- or Internet-based conferences, or online tutoring. The book includes concrete examples of asynchronous (non-real-time) and…
an extremely low-cost experiment of head-on collision of two balls in a vertical direction. The advantages of this phenomenon in the vertical direction are clarified. Some simple estimates are made. A thorough analysis of this simple topic is then made, which includes various special and limiting cases, conditions of collision ...
of practical applications: A manometer consists of a U- tube containing liquid such as mercury or water . A. U-shaped viscometer is used to determine viscosity of both Newtonian  and non-Newtonian fluids, including blood [3,4]. The roll motion of a ship can be stabilized by water inside a pair of tanks (known as the U- ...
This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…
Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.
This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience,…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.
Cristina MUMBARDÓ ADAM
Full Text Available Within Spanish context, initiatives to promote self-determination in educational settings still lacking despite of the availability of instruments designed to enable the instruction of self-determination skills, such as the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction. This evidence-based practice enables teachers to instruct students to develop self-determination actions and skills. This study aims to present the Spanish translated and adapted version of the afore mentioned program/tool, in an effort to improve the focus of self-determination instruction in the Spanish educational context by providing practitioners with a model of instruction intended to teach skills associated with the promotion and enhancement of self-determined action.
Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R
This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.
Goff, Eric E; Reindl, Katie M; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G; Schroeder, Noah L; White, Alan R
The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each have been shown individually. Using ERs developed by the Virtual Cell Animation project, we aim to further investigate student learning using different ERs as part of an introductory biology lecture. We focus our study on the topic of photosynthesis as reports have noted that students struggle with a number of basic photosynthesis concepts. Students (n = 167) in ten sections of introductory biology laboratory were introduced to photosynthesis concepts by instructional lectures differing only in the format of the embedded ERs. Normalized gain scores were calculated, showing that students who learned with dynamic animations outperformed students who learned from static images on the posttest. The results of this study provide possible instructional guidelines for those delivering photosynthesis instruction in the introductory biology classroom. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):226-234, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.
This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the
Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F.; Tucha, Lara I.; Tucha, Oliver
In a typical classroom, children are instructed to remain seated, perform independent seatwork and follow teachers’ instructions. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find these classroom demands particularly difficult to adhere to because, by definition, children with
Roehrig, G. H.; Michlin, M.; Schmitt, L.; MacNabb, C.; Dubinsky, J. M.
In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers’ inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms. PMID:23222837
A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches
Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice
Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...
Unveiling the Teachers' Profiles through an INSET (In Service Training) Course of Greek Primary School Teachers in the Pedagogy of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) In-Classroom Instruction
To meet the increasing demand for change in the infusion of ICT pedagogy in education a nationwide project was launched in Greece on May 2008. An INSET course for primary school teachers in the pedagogy of ICT in classroom instruction. The writer, aimed to study the teachers' views about certain aspects of the training experience in terms of the…
Rau, Martina A.; Kennedy, Kristopher; Oxtoby, Lucas; Bollom, Mark; Moore, John W.
Much evidence shows that instruction that actively engages students with learning materials is more effective than traditional, lecture-centric instruction. These "active learning" models comprise an extremely heterogeneous set of instructional methods: they often include collaborative activities, flipped classrooms, or a combination of…
This non-experimental correlational quantitative study was designed to explore the effects of specialized professional development, age, gender, and years of teaching experience on the successful integration of iPads into classroom literacy education among K-6 students. The study uses the teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge…
Nicol, David J.; Boyle, James T.
Classroom communication system (CCS) technology makes it easier to give students immediate feedback on concept tests and to manage peer and class discussions in large classes. This study compared the effects of two different CCS discussion sequences on students' experiences of learning engineering. The results demonstrated that the type of…
Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.
Ryan, J. G.; McIlrath, J. A.
Web-accessible geospatial information system (GIS) technologies have advanced in concert with an expansion of data resources that can be accessed and used by researchers, educators and students. These resources facilitate the development of data-rich instructional resources and activities that can be used to transition seamlessly into undergraduate research projects. MARGINS Data in the Classroom (http://serc.carleton.edu/ margins/index.html) seeks to engage MARGINS researchers and educators in using the images, datasets, and visualizations produced by NSF-MARGINS Program-funded research and related efforts to create Web-deliverable instructional materials for use in undergraduate-level geoscience courses (MARGINS Mini-Lessons). MARGINS science data is managed by the Marine Geosciences Data System (MGDS), and these and all other MGDS-hosted data can be accessed, manipulated and visualized using GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org; Carbotte et al, 2004), a freely available geographic information system focused on the marine environment. Both "packaged" MGDS datasets (i.e., global earthquake foci, volcanoes, bathymetry) and "raw" data (seismic surveys, magnetics, gravity) are accessible via GeoMapApp, with WFS linkages to other resources (geodesy from UNAVCO; seismic profiles from IRIS; geochemical and drillsite data from EarthChem, IODP, and others), permitting the comprehensive characterization of many regions of the ocean basins. Geospatially controlled datasets can be imported into GeoMapApp visualizations, and these visualizations can be exported into Google Earth as .kmz image files. Many of the MARGINS Mini-Lessons thus far produced use (or have studentss use the varied capabilities of GeoMapApp (i.e., constructing topographic profiles, overlaying varied geophysical and bathymetric datasets, characterizing geochemical data). These materials are available for use and testing from the project webpage (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/). Classroom testing and assessment
Lo, Chung Kwan
There is a growing interest in using a flipped classroom format in day-to-day teaching. Direct computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom and interactive group learning activities inside the classroom are the two essential components of the flipped classroom model. By watching instructional videos, students can work through some…
Scholars and practitioners have reported the positive outcomes of a flipped, or inverted, approach to instruction (Baker, 2000; Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000; Bergmann, 2011; Wright, 2011; Pearson, 2012; Butt, 2012; Bates, 2012). While many of the reports are anecdotal, the sheer number of instructors that have reported successful…
Childers, Jeri L.; Berner, R. Thomas
Examines the issues in a case study surrounding the integration of videoconferencing and Web-based instruction to bring the literature of journalism to life for undergraduate students. Sets forth examples of principles and practices for successful integration of distance education and general education. Also describes the students' reactions in…
This study explores the efficacy of using the Essential Skill Inventories (ESI) to increase high-quality instruction in the early learning years. Kindergarten and first- and second-grade teachers, who were identified as using the ESI with fidelity, assessed their own teaching skills and behaviors, reflecting on these before and after use of the…
Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer
This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.
Full Text Available Abstract This article reports on French as a second language (FSL teachers’ perceptions of using the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-informed instruction (action-oriented instruction focusing on language use in FSL classrooms in Ontario. In particular, this paper focuses on teachers’ perspectives of the strengths and challenges of providing CEFR-informed practice in FSL classrooms. FSL teachers (n=93 as well as elementary and secondary school students (n=943 participated in this province-wide study. Participating teachers were introduced to the CEFR and CEFR-informed activities and resources. Teachers then used the resources in their classrooms for approximately three months. At the end of this period, teachers participated in interviews and focus group sessions which focused on their perceptions’ of CEFR’s action-oriented approach. Teachers reported that CEFR-informed instruction increased student motivation, built self-confidence in their learners, promoted authentic language use in the classroom and encouraged learner autonomy. These findings have implications for FSL programs in Canada and possibly other second language education programs worldwide. Résumé Cet article présente les résultats d’une recherche sur les perceptions des enseignant(es de FLS (Français Langue Seconde en Ontario quant à l’utilisation du CECR (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence dans leurs salles de classe (une approche actionnelle de l’enseignement des langues qui met l’emphase sur l’utilisation même de la langue. Cet article vise principalement à décrire les perspectives des enseignant(es quant à la promotion de l’autonomie d’apprentissage tout en utilisant des pratiques proposées par le CECR. Cette étude a été menée dans la province de l’Ontario avec 93 enseignant(es de FLS et 943 élèves d’écoles élémentaires et secondaires. Les professeur(es ont été tout d’abord introduit(es au Cadre et à des activit
National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017
Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines key action steps that instructional staff--including teachers, paraprofessionals, and others in the classroom who provide instruction or assistance--can take to support school climate improvements. Key action steps are provided…
Hittleman, Daniel R.
Discusses how teachers can judge the quality of instructional guides to using literature for literacy instruction for children and young adults. Lists features such guides should include, characteristics their recommended classroom activities should have, and questions teachers can ask to evaluate their quality. (SR)
My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal; Mehmood Ul Hassan; Muhammad Qasim Ali
Physical classroom environment plays a fundamental role in the academic success or failure of students and serves as a means to build the necessary basic skills for literacy development among students in a deliberate and intensive way. Physical classroom environment includes: a broad range of educational facilities, including: reading and writing materials, various types of equipment, physical settings, and instructional components. Many students come to classroom with exposure to literacy. S...
A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…
Gage, Nicholas A.; Scott, Terrance; Hirn, Regina; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.
Teachers' classroom management practices have a direct impact on their students' probability of success. Evidence-based classroom management practices include (a) active instruction and supervision of students (i.e., teaching), (b) opportunities for students to respond, and (c) feedback to students. In this study, we examined the degree to which…
Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading…
In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that…
‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)
St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.
This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation
Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.
Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh
The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…
Mills, Leila A.; Knezek, Gerald A.; Wakefield, Jenny S.
This research paper explores middle school student attitudes towards learning with technology and proposes a design-based approach to formulating instruction that includes innovative classroom technology use with computers and communications technologies placed in the hands of students. The intent of this research is to advance practice and theory…
Hargis, Jace; Marotta, Sebastian M.
A Center for Teaching and Learning provided Flip camcorders to a group of 10 new faculty members, who were asked to use this teaching tool in their classroom instruction. The classes included mathematics, political science, computer engineering, psychology, business, music and dance. The qualitative results indicate that all faculty members and…
Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.
This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…
This case study explored a process of team-based curriculum deliberation, design, and delivery, used to teach a classroom management course in the context of a school university partnership. A team of university and school-based teacher educators negotiated how best to prepare preservice teachers with effective classroom management knowledge and…
Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.
Carver, Jeffrey S.
The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step
Donica, Denise K; Larson, Michelle H; Zinn, Abbey A
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of elementary school teachers on training in handwriting instruction received during their education, as well as their current classroom practices. The quantity and quality of training in handwriting instruction provided by baccalaureate degree-granting teacher education programs in North Carolina was also examined. An online survey was administered to each population identified to inquire about handwriting instruction practices. Results from 505 teachers and 16 professors indicated that while handwriting instruction content is valued by both teachers and professors, varied levels of training were provided to the teachers. Implications for occupational therapy practice are discussed including strategies for school-based therapists.
Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.
This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive…
Woloshyn, Vera Ella; Bajovic, Mira; Worden, Melissa Maney
In this qualitative case study, we provide a series of vignettes illustrating a Grade 1 teacher's experiences integrating iPad technology into her instruction over a school year. We use the digital didactic model to deconstruct these vignettes and draw upon the teacher's reflections to gain further insights about her instructional experiences…
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)
This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…
Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.
Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…
Hoglund, Wendy L G; Klingle, Kirsten E; Hosan, Naheed E
The current paper presents two related sets of findings on the classroom context in high needs elementary schools. First, we investigated change over one school term in teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, organization) and assessed the degree to which burnout and classroom quality co-varied over the term with each other and with aggregate externalizing behaviors (average child externalizing behaviors in the classroom). These analyses describe the classroom context in which the children are nested. Second, we examined change over one school term in children's social adjustment (relationship quality with teachers and friends) and academic adjustment (school engagement, literacy skills) and assessed how adjustment co-varied over time with child externalizing behaviors and was predicted by teacher burnout, classroom quality and aggregate externalizing behaviors. These models were tested with a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse children in kindergarten to grade 3 and their teachers. The children and teachers were assessed three times over one school term. Personal accomplishment co-varied positively with overall classroom quality. Reciprocally, classroom organization co-varied positively with overall teacher burnout. Aggregate externalizing behaviors co-varied positively with depersonalization and negatively with personal accomplishment and overall classroom quality, including emotional support and organization. In turn, teacher burnout interacted with aggregate externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. Alternatively, classroom quality interacted with aggregate and child externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony
Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…
Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing
The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…
Richardson, Rita Coombs; Arker, Emily
Teachers' personality traits are reflected in their classroom instruction--especially in their selection of various instructional strategies, the materials they choose, and their classroom management techniques. Moreover, personality styles are positively interrelated with learning styles as well as teaching styles. In many classrooms, however,…
An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)
Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.
Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…
At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.
The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce
Time spent on disciplining children in the classroom is time taken away from achieving the objectives of instruction. The classroom teacher needs to have appropriate guidelines to use in teaching as well as specific workable procedures which help students to achieve. This paper discusses various methods of classroom discipline. The paper first…
Freiberg, H. Jerome
Too often, classroom-management systems built on trust and support in primary grades are replaced by compliance and obedience systems in higher grades. Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline is a research-based, classroom-tested Texas program that combines instructional effectiveness (through consistent classroom organization) with…
Allen, Gary R.
Digital interactive textbooks represent a major step forward in the quest to integrate technology into instructional methodology. Because this technology is new, virtually no research has been done as to the response of teachers to this innovation. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of change in relation to implementing these digital interactive textbooks in science classrooms at the high school level. The conceptual framework was based on Senge's theory of organizational change, Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, and Davis' research regarding factors involved in technology acceptance. Participants included 7 science teachers and 2 administrators who were members of a professional learning community at a Title I high school in the southeastern region of the United States. A case study design was used to collect data from teacher and administrator interviews and observations of instructional activities in the classroom and professional learning community meetings. Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed for common themes. Results indicated that the digital interactive textbook was met with teacher apprehension and anxiety regarding the transition from teacher-led to student-led instruction, and this apprehension manifested in resistance. During the course of the study, educators found that the digital interactive textbook engaged students and was demonstrated to be a successful tool of instruction. The study is important because educators will develop a better understanding of how to implement technology innovations in the classroom that minimize teacher resistance to instructional change.
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Dennis, Larinee B.
"It is often assumed that changing the classroom by introducing technology will result in better teaching and increased student motivation, which ultimately means more effective student learning experiences" (Donovan, Green, & Hartley, 2010, p. 423). But does it? This is the controversy and debate that surrounds the promise and…
Heshmati, Saeideh; Kersting, Nicole; Sutton, Taliesin
This study explored the design and implementation of the Cover-up and Un-cover games, two manipulative-based fraction games, in 14 fifth-grade classrooms. We examined how the fraction concepts were integrated into the game design and explored the nature of teacher-student interactions during games using lesson videos. Our examination showed that…
Helping teachers move beyond fluency as measured by speed alone, this book focuses on building the skills that students need to read accurately, meaningfully, and expressively--the essential components of reading comprehension. Each concise chapter presents a tried-and-true instructional or assessment strategy and shows how K-12 teachers can apply it in their own classrooms, using a wide variety of engaging texts. Special features include classroom examples, ""Your Turn"" activities, and 24 reproducible forms, in a large-size format for easy photocopying. Purchasers also get access to a
As advanced technology increasingly infiltrated into classroom, the flipped classroom has come to light in secondary educational settings. The flipped classroom is a new instructional approach that intends to flip the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student centered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the…
communication and information sharing in such classrooms. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for supporting out-of-class instruction in the flipped model by using quizzes and feedback in Moodle, and comments on the potential to follow student use of resources by using Moodle reports. This paper concludes...
Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.
The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF
Cell phones with texting capabilities are ubiquitous in the college classroom, and smart phones are becoming increasingly common. These phones are used primarily for personal activities, including social networking, and are expected to remain switched off during instruction. The powerful communication capability of these devices, which could potentially facilitate novel forms of "instructional networking", remains untapped. Instead, special-purpose devices ("clickers") are used when instant feedback is desired in the classroom. A number of technical and behavioral challenges need to be overcome before mobile phones can be used routinely to assist in classroom instruction. This presentation will describe the experience of developing and deploying a mobile web app that enables students to provide instant feedback in the classroom using their mobile phones. The web app leverages existing social networking infrastructure, e.g., using the Twitter microblogging service to aggregate text messages sent by students, to promote classroom interaction. The web app was deployed both in a regular lecture hall and in a computer lab. Topics to be discussed include the technical challenges of deploying a mobile web app in a classroom setting, such as internet accessibility and latency, as well as non-technical issues relating to privacy, student reactions, etc.
C. Marissa Wettasinghe
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe our efforts in providing a holistic environment for our trainee teachers at the National Institute of Education (Singapore to learn by experiencing and doing about using technology in classroom instruction. In our deliberate attempt to move away from lecturing and teaching of discrete IT skills, we modeled various strategies that are built upon established learning theories and pedagogies. These instructional strategies include direct instruction, self-directed learning, group work, computer-mediated communication, and constructivist learning. Through these processes, our trainees also experienced the use of computers as a tool for administration, presentation, tutoring, and cognitive processing. Results from a post-module evaluation survey indicated that majority of the trainees reacted positively towards the module and that the instructional objectives of the module were achieved.
The Lived Experiences of Leading Edge Certified Elementary School Teachers Who Use Instructional Technology to Foster Critical Thinking, Collaboration, Creativity, and Communication in Their Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study
Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of current and former Leading Edge Certified (LEC) elementary school teachers regarding instructional technology practices that facilitate students' development of critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity (4Cs) in one-to-one computer…
Sherman, David B.
This research study examined Generation Y new teachers, the process of new teacher induction, and the most effective methods for providing professional development in instructional technology for Generation Y teachers. This research study examined Generation Y new teachers, the process of new teacher induction, and the most effective methods for…
Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas
Adequate self-efficacy is useful for motivating individuals to engage in continued improvement. This study explores the potential antecedents of instructional self-efficacy beliefs among Norwegian student teachers attending a programme for secondary school teachers. The most important finding was the strong association between the student…
Covault, Jacquelyn M.
This study explored the instructional reading practices of four elementary teachers, all graduates of a small branch campus of a large Midwestern University, who obtained their Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education and have been employed in public elementary schools for nearly three years. The four individuals were former university students of…
Adams, Karri Campbell
The purpose of this study was to contribute to a limited body of research on the impact of the role of the school-level instructional technology facilitator on teacher technology efficacy. This mixed-methods study involved the administration of a survey instrument designed to measure teacher technology efficacy, the Computer Technology Integration…
Davis, Cassandre Y.
Over 50% of secondary students failed the geometry end-of-course test in a Florida school district, indicating a need to improve academic performance. Secondary school students' learning characteristics and the effectiveness of teachers' instructional strategies are imperative to educational success. In this qualitative case study, geometry…
Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Lacascio, David
The Historical Scene Investigation (HSI) project is designed to help teachers integrate historical investigations into their K-12 history instruction. The HSI project materials provide streamlined and aesthetically engaging Web-based historical investigation exercises. Each case exercise engages students in a historical investigation using rich…
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi
The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students’ ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students’ language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students’ needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts. PMID:21818158
Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.
Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…
Ellison, Michael Steven
This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fogelsong, Donna Fortune
This study was designed to investigate teachers' perceptions about instructing listening in second-grade classrooms. Children's literature that included specific listening content was used to explore how the teachers' perceptions influenced planning read alouds for explicitly teaching listening skills. Investigations included: (1) What were…
There has been a paradigm shift in the field of string instrument instruction and working with students with disabilities over the past 25 years. The previously reported lack of educational preparation for teachers in including students with disabilities in string classrooms and ensembles seems to have been improved upon through teacher training…
Stoss, Frederick W.
Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…
Sachs, Steven Mark
Information from printed sources, legal documents, and interviews with community college administrators formed the basis of an investigation of the legal, policy, and political implications of the use of formal hypnosis as an instructional augmentation in the community college classroom. Study findings included the following: (1) no formal policy…
Rabidoux, Salena; Rottmann, Amy
Flipped classrooms are often utilized in PK-12 classrooms; however, there is also a growing trend of flipped classrooms in higher education. This paper presents the benefits and limitations of implementing flipped classrooms in higher education as well as resources for integrating a flipped classroom design to instruction. The various technology…
com ... practice in differentiating instruction in pre-primary classrooms in Owerri educational zone of Imo state. This descriptive ... Seeing the importance of these years in a child's life, it has become mandatory that teachers/caregivers employ ...
Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann
Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…
Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap Through the Heart To the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the emotions of their students. The study focused on the voices of sixteen urban mathematics teachers and was undertaken in reaction to the significant mathematics achievement gap between urban students and their suburban counterparts. The conceptual framework undergirding the study was synthesized work by Daniel Goleman, (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997); categorizing emotional intelligence in emotional selfawareness, managing emotions, harnessing emotions, empathy, and handling relationships. Research questions addressing each category were created and from these categories an interview guide was developed. Data gathered during individual teacher interviews was transcribed and sorted into emergent categories using open coding. The findings were organized and presented according to the study's research questions. Urban math teachers reported passion for their students, their feelings affect teaching and learning, and that humor is an important tool in mediating emotions. The study concludes with multiple recommendations for further research and practices. Future studies should compare teachers assuming paternal vs. mentor role when dealing with their students. The study can evaluate if either role has a significant impact in student teacher relationships. A recommendation for practice is for teachers to have professional development experiences focusing on the proper use of humor in the classroom. Humor used properly promotes a positive classroom environment. This is a skill that would be especially beneficial to urban teachers.
Robinson, Lora; Maldonado, Nancy; Whaley, Jerita
The absence of differentiated instruction in many classrooms stifles success for students who do not learn the same way as their peers. Providing teachers with the knowledge and tools to differentiate in their classrooms may increase test scores and help low achieving students find success, while expanding the learning growth of gifted and…
This article explores the relationship between federal and state educational policymaking and classroom reading instruction. The past 50 years of federal literacy education policy is summarized, particularly emphasizing the connections of these policies to reading curriculum and classroom assessment. The paper concludes with a discussion of the…
Schutt, Michelle A; Hightower, Barbara
The American Association of Colleges of Nursing advocates that professional nurses have the information literacy skills essential for evidence-based practice. As nursing schools embrace evidence-based models to prepare students for nursing careers, faculty can collaborate with librarians to create engaging learning activities focused on the development of information literacy skills. Instructional technology tools such as course management systems, virtual classrooms, and online tutorials provide opportunities to reach students outside the traditional campus classroom. This article discusses the collaborative process between faculty and a library instruction coordinator and strategies used to create literacy learning activities focused on the development of basic database search skills for a Computers in Nursing course. The activities and an online tutorial were included in a library database module incorporated into WebCT. In addition, synchronous classroom meeting software was used by the librarian to reach students in the distance learning environment. Recommendations for module modifications and faculty, librarian, and student evaluations are offered.
Scherr, Rachel; Goertzen, Renee Michelle
Periscope is a set of instructional materials designed to support university physics instructors - including teaching assistants, learning assistants, and faculty - in learning to notice and interpret classroom events the way an accomplished teacher does. Periscope is organized into short lessons that highlight significant questions in the teaching and learning of physics, such as ``How do I bring out students' physics ideas?'' and ``Does it matter if students are unhappy in my class?'' Lessons are centered on captioned video episodes of introductory physics students in best-practices classrooms. By watching and discussing authentic teaching events, instructors enrich their experience with noticing and interpreting student behavior and practice applying lessons learned about teaching to actual teaching situations. Periscope also gives instructors a view of other institutions' transformed courses, which can support and expand the instructors' vision of their own instructional improvement and support the transfer of course developments among faculty. Periscope materials are free to educators.
Russell, Felice Atesoglu
As more English learners (ELs) are included in mainstream content classrooms at the secondary level, the need to understand how teachers collaborate to meet the particular instructional needs of ELs is essential. This paper presents findings from a qualitative case study that investigated the collaborative work that engaged a group of literacy…
This training package - complete with full-color book and instructional video - is the easiest way to learn HTML5!HTML5 boasts extensive new features that allow you to create dynamic web pages and present users with amazing multimedia experiences, and this one-of-a-kind training package is your guide to creating websites that wow! HTML5 Digital Classroom provides step-by-step instruction to help you gain the essential HTML5 knowledge you need to master the latest HTML5 specifications. This book-and-video package will have you creating web pages and web applications using HTML5, styling using
Distad, Linda; Heacox, Diane
Describes the Matrix Plan that is a planning grid with operational verbs related to Bloom's taxonomy and acts as a means for assisting teachers in differentiating instruction in the regular classroom. Explores a case where pre-service teachers utilized the Matrix Plan in order to help them learn about differential instruction. (CMK)
Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to oral proficiency. ... Data were collected through video recorded observations of authentic lessons presented by 26 pre-service teachers using English second language as the medium of instruction in the classroom. Misunderstandings were identified and ...
Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Branen, Jeneille
Adaptive teaching is an instructional approach where differences among learners are clearly recognized. For the last decade, our research team has studied literacy teachers' instructional adaptations in numerous classrooms in different regions of the United States. In this article, we share conclusions and insights from this longitudinal research.…
Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten
The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns , especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Joseph A.
This study involved an intervention in which I explored how the multimodal, inquiry-based teaching strategies from a professional development model could be used to meet the educational needs of a group of middle school students, who were refugees, newly arrived in the United States, now residing in a large urban school district in the northeastern United States, and learning English as a second language. This group remains unmentioned throughout the research literature despite the fact that English Language Learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. The specific needs of this particular group were explored as I attempted daily to confront a variety of obstacles to their science achievement and help to facilitate the development of a scientific discourse. This research was done in an effort to better address the needs of ELLs in general and to inform best practices for teachers to apply across a variety of different cultural and linguistic subgroups. This study is an autoethnographic case study analysis of the practices of the researcher, working in a science classroom, teaching the described group of students.
Kuda Malwathumullage, Chamathca Priyanwada
Recent advancements in instructional technology and interactive learning space designs have transformed how undergraduate classrooms are envisioned and conducted today. Large number of research studies have documented the impact of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces on elevated student learning gains, positive attitudes, and increased student engagement in undergraduate classrooms across nation. These research findings combined with the movement towards student-centered instructional strategies have motivated college professors to explore the unfamiliar territories of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Only a limited number of research studies that explored college professors' perspective on instructional technology and interactive learning space use in undergraduate classrooms exist in the education research literature. Since college professors are an essential factor in undergraduate students' academic success, investigating how college professors perceive and utilize instructional technology and interactive learning environments can provide insights into designing effective professional development programs for college professors across undergraduate institutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate college professors' pedagogical reasoning behind incorporating different types of instructional technologies and teaching strategies to foster student learning in technology-infused interactive learning environments. Furthermore, this study explored the extent to which college professors' instructional decisions and practices are affected by teaching in an interactive learning space along with their overall perception of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Four college professors from a large public Midwestern university who taught undergraduate science courses in a classroom based on the 'SCALE-UP model' participated in this study. Major data sources included classroom
Duncanson, Edward Francis
While qualitative studies of teacher perceptions of classroom organization have been performed, quantitative studies linked to standards-based assessments are noticeably absent. Two questions guided the research: What is the impact of classroom layout in grade 4 on student achievement in science? How does space use change in a classroom when the furniture is reorganized? The study was conducted in five classrooms in two rural, elementary schools. In two classrooms, teachers placed a large science materials table in the center of the room to make science activities a focal point for students. Two classrooms, that were used as controls, continued to operate using their established organization. The organization of the fifth classroom had included a large table in the center of the room for a number of years. This room was also used as a control. Data were collected in three ways. Quantitative data were collected from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test. Qualitative data were collected using the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Form and by creating a classroom map. The data were presented in quantitative, narrative, and graphic forms. Data from the New York State Grade-4 Science Program Evaluation Test were analyzed using a matrix published by the New York State Education Department and by using SPSS software. Classroom spatial utilization and migration patterns were visually evaluated. The guiding hypothesis that placing a large table in the center of the room would result in improved student performance was not totally supported by the data. Student density was correlated to student achievement. Specifically, classroom space per student was positively correlated to the inquiry science skills of classifying, manipulating materials, measuring, recording data, using non-standard measurement, and making predictions. Classroom arrangement was not as important as open space per student. This research is important because classrooms that
The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.
Timm-Bottos, Janis; Reilly, Rosemary C
Third spaces are in-between places where teacher-student scripts intersect, creating the potential for authentic interaction and a shift in what counts as knowledge. This paper describes a unique community-university initiative: a third space storefront classroom for postsecondary students in professional education programs, which also functions as a community art studio for the surrounding neighborhood. This approach to professional education requires an innovative combination of theory, methods, and materials as enacted by the professionals involved and performed by the students. This storefront classroom utilizes collaborative and inclusive instructional practices that promote human and community development. It facilitates the use of innovative instructional strategies including art making and participatory dialogue to create a liminal learning space that reconfigures professional education. In researching the effectiveness of this storefront classroom, we share the voices of students who have participated in this third space as part of their coursework to underscore these principles and practices.
Brown, Anna F.
The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…
Beck, Stacie Elizabeth
Student's verbal participation in science classrooms is an essential element in building the skills necessary for proficiency in scientific literacy and discourse. The myriad of new, multisyllabic vocabulary terms introduced in one year of secondary school biology instruction can overwhelm students and further impede the self-efficacy needed for concise constructions of scientific explanations and arguments. Factors inhibiting students' inclination to answer questions, share ideas and respond to peers in biology classrooms include confidence and self-perceived competence in appropriately speaking the language of science. Providing students with explicit, engaging instruction in methods to develop vocabulary for use in expressing conclusions is critical for expanding comprehension of science concepts. This study fused the recommended strategies for engaging vocabulary instruction with linguistic practices for teaching pronunciation to examine the relationship between a student's ability to pronounce challenging bio-terminology and their propensity to speak in teacher-led, guided classroom discussions. Interviews, surveys, and measurements quantifying and qualifying students' participation in class discussions before and after explicit instruction in pronunciation were used to evaluate the potential of this strategy as an appropriate tool for increasing students' self-efficacy and willingness to engage in biology classroom conversations. The findings of this study showed a significant increase in student verbal participation in classroom discussions after explicit instruction in pronunciation combined with vocabulary literacy strategies. This research also showed an increase in the use of vocabulary words in student comments after the intervention.
Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.
Hammonds, M M; Schultz, J B
This paper identifies instructional techniques utilized by 89 secondary school teachers and those preferred by 334 secondary school students when 20 sexuality education topics are taught in the classroom. Instructional techniques most often utilized by teachers and preferred by students include large group discussion, educational media, guest speakers, case study, lecture, small group work, and role play. The findings indicate that large group discussion was most often employed by teachers and preferred by students when teaching social and emotional aspects of sexuality such as self-awareness, feelings and emotions, building relationships, and communicating with others. Educational media and guest speakers were the instructional techniques used and preferred to address some of the physiological aspects of sexuality such as reproductive systems, conception, childbirth, and birth control. Significant differences using the chi-square test of independence were found between teacher and student responses for 16 of the 20 topics.
Özdemir-Yilmazer, Meryem; Özkan, Yonca
Assessment of students is an essential part of instruction in both teaching and learning. With the recognition of alternative assessment methods, classroom assessment has gained attention focusing on learning of students. However, high-stakes testing turns classroom assessment into teachers' high stakes decisions, ignoring the development of…
From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…
Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Harris, Alexis R.; Katz, Deirdre A.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Teachers are responsible for delivering academic instruction, facilitating student learning and engagement, and managing classroom behavior. Stress may interfere with performance in the classroom, however (Tsouloupas, Carson, Matthews, Grawitch, & Barber, 2010), and recent studies suggest that stress is quite common among today's educators. In…
Modern, Nancy Wheaton; And Others
Two minipresentations by second-language teachers describe their classroom efforts to instruct their students. The first article focuses on using computers to help students improve their writing skills. The second zeroes in on incorporating speaking activities into the daily life of the classroom. (CK)
In today's classrooms, coursebooks remain as the major instructional instrument and resource and effectiveness and quality of coursebooks must be studied in their actual classroom use. In this study, opinions of future teachers of English are collected and analyzed to shed light on what happens in Turkish EFL classrooms in regards to the use of…
Traditionally, the domain of higher education, the 'flipped classroom' is gaining in popularity in secondary school settings. In the flipped classroom, digital technologies are used to shift direct instruction from the classroom to the home, providing students with increased autonomy over their learning. While advocates of the approach believe it…
Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…
Long, James D.
Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…
Tomlinson, Carol Ann
Complex Instruction is a multifaceted instructional model designed to provide highly challenging learning opportunities for students in heterogeneous classrooms. The model provides a rationale for and philosophy of creating equity of access to excellent curriculum and instruction for a broad range of learners, guidance for preparing students for…
Parsons, Seth A.
Researchers frequently suggest that effective teachers adapt their teaching to navigate the complexity of classroom literacy instruction. However, little research has examined how teachers adapt their instruction, teachers' reflections on their adaptations, or the instructional conditions in which they adapt. To address this gap in the research…
This study was performed to investigate the effects of live virtual classroom on students' achievement and to determine students' opinions about the live virtual physics classroom at distance learning. 63 second-year Distance Computer Education & Instructional Technology students enrolled in this study. At the live virtual physics classroom,…
Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.
Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi
This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the pros and cons of deploying one aspect of instructional technology in dental education: the use of laptops in the classroom. Two opposing viewpoints, written by different authors, evaluate the arguments. Viewpoint 1 argues that laptops in classrooms can be a catalyst for rapid curricular advancement and prepare dental graduates for the digital age of dentistry. As dental education is not limited to textual information, but includes skill development in spatial relationships and hands-on training, technology can play a transformative role in students' learning. Carefully implemented instructional technology can enhance student motivation when it transforms students from being the objects of teaching to the subjects of learning. Ubiquitous access to educational material allows for just-in-time learning and can overcome organizational barriers when, for instance, introducing interprofessional education. Viewpoint 2 argues that, in spite of widespread agreement that instructional technology leads to curricular innovation, the notion of the use of laptops in classrooms needs to be deconstructed and rethought when effective learning outcomes are sought. Analyzing the purpose, pedagogy, and learning product while applying lessons learned from K-12 implementation leads to a more complex picture of laptop integration in dental classrooms and forms the basis for questioning the value of such usage. For laptop use to contribute to student learning, rather than simply providing opportunity for students to take notes and access the Internet during class, this viewpoint emphasizes that dental educators need to think carefully about the purpose of this technology and to develop appropriate pedagogical strategies to achieve their objectives. The two viewpoints agree that significant faculty development efforts should precede any introduction of technology into the educational process and that technology alone cannot change education
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Royer, David J.; Messenger, Mallory L.; Common, Eric Alan; Ennis, Robin Parks; Swogger, Emily D.
Instructional choice is a low-intensity strategy that requires little preparation, is easy to implement, and supports content instruction in the classroom. In this study we explored the effectiveness of two types of instructional choice--across-task and within-task choices--implemented classwide during writing instruction by classroom teachers…
McCollum, Brett M.; Fleming, Cassidy L.; Plotnikoff, Kara M.; Skagen, Darlene N.
This study examines the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in chemistry, and identifies relationships as a major factor impacting the success of flipped instruction methods. Examination of student interview data reveals factors that affect the development of peer-peer, peer-peer leader, and peer-expert relationships in firstyear general chemistry…
By reviewing data on classroom and tutorial instruction, this document presents a perspective on the value ot technology-based instruction in general and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) in particular...
Fabiano, Gregory A; Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M
The present study is a wait-list controlled, randomized study investigating a teacher coaching approach that emphasizes formative assessment and visual performance feedback to enhance elementary school teachers' classroom practices. The coaching model targeted instructional and behavioral management practices as measured by the Classroom Strategies Assessment System (CSAS) Observer and Teacher Forms. The sample included 89 general education teachers, stratified by grade level, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) immediate coaching, or (b) waitlist control. Results indicated that, relative to the waitlist control, teachers in immediate coaching demonstrated significantly greater improvements in observations of behavior management strategy use but not for observations of instructional strategy use. Observer- and teacher-completed ratings of behavioral management strategy use at postassessment were significantly improved by both raters; ratings of instructional strategy use were significantly improved for teacher but not observer ratings. A brief coaching intervention improved teachers' use of observed behavior management strategies and self-reported use of behavior management and instructional strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Poli, Rosario, Comp.
One of eighteen in a series, this annotated bibliography includes 64 publications that deal with the humanities and humanizing formal instruction at all instructional levels. Citations include recent ERIC documents, journal articles, and books. Others in the series are: SO 002 222 and SO 002 224. (DJB)
Bannister, Nicole A.
Koomen's study of Wizard—an articulate, inquisitive, energetic seventh grader with a penchant for science—adversely juxtaposed his learning-centered identity with classroom experiences that marginalized him. I claim in my response that critical commentary about Wizard's race is germane to any analysis of his experiences, as participation in an inclusive science classroom can be conceptualized as a racialized form of experience. My paper contributes a counternarrative to deficit normalizations of African American children—including students identified with exceptionalities—by rendering the inequities of differentiated instruction visible and theorizing about how this approach restricted Wizard's learning and participation by positioning him as low status and less competent. I discuss four reasons why the strategy of differentiated instruction is ideologically opposed to goals for equitable classrooms and argue that this model invites reproductions of status orderings from the larger society into the classroom. I conclude with recommendations for an equity pedagogy through Complex Instruction developed inside teacher community as a viable alternative for this work.
Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher
are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite......This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...
Donne, Vicki; Zigmond, Naomi
An observational study of reading instruction was conducted in general education, resource, and self-contained classrooms, grades 1-4, in public schools. Participants included students who were deaf or hard of hearing and their reading teachers. Results indicated that time engaged in reading and/or academically responding varied significantly by grade level enrolled, reading curriculum grade level, and instructional setting, but not level of hearing loss or presence or absence of concomitant conditions. Students working with reading curriculum one grade level below spent significantly less time in reading instruction and reading than students working on grade level or two levels below. Students in general education settings spent significantly more time in reading instruction and reading silently than students in self-contained settings. The probability that students would engage in reading was significantly increased by several teacher and ecological conditions more likely to be observed in general education settings.
History and Social Science Teacher, 1975
Using cartoons and comic strips to teach the concept of social class and newspapers to teach economic principles are suggested classroom activities for elementary and secondary courses. A lesson plan for teaching democratic values is also included. (JR)
Klubal, Libor; Kostolanyova, Katerina; Gybas, Vojtech
The paper is aimed at the possibilities of the implementation of individualized instruction in a regular classroom using a tablet and the iTunesU tool. It compares the course of collective frontal instruction and individualized instruction. The results show that the tools make instruction more effective and help increase the students' motivation.…
Khalil, Mahmood; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel
In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and…
Slezak, C.; Koenig, K. M.; Endorf, R. J.; Braun, G. A.
This paper examines the educational impact of the implementation of the tutorial activity “Changes in Energy and Momentum” from The Tutorials in Introductory Physics in five different instructional settings. These settings include (1) a completely computer-based learning environment and (2) use of cooperative learning groups with varying levels of instructor support. Pre- and post-tests provide evidence that a computer-based implementation falls significantly short of classroom implementation...
Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.
Susan A. Yoon
Full Text Available We present a curriculum and instruction framework for computer-supported teaching and learning about complex systems in high school science classrooms. This work responds to a need in K-12 science education research and practice for the articulation of design features for classroom instruction that can address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS recently launched in the USA. We outline the features of the framework, including curricular relevance, cognitively rich pedagogies, computational tools for teaching and learning, and the development of content expertise, and provide examples of how the framework is translated into practice. We follow this up with evidence from a preliminary study conducted with 10 teachers and 361 students, aimed at understanding the extent to which students learned from the activities. Results demonstrated gains in students’ complex systems understanding and biology content knowledge. In interviews, students identified influences of various aspects of the curriculum and instruction framework on their learning.
Schroeder, Noah L.; Traxler, Adrienne L.
Many instructors in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields are striving to create active learning environments in their classrooms and in doing so are frequently moving the lecture portion of their course into online video format. In this classroom-based study, we used a two group randomized experimental design to examine the efficacy of an instructional video that incorporates a human hand demonstrating and modeling how to solve frictional inclined plane problems compared to an identical video that did not include the human hand. The results show that the learners who viewed the video without the human hand present performed significantly better on a learning test and experienced a significantly better training efficiency than the learners who viewed the video with the human hand present. Meanwhile, those who learned with the human hand present in the instructional video rated the instructor as being more humanlike and engaging. The results have implications for both theory and practice. Implications for those designing instructional videos are discussed, as well as the limitations of the current study.
Youngkin, C Andrew
The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.
Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders
The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss
Knight, Courteney Lester
Although research has concluded that technology can enhance the teaching and learning processes, teachers have not yet fully adopted technology to support their teaching methodologies. In the last decade or so, as the accessible gap narrowed, the focus switched to other factors. This study attempts to answer the question: Why teachers do not fully…
Full Text Available Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically enhance traditional flipped methodologies in a first-year engineering course, by using low-cost technology aids and proven pedagogical techniques to enhance student learning. Implemented in a first-year engineering course, this modified flipped model demonstrated an improved student awareness of essential engineering concepts and improved academic performance through collaborative and active learning activities, including flipped learning methodologies, without the need for expensive, formal active learning spaces. These findings have been validated through two studies and have shown similar results confirming that student learning is improved by the implementation of multi-pedagogical strategies in-formed by the use of an instructional design in a traditional classroom setting.
CARVER, Lin B.; TODD, Carol
Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers’ survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide writing instruction for a struggling writer through survey responses and reflective journal entries. In addition, qualitative data from 16 of the 2...
Irnin Agustina Dwi Astuti
Critical thinking skills the students of Physical Education remains low. It is caused by several factors, including the learning process is not optimal. This study aims to determine the increase in critical thinking skills by learning model Problem Based Instruction (PBI). The method used is a classroom action research that includes planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Data collections are done by observation, questionnaires, documentation, field notes and tests. Forms of da...
Astuti, Irnin Agustina Dwi
Critical thinking skills the students of Physical Education remains low. It is caused by several factors, including the learning process is not optimal. This study aims to determine the increase in critical thinking skills by learning model Problem Based Instruction (PBI). The method used is a classroom action research that includes planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Data collections are done by observation, questionnaires, documentation, field notes and tests. Forms of da...
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.
Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730
Perez, Carlos Raul, Jr.
The number of iPads in classrooms throughout the country is growing at a staggering rate. Educators and school districts are implementing iPad initiatives to enhance instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine high school teachers' experiences and perceptions after using the Apple iPad as an instructional tool in the classroom. An…
Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…
Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in achievement gap between English language learners (ELLs) utilizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in the classroom, and ELLs relying solely on traditional classroom instruction. The study findings showed that students using CAI to supplement traditional lectures performed better…
The flipped classroom is a student-centered approach to learning that increases active learning for the student compared to traditional classroom-based instruction. In the flipped classroom model, students are first exposed to the learning material through didactics outside of the classroom, usually in the form of written material, voice-over lectures, or videos. During the formal teaching time, an instructor facilitates student-driven discussion of the material via case scenarios, allowing for complex problem solving, peer interaction, and a deep understanding of the concepts. A successful flipped classroom should have three goals: (1) allow the students to become critical thinkers, (2) fully engage students and instructors, and (3) stimulate the development of a deep understanding of the material. The flipped classroom model includes teaching and learning methods that can appeal to all four generations in the academic environment. During the 2015 academic year, we implemented the flipped classroom in the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship for the Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA. Voice-over presentations of the lectures that had been given to students in prior years were recorded and made available to the students through an online classroom. Weekly problem-based learning sessions matched to the subjects of the traditional lectures were held, and the faculty who had previously presented the information in the traditional lecture format facilitated the problem-based learning sessions. The knowledge base of students was evaluated at the end of the rotation via a multiple-choice question examination and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as had been done in previous years. We compared demographic information and examination scores for traditional teaching and flipped classroom groups of students. The traditional teaching group consisted of students from Rotation 2 and Rotation 3 of the 2014 academic year who received traditional
Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.
Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.
Carver, Lin B.; Todd, Carol
Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers' survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide…
Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.
Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…
Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan
This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…
Kumar, David D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Stefanich, Greg P.
This digest presents instructional strategies to accommodate visually impaired students in science classrooms and provides classroom examples for physical science, chemistry, and biology courses. The article concludes that prospective science teachers must become skilled in using resource materials and adaptive technologies that facilitate the…
Skov, Tobias Kidde; Jørgensen, Søren
Artiklen beskriver Flipped Classroom som et didaktisk princip, der kan være med til at organisere og tilrettelægge en undervisning, med fokus på forskellige læringsformer. Det handler om at forstå Flipped Classroom som en opdeling i 2 faser og 3 led, som samlet set skaber en didaktisk organisering....
Teachers' Professional Development for Differentiated Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms: Investigating the Impact of a Development Program on Teachers' Professional Learning and on Students' Achievement
Valiandes, Stavroula; Neophytou, Lefkios
The present article reports the results of a study performed to investigate and examine the characteristics of a teachers' professional development program (Teachers' Professional Development Program for Differentiated Instruction [PDD]) specially designed to support teachers in the design and application of differentiated instruction. Considering…
Hansen, Blake D; Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard P
Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. The present study examined the ability of French immersion teachers to implement CW-FIT in the L2, including the effects of CW-FIT on teacher praise and reprimand rates and as well as on students' classroom behavior. Social validity was also assessed. A single-subject multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact in second-, third-, and fourth-grade dual immersion classrooms. Results indicated that dual immersion teachers were able to implement CW-FIT in L2 with fidelity. The intervention significantly increased teacher praise and improved classroom on-task behavior. Changes in teacher reprimand rates were inconsistent. Students and teachers reported CW-FIT to be socially valid.
Donald, Cathey Nolan
This study was conducted to determine the impact of the inclusion of students with handicaps and disabilities in the regular education science classroom. Surveys were mailed to the members of the Alabama Science Teachers Association to obtain information from teachers in inclusive classrooms. Survey responses from teachers provide insight into these classrooms. This study reports the results of the teachers surveyed. Results indicate multiple changes occur in the educational opportunities presented to regular education students when students with handicaps and disabilities are included in the regular science classroom. Responding teachers (60%) report omitting activities that formerly provided experiences for students, such as laboratory activities using dangerous materials, field activities, and some group activities. Also omitted, in many instances (64.1%), are skill building opportunities of word problems and higher order thinking skills. Regular education students participate in classes where discipline problems related to included students are reported as the teachers most time consuming task. In these classrooms, directions are repeated frequently, reteaching of material already taught occurs, and the pace of instruction has been slowed. These changes to the regular classroom occur across school levels. Many teachers (44.9%) report they do not see benefits associated with the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classroom.
Herrington, Tia W.
Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.
Semali, Ladislaus M.; Hristova, Adelina; Owiny, Sylvia A.
This study examines the relationship between informal science and indigenous innovations in local communities in which students matured. The discussion considers methods for bridging the gap that exists between parents' understanding of informal science ( Ubunifu) and what students learn in secondary schools in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an effort to reconcile the difference between students' lived experiences and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) taught in classrooms, this study presents an experiential iSPACES instructional model as an example of curriculum integration in science classrooms. The culmination is presentation of lessons learned from history, including Africa's unique contributions to science, theory, and indigenous innovations, in the hope that these lessons can spur the development of new instructional practices, standards, curriculum materials, professional and community development, and dialogue among nations.
The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.
El-Banna, Majeda M; Whitlow, Malinda; McNelis, Angela M
The flipped classroom approach is based on shared responsibility for learning by students and teachers, and empowers students to take an active role in the learning process. While utilization of this approach has resulted in higher exam scores compared to traditional approaches in prior studies, the flipped classroom has not included learners in Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) programs. To examine differences on exam scores and satisfaction of teaching between a 3-week flipped and traditional classroom approach. Mixed methods, crossover repeated measures design. Private school of nursing located in the eastern United States. 76 ABSN students. Two separate sections of a Pharmacology course received either 3-weeks of flipped or traditional classroom during Period 1, then switched approaches during Period 2. Two exam scores measuring knowledge and a questionnaire assessing satisfaction of teaching were collected. Focus groups were conducted to learn about students' experience in the flipped classroom. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and stepwise linear mixed model were used to analyze quantitative data. Focus group data were transcribed, coded, and categorized in themes. Students in the flipped classroom achieved significantly higher scores on the first Pharmacology exam than students in the traditional classroom, but there was no significant difference on the second exam. Three themes emerged from focus groups on student perception of integrating the flipped approach: don't fix what isn't broken; treat me as an adult; and remember the work is overwhelming. Both traditional and flipped classroom approaches successfully prepared students for the Pharmacology exams. While results support the use of the flipped approach, judicious use of this instructional pedagogy with dense or difficult content, particularly in accelerated programs, is recommended. Instructors should also provide students with enough information and rationale for using
Full Text Available Today’s post-secondary students are digital natives. Much has been said and written about how to reach this generation, and the consensus seems to be that we need to meet them on their turf. In this session presented at WILU 2011 in Regina, SK, two librarians from the University of Lethbridge shared their experiences with using technology to engage students in library instruction. The hands-on session introduced some simple tools librarians can learn quickly and apply to spice up their instruction with technology. These include creating online animated videos using Xtranormal, a low-cost tool way to create polished and humourous videos to introduce or summarize key information literacy concepts; and adding interactive polling to PowerPoint presentations using a tool called Poll Everywhere, which is an effective way to instantly engage students in instruction using the web or web-enabled devices. Interactive polling eliminates many of the challenges of using clickers which are prevalent in many post-secondary library instruction environments. The presenters also discussed how they have experimented with wikis to encourage active learning and student collaboration in a series of library instruction sessions. Wikis allow for free and paperless student participation in knowledge creation in an online forum. Finally, they demonstrated how they have used Skype to deliver library instruction at a distance, including the use of the screen sharing feature. The presenters stressed the ease of use of these free or low-cost tools to improve classroom engagement and add interest to sessions.
Diego Fernando Macías
Full Text Available This review examines studies in the area of classroom management in foreign language education. It is organized into three large areas: The first area focuses on the distinctive characteristics of foreign language instruction that are more likely to impact classroom management in foreign language classes. The second area provides a description of classroom management issues that foreign language teachers usually encounter in their practice; and the third area centers on the different alternatives to reduce the negative impact of classroom management on foreign language classes. Conclusions suggest a need for more research particularly on the relationship between classroom management and aspects such as target language use and teaching methods.
Fiche Pratique: Magic Circus; Une revolte? Non, une revolution!; 1789: tous en scene; Lexique de didactique, les 39 marches. (Practical Ideas: Magic Circus; A Revolt? No, a Revolution!; 1789: All on Stage; The Vocabulary of Instruction: 39 Steps).
Rezende de Rezende, Eleonora; And Others
Four articles present practical classroom ideas related to language instruction, including (1) a children's circus production; (2) a language-learning game using the French Revolution as its theme; (3) a play using the French Revolution as its theme; and (4) definitions of terminology used in language teaching. (MSE)
Jitendra, Asha K; Harwell, Michael R; Dupuis, Danielle N; Karl, Stacy R
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent. We found that students with MD-PS in SBI classrooms scored on average higher than their counterparts in control classrooms on a posttest and delayed posttest administered 9 weeks later. Given students' difficulties with proportional problem-solving and the consequences of these difficulties, an important contribution of this research is the finding that when provided with appropriate instruction, students with MD-PS are capable of enhanced proportional problem-solving performance.
Balaban, Rita A.; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Tran, Uyen
This research provides evidence that the flipped classroom instructional format increases student final exam performance, relative to the traditional instructional format, in a large lecture principles of economics course. The authors find that the flipped classroom directly improves performance by 0.2 to 0.7 standardized deviations, depending on…
Dell, Diana F. Abernathy
Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…
Munroe, Myra D.
Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…
Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing
Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…
Spence, Lucy K.; Kite, Yuriko
Focusing on writing instruction within an era of international curricular reform, this study analysed classroom observations, educator interviews, and documents related to Japanese elementary writing instruction. A deductive approach using discourses of writing framework and an inductive approach to Japanese cultural practices uncovered beliefs…
The argument put up in this study is that if teachers have to use instructional technology in their classroom, they have to see lecturers modelling the best practices in technology utilisation. As such, the purpose of the study was to investigate the use of instructional technology by teacher educators in the Faculty of Education ...
students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test ... chemistry students by encouraging the use of instructional materials in teaching-learning chemistry. KEY WORDS: Instructional ... classroom with many misconceptions to correct for proper scientific ...
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Su, Yunwen
This study compares the effect of using corpus-based materials and activities for the instruction of pragmatic routines under two conditions: implementing direct corpus searches by learners during classroom instruction and working with teacher-developed corpus-based materials. The outcome is compared to a repeated-test control group. Pragmatic…
Margolis, Howard; McGettigan, James
Classroom teachers serving handicapped students in the mainstream often need to make instructional modifications. This article discusses reasons for teacher resistance to instructional modifications and provides strategies that consultative staff can use to prevent or reduce resistance. Expectancy theory is used to provide a framework for…
Desimone, Laura M.; Pak, Katie
In response to policy initiatives calling for the implementation of evidence-based classroom practice, instructional coaches are frequently utilized as providers of professional development (PD). Despite the demand for instructional coaches, there is little empirical evidence that coaching improves teacher practice. We address this limitation by…
Franklin, Jennifer L.
This chapter is based on three premises. The first premise is that the use of instructional systems design (ISD) methods is important in online as well as traditional classroom settings. A second premise is that improving the motivational design of instruction brings benefits to teachers and learners alike. The third premise, specific to this…
Full Text Available This article describes transformations in the discourse of five elementary teachers on the practice of differentiated instruction. The teachers collaborated with university researchers and an instructional consultant in action-research on their professional development process. At monthly meetings held over two years, the elementary teachers received training and support in order to implement differentiated teaching strategies. The authors examine the changes in participants’ discourse concerning their perceptions of the diversity of students’ needs and of applying differentiated pedagogy. Findings were interpreted through a framework combining ethical, epistemological, and ideological aspects of differentiated instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.
Zheng, M; Bender, D; Nadershahi, N
Innovative pedagogies have significantly impacted health professions' education, dental education included. In this context, faculty, defined in this study as instructor in higher education, has been increasingly required to hone their instructional skills. The purpose of this exploratory study was to share the design, implementation and preliminary outcomes of two programmes to enhance dental faculty's instructional skills, the Teaching and Learning Seminar Series and the Course Director Orientation. Data sources included faculty and student surveys developed and administered by the researchers; data extracted from the learning management system; reports from the learning analytics tool; and classroom observations. Participants' satisfaction, self-reported learning, instructional behavioural change, and impact on student learning behaviours and institutional practice were assessed borrowing from Kirkpatrick's 4-level model of evaluation of professional development effectiveness. Initial findings showed that faculty in both programmes reported positive learning experiences. Participants reported that the programmes motivated them to improve instructional practice and improved their knowledge of instructional innovation. Some faculty reported implementation of new instructional strategies and tools, which helped create an active and interactive learning environment that was welcomed by their students. The study contributes to literature and best practice in health sciences faculty development in pedagogy and may guide other dental schools in designing professional development programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.
This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.
Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy
This longitudinal study examined the extent to which teachers' participation in a 3-year professional development program enhanced their self-efficacy and prompted changes in science instruction in the early elementary grades. The study used a mixed-methods design, and included 39 teachers who taught in kindergarten, first grade, or second grade classrooms in rural school districts. Data sources, administered pre-program and at the end of each year, included a self-efficacy assessment and teacher survey. Interviews and classroom observations provided corroborating data about teachers' beliefs and science instruction. Results showed significant increases in teachers' overall self-efficacy in teaching science, personal efficacy, and outcome expectancy efficacy during the 3 years. Gains in self-efficacy were correlated with changes in reported instructional practices, particularly student participation activities. However, changes in self-efficacy tended not to be correlated with changes in instructional time. Contextual factors beyond teachers' direct control, such as curricular and testing requirements in mathematics and language arts influenced time allotted to science instruction.
Dave E. Marcial
Full Text Available In a knowledge-driven enterprise, mobile learning introduces new ways for students to learn and educators to teach. This paper investigates the acceptability of a mobile classroom manager among teacher educators in Central Visayas, Philippines. Specifically, this paper presents findings from an empirical investigation on the level of perceived usefulness and ease of use of the mobile classroom manager. A total of 383 responses from 76 private and public higher education institutions were included in the analysis. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire adopted from the first Technology Acceptance Model by Davis (1989. The study reveals that a mobile class record application is highly useful as perceived by the respondents (x̄ = 5.48. A mobile class record application is also perceived to be good in terms of its ease of use (x̄ = 5.32. The result implies that the respondents will assuredly accept and use the mobile tool in their classroom. It can be concluded that teacher educators will strongly adopt the proposed instructional tool and integrate it into their teaching and learning activities. It is highly recommended that the mobile classroom manager application will be developed in accordance with the teaching practices of the teacher educators.
Lewis, Jill, Ed.; Moorman, Gary, Ed.
This comprehensive resource explores how adolescence and academic achievement are defined within today's political context, examines the in-school potential of teens' out-of-school immersion in digital technologies and popular culture, and shows teachers how to embed comprehension strategies into classroom instruction. The book contains innovative…
The study sought to determine teachers'/caregivers practice in differentiating instruction in pre-primary classrooms in Owerri educational zone of Imo state. This descriptive survey is guided by three research questions and two hypotheses. Population comprised all teachers/caregivers in the government approved preprimary ...
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
Bartolone, L.; Manning, J.; Lawton, B.; Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Schultz, G.; NASA Astrophysics EPO community
The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (EPO) community and Forum work together to capitalize on the cutting-edge discoveries of NASA Astrophysics missions to enhance Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) instruction. In 2010, the Astrophysics EPO community identified online professional development for classroom educators and multiwavelength resources as a common interest and priority for collaborative efforts. The result is NASA's Multiwavelength Universe, a 2-3 week online professional development experience for classroom educators. The course uses a mix of synchronous sessions (live WebEx teleconferences) and asynchronous activities (readings and activities that educators complete on their own on the Moodle, and moderated by course facilitators). The NASA SMD Astrophysics EPO community has proven expertise in providing both professional development and resources to K-12 Educators. These mission- and grant-based EPO programs are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present examples of how the NASA Astrophysics EPO community and Forum engage the K-12 education community in these ways, including associated metrics and evaluation findings.
Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku
While the presence of mobile electronic devices in the classroom has posed real challenges to instructors, a growing number of teachers believe they should seize the chance to improve the quality of instruction. The advent of new mobile technologies (laptops, smartphones, tablets, etc.) in the translation classroom has opened up new opportunities…
Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Ji Hyeon; Yoo, Sungae; Kim, Hyeoncheol
This article aims to examine the effects of an instructional model that leverages innovative technologies in the classroom to cultivate collaboration that improves students' comprehension, fosters their creativity, and enables them to better express and communicate their ideas through drawing. This discussion focuses on classroom interaction…
The flipped classroom approach was implemented across three semesters of a College Algebra course. This paper is part of a larger design and development research study and focuses on student perceptions of the flipped classroom teaching approach. Qualitative methodology was used to describe how students perceived the instruction of their College…
Macías, Diego Fernando
This review examines studies in the area of classroom management in foreign language education. It is organized into three large areas: The first area focuses on the distinctive characteristics of foreign language instruction that are more likely to impact classroom management in foreign language classes. The second area provides a description of…
Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung
This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…
Every day in K-12 classrooms across the country, teachers are struggling to keep their students focused and on task during instructional time. There are hundreds of theories floating around about how to manage a classroom effectively, but nothing is as simple or as effective in engaging students as the physical presence of the teacher (Brophy,…
"Research for the Classroom" publishes mini-studies of ELA classroom practices and suggests ways in which high school and middle school English teachers may study the effectiveness of their pedagogy. The author of this mini-study notes that it takes around six minutes per day of instructional time for students to remember most of the…
Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim
Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…
Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.
THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)
In this study, the author implemented a problem-based learning (PBL) experience that allowed students in an advanced science methodology course to explore differentiated instruction. Through working systematically in small, collaborative groups, students explored the nature of differentiated instruction. The objective of the study was to examine pre-service teachers’ developing conceptions of differentiated instruction (DI) as a way to teach for diversity. The author adopted action research as a strategy to explore students’ perceptions of DI in the context of science teaching and learning. Several data collection methods and sources were adopted in the study, including student-generated products, student interviews, classroom observation, and journal writing. Outcomes report on students’ perceptions of both the potential and challenges associated with adopting a DI approach to science teaching and learning.
Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise
Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....
Flipped classrooms continue to grow in popularity across all levels of education. Following this pedagogical trend, the present study aimed to enhance the face-to-face instruction in flipped classrooms with the use of clickers. A game-like clicker application was implemented through a bring your own device (BYOD) model to gamify classroom dynamics…
Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.
Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…
Ragawanti, Debora Tri
Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This…
The flipped classroom seeks to remove didactic instruction from the classroom and deliver it via electronic videos outside of the classroom, leaving contact time free for more interactive and engaging teaching and learning activities. This paper has two distinct aims: (1) to conduct a literature review of published UK-based "flipped…
Garwood, Justin D.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Many children with behavior problems perform poorly academically and can disrupt regular classroom instruction. Although good classroom management strategies can benefit children with behavior problems, it is not clear whether these students need consistently good classroom management across the early elementary school years to improve their…
Dale, Edgar; Trzebiatowski, Gregory
Topics in this annotated bibliography on audiovisual instruction include the history of instructional technology, teacher-training, equipment operation, administration of media programs, production of instructional materials, language laboratories, instructional television, programed instruction, communication theory, learning theory, and…
Bratsis, Michael E.
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Sprick, Randy
Highly accessible and user-friendly, this book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work. It addresses motivational aspects of teacher consultation that are essential, yet often overlooked. The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional,…
Vann, Linda S.
Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…
Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed
The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…
Sohn, Lucinda N.
Historically, science education research has promoted that learning science occurs through direct physical experiences. In recent years, the need for best practices and student motivation have been highlighted in STEM research findings. In response to the instructional challenges in STEM education, the National Research Council has provided guidelines for improving STEM literacy through best practices in science and mathematics instruction. A baseline qualitative ethnographic case study of the effect of instructional practices on a science classroom was an opportunity to understand how a teacher and students work together to learn in an International Baccalaureate life science course. This study was approached through an interpretivist lens with the assumption that learning science is socially constructed. The following were the research questions: 1.) How does the teacher implement science instruction strategies in the classroom? 2.) In what ways are students engaged in the classroom? 3.) How are science concepts communicated in the classroom? The total 35 participants included a high school science teacher and two classes of 11th grade students in the International Baccalaureate program. Using exploratory qualitative methods of research, data was collected from field notes and transcripts from a series of classroom observations, a single one-on-one interview with the teacher and two focus groups with students from each of the two classes. Three themes emerged from text coded using initial and process coding with the computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, MAXQDA. The themes were: 1.) Physical Forms of Communication Play Key Role in Instructional Strategy, 2.) Science Learning Occurs in Casual Environment Full of Distractions, and 3.) Teacher Persona Plays Vital Role in Classroom Culture. The findings provided insight into the teacher's role on students' motivation to learn science. The recommendation for STEM programs and new curriculum is a
A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.
Gillette, Tammy J.
The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science instructors. This study could assist online science instructors by determining which teaching practices/instructional strategies were preferred for the online teaching environment. The literature reviewed the role of online and face-to-face instructional strategies, then discussed and elaborated on the science instructional strategies used by teachers, specifically at the secondary level. The current literature did not reflect an integration of these areas of study. Therefore, the connectedness of these two types of instructional strategies and the creation of a set of preferred instructional practices for online science instruction was deemed necessary. For the purpose of this study, the researcher designed a survey for face-to-face and online teachers to identify preferred teaching practices, instructional strategies, and types of technology used when teaching high school science students. The survey also requested demographic data information from the faculty members, including years of experience, subject(s) taught, and whether the teacher taught in a traditional classroom or online, to determine if any of those elements affect differences in faculty perceptions with regard to the questions under investigation. The findings from the current study added to the literature by demonstrating the differences and the similarities that exist between online and face-to-face instruction. Both forms of instruction tend to rely on student-centered approaches to teaching. There were many skills that were similar in that both types of instructors tend to focus on implementing the scientific method. The primary difference is the use of
Bolsem, Anne M.
The practice of integrating methods of instruction shows signs of promise as teachers seek new ways to raise student achievement. Although researchers have focused on the efficacy of environment-based education, little research has been done to investigate a framework for integration. The research question that guided this case study was designed to explore the instructional practices teachers employ to integrate environmental education with beginning reading and phonics instruction. The conceptual framework is based on the seminal idea of using the environment as an integrating context, which postulates that the natural world becomes the overarching theme for teaching and learning. Data were obtained through interviews and lesson observations using a purposeful sample of 4 kindergarten and first grade teacher participants. A focus group interview also included the on-site naturalist. Inductive data analysis was used to discover categories and themes. Findings indicated that teachers integrate instruction primarily in the areas of vocabulary and writing after purposeful planning, collaboration, and a deep understanding of broader student goals. Findings also specified that teachers' integration strategies represent a combination of who the teachers are, what they believe, and what action they take in the classroom. Site-specific recommendations for action include ongoing professional development for teachers and support staff, time for collaboration, and review of teacher personal beliefs. Implications for social change include reflection and improvement of practice by teachers at the study site, as well as continued evaluation and discussion about teaching practices and teacher roles leading to more cohesive, enriching integrated instruction rooted in authentic, place-based experiences.
Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Hung, Ya-Hui
A study examined the effectiveness of enhanced anchor instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving the problem-solving performance of 42 seventh-graders with and without disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Students without disabilities profited from contextualized instruction, but benefits for the students with disabilities were…
The main purpose of this article is to provide a basic knowledge of classroom action research, systematic proposal and classroom action reporting. The Knowledge is so important because a professional lecturer must be able to understand the problems themselves and their learning environment through classroom action research activities. Various issues in classroom action research, including: planning, process, use of methods, media, resources and learning evaluations and other relevant issues. ...
Full Text Available Research has documented the prevalence of lessons characterised by homework check, followed by teacher lecture and demonstration, followed in turn, by learner practice sequence of classroom instructional activities in our classrooms. This sequence of classroom activities does not allow for the development of sound mathematics practices and mathematical proficiency. Meanwhile, curriculum reforms in South Africa as well as in other parts of the world recommend classroom activities where teachers create opportunities for, listen to and extend learners. This paper presents a sequence of activities to be used in the teaching of geometry and surface areas of solid shapes in a grade 8 classroom. The sequence portrays the teaching of these concepts as an investigative rather than instructive process.
Pierce, Richard; Fox, Jeremy
To implement a "flipped classroom" model for a renal pharmacotherapy topic module and assess the impact on pharmacy students' performance and attitudes. Students viewed vodcasts (video podcasts) of lectures prior to the scheduled class and then discussed interactive cases of patients with end-stage renal disease in class. A process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) activity was developed and implemented that complemented, summarized, and allowed for application of the material contained in the previously viewed lectures. Students' performance on the final examination significantly improved compared to performance of students the previous year who completed the same module in a traditional classroom setting. Students' opinions of the POGIL activity and the flipped classroom instructional model were mostly positive. Implementing a flipped classroom model to teach a renal pharmacotherapy module resulted in improved student performance and favorable student perceptions about the instructional approach. Some of the factors that may have contributed to students' improved scores included: student mediated contact with the course material prior to classes, benchmark and formative assessments administered during the module, and the interactive class activities.
Ramadan, Kimberly Heintschel
The development of the Internet allows for hybrid models of instruction that marry face-to-face and online learning (Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003). The purpose of this study was to explore blended learning and traditional instruction in three fifth grade literacy classrooms, examining the teaching and learning students engaged in during the…
Bell, Amanda; Gresalfi, Melissa
Digital games have demonstrated great potential for supporting students' learning across disciplines. But integrating games into instruction is challenging and requires teachers to shift instructional practices. One factor that contributes to the successful use of games in a classroom is teachers' experience implementing the technologies. But how…
Steckel, Barbara; Shinas, Valerie Harlow; Van Vaerenewyck, Leah
The purpose of this article is to inform teachers about the ways technology can be integrated to add value to literacy instruction. Artistic technology-integrated literacy and disciplinary instruction in preK through grade 4 classrooms is described through the stories of five teachers who were identified as both strong teachers of literacy and…
Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.
Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…
Carpenter, Stacey Lynn
Science education reform efforts in the U.S. have emphasized shifting away from teacher-centered instruction and teaching science as isolated facts, to more student-centered instruction where students engage in disciplinary discourse and science and engineering practices to learn more connected concepts. As such, teachers need to be prepared to teach science in these reform-based ways; however, many teachers have neither experienced reform-based science instruction in their own science learning, nor witnessed reform-based science instruction in their preservice classroom field experiences. At the same time, there has been an emphasis in teacher education on organizing the preparation of new teachers around high-leverage teaching practices--equitable teaching practices that are known to result in student learning and form a strong base for future teacher learning. In this qualitative study, I investigated eight prospective secondary science teachers as they participated in the unique field experience contexts of classrooms in STEM-focused high school academies. Using a lens of situated learning theory, I examined how prospective teachers from two classroom-based field experiences engaged in high-leverage teaching practices and how their experiences in these classrooms shaped their own visions of science teaching. I analyzed video data of classroom instruction, along with prospective and mentor teacher interviews and surveys, to determine the instructional contexts of each academy and the science teaching strategies (including high-leverage practices) that prospective teachers had opportunities to observe and participate in. I also analyzed prospective teacher interviews and surveys to determine their visions of effective science teaching, what high-leverage science teaching practices prospective teachers included in their visions, and how their visions changed throughout the experience. I found that both academy contexts featured more student work, particularly
Bachelor, Jeremy W.
There is an ongoing debate among L2 educators regarding the best way for students to achieve effective communication and language spontaneity. The flipped classroom refers to an educational model where the traditional practice of dedicating class time to direct instruction is flipped so that students receive initial instruction at home and then…
Woods, Julie Rowland
For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…
Rehmat, Abeera P.; Bailey, Janelle M.
The challenge of preparing students for the information age has prompted administrators to increase technology in the public schools. Yet despite the increased availability of technology in schools, few teachers are integrating technology for instructional purposes. Preservice teachers must be equipped with adequate content knowledge of technology to create an advantageous learning experience in science classrooms. To understand preservice teachers' conceptions of technology integration, this research study explored 15 elementary science methods students' definitions of technology and their attitudes toward incorporating technology into their teaching. The phenomenological study took place in a science methods course that was based on a constructivist approach to teaching and learning science through science activities and class discussions, with an emphasis on a teacher beliefs framework. Data were collected throughout the semester, including an open-ended pre/post-technology integration survey, lesson plans, and reflections on activities conducted throughout the course. Through a qualitative analysis, we identified improvements in students' technology definitions, increased technology incorporation into science lesson plans, and favorable attitudes toward technology integration in science teaching after instruction. This research project demonstrates that positive changes in beliefs and behaviors relating to technology integration in science instruction among preservice teachers are possible through explicit instruction.
Njie-Carr, Veronica P S; Ludeman, Emilie; Lee, Mei Ching; Dordunoo, Dzifa; Trocky, Nina M; Jenkins, Louise S
Nursing care is changing dramatically given the need for students to address complex and multiple patient comorbidities. Students experience difficulties applying knowledge gained from didactic instruction to make important clinical decisions for optimal patient care. To optimize nursing education pedagogy, innovative teaching strategies are required to prepare future nurses for practice. This integrative review synthesized the state of the science on flipped classroom models from 13 empirical studies published through May 2016. The purpose of the review was to evaluate studies conducted on flipped classroom models among nursing students using a validated framework by Whittemore and Knafl. Multiple academic databases were searched, ranging in scope including PubMed, Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (Ebsco), Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, resulting in 95 unique records. After screening and full-text reviews, 82 papers were removed. Thirteen empirical studies were included in the final analysis and results provided (a) design and process information on flipped classroom models in nursing education, (b) a summary of the state of the evidence to inform the implementation of flipped classrooms, and (c) a foundation to build future research in this area of nursing education. To develop sound evidence-based teaching strategies, rigorous scientific methods are needed to inform the implementation of flipped classroom approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher
There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children’s initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students’ varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students’ profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade. PMID:27867226
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Schatschneider, Christopher
There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers ( n = 33) and their students ( n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students' varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students' profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade.
Numerous research studies prove that wide reading improves children's comprehension, background knowledge, vocabulary, fluency, and writing. The author, a sixth-grade language arts teacher, describes the classroom conditions and instructional practices that encourage wide reading and increase her students' reading motivation such as choice in…
Smyth, Theoni Soublis
Technological advancements are forcing the definition of literacy to expand in this new century. Students are coming to the classroom digitally fluent. Yet, our educational system has not risen to the challenges of modifying curriculum and instruction to suit the needs of this generation of learners. Literacy needs to be redefined. In order to…
This document is a guide for consultants observing teacher behavior, its effects on students, and learning environment conditions in a PLAN (Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs) classroom. (Appended are a series of 27 questions and answers which describe PLAN, an individualized, computer-assisted instructional system initially operating…
Blair, Erik; Maharaj, Chris; Primus, Simone
Changes in the conceptualisation of higher education have led to instructional methods that embrace technology as a teaching medium. These changes have led to the flipped classroom phenomenon--where content is delivered outside class, through media such as video and podcast, and engagement with the content, through problem-solving and/or group…