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Sample records for include biological monitoring

  1. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  2. National Biological Monitoring Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized

  3. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  4. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1994-01-01

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  5. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  6. Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwerys, Robert R; Hoet, Perrine

    2001-01-01

    .... With Third Edition of Industrial Chemical Exposure you will understand the objectives of biological monitoring, the types of biological monitoring methods, their advantages and limitations, as well...

  7. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e.......g. the quantitation of identified DNA-adducts or substance unspecific as is the measurement of DNA-repair. The sample material used for analysis must be well characterized and subject to uniform processing for comparison of the results. Confounding factors of smoking, age and sex must be well controlled...

  8. Beyond biological monitoring: an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Concluding discussion ‘Beyond Biological Monitoring: An Integrated Approach’ of the section New tools and strategies for river ecology evaluation – presents decision making on what constitutes a significant environmental change; predictive modelling approaches; evaluating fluvial functioning (FFI),

  9. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e.......g. the quantitation of identified DNA-adducts or substance unspecific as is the measurement of DNA-repair. The sample material used for analysis must be well characterized and subject to uniform processing for comparison of the results. Confounding factors of smoking, age and sex must be well controlled...

  10. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  11. Biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato BAUDO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Ecotoxicology has found a place with the Legislative Decree n. 152 (May 11, 1999, emanated in fulfilment of the Directives 91/271/CEE "urban waste-water treatment" and 91/676/CEE "protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources". This decree in reality goes beyond (actually anticipating the content of the Framework Directive on Water, still under way of elaboration, and charges the Regions with the duty to identify, for all and each water body, the class of quality on the basis of a chemical and biological monitoring and their classification according to the environmental quality objectives. To this aim, for all water bodies (lakes, rivers, groundwater, coastal waters the ecological, chemical, and environmental status must be assessed by measuring specific parameters. This paper briefly summarises the role of biological monitoring in the classification of waters in five different categories, ranking from High to Foul Environmental status.

  12. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  13. Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  15. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  17. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  18. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  19. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  20. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  1. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  2. Biological oscillations: Fluorescence monitoring by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-09-01

    Fluctuations play a vital role in biological systems. Single molecule spectroscopy has recently revealed many new kinds of fluctuations in biological molecules. In this account, we focus on structural fluctuations of an antigen-antibody complex, conformational dynamics of a DNA quadruplex, effects of taxol on dynamics of microtubules, intermittent red-ox oscillations at different organelles in a live cell (mitochondria, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane) and stochastic resonance in gene silencing. We show that there are major differences in these dynamics between a cancer cell and the corresponding non-cancer cell.

  3. Review of biological monitoring programs at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, L.R.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    Biological monitoring programs, as well as relevant radioecological research studies, are reviewed at specific Department of Energy facilities; the program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is discussed in detail. The biological measurements that are being used for interpreting the impact of a facility on its surrounding environment and nearby population are given. Suggestions which could facilitate interlaboratory comparison studies are presented

  4. Biological monitoring of lotic ecosystems: the role of diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bere

    Full Text Available Increasing anthropogenic influence on lotic environments as a result of civilisation has captured public interest because of the consequent problems associated with deterioration of water quality. Various biological monitoring methods that provide a direct measure of ecological integrity by using the response of biota to environmental changes have been developed to monitor the ecological status of lotic environments. Diatoms have been used extensively in this regard and this review attempts to summarise the basic concepts associated with biological monitoring using benthic diatoms. Where possible, examples from work carried out in Brazil are used.

  5. Biological monitoring of lotic ecosystems: the role of diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, T; Tundisi, J G

    2010-08-01

    Increasing anthropogenic influence on lotic environments as a result of civilisation has captured public interest because of the consequent problems associated with deterioration of water quality. Various biological monitoring methods that provide a direct measure of ecological integrity by using the response of biota to environmental changes have been developed to monitor the ecological status of lotic environments. Diatoms have been used extensively in this regard and this review attempts to summarise the basic concepts associated with biological monitoring using benthic diatoms. Where possible, examples from work carried out in Brazil are used.

  6. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  7. Biological sampling for marine radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Strategies and methodologies for using marine organisms to monitor radioactivity in marine waters are presented. When the criteria for monitoring radioactivity is to determine routes of radionuclide transfer to man, the ''critical pathway'' approach is often applied. Alternatively, where information on ambient radionuclide levels and distributions is sought, the approach of selecting marine organisms as ''bioindicators'' of radioactivity is generally used. Whichever approach is applied, a great deal of knowledge is required about the physiology and ecology of the specific organism chosen. In addition, several criteria for qualifying as a bioindicator species are discussed; e.g., it must be a sedentary species which reflects the ambient radionuclide concentration at a given site, sufficiently long-lived to allow long-term temporal sampling, widely distributed to allow spatial comparisons, able to bioconcentrate the radionuclide to a relatively high degree, while showing a simple correlation between radionuclide content in its tissues with that in the surrounding waters. Useful hints on the appropriate species to use and the best way to collect and prepare organisms for radioanalysis are also given. It is concluded that benthic algae and bivalve molluscs generally offer the greatest potential for use as a ''bioindicator'' species in radionuclide biomonitoring programmes. Where knowledge on contribution to radiological dose is required, specific edible marine species should be the organisms of choice; however, both purposes can be served when the edible species chosen through critical pathway analysis is also an excellent bioaccumulator of the radionuclide of interest. (author)

  8. Baseline requirements for assessment of mining impact using biological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, C.L.; Dostine, P.L. [Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute; Faith, D.P. [CSIRO, Div. of Wildlife and Ecology, Lyneham, ACT (Australia)

    1995-03-01

    Biological monitoring programmes for environmental protection should provide for both early detection of possible adverse effects, and assessment of the ecological significance of these effects. Monitoring techniques are required that include responses sensitive to the impact, that can be subjected to rigorous statistical analysis and for which statistical power is high. Such issues in baseline research of `what and how to measure?` and `for how long?` have been the focus of a programme being developed to monitor and assess effects of mining operations on the essentially pristine, freshwater ecosystems of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) in tropical northern Australia. Application of the BACIP (Before, After, Control, Impact, Paired differences) design, utilizing a form of temporal replication, to univariate (single species) and multivariate (community) data is described. The BACIP design incorporates data from single control and impact sites. We argue for modification of the design for particular studies conducted in streams, to incorporate additional independent control sites from adjacent catchment. Inferential power, by way of (i) more confidently attributing cause to an observed change and (ii) providing information about the ecological significance of the change, will be enhanced using a modified BACIP design. In highly valued environments such as the ARR, monitoring programmes require application of statistical tests with high power to guarantee that an impact no greater than a prescribed amount has gone undetected. A minimum number of baseline years using the BACIP approach would therefore be required in order to achieve some desired level of statistical power. This paper describes the results of power analyses conducted on 2-5 years (depending upon the technique) of baseline data from streams of the ARR and discuss the implications of these results for management. 44 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  10. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  11. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  12. 75 FR 74080 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Inv. No. 337-TA-749 In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors... sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules, and...

  13. [Monitoring of biological contamination of household water supply objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubirko, M I; Pichuzhkina, N M; Masaĭlova, L A; Lastochkina, G V

    2011-01-01

    Biological contamination of environmental objects was monitored in 245 monitoring points of the region according to the monitoring observation program. In 2005-2008, the proportion of drinking water samples from the distributing network of household water supply systems, which meet no hygienic standards, is 1.3 to 1.8% and the proportion of those from non-centralized water supply sources is 6.2%, which is due to a weak protectability of aquifers from their surface contamination. Comprehensive assessment of household water supply factors has indicated that water preparation and transportation are key links in the formation of household water supply problems.

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  15. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  16. Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

    1997-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  17. Immune markers in biological monitoring of occupationally exposed workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuricová, M.; Jahnová, E.; Dušinská, M.; Lišková, A.; Tukinská, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Sulcová, M.; Fuortes, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2001), s. 293-296 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biological monitoring * rubber Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.208, year: 2001

  18. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  19. 75 FR 63856 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules, and...

  20. Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundi, H; Langworth, S; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Akesson, B; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Söderman, E; Jönsson, B A; Edling, C

    2000-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the

  1. The impact of landsat satellite monitoring on conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimgruber, Peter; Christen, Catherine A; Laborderie, Alison

    2005-07-01

    Landsat 7's recent malfunctioning will result in significant gaps in long-term satellite monitoring of Earth, affecting not only the research of the Earth science community but also conservation users of these data. To determine whether or how important Landsat monitoring is for conservation and natural resource management, we reviewed the Landsat program's history with special emphasis on the development of user groups. We also conducted a bibliographic search to determine the extent to which conservation research has been based on Landsat data. Conservation biologists were not an early user group of Landsat data because a) biologists lacked technical capacity--computers and software--to analyze these data; b) Landsat's 1980s commercialization rendered images too costly for biologists' budgets; and c) the broad-scale disciplines of conservation biology and landscape ecology did not develop until the mid-to-late 1980s. All these conditions had changed by the 1990s and Landsat imagery became an important tool for conservation biology. Satellite monitoring and Landsat continuity are mandated by the Land Remote Sensing Act of 1992. This legislation leaves open commercial options. However, past experiments with commercial operations were neither viable nor economical, and severely reduced the quality of monitoring, archiving and data access for academia and the public. Future satellite monitoring programs are essential for conservation and natural resource management, must provide continuity with Landsat, and should be government operated.

  2. The use of buccal cells in human biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic methods for determining the degree of environmental risk posed to humans is identification of harmful substances in various environmental elements (air, water, soil, food. In contrast to environmental monitoring human biological monitoring (HBM enables the estimation of an absorbed dose, general or localized in a specific organ. HBM enables the assessment of exposure to substances which are absorbed by the body via different exposure pathways and with different contaminant carriers. It is based on the measurement of indicators, the so-called biomarkers, in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva, etc. or in tissues and organs. Biomarkers can be divided into markers of exposure, effects and susceptibility. A particularly useful method is determination of adducts, i.e. carcinogenic compounds (or their metabolites with proteins or DNA, which are markers of exposure. Biomarkers of biological effects are different cytogenetic changes, including micronuclei. These are extranuclear structures containing fragments of chromatin (arising as a result of DNA breaks or whole chromosomes (damage to the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Up to now most studies on the DNA adduct levels and micronuclei have been conducted in peripheral lymphocytes. At present, studies using blood, especially in children to restricted to ethical aspects, and therefore tests using epithelial cells from the oral cavity have become more popular. Epithelial cells are the main building material of an epithelial tissue which makes up about 60% of all cells of the human body. The main function of the epithelial tissue is covering and lining of the outer and inner surfaces of the body. Epithelium underwent high specialisation in various parts of the human body, which is associated with its structure and function. Human oral cavity is covered by stratified squamous epithelium, which is comprised of cells called keratinocytes. Oral epithelial cells may differentiate in two

  3. Post decommissioning monitoring of uranium mines; a watershed monitoring program based on biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, C.; Coggan, A.; Ludgate, I.

    2006-01-01

    Rio Algom Limited and Denison Mines own and operated uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area. The mines operated from the late 1950's to the mid 1960's and again for the early 1970's to the 1990's when the mines ceased operations. There are eleven decommissioned mines in the Serpent River watershed. At the time of decommissioning each mine had it's own monitoring program, which had evolved over the operating life of the mine and did not necessarily reflect the objectives associated with the monitoring of decommissioned sites. In order to assess the effectiveness of the decommissioning plans and monitoring the cumulative effects within the watershed, a single watershed monitoring program was developed in 1999: the Serpent River Watershed Monitoring Program which focused on water and sediment quality within the watershed and response of the biological community over time. In order to address other 'source area' monitoring, three complimentary objective-focused programs were developed 1) the In- Basin Monitoring Program, 2) the Source Area Monitoring Program and 3) the TMA Operational Monitoring Program. Through development this program framework and monitoring programs that were objective- focused, more meaningful data has been provided while providing a significant reduction in the cost of monitoring. These programs allow for the reduction in scope over time in response to improvement in the watershed. This talk will describe the development of these programs, their implementation and effectiveness. (author)

  4. A vision for global monitoring of biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latombe, G.; Pyšek, Petr; Jeschke, J.M.; Blackburn, T. M.; Bacher, S.; Capinha, C.; Costello, M. J.; Fernández, M.; Gregory, R. D.; Hobern, D.; Hui, C.; Jetz, W.; Kumschick, S.; McGrannachan, C.; Pergl, Jan; Roy, H. E.; Scalera, R.; Squires, Z. E.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Winter, M.; Genovesi, P.; McGeoch, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 213, part B (2017), s. 295-308 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * monitoring * management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  5. 77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as...

  6. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  7. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  8. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  9. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  10. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  11. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were products (12.64 micromol mol(-1) creatinine), semi-automatic moulding (4.80 micromol mol(-1) creatinine) and resin application (3.91 micromol mol(-1) creatinine). The biological monitoring results show that despite low airborne isocyanate concentrations, it was possible to demonstrate biological uptake. This tends to

  12. Biological monitoring and selected trends in environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffern, J.S.; West, D.C.; Kemp, H.T.; Burgess, R.L.

    1976-10-01

    Under a contract with the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL was used to identify documented environmental trends. Fish population trends were described for the Great Lakes and the Colorado River system. Trends in amphibian populations in the northeast were examined and correlated with acid precipitation. Increases in breeding success among large birds of prey were correlated with reductions in ambient levels of DDT and its residues. Geographic variation in PCB contamination was examined along with differences between aquatic and terrestrial contamination levels. Changes in air quality were documented, and their effects on plant viability were outlined. Trends in the biological effects of environmental deposition of lead were documented. Long-term changes in forest structure in the southeast were presented, and a general reduction in wildlife habitat, associated with land use practices, was documented for several areas in the US

  13. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for.... (See Handbook for Electronic Filing Procedures, http://www.usitc.gov/secretary/fed_reg_notices/rules/handbook_on_electronic_filing.pdf ). Persons with questions regarding filing should contact the Secretary...

  14. Long-term biological monitoring of an impaired stream: synthesis and environmental management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca A; Adams, S Marshall

    2011-06-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  15. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Bartoli, D; Alessio, L; Buchet, J P

    1999-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical

  16. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treo, E F; Felice, C J

    2007-01-01

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response

  17. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as μg g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 μg L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 μg kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 μg kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Macro to microfluidics system for biological environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Cyril; Allier, Cédric P; Fouillet, Yves; Jary, Dorothée; Bottausci, Frederic; Bouvier, Denis; Delapierre, Guillaume; Quinaud, Manuelle; Rival, Arnaud; Davoust, Laurent; Peponnet, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Biological environmental monitoring (BEM) is a growing field of research which challenges both microfluidics and system automation. The aim is to develop a transportable system with analysis throughput which satisfies the requirements: (i) fully autonomous, (ii) complete protocol integration from sample collection to final analysis, (iii) detection of diluted molecules or biological species in a large real life environmental sample volume, (iv) robustness and (v) flexibility and versatility. This paper discusses all these specifications in order to define an original fluidic architecture based on three connected modules, a sampling module, a sample preparation module and a detection module. The sample preparation module highly concentrates on the pathogens present in a few mL samples of complex and unknown solutions and purifies the pathogens' nucleic acids into a few μL of a controlled buffer. To do so, a two-step concentration protocol based on magnetic beads is automated in a reusable macro-to-micro fluidic system. The detection module is a PCR based miniaturized platform using digital microfluidics, where reactions are performed in 64 nL droplets handled by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) actuation. The design and manufacture of the two modules are reported as well as their respective performances. To demonstrate the integration of the complete protocol in the same system, first results of pathogen detection are shown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  20. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  1. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Tsoneva

    Full Text Available Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus, and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc. The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml. Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers.

  2. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  3. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...

  4. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  5. Migration of carbon dioxide included micro-nano bubble water in porous media and its monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Suzuki, K.; Koichi, O.

    2017-12-01

    The distributed CO2 storage is the small scale storage and its located near the emission areas. In the distributed CO2 storage, the CO2 is neutralized by sediment and underground water in the subsurface region (300-500m depth). Carbon dioxide (CO2) included micro-nano bubbles is one approach in neutralizing CO2 and sediments by increasing CO2 volume per unit volume of water and accelerating the chemical reaction. In order to design underground treatment for CO2 gas in the subsurface, it is required to elucidate the behavior of CO2 included micro-nano bubbles in the water. In this study, we carried out laboratory experiment using the soil tank, and measure the amount of leakage of CO2 gas at the surface. In addition, the process of migration of carbon dioxide included micro-nano bubble was monitored by the nondestructive method, wave velocity and resistivity.

  6. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  7. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992

  8. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation

  9. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B.D.; Kitchings, J.T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  10. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  11. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  12. Biological monitoring of exposure to tebuconazole in winegrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Rubino, Federico Maria; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Vianello, Giorgio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards and is a suspected teratogen for humans. The aim of this research was to identify urinary biomarkers and the best sampling time for the biological monitoring of exposure to TEB in agricultural workers. Seven vineyard workers of the Monferrato region, Piedemont, Italy, were investigated for a total of 12 workdays. They treated the vineyards with TEB for 1-2 consecutive days, one of them for 3 days. During each application coveralls, underwears, hand washing liquids and head coverings were used to estimate dermal exposure. For biomonitoring, spot samples of urine from each individual were collected starting from 24 h before the first application, continuing during the application, and again after the application for about 48 h. TEB and its metabolites TEB-OH and TEB-COOH were measured by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. TEB contamination of coveralls and total dermal exposure showed median levels of 6180 and 1020 μg. Urinary TEB-OH was the most abundant metabolite; its excretion rate peaked within 24 h after product application (post 24 h). In this time frame, median levels of TEB-OH and TEB-COOH ranged from 8.0 to 387.8 μg/l and from 5.7 to 102.9 μg/l, respectively, with a ratio between the two metabolites of about 3.5. The total amount of urinary metabolites (U-TEBeq) post 24 h was significantly correlated with both TEB on coveralls and total dermal exposure (Pearson's r=0.756 and 0.577). The amount of metabolites excreted in urine represented about 17% of total dermal TEB exposure. Our results suggest that TEB-OH and TEB-COOH in post-exposure urine samples are promising candidates for biomonitoring TEB exposure in agricultural workers.

  13. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  14. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  15. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  16. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  17. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  18. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  19. Approaches to monitoring biological outcomes for HPV vaccination: challenges of early adopter countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Charlene A; Saraiya, Mona; Hariri, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans...... provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic...

  20. Exposureassessmentof greenhouseworkerswithanti-cholinesterase pesticides by biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Bakand

    2012-12-01

    to organophosphate pesticides it can be stated that the use of electrometric method is a valuable tool for biological monitoring of exposed populations . As this method is simple, portable and not expensive and at the same time provides high precision , it has a potential to be applied for screeningandearlydiagnosisof organophosphate poisonings inlarge-scale studies.  

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  2. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  3. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  4. Assessment of biological variation and analytical imprecision of CA 125, CEA, and TPA in relation to monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, M.K.; Sölétormos, G.; Petersen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes in serial tumor marker results during monitoring of patients with ovarian cancer are due not only to deterioration or amelioration of the patient's condition, but also to preanalytical sources of variation (CPP), total random analytical error, and within-subject normal......, be included in the criteria for serum tumor marker assessment during monitoring of patients with ovarian cancer....... biological variation. The aim of the study was to assess (i) the analytical imprecision (CVA) and the average inherent intra- and interindividual biological variation (CVTI and CVG, respectively) for CA 125, CEA, and TPA in a group of healthy women; (ii) the significance of changes in serial results of each...

  5. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...

  6. Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring in Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil

    (MMAE) approach to the data resulted in the highest classification success rate, due to the use of precise forth-order mathematical models which relate the feed offer to the pitch angle of the neck. This thesis shows that wireless sensor networks can be successfully employed to monitor the behavior...... parameters, as the use of wired sensors is impractical. In this thesis, a ZigBee based wireless sensor network was employed and only a part of the herd was monitored, as monitoring each individual animal in a large herd under practical conditions is inefficient. Investigations to show that the monitored...... signal strength). Fusing the two measured behavioral data resulted in an improvement of the classification results regarding the animal behavior mode (activity/inactivity), compared to the results achieved by only monitoring one of the behavioral parameters. Applying a multiple-model adaptive estimation...

  7. Real Time Monitoring of Signaling Pathways in Biological Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brogan, Louise J; Cohen, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    .... The experimental design used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach to show how EviTags can monitor real-time cellular events, in particular, cell surface receptor trafficking and mRNA stability...

  8. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  9. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  10. An integrated strategy for biological effects monitoring in Scottish coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.A.; Dobson, J.; Richardson, L.; Hill, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarises SEPA's current programme of water quality and biological effects monitoring and, using recent examples, discusses the current environmental issues affecting the condition of our coastal waters. (author)

  11. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NO x , trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  12. Wireless-accessible sensor populations for monitoring biological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzu, Marco; Scalvini, Simonetta; Giordano, A.; Frumento, E.; Wells, Hannah; Lokhorst, C.; Glisenti, Fulvio

    2008-01-01

    The current health-care infrastructure is generally considered to be inadequate to meet the needs of an increasingly older population. We have investigated the feasibility of a passive in-home monitoring system based on wireless accessible sensor populations (WASP). In an EU-funded project we have

  13. Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Evans, Alice; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction and identification of DNA from an environmental sample has proven noteworthy recently in detecting and monitoring not only common species, but also those that are endangered, invasive, or elusive. Particular attributes of so-called environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis render it a potent t...

  14. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    .e. endocrine disruptors) and the possibilities and relevance of including impact categories on land use and site-specific assessments have been addressed. Further, the special problems on how to deal with land fill and how to do normalization and weighting of impact potentials are also dealt with. The problem...

  16. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja eAracic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages.

  17. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  18. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  19. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  20. Linhchi mushrooms as biological monitors for 137Cs pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Le Duy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity of Linhchi mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum) cultivated in laboratory and production conditions has been measured in the Environmental Laboratory of Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The results showed that Linhchi mushroom has a high radioactive concentration of 137 Cs, which is about 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. In addition, the radioactive contents of substrata before and after cultivation were insignificant. This suggested that Linhchi mushroom should only accumulate the 137 Cs radioisotope from the atmosphere, directly. Therefore, it should be considered as a bio-indicator for environmental monitoring. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  2. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  3. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  4. Short-term biological variation of clinical chemical values in dumeril's monitors (Varanus dumerili)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Howell, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    is large and the interindividual variation is low, a sample may be accurately classified as normal or abnormal based on a population-based reference interval. However, if the intraindividual variation is low and the interindividual variation high, population-based reference intervals are of limited value......Plasma biochemical values are routinely used in the medical management of ill reptiles, and for monitoring the health of clinically normal animals. Laboratory tests, including clinical biochemical values, are subject to biological and analytical variation, the magnitude of which determines...... ( Varanus dumerili ). Albumin, cholesterol, phosphate, calcium, sodium, and total protein demonstrated levels of individuality suggesting that comparison of a single measurement to a conventional population-based reference range may be too insensitive to detect small but significant alterations in the value...

  5. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M.C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated

  6. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  7. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  8. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available & Biodegradation 55 (2005) 1?8 Review The use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants?perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: a review Mphekgo P. Mailaa,C3, Thomas E. Cloeteb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research...15 They can detect both toxicity of parent compounds and toxic metabolites; C15 Readily available materials are used in the test; C15 The test can be performed ex situ or in situ; C15 The test period in most cases is short; C15 Uncomplicated...

  9. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  10. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  11. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  12. Monitoring of the Crab Nebula with Chandra and Other Observatories Including HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the detections AGILE and Fermi/LAT of the gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula in the fall of 2010, this team has been monitoring the X-Ray emission from the Crab on a regular basis. X-Ray observations have taken place typically once per month when viewing constraints allow and more recently four times per year. There have been notable exceptions, e.g. in April of 2011 and March 2013 when we initiated a set of Chandra Target of opportunity observations in conjunction with bright gamma-ray flares. For much of the time regular HST observations were made in conjunction with the Chandra observations. The aim of this program to further characterize, in depth, the X-Ray and optical variations that take place in the nebula, and by so doing determine the regions which contribute to the harder X-ray variations and, if possible, determine the precise location within the Nebula of the origin of the gamma-ray flares. As part of this project members of the team have developed Singular Value Decomposition techniques to sequences of images in order to more accurately characterize features. The current status of the project will be presented highlighting studies of the inner knot and possible correlations with the flares.

  13. Environmental and biological monitoring in the estimation of absorbed doses of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina

    2012-04-25

    Exposure to pesticides affects most of the population, not only persons occupationally exposed. In a context of high variability of exposure, biological monitoring is important because of the various routes by which exposure can occur and because it assesses both occupational and non-occupational exposure. The main aim of this paper was to critically compare estimates of absorbed dose measured by environmental and biological monitoring in situations in which they could both be applied. The combination of exposure measurements and biological monitoring was found to provide extremely important information on the behaviour of employees, and on the proper use and effectiveness of personal protection equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkov V. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb in the form of chloride salts on the growth of axenic algae culture has been studied in the modelling experiments. The unicellular marine algae have a very short life cycle, therefore it is possible to use them in the experiments of studying the effect of anthropogenic factors at cellular and population levels on the test-object. With biomonitoring pollution of marine environment by heavy metals and others dangerous toxicants, the major indicators of algae community condition are the cellular cycle and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell. The subsequent lysis of cells under the influence of heavy metals leads to the excretion of secondary metabolites which can essentially affect the metal toxicity. The established scales of threshold and lethal concentration of heavy metals for algae of different taxon make it possible to use the ratio of sensitive and resistant species to heavy metals as biological markers when forecasting ecological consequences of pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals. Distinctions in the resistance of different taxon to heavy metals can result in implementing the strategy of selection of test-objects depending on the purposes of the research.

  15. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; rescheduling of public hearings; correction. SUMMARY... also corrects one error in the preamble to the proposed rule. On November 15, 2010, MSHA published the... from any interested party, including those not presenting oral statements. Comments must be received by...

  16. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... concentrations that exceed proposed standards. For example, the proposed plan would include pre-operational examination, testing and set-up procedures to verify the operational readiness of the CPDM before each shift...

  17. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  18. Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    stratification (i.e., caste system ) that characterizes both and leads to some actors in the groups being more susceptible to disease and other risks. The RFID...Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...reviewed journals: Final Report: "Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " Report Title The

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January - December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Universal chitosan-assisted synthesis of Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals for label-free in situ SERS monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Lu, Zhicheng; Liu, Jiawei; Li, Qin; Liu, Chen; Foda, Mohamed F; Han, Heyou

    2015-12-07

    A universal chitosan-assisted method was developed to synthesize various Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals, in which chelation probably plays a vital role. The as-prepared Ag/Pd heterostructured nanocrystals show outstanding properties when used as bifunctional nanocomposites in label-free in situ SERS monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reaction.

  2. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  3. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... experiments performed in 5 liter bottles indicated that the denitrification rate can be instantaneously increased through the addition of either carbon source. The amount by which the rate was increased depended on the amount of carbon added. In the main experiments performed in a pilot scale alternating...... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  4. Integrating biological indicators in a Soil Monitoring Network to improve soil quality diagnosis - a study case in Southern Belgium (Wallonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Inken; Chartin, Caroline; van Wesemael, Bas; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Soil organisms and their activities are essential for soil ecosystem functioning and are thus pertinent indicators of soil quality. Recent efforts have been undertaken to include biological indicators of soil quality into regional/national monitoring networks. The aim of this study was to establish baseline values for six biological indicators and two eco-physiological quotients for agricultural soils in the CARBIOSOL network and to assess small scale spatial and seasonal variability. Potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, net nitrogen mineralization, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, earthworm abundance, microbial quotient and metabolic quotient were measured at 60 sites across contrasting agricultural regions (different soil types and climate) and land use types (grasslands and croplands). Eleven additional cropland sites, the same biological indicators were measured at four sampling points within the same farm plot at four dates during the vegetation period (April, June, August, October of 2016) to assess temporal variability and small-scale spatial variability. Four of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen as well as metabolic diversity of soil bacteria) were significantly higher under grassland than under cropland. Ranges of values were generally wider under grasslands than under croplands. Agricultural region did not significantly influence the biological indicators tested. Date of sampling had a significant effect on five of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial nitrogen, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, and net nitrogen mineralization). Temporal variability within one year was slightly higher than variability within one farm plot, with the biological indicators having the highest seasonal variability also showing the highest small-scale spatial variability. This study defined baseline values for agricultural soils at the scale of

  5. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  7. Monitoring of biological odour filtration in closed environments with olfactometry and an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Gijsel, de P.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Amico, D' A.; Martinelli, E.; Natale, Di C.; Ras, van N.; Waarde, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Air treatment with a compact biological membrane filter, and air quality monitoring with an electronic nose were tested in the laboratory on air from a cage containing six mice. Additional analyses of air to and from the filter were performed using olfactometry and ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gas

  8. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  9. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  10. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  11. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  12. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  13. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  14. Synthesizing ocean bottom pressure records including seismic wave and tsunami contributions: Toward realistic tests of monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuhiko; Tsushima, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The present study proposes a method for synthesizing the ocean bottom pressure records during a tsunamigenic earthquake. First, a linear seismic wave simulation is conducted with a kinematic earthquake fault model as a source. Then, a nonlinear tsunami simulation is conducted using the sea bottom movement calculated in the seismic wave simulation. By using these simulation results, this method can provide realistic ocean bottom pressure change data, including both seismic and tsunami contributions. A simple theoretical consideration indicates that the dynamic pressure change caused by the sea bottom acceleration can contribute significantly until the duration of 90 s for a depth of 4000 m in the ocean. The performance of a tsunami monitoring system was investigated using the synthesized ocean bottom pressure records. It indicates that the system based on the hydrostatic approximation could not measure the actual tsunami height when the time does not elapse enough. The dynamic pressure change and the permanent sea bottom deformation inside the source region break the condition of a simple hydrostatic approximation. A tsunami source estimation method of tFISH is also examined. Even though the synthesized records contain a large dynamic pressure change, which is not considered in the algorithm, tFISH showed a satisfactory performance 5 min after the earthquake occurrence. The pressure records synthesized in this study, including both seismic wave and tsunami contributions, are more practical for evaluating the performance of our monitoring ability, whereas most tsunami monitoring tests neglect the seismic wave contribution.

  15. Biological monitoring of aromatic diisocyanates in workers exposed to thermal degradation products of polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christina; Nikkilä, Kirsi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engströrm, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated district heating pipes during installation and joint welding, and heat-flexing of PUR floor covering. Isocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples were analysed as perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the aromatic diamines 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) were 0.25 nmol l(-1), 0.25 nmol l(-1) and 0.15 nmol l(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the aliphatic diamines hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IpDA) and 4,4'-diaminodicyclohexyl methane (4,4'-DDHM) was 5 nmol l(-1). TDA and MDA were detected in urine samples from workers in car repair shops and MDA in samples from workers welding district heating pipes. The 2,4-TDA isomer accounted for about 80% of the total TDA detected. No 2.6-TDA was found in the urine of non-exposed workers. The highest measured urinary TDA and MDA concentrations were 0.79 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine and 3.1 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine, respectively. The concentrations found among non-exposed workers were 0.08 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for TDA and 0.05 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for MDA (arithmetic means). Exposure to diisocyanates originating from the thermal degradation of PURs are often intermittent and of short duration. Nevertheless, exposure to aromatic diisocyanates can be identified by monitoring diisocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples.

  16. Data Integration for Health and Stress Monitoring: Biological Metabolites, Wearables Data, and Self-Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jocelyn T.

    Integrative and unobtrusive approaches to monitoring health and stress can assist in preventative medicine and disease management, and provide capabilities for complex work environments, such as military deployments and long-duration human space exploration missions. With many data streams that could potentially provide critical information about the health, behavior, and psychosocial states of individuals or small groups, the central question of this research is how to reliably measure health and stress states over time. This integrative approach to health and stress monitoring has implemented biological metabolite profiling, wearables data analysis, and survey assessment for comparing biological, behavioral, and psychological perspectives. Health monitoring technologies aim to provide objective data about health status. Providing objective information can help mitigate biases or blind spots in an individual's perception. Consider an individual who is unwilling to openly admit to psychosocial distress and unhealthy habits, or an individual who has habituated to long-term stressors and is unable to recognize a chronic state of high stress. Both honesty and self-awareness are required for accurate self-reporting. Digital health technologies, such as wearable devices, provide objective data for health monitoring. Compared to surveys, wearables are less influenced by participant openness, and compared to biological samples, wearables require less equipment and less labor for analysis. However, inherent to every data stream are limitations due to uncertainty and sensitivity. This research has been conducted in collaboration with Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS), which is a Mars analog research site on the slopes on Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. During 8-month and 12-month HI-SEAS missions in the 2014-2016 timeframe, twelve individuals provided hair and urine samples for metabolite profiling, utilized consumer-grade wearables to monitor sleep and

  17. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  18. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake

  19. [The stability of biological indicators used for monitoring ethylene oxide gas sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimiak, B; Bielicka, A

    1994-01-01

    It was found the correlation between the storage time of biological indicators and their usefulness for monitoring of gas sterilization with ethylene oxide (EO). Bacillus subtilis var niger ATTC 9372 was used as a test organism. Two kinds of investigations were done: observation of bacterial growing or lack of growing after 1 hour exposition of storage tests in EO (EO concentration- 750 mg/l, temperature +/- 50 degrees C, (humidity-40%) and examination of drop in number of spores on strip tests after storage time. The results show that sterilization efficacy may be monitored using such spore strip tests up to six months of storage.

  20. Comprehensive Biological Monitoring to Assess Isocyanates and Solvents Exposure in the NSW Australia Motor Vehicle Repair Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jimmy; Cantrell, Phillip; Nand, Aklesh

    2017-10-01

    Urethane products that contain isocyanates are extensively used in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) industry and other industries such as furniture and cabinet-making as two-pack spray paints, clears, and adhesives. Attention has recently been refocussed on isocyanate-containing chemicals, particularly in paints. The spray painters in the MVR industry had a propensity to develop industrial asthma at a rate 80 times higher than the general public, which was previously reported in the UK. To track workers exposure to isocyanates, urine samples were collected from 196 spray painters who worked mainly in 78 MVR shops across 54 New South Wales (NSW) towns and suburbs. The biological monitoring also covered exposure testing to a wide variety of solvents including aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and alcohols. The main finding of the study was that 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed in the MVR industry in NSW that handled isocyanate-containing paints showed exposure to isocyanates; with 1.0% being moderately exposed, which is more than twice the current UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV) of 1 µmol mol-1 creatinine. Potential exposures to toluene (a solvent often found in paint thinners) was monitored via hippuric acid (HA) urine levels and showed 2.6% of the spray painters surveyed to be over the US' American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of 1010 mmol/mole creatinine for HA. The other solvents or their metabolites were all below their respective BEI; these comprised benzene, xylene, ethyl benzene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, methanol, and ethanol. These findings indicate that isocyanates and certain solvents exposure were occurring in the NSW Australia vehicle repair industry, albeit at lower levels than previous occupational biological monitoring studies that showed higher exposure levels, particularly for isocyanates. One reason for this could be the increasing use

  1. Human Biological Monitoring of Diisononyl Phthalate and Diisodecyl Phthalate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusankar Saravanabhavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular-weight phthalates, such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP, and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, are widely used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of polymers and consumer products. Human biological monitoring studies have employed the metabolites of DINP and DIDP as biomarkers to assess human exposure. In this review, we summarize and analyze publicly available scientific data on chemistry, metabolism, and excretion kinetics, of DINP and DIDP, to identify specific and sensitive metabolites. Human biological monitoring data on DINP and DIDP are scrutinised to assess the suitability of these metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Results from studies carried out in animals and humans indicate that phthalates are metabolised rapidly and do not bioaccmulate. During Phase-I metabolism, ester hydrolysis of DINP and DIDP leads to the formation of hydrolytic monoesters. These primary metabolites undergo further oxidation reactions to produce secondary metabolites. Hence, the levels of secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine are found to be always higher than the primary metabolites. Results from human biological monitoring studies have shown that the secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP in urine were detected in almost all tested samples, while the primary metabolites were detected in only about 10% of the samples. This indicates that the secondary metabolites are very sensitive biomarkers of DINP/DIDP exposure while primary metabolites are not. The NHANES data indicate that the median concentrations of MCIOP and MCINP (secondary metabolites of DINP and DIDP, resp. at a population level are about 5.1 μg/L and 2.7 μg/L, respectively. Moreover, the available biological monitoring data suggest that infants/children are exposed to higher levels of phthalates than adults.

  2. Biological monitoring of exposure to ethylene oxide in the sterilization units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráz, J.; Dušková, Š.; Šimek, Petr; Marečková, J.; Nohová, H.; Stránský, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, supplement (2007), s. 234-236 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] Grant - others:Ministerstvo zdravotnictví(CZ) NJ7387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : ethylene oxide * biological monitoring * globin adduct Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2007

  3. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January-December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997

  5. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  6. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  7. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  8. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu [Division of Biology and Paleo Environment, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com [RPS ASA, 55 Village Square Drive, South Kingstown, RI 02879 (United States); Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr [Offshore CCS Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, 32 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Deaejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ypark@kiost.ac.kr [Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  9. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kang, Seong-Gil; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO 2 levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO 2 gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO 2 leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO 2 leakage (ocean acidification, hypercapnia) on marine

  10. 1. Biologic monitoring at Barsebaeck nuclear power plant 1985-1997. 2. Biological monitoring at Swedish nuclear power plants in 1998. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Mo, K.; Thoernqvist, S.

    1999-06-01

    This report gives an account for two studies on the ecological effects of effluents to the aquatic environment from the Swedish nuclear power plants: 1. The results of biological monitoring at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant during the period 1985-1997 are summarised. Comparisons are made with a previous report from 1969-1983. The fish community was studied by fyke net test fishing in the cooling water effluent area along a gradient out to unaffected sites. The loss of young eels in the cooling water intake was estimated annually. Damage on female grey mullet oocyte development was analysed on samples of cooling water exposed fish. 2. The biological monitoring at the Swedish nuclear power plants during 1998 was with minor exceptions performed according to the established programmes. The monitoring at Forsmark is running in the enclosed Biotest basin at the cooling water outlet and in the surrounding archipelago. Reference data are collected at Finbo, NW Aaland, and in the nearby Graesoe archipelago. In 1998 as in previous years the benthic macro fauna abundance within the Biotest basin showed strong variations. In the beginning of the year abundance and biomass were low, in the autumn though, higher than average. Oskarshamn: The monitoring is performed in the small effluent bay, Hamnefjaerden bay, in the waters surrounding the cooling water plume and in a reference area, Kvaedoe-fjaerden, 100 km north of the power plant. Perch and roach catches have been high in the Hamnefjaerden bay since the late 1980's. In 1998 catches of perch were on a higher level than in 1997, both in spring and in summer. The changes for roach were small. A moderate decrease in eel catches took place in 1997 and 1998, indicating a reduced effect of stockings in the late 1980's. Ringhals: The monitoring is performed in the area close to the cooling water outlet, which is located at an open coast, and in a reference area. An attraction of yellow eel to the effluent area has been

  11. Optical monitoring of surface anchoring changes for nematic liquid crystal based chemical and biological sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang

    In this dissertation, optically monitoring the surface anchoring changes of liquid crystal (LC) due to the chemical or biological bindings is presented. The deformation of LC director with different anchoring energies is simulated using Finite Element Method and continuum theory of nematic LC. The optical properties of the LC film are simulated using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. First, the interference color method was used to monitor the anchoring change. The calculated and experimental interference colors of liquid crystal films due to the optical retardation of two orthogonal electromagnetic components at different surface anchoring conditions and applied voltages are studied. The calculated colors were converted into sRGB parameters so that the corresponding colors can be displayed on a color computer monitor and printed out on a color printer. A gold micro-structure was fabricated and used to control the optical retardation. Polarizing micrographs were collected and compared with the calculated colors. Second, the influence of a bias voltage on the surface-driven orientational transition of liquid crystals resulted from the weakening anchoring and anchoring transition is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The same interdigitated Au micro-structure was used in the nematic LC based chemical and biological sensors. With a suitable bias electric field, the process of the weakening anchoring energy and the uniform surface-driven orientational transition due to targeted molecules binding to a functionalized surface were observed optically. Finally, measurement of optical transmission was used to monitor the anchoring change. Polarizing micrographs were collected and compared with simulated textures. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes. These results show that these optical techniques are suitable for LC based sensing

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  14. A comprehensive study including monitoring, assessment of health effects and development of a remediation method for chromium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Sudo, Makoto; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Ahsan, Nazmul; Alim, Md Abdul; Khalequzzaman, Md; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Our biological study then showed that coexposure to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) at possible ratios in canal water at Hazaribagh synergistically promotes transforming activity of human non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes with activated MEK/ERK and AKT. Our environmental engineering study finally indicated that a magnesium and iron-based hydrotalcite-like compound (MF-HT), our original depurative, can maximally adsorb 9.0 mg/g Cr(VI) and 1041 mg/g Cr(III). Our results suggested the importance of removal of Cr(III) as well as Cr(VI) by showing that Cr(III), which is generally recognized as a chemical with low toxicity, synergistically promoted carcinogenicity of a low level of Cr(VI). Therefore, we propose the use of our original high-efficient and low-cost depurative as a countermeasure to address the worldwide problem of environmental Cr pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  16. Challenges of diatom-based biological monitoring and assessment of streams in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Taurai

    2016-03-01

    Stream biomonitoring tools are largely lacking for many developing countries, resulting in adoption of tools developed from other countries/regions. In many instances, however, the applicability of adopted tools to the new system has not been explicitly evaluated. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of foreign diatom-based water quality assessment indices to streams in Zimbabwe, with the view to highlight challenges being faced in diatom-based biological monitoring in this developing country. The study evaluated the relationship between measured water quality variables and diatom index scores and observed some degree of concordance between water quality variables and diatom index scores emphasising the importance of diatom indices in characterisation and monitoring of stream ecological conditions in developing countries. However, ecological requirements of some diatom species need to be clarified and incorporated in a diatom-based water quality assessment protocol unique to these regions. Resources should be channelled towards tackling challenges associated with diatom-based biological monitoring, principally taxonomic studies, training of skilled labour and acquiring and maintaining the necessary infrastructure. Meanwhile, simpler coarse taxonomy-based rapid bioassessment protocol, which is less time and resource consuming and requires less specialised manpower, can be developed for the country.

  17. Correlation studies between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    1987-10-01

    Some nuclear-based and non-nuclear analytical techniques have been used to look for correlations between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters of exposed workers in various workplace environments. The analytical competence of the external beam thick and thin target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been established for elemental analysis of air particulates and biological materials. The capability of low-energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) has also been demonstrated. Using the methods of PIXE and flame AAS, some studies have been performed on the elemental composition of air particulates, human head hair, nail and urine collected in different workplace environments in Dhaka. This report contains a brief account of this research along with an outline of future research projects to be carried out in this and other related areas. 13 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  19. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  20. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  1. The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.; Creamer, R.E.; Mulder, C.; Römbke, J.; Rutgers, M.; Sousa, J.P.; Stone, D.; Griffiths, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further

  2. PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO): Effectiveness Monitoring Program seven-year status report 1998 through 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Boyd A Bouwes; Marc S. Coles-Ritchie; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2005-01-01

    The PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO) Effectiveness Monitoring Program was initiated in 1998 to provide a consistent framework for monitoring aquatic and riparian resources on most Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands within the Upper Columbia River Basin. This 7-year status report gives our funding sources, partners, and the public an overview of...

  3. Isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying: evidence from biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Piney, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on biological monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. Results are compared with pre and post SHAD measurements. Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, psmall and micro businesses. Biological monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working. This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following SHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint sprayers over the succeeding years. Whilst there may be many reasons for the reduction in exposure, the weight of evidence suggests that the key messages about exposure control measures, delivered through the SHADs and other means, were influential.

  4. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  5. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate

  6. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.

  7. Antidoping programme and biological monitoring before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baume, Norbert; Jan, Nicolas; Emery, Caroline; Mandanis, Béatrice; Schweizer, Carine; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Marclay, François; Nicoli, Raul; Perrenoud, Laurent; Robinson, Neil; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial

    2015-05-01

    The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples. All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2-8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne. The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples. Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  9. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  10. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  12. Impact of graphic format on perception of change in biological data: implications for health monitoring in conditions such as asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Hayen, Andrew; Ma, David; Reddel, Helen K

    2012-03-01

    Variation in graphic format can substantially influence interpretation of data. Despite a large body of literature on the optimal design of graphs, little attention has been paid to the format of charts for health monitoring. This study assessed the effect of aspect ratio (x:y ratio) and interconnecting lines on visual identification of change in biological data, such as during asthma exacerbations. Eighty volunteers viewed 72 sets of six consecutive blocks of unidentified biological data, recording if each block of data was increasing, decreasing, or the same as the previous block. Three chart aspect ratios were examined (A, 5.2:1; B, 3.0:1; C, 1.1:1), with or without lines between data points. Datasets from lung function monitoring by asthma patients included a mild/moderate/severe fall ('exacerbation') or no exacerbation. False negative (missing true exacerbations) and false positive (identifying non-existent exacerbations) responses were calculated. 84% of exacerbation blocks were correctly identified. There was a significant interaction between exacerbation severity and aspect ratio (p=0.0048). The most compressed chart (C) had the fewest false negative responses. Moderate falls were missed in 24%, 12%, and 5% of trials on charts A, B, and C, respectively (C vs A: adjusted relative risk 0.19 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.30)). False positive responses were infrequent (A, 2.5%; B, 3.8%; C, 8.3%), increasing slightly if data points were joined with lines (4.3% vs 5.1%, p=0.004) . Compressed charts can improve the visual detection of change in biological data by up to 80%. The aspect ratio of charts should be standardised to facilitate clinical pattern recognition.

  13. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    substantially by combining it with other technologies for automated, miniaturized, high-throughput biological measurements, such as fast sequencing, protein identification (proteomics) and metabolite profiling (metabolomics). Thus, the system can be integrated with other biomedical instruments in order to support and enhance telemedicine capability onboard ISS. NASA's mission includes sustained investment in critical research leading to effective countermeasures to minimize the risks associated with human spaceflight, and the use of appropriate technology to sustain space exploration at reasonable cost. Our integrated microarray technology is expected to fulfill these two critical requirements and to enable the scientific community to better understand and monitor the effects of the space environment on microorganisms and on the astronaut, in the process leveraging current capabilities and overcoming present limitations.

  14. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VK Q , prepared by coupling vitamin K 3 , also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VK Q is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VK QH 2 , BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VK Q as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  15. Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

    2014-02-01

    The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested.

  16. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  17. Cross-continental comparisons of butterfly assemblages in tropical rainforests: implications for biological monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Eastwood, R.; Sam, L.; Lohman, D. J.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Treuer, T.; Miller, S. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Pierce, N. E.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Sakchoowong, W.; Kongnoo, P.; Osorio-Arenas, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2013), s. 223-233 ISSN 1752-458X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA MŠk ME09082; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:US National Science Foundarion(US) DEB 0816749; International Foundarion for Science Grant(CZ) D/4986-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Barro Colorado Island * biological monitoring * Center for Tropical Forest Science Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00205.x/pdf

  18. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  20. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  1. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  2. Z-scores-based methods and their application to biological monitoring: an example in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulière, Guillaume; Dedecker, Jérôme; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Rochcongar, Pierre; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Berthelot, Geoffroy

    2017-11-15

    The clinical and biological follow-up of individuals, such as the biological passport for athletes, is typically based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of hematological or urine markers. These follow-ups aim to identify abnormal behavior by comparing the individual's biological samples to an established baseline. These comparisons may be done via different ways, but each of them requires an appropriate extra population to compute the significance levels, which is a non-trivial issue. Moreover, it is not necessarily relevant to compare the measures of a biomarker of a professional athlete to that of a reference population (even restricted to other athletes), and a reasonable alternative is to detect the abnormal values by considering only the other measurements of the same athlete. Here we propose a simple adaptive statistic based on maxima of Z-scores that does not rely on the use of an extra population. We show that, in the Gaussian framework, it is a practical and relevant method for detecting abnormal values in a series of observations from the same individual. The distribution of this statistic does not depend on the individual parameters under the null hypothesis, and its quantiles can be computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed method is tested on the 3-year follow-up of ferritin, serum iron, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit markers in 2577 elite male soccer players. For instance, if we consider the abnormal values for the hematocrit at a 5% level, we found that 5.57% of the selected cohort had at least one abnormal value (which is not significantly different from the expected false-discovery rate). The approach is a starting point for more elaborate models that would produce a refined individual baseline. The method can be extended to the Gaussian linear model, in order to include additional variables such as the age or exposure to altitude. The method could also be applied to other domains, such as the clinical patient

  3. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Biological and biochemical soil indicators: monitoring tools of different agricultural managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Sultana, Salma; Scelza, Rosalia; Marzaioli, Rossana; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Rao, Maria A.

    2010-05-01

    The intensive agricultural managements, increased in the last twenty years, have resulted in a decrease in fertility of soils, representing a serious threat to agricultural productivity due to both the increase in production cost, mainly for intensive use of mineral fertilizers, and the loss of the quality of crops themselves. Organic matter content is closely related to the soil fertility and its progressive reduction in cultivates soils, without a satisfactory recovery, could make agriculture untenable, resulting in a high detrimental effect on environment. But an appropriate soil management practices can improve soil quality by utilizing organic amendments as alternative to mineral fertilizers to increase soil quality and plant growth. In this context, demand of suitable indicators, whose are able to assess the impact of different agricultural managements on soil quality, has increased. It has shown that soil biological and biochemical properties are able to respond to small changes in soil conditions, thus providing information on subtle alterations in soil quality. Aim of this study was to evaluate the use of soil biological and biochemical properties as fertility indicators in agricultural soils under different agricultural managements, sited in Campania Region (Southern Italy). After a preliminary monitoring phase of soil fertility on different farms sited in five agricultural areas of Campania Region, we have selected two farms in two different study areas to assess the effect on soil quality of different organic amendments. In particular, a compost from municipal solid waste and wood from scraps of poplars pruning were supplied in different doses and ratios. Soil samplings after one month from the amendment addition and then every 4 months until a year were carried out. All collected soil samples were characterized by main physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties. In general, the use of different organic amendments showed a positive effect

  7. Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Valkonen, Sinikka; Engström, Bernt; Tossavainen, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Aitio, Antero

    2008-12-01

    The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed. Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles aluminum sulfate particles ranged from 1 to 10 microm in diameter. The shipyard welders' mean postshift serum and urinary concentrations of aluminum (S-Al and U-Al, respectively) were 0.22 and 3.4 micromol/l, respectively, and the aluminum sulfate workers' corresponding values were 0.13 and 0.58 micromol/l. Between two shifts, the welders' S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (Paluminum sulfate workers. After aluminum welding at the shipyard had ceased, the median S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (P=0.007) within a year, but there was no change (P=0.75) in the corresponding U-Al concentration. About 1% of aluminum in welding fume appears to be rapidly absorbed from the lungs, whereas an undetermined fraction is retained and forms a lung burden. A higher fractional absorption of aluminum seems possible for aluminum sulfate workers without evidence of a lung burden. After rapid absorption, aluminum is slowly mobilized from the lung burden and dominates the S-Al and U-Al concentrations of aluminum welders. For kinetic reasons, S-Al or U-Al concentrations cannot be used to estimate the accumulation of aluminum in the target organs of toxicity. However, using U-Al analysis to monitor aluminum welders' lung burden seems practical.

  8. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  9. Biological and environmental monitoring of lead and exposure in the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Shah Taheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Soldering is one of the most common activities in metal industries. Lead is used in soldering process and has considerable toxic effects. The aim of this study, therefore, was biological and environmental monitoring and investigating the effects of exposure to lead in soldering unit workers at an automobile industry.     Methods: In order to evaluate biological and environmental exposure to lead, a case-control study was accomplished on 60 workers in soldering unit (case group and 60 workers in official unit (control group. Demographical and medical information were gained by a questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed using the NIOSH 8003 method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS respectively and air samples were collected and analyzed using the NIOSH 7300 method and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES respectively.     Results: The obtained results shown that, with the increasing of age and work experience, the blood lead level is also increased.(p=0.033(p=0.003 In exposed group, the blood lead mean value was significantly higher than the control group (p-value<0.001. Prevalence of digestive, nervous, respiratory, dermal, kidney disorders, anemia diseases, and disorder in bone metabolism in exposed group were higher than the control group. The amount of lead level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin (r=-0.287;p=0.026 and hematocrit (r=-0.336;p=0.009 but There was no significant correlation between air and blood lead level.     Conclusion: The blood lead level may be increased in lead exposure due absence of personal protective equipment and poor personal hygiene. Increased lead level in blood can be resulted to various diseases and decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in blood.

  10. [Economic consequences of biological monitoring and medical complications of injectable anticoagulants in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paubel, P; Cousin, M; Amar, C; Gourmelen, J; Fabron, C; Detournay, B

    2016-12-01

    To assess the frequency of platelet monitoring and bleeding risks associated with the use of injectable anticoagulants in a real life setting and to estimate the associated costs. An analysis of the 2013 data from a random sample of ≈600,000 patients registered in the French National Health Insurances reimbursement database was conducted to identify platelet counts performed during injectable anticoagulants exposure period and treatment interruptions due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or transfusion. Events were then valued to establish associated costs. Overall 15,985 adult patients representing a cumulated injectable anticoagulants exposure time of 12,264 months were selected. Treatment sequences involved unfractionated heparin (2.8%), low molecular weight heparin (86.9%), and fondaparinux (13.1%). Patients treated with unfractionated heparin were older (77 vs. 57 and 59 years) with longer treatment duration (32.6 vs. 25.1 and 21 days). After statistical adjustment, the average monthly number of platelet counts was 1.36-fold lower in patients treated with fondaparinux compared to low molecular weight heparin (P<0.0001). No difference was found between low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux regarding the incidence of bleeding with transfusion (P=0.76) or hospitalized thrombocytopenia (P=0.82). Extrapolated for the whole country, the estimated costs for biological monitoring were € 21.6 million for low molecular weight heparin and € 0.9 million for fondaparinux. Significantly fewer platelet counts were performed among patients treated with fondaparinux than among patients receiving low molecular weight heparin without additional bleeding risk. This finding should be taken into account when assessing the costs of such treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Tactile-Cued Self-Monitoring on Independent Biology Work for Secondary Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catherine; McDougall, Dennis; Black, Rhonda S.; King-Sears, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a multiple baseline with changing conditions design across high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) indicated that the students increased the percentage of independent work they completed in their general education biology class after learning tactile-cued self-monitoring. Students maintained high…

  12. Self-powered, autonomous Biological Oxygen Demand biosensor for online water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-06-01

    Standard Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis requires 5 days to complete. To date, microbial fuel cell biosensors used as an alternative method for BOD assessment requires external apparatus, which limits their use for on-line monitoring in remote, off-grid locations. In this study, a self-powered, floating biosensor was developed for online water quality monitoring. This approach eliminated the need for external apparatus and maintenance that would otherwise be required by other techniques. The biosensor was able to detect urine in freshwater and turn ON a visual and sound cues (85 dB). The energy needed to operate the biosensor was produced by the system itself with the use of electroactive microorganisms, inside microbial fuel cells. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was used as a fast method of biosensor validation. When urine concentration exceeded the lower threshold, corresponding to a COD concentration of 57.7 ± 4.8 mgO 2  L -1 , the biosensor turned the alarm ON. The shortest observed actuation time, required to switch ON the alarm was 61 min, when the urine concentration was 149.7 ± 1.7 mgO 2  L -1 . Once the sensor was switched ON, the signal was emitted until the urine organic load decreased to 15.3 ± 1.9 mgO 2  L -1 . When ON, the microbial fuel cell sensor produced a maximum power of 4.3 mW. When switched OFF, the biosensor produced 25.4 μW. The frequency of the signal was proportional to the concentration of urine. The observed frequencies varied between 0.01 and 0.59 Hz. This approach allowed to correlate and quantitatively detect the presence of water contamination, based on signal frequency. The sensor was operating autonomously for 5 months. This is the first report of a self-powered, autonomous device, developed for online water quality monitoring.

  13. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  14. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji H Harada

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  15. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  16. Monitoring chemical and biological recovery at a confined aquatic disposal site, Oslofjord, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy M P; Pettersen, Arne; Eek, Espen; Glette, Tormod; Brooks, Lucy; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2017-09-01

    The recovery of the confined aquatic disposal (CAD) facility located at Malmøykalven in Oslofjord, Norway, has been assessed using an array of field measurement techniques. These methods were used prior to the disposal of dredged sediments as well as during 3 annual postdisposal monitoring campaigns. Traditional sampling to assess chemical recovery indicates that an immediate reduction in total sediment concentrations and surface sediments can be characterized as having good quality. Deposition of new material indicates that the quality of depositing material at the CAD is stabile and representative of the natural background quality in the area. Continued deposition of this material will improve the long-term chemical recovery of the CAD. A positive biological recovery of the benthic community has been observed and is expected to continue along a typical benthic succession pattern. To supplement traditional sampling, passive samplers were deployed at the CAD. Results suggest that the flux and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 16 and polychlorinated biphenyl 7 released from the CAD will continue to decrease over time. The combined results from these multiple lines of evidence indicate that the CAD and capping layer function as predicted 3 yr after the construction was completed. There is not only an improvement in the efficacy of the CAD itself but also a general improvement of the area, compared with the situation prior to disposal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2552-2559. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  18. Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Biological Invasive Species Based on Adaptive PCNN and Improved C-V Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Gang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological species invasion problem bring serious damage to the ecosystem, and have become one of the six major enviromental problems that affect the future economic development, also have become one of the hot topic in domestic and foreign scholars. Remote sensing technology has been successfully used in the investigation of coastal zone resources, dynamic monitoring of the resources and environment, and other fields. It will cite a new remote sensing image change detection algorithm based on adaptive pulse coupled neural network (PCNN and improved C-V model, for remote sensing dynamic monitoring of biological species invasion. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective in the test results of biological species invasions.

  19. Evaluation of Seismic Response Trends from Long-Term Monitoring of Two Instrumented RC Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Butt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses of the seismic responses of two reinforced concrete buildings monitored for a period of more than two years. One of the structures was a three-storey reinforced concrete (RC frame building with a shear core, while the other was a three-storey RC frame building without a core. Both buildings are part of the same large complex but are seismically separated from the rest of it. Statistical analysis of the relationships between maximum free field accelerations and responses at different points on the buildings was conducted and demonstrated strong correlation between those. System identification studies using recorded accelerations were undertaken and revealed that natural frequencies and damping ratios of the building structures vary during different earthquake excitations. This variation was statistically examined and relationships between identified natural frequencies and damping ratios, and the peak response acceleration at the roof level were developed. A general trend of decreasing modal frequencies and increasing damping ratios was observed with increased level of shaking and response. Moreover, the influence of soil structure interaction (SSI on the modal characteristics was evaluated. SSI effects decreased the modal frequencies and increased some of the damping ratios.

  20. The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jack H; Creamer, Rachel E; Mulder, Christian; Römbke, Jörg; Rutgers, Michiel; Sousa, J Paulo; Stone, Dorothy; Griffiths, Bryan S

    2013-04-01

    A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further optimized in terms of scientific and policy relevance. Over the past decade, developments in environmental monitoring and risk assessment converged toward the use of indicators and endpoints that are related to soil functioning and ecosystem services. In view of the proposed European Union (EU) Soil Framework Directive, there is an urgent need to identify and evaluate indicators for soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. The recently started integrated project, Ecological Function and Biodiversity Indicators in European Soils (EcoFINDERS), aims to address this specific issue within the EU Framework Program FP7. Here, we 1) discuss how to use the concept of ecosystem services in soil monitoring, 2) review former and ongoing monitoring schemes, and 3) present an analysis of metadata on biological indicators in some EU member states. Finally, we discuss our experiences in establishing a logical sieve approach to devise a monitoring scheme for a standardized and harmonized application at European scale. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  2. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  3. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  4. Feasibility of Biological Effective Monitoring of Chrome Electroplaters to Chromium through Analysis of Serum Malondialdehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI] has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA. Methods: 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating—categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers—and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI, served as the control group, were studied. Personal samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH method 7600. Serum MDA level was measured by HPLC using a UV detector. Results: Median Cr (VI exposure level was 0.38 mg/m3 in near bath workers, 0.20 mg/m3 in degreasers, and 0.05 mg/m3 in washers. The median serum MDA level of three exposed groups (2.76 μmol/L was significantly (p<0.001 higher than that in the control group (2.00 μmol/L. There was a positive correlation between electroplaters' level of exposure to Cr (VI and their serum MDA level (Spearman's ρ 0.806, p<0.001. Conclusion: Serum MDA level is a good biomarker for the level of occupational exposure to Cr (VI in electroplaters.

  5. Biological monitoring for depleted uranium exposure in U.S. Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Carrie D; Engelhardt, Susan M; Squibb, Katherine S; McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2009-06-01

    As part of an ongoing medical surveillance program for U.S. veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU), biological monitoring of urine uranium (U) concentrations is offered to any veteran of the Gulf War and those serving in more recent conflicts (post-Gulf War veterans). Since a previous report of surveillance findings in 2004, an improved methodology for determination of the isotopic ratio of U in urine ((235)U:(238)U) has been developed and allows for more definitive evaluation of DU exposure. This report updates previous findings. Veterans provide a 24-hr urine specimen and complete a DU exposure questionnaire. Specimens are sent to the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center for processing. Uranium concentration and isotopic ratio are measured using ICP-MS at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Between January 2003 and June 2008, we received 1,769 urine specimens for U analysis. The mean urine U measure was 0.009 microg U/g creatinine. Mean urine U concentrations for Gulf War and post-Gulf War veterans were 0.008 and 0.009 microg U/g creatinine, respectively. Only 3 of the 1,700 (0.01%) specimens for which we completed isotopic determination showed evidence of DU. Exposure histories confirmed that these three individuals had been involved in "friendly fire" incidents involving DU munitions or armored vehicles. No urine U measure with a "depleted" isotopic signature has been detected in U.S. veterans without a history of retained DU embedded fragments from previous injury. These findings suggest that future DU-related health harm is unlikely in veterans without DU fragments.

  6. Biological monitoring and assessment of rivers as a basis for identifying and prioritising river management options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The output of monitoring programmes such as the National Aquatic Ecosystem Bio monitoring Programme must be used in the management of aquatic ecosystems. To achieve this, collected data must, through a systematic framework, be linked to measurable...

  7. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  8. Integrating biological indicators in a Soil Monitoring Network (SMN to improve soil quality diagnosis - a case study in Southern Belgium (Wallonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger, I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Soil organisms and their activities are essential for soil ecosystem functioning and they can thus be used as pertinent indicators of soil quality. Recent efforts have been undertaken to include biological indicators of soil quality into regional/national monitoring networks. Objectives. The aim of this study was to provide a first dataset of six biological indicators and two eco-physiological quotients for two landscape units in Wallonia. These spatial units are characterized by homogeneous climate conditions, soil type, land-use and management (here, grasslands in the Ardennes, and croplands in the Loam Region. Method. Respiration potential, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, net nitrogen mineralization, metabolic potential of soil bacteria and earthworm abundance were measured at a total of 60 sites in two different landscape units (LSU. Variability within each LSU was studied. Data was synthesized through calculation of a comprehensive score and presentation as radar plots. Results. All selected biological indicators were significantly higher under grassland than under cropland soils, highlighting the biological indicators' power of discrimination between main land use types. Variability within LSU depended on the biological indicator and was generally higher in grassland than in cropland soils. Each site could unambiguously be assigned to its landscape unit based on its calculated comprehensive score. Radar plots allowed an assessment of the distribution of values within a landscape unit at a glance. Conclusions. The pilot-study defined the first baseline values for agricultural soils in Wallonia and laid the foundation for a monitoring network of biological soil quality.

  9. [Study of possible urban environmental pollution by a steel plant through the biological monitoring of urine and hair in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Valter; Franchini, Silva; Pezzarossi, Giuseppina; Catalani, Simona; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Tomasi, Cesare; Apostoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis of an increased exposure to metallic elements through the biological monitoring (urine and hair) in a group of children living near an electric steel plant and in a control group. The concentrations were also compared with the reference values of the literature. The study included the measure of porphyrins in urine (total and homologue), by some authors considered as effect indicators of xenobiotics such as heavy metals and some persistent organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). The comparison between the groups and with the reference values shows that the metallic elements in the hair and urine and urinary porphyrins does not indicates significant differences thus excluding specific health risk. In both groups the values of some metallic elements exceeded the upper limit of reference values. Following a control carried out two months later values returned in reference range probable due to different food intake and individual behavior. As a whole our survey demonstrated that there is no exposure to metallic elements representing a significant risk for this particular groups of general population possibly exposed to environmental pollution.

  10. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  11. Components for real-time state monitoring of biological sewage treatment plants; Komponenten zur Echtzeit-Zustandserfassung biologischer Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenaus, F.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1999-07-01

    Described is a method for the acquision of comprehensive state monitoring data from a sewage treatment plant's biological stage. The focus is on the measuring point in the effluent from preliminary cleaning. This is the most critical point of the system, its function being safeguarded only if the pollution load induced by the inflow to the biological stage can be exactly monitored. (orig.) [German] Beschrieben wurde eine Methode zum Erhalt umfassender Zustandsinformationen aus der biologischen Reinigungsstufe einer Klaeranlage, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Ausfuehrungen sich der Messstelle im Ablauf der Vorklaerung als kritischstem Punkt des Systems widmete, dessen Funktion nur bei genauer Erfassung der durch den Zulauf zur biologischen Stufe induzierten Belastung gewaehrleistet ist. (orig.)

  12. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  13. Plastic pollution in the Labrador Sea: An assessment using the seabird northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis as a biological monitoring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Provencher, Jennifer F; Liboiron, Max; Poon, Florence E; Smith, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    Plastic is now one among one of the most pervasive pollutants on the planet, and ocean circulation models predict that the Arctic will become another accumulation zone. As solutions to address marine plastic emerge, is essential that baselines are available to monitor progress towards targets. The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), a widely-distributed seabird species, has been used as a biological monitor for plastic pollution in the North Sea, and could be a useful monitoring species elsewhere. We quantified plastic ingested by northern fulmars from the southeastern Canadian waters of the Labrador Sea with the objective of establishing a standardized baseline for future comparisons. Over two years we sampled 70 fulmars and found that 79% had ingested plastic, with an average of 11.6 pieces or 0.151g per bird. Overall, 34% of all fulmars exceeded the Ecological Quality Objective for marine litter, having ingested >0.1g of plastic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  16. Water quality real-time monitoring system via biological detection based on video analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Fei, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    With the development of society, water pollution has become the most serious problem in China. Therefore, real-time water quality monitoring is an important part of human activities and water pollution prevention. In this paper, the behavior of zebrafish was monitored by computer vision. Firstly, the moving target was extracted by the method of saliency detection, and tracked by fitting the ellipse model. Then the motion parameters were extracted by optical flow method, and the data were monitored in real time by means of Hinkley warning and threshold warning. We achieved classification warning through a number of dimensions by comprehensive toxicity index. The experimental results show that the system can achieve more accurate real-time monitoring.

  17. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  18. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  19. A cell-based systems biology assessment of human blood to monitor immune responses after influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Kristen L; Samir, Parimal; Howard, Leigh M; Niu, Xinnan; Prasad, Nripesh; Galassie, Allison; Liu, Qi; Allos, Tara M; Floyd, Kyle A; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Edwards, Kathryn M; Link, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to comprehensively study complex interactions within a biological system. Most published systems vaccinology studies have utilized whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to monitor the immune response after vaccination. Because human blood is comprised of multiple hematopoietic cell types, the potential for masking responses of under-represented cell populations is increased when analyzing whole blood or PBMC. To investigate the contribution of individual cell types to the immune response after vaccination, we established a rapid and efficient method to purify human T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), monocytes, and neutrophils from fresh venous blood. Purified cells were fractionated and processed in a single day. RNA-Seq and quantitative shotgun proteomics were performed to determine expression profiles for each cell type prior to and after inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. Our results show that transcriptomic and proteomic profiles generated from purified immune cells differ significantly from PBMC. Differential expression analysis for each immune cell type also shows unique transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles as well as changing biological networks at early time points after vaccination. This cell type-specific information provides a more comprehensive approach to monitor vaccine responses.

  20. A Cell-Based Systems Biology Assessment of Human Blood to Monitor Immune Responses after Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Kristen L.; Samir, Parimal; Howard, Leigh M.; Niu, Xinnan; Prasad, Nripesh; Galassie, Allison; Liu, Qi; Allos, Tara M.; Floyd, Kyle A.; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Levy, Shawn E.; Joyce, Sebastian; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Link, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to comprehensively study complex interactions within a biological system. Most published systems vaccinology studies have utilized whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to monitor the immune response after vaccination. Because human blood is comprised of multiple hematopoietic cell types, the potential for masking responses of under-represented cell populations is increased when analyzing whole blood or PBMC. To investigate the contribution of individual cell types to the immune response after vaccination, we established a rapid and efficient method to purify human T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), monocytes, and neutrophils from fresh venous blood. Purified cells were fractionated and processed in a single day. RNA-Seq and quantitative shotgun proteomics were performed to determine expression profiles for each cell type prior to and after inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. Our results show that transcriptomic and proteomic profiles generated from purified immune cells differ significantly from PBMC. Differential expression analysis for each immune cell type also shows unique transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles as well as changing biological networks at early time points after vaccination. This cell type-specific information provides a more comprehensive approach to monitor vaccine responses. PMID:25706537

  1. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  2. Nematodes that associate with terrestrial molluscs as definitive hosts, including Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) and its development as a biological molluscicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, A; Malan, A P; Ross, J L

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are important economic pests worldwide, causing extensive damage to a variety of crop types, and posing a health risk to both humans and wildlife. Current knowledge indicates that there are eight nematode families that associate with molluscs as definitive hosts, including Agfidae, Alaninematidae, Alloionematidae, Angiostomatidae, Cosmocercidae, Diplogastridae, Mermithidae and Rhabditidae. To date, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859) Andrássy, 1983 (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) is the only nematode that has been developed as a biological molluscicide. The nematode, which was commercially released in 1994 by MicroBio Ltd, Littlehampton, UK (formally Becker Underwood, now BASF) under the tradename Nemaslug®, is now sold in 15 different European countries. This paper reviews nematodes isolated from molluscs, with specially detailed information on the life cycle, host range, commercialization, natural distribution, mass production and field application of P. hermaphrodita.

  3. Perspectives on the relevance of the circadian time structure to workplace threshold limit values and employee biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Reinberg, Alain E; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The circadian time structure (CTS) and its disruption by rotating and nightshift schedules relative to work performance, accident risk, and health/wellbeing have long been areas of occupational medicine research. Yet, there has been little exploration of the relevance of the CTS to setting short-term, time-weighted, and ceiling threshold limit values (TLVs); conducting employee biological monitoring (BM); and establishing normative reference biological exposure indices (BEIs). Numerous publications during the past six decades document the CTS substantially affects the disposition - absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination - and effects of medications. Additionally, laboratory animal and human studies verify the tolerance to chemical, biological (contagious), and physical agents can differ extensively according to the circadian time of exposure. Because of slow and usually incomplete CTS adjustment by rotating and permanent nightshift workers, occupational chemical and other contaminant encounters occur during a different circadian stage than for dayshift workers. Thus, the intended protection of some TLVs when working the nightshift compared to dayshift might be insufficient, especially in high-risk settings. The CTS is germane to employee BM in that large-amplitude predictable-in-time 24h variation can occur in the concentration of urine, blood, and saliva of monitored chemical contaminants and their metabolites plus biomarkers indicative of adverse xenobiotic exposure. The concept of biological time-qualified (for rhythms) reference values, currently of interest to clinical laboratory pathology practice, is seemingly applicable to industrial medicine as circadian time and workshift-specific BEIs to improve surveillance of night workers, in particular. Furthermore, BM as serial assessments performed frequently both during and off work, exemplified by employee self-measurement of lung function using a small portable peak expiratory flow meter, can

  4. 77 FR 22282 - Draft Guidelines on Biologics Quality Monitoring: Testing for the Detection of Mycoplasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Union, Japan, and the United States and representatives from the animal health industry in the three... for VICH activities. The United States Government is represented in VICH by the Food and Drug... contaminants may be introduced into cell culture and in ovo origin biological products through the master seeds...

  5. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems : A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  6. Mechatronics in monitoring, simulation, and diagnostics of industrial and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Natalia; Dobosz, Marek; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kościelny, Jan M.; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Pałko, Tadeusz; Putz, Barbara; Sitnik, Robert; Wnuk, Paweł; Woźniak, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a number of research projects of the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology in order to illustrate the use of common mechatronics and optomechatronics approach in solving multidisciplinary technical problems. Projects on sensors development, measurement and industrial control systems, multimodal data capture and advance systems for monitoring and diagnostics of industrial processes are presented and discussed.

  7. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  8. Monitoring prion protein expression in complex biological samples by SERS for diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, D; Filippo, E; Fiore, R; Serra, A; Urso, E; Rizzello, A; Maffia, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows a new insight into the analysis of cell physiology. In this work, the difficulty of producing suitable substrates that, besides permitting the amplification of the Raman signal, do not interact with the biological material causing alteration, has been overcome by a combined method of hydrothermal green synthesis and thermal annealing. The SERS analysis of the cell membrane has been performed with special attention to the cellular prion protein PrP C . In addition, SERS has also been used to reveal the prion protein-Cu(II) interaction in four different cell models (B104, SH-SY5Y, GN11, HeLa), expressing PrP C at different levels. A significant implication of the current work consists of the intriguing possibility of revealing and quantifying prion protein expression in complex biological samples by a cheap SERS-based method, replacing the expensive and time-consuming immuno-assay systems commonly employed.

  9. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  10. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  11. Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales with implications for mitigation, management and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker

    Toothed whales are vocal animals and their social life as well as successful orientation and feeding depends on emission and reception of sound. Such sounds may e.g. be clicks used for echolocation or whistles used for communication and they can be monitored in time and space by means of passive...... importantly the detection functions derived per datalogger could level out the sensitivity differences between the dataloggers (chapter II). Knowing that passive acoustic monitoring may be used to derive densities of small odontocetes such as NBHF species, the next step is to obtain accurate click...... descriptions. A species' sounds must be well defined according to specific sound source parameters to be able to build precise filters for the acoustic dataloggers to sort the correct signals from noise. Such definitions require that the variation at the level of species is known and therefore that each focal...

  12. Biological Monitoring Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators of Water Quality of Maroaga Stream in the Maroaga Cave System, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Brito Uherek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments are being modified by anthropogenic activities regarding their biological, physical, and chemical conditions; even pristine aquatic ecosystems can be threatened. This study focused on the biological monitoring of Maroaga Stream—a first order stream located in an Environmental Protection Area in the Amazon using the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP Score System. The BMWP Score System revealed that the Maroaga Stream was a Class I stream (score of 138 points, indicating clean or not significantly altered water quality. The results suggest the adequate environmental conditions and ecological responses of the Maroaga Stream.

  13. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  15. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  16. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  17. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gurdita

    Full Text Available Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  18. [Pseudomonas infection: biological risk by occupational exposure and results of an environmental monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Francesco; Giorgi, Doriana Antonella; Palmieri, Sabina; Arcangeli, Luca; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-01-01

    The biological risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for activities involving exposure to contaminated water, such as, for example, routine maintenance of swimming pools, is related to the availability of effective prophylactic and therapeutic measures. The authors present the data of the microbiological analyzes made on 2349 samples taken from pools in Rome and province. The contamination by Pseudomonas was found in 191 samples with 13 samples that had a level > 100 cfu/100 ml and 5 samples with level > 200 cfu/100 ml. Useful considerations derived from the analysis of the literature about the profile and prophylactic treatment of infection by Pseudomonas, necessarily to be taken into consideration for an adequate risk assessment.

  19. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  20. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, P P; Tornero-Velez, R; Rappaport, S M

    2000-12-01

    Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (SD = 5.8 mg/m(3); median duration = 3 min) with a range of values falling within a 274-fold range, and was comprised entirely of the within-person component of variance (representing exposures of the same subject at different times of refueling). The corresponding range for benzene concentrations in breath was 41-fold and was comprised primarily of the within-person variance component (74% of the total variance). Our results indicate that environmental rather than interindividual differences are primarily responsible for benzene exposure and uptake during automobile refueling. The study also demonstrates that self-administered monitoring can be efficiently used to measure environmental exposures and biomarkers among the general public.

  2. Using LabView for real-time monitoring and tracking of multiple biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskyy, Aleksandr I.; Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Bilynsky, Yosyp Y.; Starovier, Anzhelika

    2017-04-01

    Today real-time studying and tracking of movement dynamics of various biological objects is important and widely researched. Features of objects, conditions of their visualization and model parameters strongly influence the choice of optimal methods and algorithms for a specific task. Therefore, to automate the processes of adaptation of recognition tracking algorithms, several Labview project trackers are considered in the article. Projects allow changing templates for training and retraining the system quickly. They adapt to the speed of objects and statistical characteristics of noise in images. New functions of comparison of images or their features, descriptors and pre-processing methods will be discussed. The experiments carried out to test the trackers on real video files will be presented and analyzed.

  3. Seven-channel digital telemetry system for monitoring and direct computer capturing of biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, A M; Andreasen, A; Assentoft, J E; Nagel, O

    1993-09-01

    A seven-channel telemetry system for collection and display of biological data is presented. The system can amplify bioelectrical signals in the range of 2 microV to 200 mV and has a bandwidth of 0.1-80 Hz. After multiplexing, the signals are digitized with a resolution of 8 bits. The data are frequency modulated directly on a VHF transmitter. After receiving the data on a VHF receiver, they are routed directly to the RS232 input connector on the PC. Thereby the advantage of direct communication between the transmitter and the PC can be utilized. Expensive analog equipment is avoided and display of the signals on the PC screen as well as signal analysis can be performed. The system has been tested and was found to be stable and highly reliable.

  4. [Methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: monitoring in biological matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaseit, E; García-Algar, O; Simó, S; Pichini, S; Farré, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has emerged in the last few years as the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorder in the paediatric population. In 1980's, methylphenidate (MFD) a psychomotor stimulant drug, was approved in Spain for the symptomatic therapy of ADHD. Since then, MFD has become one of the most extensively prescribed and studied treatment for ADHD both in children and adults. In this paper, the main pharmacological issues of MFD are reviewed, focusing on its pharmacokinetics in conventional (blood and urine) and non-conventional (hair, oral fluid and sweat) biological matrices, its pharmaceutical preparations, therapeutic levels and side effects. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Western pond turtle: Biology, sampling techniques, inventory and monitoring, conservation, and management: Northwest Fauna No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.; Germano, David J.; Ashton, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    One of only two native, freshwater turtle species in the western United States, western pond turtles are declining in portions of their original range. Declines are mostly due to habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and lack of connectivity among populations. USGS zoologist R. Bruce Bury and colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service, California State University, and other agencies compiled and edited a new review and field manual of this charismatic species. Objectives were to determine its current distribution and abundance, summarize and evaluate population features, review techniques to detect population and habitat changes, and improve monitoring for long-term trends. Methods described in the manual should improve consistency, efficiency, and accuracy of survey data, resulting in improved management and conservation efforts.

  6. Water quality monitoring of an international wetland at Harike, Punjab and its impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmit; Walia, Harpreet; Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Arora, Saroj

    2017-06-01

    The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic and genotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from 13 different sites of the Harike wetland using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) strain and plasmid nicking assay using pBR322, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of water samples using different parameters was conducted for water quality monitoring. Heavy metal analysis was performed to quantify the toxic components present in water samples. It was observed that although the water samples of all the sites demonstrated mutagenic as well as genotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from sites containing water from river Satluj, i.e., site 1 (upstream Satluj river), site 2 (Satluj river) and site 3 (reservoir Satluj). The high level of pollution due to industrial effluents and agricultural run-off at these sites may engender the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples.

  7. Unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell autograft in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clinical findings and biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, G; Proia, A; Mauro, F; Amaranto, P; Capria, S; Cimino, G; Cordone, I; de Fabritiis, P; Rapanotti, C; Reato, G; Vignetti, M; Foa, R; Mandelli, F

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantion in patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission after fludarabine therapy, the clinical impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring and the immunologic reconstitution after transplantation. Twenty CLL patients, in clinical complete remission (CR) after fludarabine, were offered an unmanipulated PBSC transplant and were longitudinally monitored for MRD and immunologic reconstitution. Due to unsatisfactory PBSC collection, 4 patients received bone marrow cells. All patients engrafted. Two patients died, one due to infection and one because of another neoplasia. Thirteen patients are at present in clinical CR after a median follow-up of 17 months and 18 patients are alive with a survival probability of 0.87 (+/-0.04) at 52 months after transplant. Fifteen patients had a molecular remission. Three of them showed a molecular relapse 16-28 months after autograft, followed by a clinical relapse 10-16 months later. Three of the four patients who remained persistently rearranged could be revaluated over time and showed an immunologic relapse 11-26 months after transplant; two of these had a clinical relapse 12 and 7 months later. A marked and persistent impairment of both the B- and T-immunologic compartments was recorded in the horizontal follow-up. Unmanipulated PBSC autograft is a feasible procedure that produces prolonged molecular remissions in high-risk CLL patients. Persistence or reappearance of a molecular signal after engraftment is predictive of subsequent immunologic and clinical CLL recurrence. The long -lasting impairment of the host immune repertoire after fludarabine followed by autograft has to be taken into account in the patients' management.

  8. Biological Education of IVFRU and FIAU for HSV1-TK Reporter Gene Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Su Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Eun Ah; Lee, Jong Chan; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus Type1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) system is a useful gene therapy monitoring method. HSV1-TK is one of the most widely used effector gene systems used for imaging gene expression, in association with its use as a reporter gene. It has resulted the development of a number of radiolabeled HSV1-TK substrates for the non-invasive detection of HSV1-TK expression. In non-invasive imaging of the HSV1-TK system, many nucleoside derivatives have been developed as prodrugs for tumor proliferation imaging or as anti-viral drugs. Prodrug activation or sucide gene therapy has been shown to be successful in potentiating the therapeutic index by sensitizing genetically modified tumor cells to various prodrugs or enhancing the action of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. The most studied prodrug activation approaches involve transfection of tumors with HSV1-TK gene. (Z)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro- 2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) possesses a 2'-fluoro substituent in the ribose configuration, is considered to protect IVFRU from enzyme mediated degradation in vivo. It is obviously potential substrates for HSV1-TK imaging. 2'-Fiuoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl- 5-iodo-uridine (FIAU), an anticancer drug widely used in clinical practice, is an analogue of thymidine. In a series of studies using adenovirus vector for gene transfer described the appropriate combination of exogenously introduced HSV1-TK as a 'marker/reporter gene' and radiolabelled FIAU as a 'marker substrate/reporter probe' for monitoring gene therapy and gene expression.

  9. Biological Education of IVFRU and FIAU for HSV1-TK Reporter Gene Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Su Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Eun Ah; Lee, Jong Chan; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2006-01-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus Type1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) system is a useful gene therapy monitoring method. HSV1-TK is one of the most widely used effector gene systems used for imaging gene expression, in association with its use as a reporter gene. It has resulted the development of a number of radiolabeled HSV1-TK substrates for the non-invasive detection of HSV1-TK expression. In non-invasive imaging of the HSV1-TK system, many nucleoside derivatives have been developed as prodrugs for tumor proliferation imaging or as anti-viral drugs. Prodrug activation or sucide gene therapy has been shown to be successful in potentiating the therapeutic index by sensitizing genetically modified tumor cells to various prodrugs or enhancing the action of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. The most studied prodrug activation approaches involve transfection of tumors with HSV1-TK gene. (Z)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro- 2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) possesses a 2'-fluoro substituent in the ribose configuration, is considered to protect IVFRU from enzyme mediated degradation in vivo. It is obviously potential substrates for HSV1-TK imaging. 2'-Fiuoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl- 5-iodo-uridine (FIAU), an anticancer drug widely used in clinical practice, is an analogue of thymidine. In a series of studies using adenovirus vector for gene transfer described the appropriate combination of exogenously introduced HSV1-TK as a 'marker/reporter gene' and radiolabelled FIAU as a 'marker substrate/reporter probe' for monitoring gene therapy and gene expression

  10. Interconnected project 'Development and testing of a biological monitoring for effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on man'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, G.

    1992-01-01

    The research project had the aim to develop a standard for measuring individual, inner stresses from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at work. The employed method was by characterizing PAHs and metabolites of PAHs to be identified in urine with a view to developing a biological monitoring of professionally exposured persons. Using a number of PAHs relevant to work, the following questions were studied in cell culture systems and different animal-experimental models: Which metabolites are formed from the PAHs used in cell culture systems and the different animal-experimental models, and what are their ratios in percent? What percentage of a PAH is excreted by experimental animals in their urine and faeces on the first, second, and third day following different forms of application? What is the scale of the individual range of variation of PAH mass excretion? Are these results transferable to man? (orig.) [de

  11. External Quality Assessment Scheme for Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Lee

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The EQAS has taken a primary role in improving the reliability of analytical data. A total quality assurance scheme is suggested, including the validation of technical documentation for the whole analytical procedure.

  12. Fate of biological control introductions: monitoring an Australian fungal pathogen of grasshoppers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Walsh, S R; Ramos, M E; St Leger, R J; Silver, J C; Roberts, D W

    1996-01-01

    In North America there are two generally recognized pathotypes (pathotypes 1 and 2) of the fungus Entomophaga grylli which show host-preferential infection of grasshopper subfamilies. Pathotype 3, discovered in Australia, has a broader grasshopper host range and was considered to be a good biocontrol agent. Between 1989 and 1991 pathotype 3 was introduced at two field sites in North Dakota. Since resting spores are morphologically indistinguishable among pathotypes, we used pathotype-specific DNA probes to confirm pathotype identification in E. grylli-infected grasshoppers collected at the release sites in 1992, 1993, and 1994. In 1992, up to 23% of E. grylli-infected grasshoppers of the subfamilies Melanoplinae, Oedipodinae, and Gomphocerinae were infected by pathotype 3, with no infections > 1 km from the release sites. In 1993, pathotype 3 infections declined to 1.7%. In 1994 grasshopper populations were low and no pathotype 3 infections were found. The frequency of pathotype 3 infection has declined to levels where its long-term survival in North America is questionable. Analyses of biocontrol releases are critical to evaluating the environmental risks associated with these ecological manipulations, and molecular probes are powerful tools for monitoring biocontrol releases. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570660

  13. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MONITORIZE SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN HONEYBEE COLONY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic hive is the result of the scientific researches carried out between2003-2006 by a research project funded by MEdC through the National ProgramRELANSIN, being accomplished by Institute for Beekeeping Research andDevelopment –Bucharest in cooperation with the Polytechnics University fromBucharest –The Center for Electronic Technology and Interconnection Techniquesand the Radio Consult CompanyTo achieve the great complexity of the electronic model adapted to the hive –the“smart” hive, it was necessary to establish the all electronic details which to makepossible to monitorize some very important information from the bee colony andits environment with the help of the honeybees and which to eliminate the errorsthat may occur in the information collection process.Thus, the project aimed to conceive the electronic system in order to collectinformation from inside the hive and from environment too, to storage andtransmit it to a data basis by GSM network in order to be analyzed and processedby users.By this complex electronic system, composed by electronic equipment and thehoney bee colony, which is dynamic and strong related with natural evolution ofvegetation correlated with the climate factors, is possible to identify instantaneousor periodically a large palette of aggression factors as well naturals (acids rains,extreme temperatures, calamities as anthropic factors –accidental chemical orbiologic pollution. The obtained data, electronically quantified and taken out intothe data basis, could offer accurate information about the moisturized areas atdifferent time intervals.

  14. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  15. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  16. A comprehensive assessment protocol including patient reported outcomes, physical tests, and biological sampling in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer: is it feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, A.J.; Buffart, L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Braakhuis, B.J.; de Bree, R.; Leemans, C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Large cohort studies are needed taking into account cancer-related, personal, biological, psychobehavioral, and lifestyle-related factors, to guide future research to improve treatment and supportive care. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a comprehensive baseline assessment of a

  17. Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, Rami; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    With an optical fiber probe, we acquired spectra from swine tissue between 500 and 1600 nm by combining a silicon and an InGaAs spectrometer. The concentrations of the biological chromophores were estimated by fitting a mathematical model derived from diffusion theory. The advantage of our technique

  18. Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: Benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nachabé (Rami); B.H.W. Hendriks (Benno); M. van der Voort (Marjolein); A.E. Desjardins (Adrien); H.J.C.M. Sterenborg (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith an optical fiber probe, we acquired spectra from swine tissue between 500 and 1600 nm by combining a silicon and an InGaAs spectrometer. The concentrations of the biological chromophores were estimated by fitting a mathematical model derived from diffusion theory. The advantage of

  19. Seismic response trends evaluation via long term monitoring and finite element model updating of an RC building including soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three storey reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction (SSI) using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the behavior of the building, a three dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and non-structural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. The developed FEM was then calibrated using a sensitivity based model updating technique taking into account soil flexibility and non-structural components as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  20. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological data as part of continuous monitoring in the Mobile-Tensaw Delta in 2003 and 2004 (NODC Accession 0117321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuous monitoring data that includes water temperature, conductivity, salinity, water level, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pressure, and resistivity collected on...

  2. Fish biological effect monitoring of chemical stressors using a generalized linear model in South Sea, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Seung Bae; Hong, Sang Hee; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; Kim, Dae Jung; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the health status at six different study areas, we used the generalized linear model approach with selected biochemical markers in resident fish from uncontaminated and contaminated sites. We also confirmed the independence between the biochemical indices and the morphometric indices including the hepato-somatic index (HSI), gonado-somatic index (GSI), and condition factor (CF) in fish from the sampling areas. The effect of area on the presence of biotransformation markers (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) was significantly high in Masan Bay. The area with the greatest effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was Jindong Bay, while there was no significant effect of GSI, HSI, CF, and sex in the EROD model and HSI, CF and sex in the AChE model. These results clarify that fish from Masan, Gwangyang and Jindong Bay were affected by pollutant stress, and the analysis of sensitive biochemical responses allowed for an improved interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological monitoring of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene by PAHs exposure among primary school students in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavani, Samaneh; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Hoseini, Mohammad; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to estimate PAHs exposure in primary school students and determine its association with other PAHs-related factors. In total, 120 male primary school students (9-12 years old) were randomly selected from urban and suburban areas in Shiraz. The parents were required to complete a questionnaire including information about second-hand smoke exposure, residential traffic density, daily diet, and walking or being driven to school. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was also used to analyze urinary 1-OHP. t test, ANOVA (with Ducan's post hoc test), and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between quantitative and qualitative variables and urinary 1-OHP concentration. The range and geometric mean of the creatinine-corrected 1-OHP levels were 120-6950 and 1460 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Besides, 1-OHP levels were higher among the children with smoker parents compared to those having non-smoker parents. The results also revealed a correlation between the duration of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and 1-OHP concentration. This correlation was also observed for daily uptake of smoked or grilled foods. However, traffic congestion did not have any significant effects on 1-OHP levels. PAHs are commonly present in Iranian diet. As a result, the weekly intake of dietary PAHs was the most effective predictor of PAHs exposure in the study population. Due to adverse health effects of PAHs on humans, especially children, more extensive studies are required to identify the sources that contribute to environmental PAHs exposure.

  4. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus.Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages.Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  5. A Regional Monitoring and Visualization System for Decision Support and Disaster Management Applications for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC)-a network of managed and protected areas extending from Mexico to Columbia-is a crucial initiative for the Mesoamerican region, with a central development concept of integrating conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the framework of sustainable economic development. The MBC is of particular importance to the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), which is comprised of the environmental ministers from the seven Central American countries. Responsible for determining priority areas for action in the corridor, CCAD decision makers require current and accurate information, and access to the dynamic knowledge of the changes in the MBC such as deforestation hotspots, fires, and the effects of natural disasters. Currently this information is not integrated and in disparate locations throughout the region and the world. Leveraging NASA technology, satellite data, and capability, we propose to team with the World Bank and the CCAD to develop a regional monitoring and visualization system-with central nodes at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and at CCAD headquarters. This system will assimilate NASA spatial datasets (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, etc.), spatial data from other sources (commercial and public-domain), and ancillary data developed in each of the seven Central American countries (soils, transportation networks, biodiversity indicator maps, etc.). The system will function as a "virtual dashboard" for monitoring the MBC and provide the critical decision support tools for CCAD decision makers. The CCAD central node will also serve as a high-tech showcase for the corridor among the international community, other decision-makers, the media, and students.

  6. Enriching the biological space of natural products and charting drug metabolites, through real time biotransformation monitoring: The NMR tube bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikonstantinou, Alexandra V; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Ravera, Enrico; Fragai, Marco; Parigi, Giacomo; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Luchinat, Claudio; Stamatis, Haralambos; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2018-01-01

    Natural products offer a wide range of biological activities, but they are not easily integrated in the drug discovery pipeline, because of their inherent scaffold intricacy and the associated complexity in their synthetic chemistry. Enzymes may be used to perform regioselective and stereoselective incorporation of functional groups in the natural product core, avoiding harsh reaction conditions, several protection/deprotection and purification steps. Herein, we developed a three step protocol carried out inside an NMR-tube. 1st-step: STD-NMR was used to predict the: i) capacity of natural products as enzyme substrates and ii) possible regioselectivity of the biotransformations. 2nd-step: The real-time formation of multiple-biotransformation products in the NMR-tube bioreactor was monitored in-situ. 3rd-step: STD-NMR was applied in the mixture of the biotransformed products to screen ligands for protein targets. Herein, we developed a simple and time-effective process, the "NMR-tube bioreactor", that is able to: (i) predict which component of a mixture of natural products can be enzymatically transformed, (ii) monitor in situ the transformation efficacy and regioselectivity in crude extracts and multiple substrate biotransformations without fractionation and (iii) simultaneously screen for interactions of the biotransformation products with pharmaceutical protein targets. We have developed a green, time-, and cost-effective process that provide a simple route from natural products to lead compounds for drug discovery. This process can speed up the most crucial steps in the early drug discovery process, and reduce the chemical manipulations usually involved in the pipeline, improving the environmental compatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of on-line spectrofluorimetric methodology for selenium monitoring in foods and biological fluids using Chrome azurol S quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Débora G; Fernández, Liliana P

    2017-09-01

    A novel, simple and accurate on-line green methodology for Se(IV) monitoring by molecular fluorescence has been developed. Because the analyte does not exhibit fluorescence, the organic dye Chrome azurol S (CAS) has been chosen to allow detection. The effect of metal-quenching on CAS excitation and emission conditions (λex=300nm; λem=407nm) was used as criterion for analyte quantification in presence of sodium cholate bile salt (NaC). The quenching mechanism was explored, and it can be classified as a collisional type with a Stern-Volmer constant value of 3.0×10 7 molL -1 . To improve the sampling rate, minimize the reagent consumption and generated wastes, an on-line configuration was designed. Experimental variables that affect the fluorimetric sensitivity were optimized using uni-variation assays. Under optimal experimental conditions, the limit of detection was 0.27µgL -1 with a lineal range for Se(IV) concentration from 0.84 to 6.00µgL -1 . The developed methodology is low cost and fast sampling, allowing Se(IV) quantification in the presence of other common ions. Bulbous vegetables and biological samples were successfully analyzed with an average recovery close to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Biological monitoring in workers exposed to inorganic arsenic in a disused industrial plant in the area of Manfredonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Gagliardi, T; Sciannamblo, G; Caputo, F; Minunni, V; Bellotta, M R; de Nichilo, G; Bisceglia, L; Corrado, V; De Pasquale, P; Assennato, G

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolities were measured in 108 spot urine samples obtained from the medical surveillance programme of workers exposed to inorganic Arsenic in July 2006. 15% of the samples showed levels higher than limit value of 35 microg/L (mean value 23,9 microg/L). After the improvement of the working conditions, in August-October 2006, we collected a urinary sample from each of the 108 workers enrolled. A questionnaire was also administrated, in order to investigate the influence of occupational and non occupational factors on the urinary arsenic excretion. The median value of urinary arsenic was 15,12 microg/L; among the 108 samples, 5% showed levels higher than limit value. A significant difference was observed in relation with sea-food consumption and aging stratification. In conclusion, we have described a significant reduction of urinary arsenic excretion between the two phases of biological monitoring, likely due to a proper hygienic work-related intervention.

  9. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  10. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1986-07-01

    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled with neutral fat whilst the periphery is an amorphous layer. Development of the testes in all three species appears typical of deep-sea asteroids. (author)

  11. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Sunde

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331 isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241 produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9 than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3, (p<0.01, Chi-square test. Identical cassette arrays including dfrA1-aadA1, aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, oxa-30-aadA1 (class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (class 2 integrons were detected from both humans and meat. However, the most prevalent cassette array in human isolates, dfrA17-aadA5, did not occur in isolates from meat, suggesting a possible linkage between this class 1 integron and a subpopulation of E. coli adapted to a human host. The drfA1-aadA1 and aadA1 class 1 integrons were found frequently in both human and meat isolates. These isolates were subjected to further studies to investigate similarities with regard to transferability, plasmid and host strain characteristics. We detected incF plasmids with pMLST profile F24:A-:B1 carrying drfA1-aadA1 integrons in isolates from pork and in a more distantly related E. coli strain from a human with septicaemia. Furthermore, we showed that most of the class 1 integrons with aadA1 were located on incF plasmids with pMLST profile F51:A-:B10 in human isolates. The plasmid was present in unrelated as well as closely related host strains, demonstrating that dissemination

  12. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  14. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers of an electric steel foundry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, E; Catalani, Simona; Folesani, Giuseppina; Venco, Paola; Bodini, Elena; Guidetti, F; Bergonzi, R; Franchini, I; Apostoli, P

    2005-01-01

    To assess and classify exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some specific working areas of a steel foundry operating with a continuous casting process and evaluate biomonitoring data in different job tasks. Exposure to dusts and six PAHs classified as carcinogenic by EU directives was studied in a cohort of 35 male foundry workers (aged 41.1 +/- 6.9 years), who were examined both prior to and at the end of the work-shift (06:00 a.m.-02:00 p.m.) in two different periods. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) was measured as a biomarker of exposure to pyrene. PAHs concentrations ranged from 461.8 to 935.6 ng/m3 near the continuous casting area, whereas lower values were measured near the ladle furnace. End of shift 1-OH-P values were higher in 11 non-smoking workers involved in continuous casting process as compared to those employed in mantenance and furnace areas (median of the second determination: 5.70 microg/g creatinine--range: 1.24-21.24 vs 1.17 microg/g creatinine--range: 0.23-4.49; p< 0.001). 1-OH-P excretion was significantly correlated with both the sum of six carcinogenic PAHs and pyrene airborne concentrations. In two biomonitoring sessions, 9.1% and 34.3% of the workers respectively showed end-of-shift 1-OH-P values exceeding the occupational exposure limit (OEL) (4.4 microg/g creatinine or 2.3 micromol/mol(-1) creatinine) recommended for coke-oven workers. 1-OH-P is a useful biomarker in assessing PAH exposure and is associated with job category at a Steelplant. Due to exposure variability, to assess risk associated with PAHs exposure, biological monitoring should be carried out periodically.

  15. Development of dark-striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae, as a biological dosimeter in a radio-ecological monitoring system: 2. Survival rates and hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishmura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the management of nuclear power plants and the installation of facilities for radiation waste storage: social concerns over radiation safety are increasing. To understand how environmental radiation affects on human beings, the development of an reasonable monitoring system is required. The existing radio-environmental surveillance systems can be classified into physical and biological monitoring systems. The wild small animals and livestocks were reported to be effective biological indicators of environmental radiation This study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as a biological dosimetric model to assess the effect of radiation on the human environments. For this study, the criteria for the biological dosimeters of environmental radiation were established as the following: first, it should be an animal from a clear background of species; second, it should inhabit a broad range of areas and in considerable numbers; third, it should maintain identical ecological characteristics; fourth, it should be cohabitating with humans; fifth, it should have been consuming food found in their habitat; and finally, it should indicate a clear doseresponse relationship with high sensitivity. Based on such criteria, this study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as an effective biological dosimeter. Primarily, their species were classified based on their morphological external characteristics and isoenzymic patterns. The taxonomically classified darkstriped field mice, A. agrarius coreae, were then irradiated to investigate their radiation sensitivity based on the survival rate and hematology in this study

  16. Examination of the regulatory frameworks applicable to biologic drugs (including stem cells and their progeny) in Europe, the U.S., and Australia: part I--a method of manual documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Savic, Snezana; Siegel, Evan; Atkinson, Kerry; Tasic, Ljiljana

    2012-12-01

    Recent development of a wide range of regulatory standards applicable to production and use of tissues, cells, and other biologics (or biologicals), as advanced therapies, indicates considerable interest in the regulation of these products. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare high-tier documents within the Australian, European, and U.S. biologic drug regulatory environments using qualitative methodology. Cohort 1 of the selected 18 high-tier regulatory documents from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) regulatory frameworks were subject to a manual documentary analysis. These documents were consistent with the legal requirements for manufacturing and use of biologic drugs in humans and fall into six different categories. Manual analysis included a terminology search. The occurrence, frequency, and interchangeable use of different terms and phrases were recorded in the manual documentary analysis. Despite obvious differences, manual documentary analysis revealed certain consistency in use of terminology across analyzed frameworks. Phrase search frequencies have shown less uniformity than the search of terms. Overall, the EMA framework's documents referred to "medicinal products" and "marketing authorization(s)," the FDA documents discussed "drug(s)" or "biologic(s)," and the TGA documents referred to "biological(s)." Although high-tier documents often use different terminology they share concepts and themes. Documents originating from the same source have more conjunction in their terminology although they belong to different frameworks (i.e., Good Clinical Practice requirements based on the Declaration of Helsinki, 1964). Automated (software-based) documentary analysis should be obtained for the conceptual and relational analysis.

  17. Identification of potential participant scientists and development of procedures for a national inventory of selected biological monitoring programs: a mail questionnaire survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H.T.; Goff, F.G.; Ross, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Procedural details of how the National Biological Monitoring Inventory was conducted are described. Results of a nationwide telephone campaign to identify principal investigators and also of a nationwide questionnaire mailing to the investigators identified are presented. On the basis of percentage of questionnaire returns (nearly 50 percent), the Inventory was judged to be successful. The communication procedures, guidelines, and formats developed may be useful to others engaged in this type of research.

  18. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  19. Biological Monitoring of Inhaled Nanoparticles in Patients: An Appealing Approach To Study Causal Link between Human Respiratory Pathology and Exposure to Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Valérie; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2017-09-18

    Although necessary, in vitro and in vivo studies are not fully successful at predicting nanomaterials toxicity. We propose to associate such assays to the biological monitoring of nanoparticles in clinical samples to get more relevant data on the chemical and physical nature and dose of nanoparticles found in humans. The concept is to establish the load of nanoparticles in biological samples of patients. Then, by comparing samples from different patient groups, nanoparticles of interest could be identified and a potential link between a given nanoparticle type and toxicity could be suggested. It must be confirmed by investigating the biological effects induced by these nanoparticles using in vitro or in vivo models (mechanistic or dose-response studies). This translational approach from the bedside to the bench and vice versa could allow a better understanding of the nanoparticle effects and mechanisms of toxicity that can contribute, at least in part, to a disease.

  20. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rouane-Hacene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  1. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  2. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others, E-mail: mariobalthar@gmail.com [Centro Tecnológico do Exército (IDQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and development of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients included in the Spanish ABPM registry: the CARDIORISC Event study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; Ruilope, Luis M

    2012-04-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is superior to conventional BP measurement in predicting outcome, with baseline 24-h, daytime and night-time absolute values, as well as relative nocturnal decline, as powerful determinants of prognosis. We aimed to evaluate ABPM estimates on the appearance of cardiovascular events and mortality in a cohort of high-risk treated hypertensive patients. A total of 2115 treated hypertensive patients with high or very high added risk were evaluated by means of office and 24-h ABPM. Cardiovascular events and mortality were assessed after a median follow-up of 4 years. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients (12.7%) experienced a primary event (nonfatal coronary or cerebrovascular event, heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death) and 114 died (45 from cardiovascular causes). In a multiple Cox regression model, and after adjusting for baseline cardiovascular risk and office BP, night-time SBP predicted cardiovascular events [hazard ratio for each SD increase: 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.59]. Values above 130 mmHg increased the risk by 52% in comparison to values less than 115 mmHg. In addition to clinical determinants of cardiovascular risk and conventional BP, ABPM performed during treatment adds prognostic significance on the development of cardiovascular events in high-risk hypertensive patients. Among different ABPM-derived values, night-time SBP is the most potent predictor of outcome.

  4. Exploring the MACH Model's Potential as a Metacognitive Tool to Help Undergraduate Students Monitor Their Explanations of Biological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    When undergraduate biology students learn to explain biological mechanisms, they face many challenges and may overestimate their understanding of living systems. Previously, we developed the MACH model of four components used by expert biologists to explain mechanisms: Methods, Analogies, Context, and How. This study explores the implementation of…

  5. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  6. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the biological monitoring of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Göen, T; Müller, J; Angerer, J

    1998-06-12

    Organic nitrocompounds are the most frequently used constituents of explosives and some of them have been evaluated to be highly toxic or even carcinogenic. Human contact with explosives may originate from a variety of sources, including occupational exposure during the production of ammunition as well as environmental exposure due to the contamination of soil and ground water reservoirs on former military production sites and training areas. This paper describes two gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring methods for the determination of twelve nitroaromatic compounds in urine (nitrobenzene, 1,2-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene). The analytes are detectable in the lowest microg/l range, with imprecisions of 3-22% within series and 5-29% between series, depending on the compound of interest. Both procedures are rapid and relatively easy to perform and, therefore, are advantageous for the screening of occupationally or environmentally exposed persons. We analysed urine samples obtained from nine workers from an ammunition dismantling workshop and from twelve control persons. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene was detected in six samples at concentrations between 4 and 43 microg/l. The main metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, were found in a concentration range from 143 to 16,832 microg/l and from 24 to 5787 microg/l, respectively. Nonconjugated aminodinitrotoluenes were present as varying percentages of the total amount. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene were found in two samples (2-9 microg/l). Nitroaromatics were not detectable in urine specimens from control persons.

  8. Biological monitoring of lotic ecosystems: the role of diatoms Biomonitoramento dos ecossistemas lóticos: o papel das diatomáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bere

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing anthropogenic influence on lotic environments as a result of civilisation has captured public interest because of the consequent problems associated with deterioration of water quality. Various biological monitoring methods that provide a direct measure of ecological integrity by using the response of biota to environmental changes have been developed to monitor the ecological status of lotic environments. Diatoms have been used extensively in this regard and this review attempts to summarise the basic concepts associated with biological monitoring using benthic diatoms. Where possible, examples from work carried out in Brazil are used.O aumento da influência antropogênica sobre ambientes lóticos como resultado da civilização conquistou o interesse público por causa de problemas relacionados com a consequente deterioração da qualidade da água. Vários métodos de biomonitoramento que fornecem uma medida direta da integridade ecológica usando a resposta da biota a alterações ambientais têm sido desenvolvidos para monitorar o estado ecológico de ecossistemas lóticos. Diatomáceas têm sido amplamente utilizadas e esta revisão tenta resumir os conceitos básicos associados ao monitoramento biológico utilizando diatomáceas bentônicas. Sempre que possível, exemplos de trabalhos realizados no Brasil serão utilizados.

  9. High-throughput platform for real-time monitoring of biological processes by multicolor single-molecule fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Dalal, Ravindra V.; Petrov, Alexey N.; Tsai, Albert; O’Leary, Seán E.; Chapin, Karen; Cheng, Janice; Ewan, Mark; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Lundquist, Paul; Turner, Stephen W.; Hsu, David R.; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Zero-mode waveguides provide a powerful technology for studying single-molecule real-time dynamics of biological systems at physiological ligand concentrations. We customized a commercial zero-mode waveguide-based DNA sequencer for use as a versatile instrument for single-molecule fluorescence detection and showed that the system provides long fluorophore lifetimes with good signal to noise and low spectral cross-talk. We then used a ribosomal translation assay to show real-time fluidic delivery during data acquisition, showing it is possible to follow the conformation and composition of thousands of single biomolecules simultaneously through four spectral channels. This instrument allows high-throughput multiplexed dynamics of single-molecule biological processes over long timescales. The instrumentation presented here has broad applications to single-molecule studies of biological systems and is easily accessible to the biophysical community. PMID:24379388

  10. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  11. Incineration and monitoring of low-level 3H and 14C wastes at a biological research institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; Knapp, S.J.; Parker, M.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste containing liquid scintillation fluid and known amounts of 14 C and 3 H has been incinerated in a modified pathological incinerator with the incinerator effluent, refractory surface and ash being monitored. The study relates the activity monitored to that incinerated and discusses how this relation was affected by a modification of the incinerator and monitoring conditions. No significant activity was found to be associated with the ash, particulates or the refractory surface. These data suggest that most of the activity is released as tritiated water vapor and 14 C-labeled carbon dioxide. However, incomplete oxidation may occur for short periods of time depending on the amount of liquid scintillation fluid incinerated, with the possible release of 14 C-labeled carbon monoxide

  12. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring the performance of innovative and traditional biocides mixed with consolidants and water-repellents for the prevention of biological growth on stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Daniela; Salvadori, Barbara; Galeotti, Monica

    2012-04-15

    In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated electrochemical-biological process as an alternative mean for ammonia monitoring during anaerobic digestion of organic wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia monitoring is important to control anaerobic digestion (AD) process due to inhibition effect. Here, an electrolysis cell (EC) was integrated with a complete nitrification reactor as an alternative approach for online monitoring of ammonia during AD processes. The AD effluent was pumped...... = 0.9673). The linear relationship was always observed regardless of different wastewater pH and external voltage. Pre-removal of other electron acceptors from digestate at cathode could eliminate their disturbances to sensor performance. Finally, the accuracy of biosensor was verified with real digestate test...

  15. To what extend the dam dredging can influence the background level of metals in the Rhine River: using chemical and biological long-term monitoring to answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebrun Jérémie D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dredging generates remobilisation of sediments contaminated by non-degradable compounds such as metals, to which aquatic organisms can be exposed. This study aims at assessing the environmental impact of sediments remobilised in the Rhine River (France during the dredging of Marckolsheim dam by pumping/dilution in 2013 on metal speciation and organisms' exposure. The monitoring coupling chemical and biological tools was performed 2 years before dredging operation on 2 sampling sites, upstream and downstream from the discharge of pumping/dilution, to acquire data on the natural variability of labile (DGT as passive samplers, dissolved and particulate concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in Rhine during full hydrological cycles. In parallel, size-calibrated zebra mussels were transplanted at both sites to monitor continuously metal bioavailability from particulate and dissolved fractions. This long-term monitoring allowed the establishment of reference baselines of Rhine water and mussels' contamination levels and subsequently, the detection of averred environmental changes due to the dredging. Indeed, Co and Mn accumulations in mussels exposed to the discharge were consistent with increasing labile species in Rhine whereas ones of Cr and Pb were likely due to an enhanced particulate bioavailability. Whatever the exposure route, the mussels recovered their basal metal contents 2 weeks after the end of dredging, suggesting a transient impact of sediment remobilisation on bioaccumulation. This long-term monitoring highlights the interest of coupling chemical and biological time-integrated tools for a better assessment of environmental risks because metallic exchanges between organisms and their media are complex and metal-specific.

  16. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    nutrients C, N, S, P, Ca, K and Mg and the metals Mn, Cd, Pb, Al, Cu, Ni and Hg. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate statistics and maps were produced to identify regional differences in pollutant deposition. Out of the elements analysed, lead and sulphur concentrations showed the most pronounced downward trends over time in tree foliage and grassland samples with the largest decreases observed in the early 1990 s. Both the reduced lead and sulphur levels in the biomonitors reflect the successful implementation of clean air policies, i.e. the introduction of unleaded gasoline, the availability of desulphurisation technologies and the economic transition of Eastern European heavy industries. However, the decrease in sulphur concentrations was lower in beech foliage from SW Germany as compared to beech leaves from six German national parks suggesting regional differences in sulphur deposition and trends thereof. At the same time, sulphur concentrations declined more strongly in the grassland samples indicating that much of the deposited sulphur remains in the forest ecosystems while in the grassland ecosystems it is gradually removed by the frequent cutting and grazing. During the time series, the decrease in sulphur deposition coincided with a marked increase in rain pH. At the same time, the increasing nitrogen concentrations observed over time in beech leaves suggest that emissions of oxidised and reduced nitrogen are still adding to the large-scale eutrophication of SW German forests. However, N concentrations in both the tree foliage and in the bulk grassland samples were unrelated to the modelled N deposition. When also considering macronutrient concentrations and N:P and N:K ratios, the results point to serious nutrient imbalances in many beech forests, which may reduce plant vitality and tree growth in the long run. Biological monitoring using plants is an effective tool to address changes in the environmental quality over time and space. The success

  17. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  18. Monitoring Biological Damage on Paper-based Documents in the Historical Archive of the Palermo Astronomical Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Bella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and archives house a wide variety of documents made of materials of vegetal and animal origin: unbound papers and books, manuscripts and printed books, photographs (negative and positive, prints, maps, available to the public for reading needs, study and information. These materials are often subject to fluctuations in environmental and micro-environmental parameters. For this reason, it is essential to implement constant monitoring and control of environmental conditions and potential deteriogens in order to slow down deterioration processes.The monitoring of the microbial degradation of paper documents in the Historical Archives of Palermo Astronomical Observatory has revealed microorganisms (bacteria and fungi that may be considered responsible for damaging the items examined, thus enabling an evaluation of the real risks and the proper methodologies to use to avoid future recolonization.

  19. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  20. Application of XRF and AAS for the elemental analysis of biological samples as monitors to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Wafa Salih

    1999-12-01

    In the present study, hair and urine samples were collected from selected group of workers in industrial areas, and control group was collected from individuals resident far from contaminated areas. Air samples were collected form indoors atmosphere of these industries. Sudan Mint Company and Mirghani workshop are selected as a possible contaminated cities in Khartoum and Omdurman cities. X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption techniques were applied to the analysis of the biological and air samples. AXIL computer program was used for fitting the collected spectra. The concentration of calcium, chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, and lead were evaluated. The result revealed that zinc and copper showed highest concentration in hair and air samples, while zinc was not detected in urine. In Mirghani workshop calcium, chromium, iron and zinc shows the highest values in air and hair samples also, zinc was not detected in urine. The correlation between the elemental content of the biological and environmental samples confirm that these elements can reach to the human body.(Author)

  1. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  2. Analysis of spatiotemporal metabolomic dynamics for sensitively monitoring biological alterations in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Miho; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Honda, Youhei; Setoyama, Daiki; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Fuminori; Miura, Daisuke

    2018-01-29

    Clinical application of the major anticancer drug, cisplatin, is limited by severe side effects, especially acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by nephrotoxicity. The detailed metabolic mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated technique combining mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to visualize the diverse spatiotemporal metabolic dynamics in the mouse kidney after cisplatin dosing. Biological responses to cisplatin was more sensitively detected within 24 h as a metabolic alteration, which is much earlier than possible with the conventional clinical chemistry method of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement. Region-specific changes (e.g., medulla and cortex) in metabolites related to DNA damage and energy generation were observed over the 72-h exposure period. Therefore, this metabolomics approach may become a novel strategy for elucidating early renal responses to cisplatin, prior to the detection of kidney damage evaluated by conventional method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Technical Stability and Biological Variability in MicroRNAs from Dried Blood Spots: A Lung Cancer Therapy-Monitoring Showcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mustafa; Laufer, Thomas; Backes, Christina; Schrörs, Hannah; Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Kohlhaas, Jochen; Meese, Eckart; Wehler, Thomas; Bals, Robert; Keller, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Different work flows have been proposed to use miRNAs as blood-borne biomarkers. In particular, the method used for collecting blood from patients can considerably influence the diagnostic results. We explored whether dried blood spots (DBSs) facilitate stable miRNA measurements and compared its technical stability with biological variability. First, we tested the stability of DBS samples by generating from 1 person 18 whole-genome-wide miRNA profiles of DBS samples that were exposed to different temperature and humidity conditions. Second, we investigated technical reproducibility by performing 7 replicates of DBS again from 1 person. Third, we investigated DBS samples from 53 patients with lung cancer undergoing different therapies. Across these 3 stages, 108 genome-wide miRNA profiles from DBS were generated and evaluated biostatistically. In the stability analysis, we observed that temperature and humidity had an overall limited influence on the miRNomes (average correlation between the different conditions of 0.993). Usage of a silica gel slightly diminished DBS' technical reproducibility. The 7 technical replicates had an average correlation of 0.996. The correlation with whole-blood PAXGene miRNomes of the same individual was remarkable (correlation of 0.88). Finally, evaluation of the samples from the 53 patients with lung cancer exposed to different therapies showed that the biological variations exceeded the technical variability significantly ( P technical variations significantly. DBS-based miRNA profiles will potentially further the translational character of miRNA biomarker studies. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. FACE Analysis as a Fast and Reliable Methodology to Monitor the Sulfation and Total Amount of Chondroitin Sulfate in Biological Samples of Clinical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Karousou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs due to their hydrophilic character and high anionic charge densities play important roles in various (pathophysiological processes. The identification and quantification of GAGs in biological samples and tissues could be useful prognostic and diagnostic tools in pathological conditions. Despite the noteworthy progress in the development of sensitive and accurate methodologies for the determination of GAGs, there is a significant lack in methodologies regarding sample preparation and reliable fast analysis methods enabling the simultaneous analysis of several biological samples. In this report, developed protocols for the isolation of GAGs in biological samples were applied to analyze various sulfated chondroitin sulfate- and hyaluronan-derived disaccharides using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE. Applications to biologic samples of clinical importance include blood serum, lens capsule tissue and urine. The sample preparation protocol followed by FACE analysis allows quantification with an optimal linearity over the concentration range 1.0–220.0 µg/mL, affording a limit of quantitation of 50 ng of disaccharides. Validation of FACE results was performed by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography techniques.

  5. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-11-15

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring the effects of a lepidopteran insecticide, Flubendiamide, on the biology of a non-target dipteran insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Roy, Sumedha

    2017-10-13

    Various organisms are adversely affected when subjected to chronic fluoride exposure. This highly electronegative ion present in several insecticide formulations is found to be lethal to target pests. In the present study, Drosophila melanogaster is treated with sub-lethal concentrations of a diamide insecticide formulation, Flubendiamide. Chronic exposure to the diamide (0.5-100 μg/mL) was found to be responsible for increase in fluoride ion concentration in larval as well as adult body fluid. Interestingly, 100 μg/mL Flubendiamide exposure resulted in 107 and 298% increase in fluoride ion concentration whereas only 23 and 52% of Flubendiamide concentration increase in larval and adult body fluid, respectively. Further, in this study, selected life cycle parameters like larval duration, pupal duration and emergence time showed minimal changes, whereas percentage of emergence and fecundity revealed significant treatment-associated variation. It can be noted that nearly 79% reduction in fecundity was observed with 100 μg/mL Flubendiamide exposure. The variations in these parameters indicate probable involvement of fluoride ion in detectable alterations in the biology of the non-target model insect, D. melanogaster. Furthermore, the outcomes of life cycle study suggest change in resource allocation pattern in the treated flies. The altered resource allocation might have been sufficient to resist changes in selective life cycle parameters, but it could not defend the changes in fecundity. The significant alterations indicate a definite trade-off pattern, where the treated individuals happen to compromise. Thus, survival is apparently taking an upper hand in comparison to reproductive ability in response to Flubendiamide exposure. Graphical abstract The figure demonstrates increase in Fluoride and Flubendiamide concentrations in Drosophila melanogaster after chronic sub-lethal exposure to Flubendiamide. Treatment-induced alterations in larval and pupal duration

  7. Biological monitoring of the deposition and transport of radioactive aerosol particles in the Chernobyl NPP zone of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorova, N.V.; Garger, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plants are one of the main links in the trophic chains of radionuclide transport. The role of plants in such transport was studied mainly in relation to soluble compounds of radionuclides, or to global fallout in which radionuclides were in soluble or exchangeable forms. The specifics of the Chernobyl accident led to the radioactivity occurring in particular forms, and the kinetics of radionuclide migration within trophic chains sometimes vary considerably from what was established in earlier experiments. It is important to study the interaction between plants and ''hot particles'', whose physico-chemical properties determine their non-solubility, which is characteristic, for example, of the carbides and oxides of some metals. When particles come into contact with plant surface tissues, ''dissolving'' factors come into play such as changes in the acidity of the solution or interaction with complex-forming compounds and organic materials exuded by the leaves of some plants. Thanks to these factors, many plants are capable of extracting compounds of low solubility from the soil minerals. Making use of macro- and micro-radioautography, we set out to estimate the rate of conversion of low-solubility radionuclide particles into biologically mobile forms of radionuclides accessible to plants; to study the density of fuel particle fallout in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere and to assess how this varies at different distances from the fallout source over time (during the four years following the accident, 1986-1989); to study the size of the particles deposited on the leaves of plants at various strata, their activity, morphology and behaviour when kept in the form of herbarium exhibits; and to assess the contribution of alpha-active particles to the general amount of fallout and how it changes over time. (author)

  8. Monitoring human impacts on sandy shore ecosystems: a test of ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) as biological indicators on an urban beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Schlacher, Thomas A; Walker, Simon

    2009-05-01

    Sandy beaches comprise one of the most important coastal resources worldwide, providing habitats to threatened vertebrates, supporting underappreciated invertebrate biodiversity, and delivering crucial ecosystem services and economic benefits to mankind. Monitoring of the natural resource condition of sandy beaches and assessments of the ecological impacts of human disturbance are, however, rare on sandy shores. Because a crucial step in developing beach monitoring is to identify and test biological indicators, we evaluated the utility of using population densities of ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) to measure how beach biota respond to human pressures. Densities of crabs--estimated via burrow counts--were quantified at two sites exposed to high and low levels of human disturbance on an urban beach in eastern Australia. Human disturbance consisted of pedestrian trampling and shoreline armouring which led to the loss of dune habitat. Overall, crab numbers were halved in disturbed areas, but contrasts between impact and control sites were not necessarily consistent over time and varied between different levels of the shore: stronger and more consistent effect sizes were recorded on the upper shore than further seawards. In addition to lowering crab densities, human disturbance also caused shifts in intertidal distributions, with a greater proportion of individuals occurring lower on the shore in the impacted beach sections. The number of visible burrow openings also changed in response to weather conditions (temperature and wind). We demonstrate that spatial contrasts of burrow counts are broadly useful to indicate the existence of a human-induced disturbance effect on urban beaches; we also highlight a number of critical, hitherto unknown, issues in the application of this monitoring technique; these encompass three broad dimensions: (1) a need for standardised protocols; (2) unresolved causal links between observed patterns and putative pressures; and (3) uncertainties

  9. Biological effects-based tools for monitoring impacted surface waters in the Great Lakes: a multiagency program in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Blazer, Vicki; Collette, Timothy W.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jorgensen, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Mazik, Pat M.; Miller, David H.; Perkins, Edward J.; Smith, Edwin T.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.

  10. 2011 Annual Report: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Julie A. Woldow; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Amy Gilboy; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief

    2012-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see Figure 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation of...

  11. 2010 Annual Report: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Kellen Nelson; James Menlove

    2011-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see Figure 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation of...

  12. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography: Chapter 9, zooplankton. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, K.W.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil shortage cavers are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This volume contains chapter 9 on zooplankton.

  13. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  14. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide--the effects of co-exposure to toluene or dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Kim, E A; Lee, M Y; Park, I J; Kang, S K

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the exposure and intake dose of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and the correlation between them, according to the type of exposure for the workers in the DMF industry. We monitored 345 workers occupationally exposed to DMF, from 15 workshops in the synthetic fiber, fiber coating, synthetic leather and paint manufacturing industries. Ambient monitoring was carried out with personal samplers to monitor the external exposure. Biological monitoring was done to determine the internal dose by analyzing N-methylformamide (NMF) in end-shift urine. Work procedure and exposure type of each DMF workshop was carefully surveyed, to classify workers by exposure type according to work details. Workers were classified into three groups (Group A: continuous and direct exposure through inhalation and skin; Group B: intermittent and short-term exposure through inhalation and skin; Group C: continuous and indirect exposure mostly through inhalation). Geometric mean of DMF concentration in air was 2.62 (GSD 5.30) ppm and that of NMF in urine was 14.50 (GSD 3.89) mg/l. In the case of continuous absorption through inhalation and dermal exposure (Group A), the value of NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm of DMF was 45.3 mg/l (r = 0.524, n = 178), 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424), while it was 37.7 mg/l (r = 0.788, n = 37), 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743) in the case of absorption mostly through inhalation (Group C). Creatinine correction reduced the correlation between two parameters. The NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm DMF, of the dermal and inhalation exposure group was 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424, n = 178), while that of the inhalation exposure-only group was 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743, n = 37). Co-exposure with toluene reduced the NMF excretion in urine.

  15. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  16. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  17. Marine litter in an EBSA (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area) of the central Mediterranean Sea: Abundance, composition, impact on benthic species and basis for monitoring entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Altobelli, Chiara; Battaglia, Pietro; Campagnuolo, Silvana; Canese, Simonepietro; Castriota, Luca; Cillari, Tiziana; Falautano, Manuela; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Sinopoli, Mauro; Vivona, Pietro; Scotti, Gianfranco; Esposito, Valentina; Galgani, Francois; Romeo, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Marine litter is commonly observed everywhere in the ocean. In this study, we analyzed 17 km of video footage, collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) at depths ranging between 20 and 220 m, during 19 transects performed on the rocky banks of the Straits of Sicily. Recently, the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognized this site as an Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area (EBSA). The research aim was to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its impact on benthic fauna. Litter density ranged from 0 items/100 m 2 to 14.02 items/100 m 2 with a mean (±standard error) of 2.13 (±0.84) items/100 m 2 . The observed average density was higher (5.2 items/100 m 2 ) at depths >100 m than at shallower depths (fishing lines contributed to 98.07% of the overall litter density, then representing the dominant source of marine debris. Litter interactions with fauna were frequently observed, with 30% of litter causing "entanglement/coverage" and 15% causing damage to sessile fauna. A total of 16 species showed interaction (entanglement/coverage or damage) with litter items and 12 of these are species of conservation concern according to international directives and agreements (CITES, Berne Convention, Habitat Directive, SPA/BD Protocol, IUCN Red List); we also observed 7 priority habitats of the SPA/BD Protocol. This research will support the implementation of monitoring "Harm" as recommended by the UN Environment/MAP Regional Plan on Marine Litter Management in the Mediterranean, and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The institution of a SPAMI in the investigated area could represent a good management action for the protection of this hotspot of biodiversity and to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) for the marine environment by 2020, under the MSFD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. A case study: Concentrations of metals and PCDD/Fs in subjects living near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; García, Francisco; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Human biomonitoring is of tremendous importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from human exposure to chemicals. Blood and urine are among the biological monitors more frequently used. However, biological matrices such as breast milk, hair, nails, saliva, feces, teeth, and expired air are also often used. In addition, and focused mainly on long-term exposure, adipose tissue and other human tissues like bone, liver, brain or kidney, are also used as biological monitors of certain substances, especially for long-term biomonitoring. However, for this kind of tissues sampling is always a limiting factor. In this paper, we have examined the role of autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. For it, we have used a case study conducted near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia (Spain), in which the concentrations of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), have been periodically determined in autopsy tissues of subjects living in the area under potential influence of the facility. This case study does not show advantages -in comparison to other appropriate biomonitors such as blood- in using autopsy tissues in the monitoring of long-term exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Monitoring of Biological Specimens and Toxin Profile in a Food Poisoning Case Caused by the Scavenging Gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kazunari; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Motomura, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In November 2015, a patient presented with symptoms of toxicity after eating whole boiled samples of the scavenging gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai" in Nagasaki. This food poisoning case was the third recorded in Japan. The case was investigated by evaluation of the toxin profile of the gastropod, and monitoring of tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in serum and urine sampled from the affected individual. One gastropod contained a harmful dose of TTX (2.5 mg/ individual in food residue sample 2). In biological samples, maximum TTX concentrations were 42.8 ng/mL in serum on the day after onset of symptoms. TTX urinary excretion was calculated to be 2.4 mg. From the measured TTX concentrations, it was estimated that a lethal dose had been ingested in this case. Moreover, it was found by LC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis and mouse bioassay that the toxicity of "Kinshibai" was not solely due to TTX. The remaining toxicity was thought to be due to 11-oxoTTX. As in previous poisoning cases, it was concluded that ingestion of this gastropod poses a high risk of food poisoning.

  20. Applicability of a bioelectronic cardiac monitoring system for the detection of biological effects of pollution in bioindicator species in the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodkevich, Sergey V.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana V.; Sharov, Andrey N.; Kurakin, Anton S.; Lips, Urmas; Kolesova, Natalia; Lehtonen, Kari K.

    2017-07-01

    Field testing of an innovative technology based on a bioelectronic cardiac monitoring system was carried out in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). The study shows that the bioelectronic system is suitable for the selected bivalve mollusks Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica and Anodonta anatina. Specimens taken from reference sites demonstrated a heart rate recovery time of < 60 min after testing with changed salinity load, while those collected from sites characterized by high anthropogenic pressure demonstrated a prolonged recovery time of up to 110-360 min. These results make possible a discrimination of the study sites based on the assessment of physiological adaptive capacities of inhabiting species. In addition, the approach of measuring heart rate characteristics in M. balthica transplanted in cages to specific target areas was successfully used to evaluate the decline in the adaptive potential of mollusks exposed at polluted sites. Application of the novel system is a useful tool for the biomonitoring of freshwater and brackish water areas. Development of methodological basis for the testing of adaptive capacities (health) of key aquatic organisms provides new knowledge of biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress in aquatic organisms.

  1. A computer program for monitoring the biological treatment of waste waters (CDBAR); Programa informatico para el control de la depuracion biologica de aguas residuales (CDBAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bove Porta, J.; Milan Cabre, D.

    2001-07-01

    The problems, such as bulking, foaming, etc., involved in managing a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) employing an activated sludge biological process have a biochemical origin. Correcting them requires identifying the micro-organisms responsible for the pathology in question, whether the problems are due to there being too many or too few of these organisms. It is therefore necessary to have a good microscope and staff trained in identifying such micro-organisms. Never the less, to attain speed and efficiency, it is necessary to have more means. That is why the CDBAR project was carried out. This is a simple computer application that includes numerous photographs of microscopic organisms from samples taken in Spain and Portugal. Once the anomaly has been identified, the computer application it-self includes a program of corrective actions that will allow the biological reactor, the most important part of a WWTP, to function normally. Finally, a glossary has been prepared so that the meaning of any term can be looked up quickly and easily. (Author) 16 refs.

  2. Environmental monitoring of Chinook Salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.; Boreham, D.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of monitoring plants and animals in the environment as become increasingly important with recent developments over the past few years. New ICRP recommendations, coming into effect summer 2007, require the monitoring of non-human biota. There is increasing public concern for safety and general well-being of plants and animals near nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities. However, most current monitoring techniques do not adequately address this concern. I will discuss several current biological techniques to address the radiation sensitivity animals in the environment, including their advantages and drawbacks. Our research has examined several aquatic animals to determine their sensitivity to radiation. (author)

  3. Lichens as biological monitors in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico; Liquenes como indicadores biologicos en el campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Peralta, Marlene; Chavez Carmona, Arturo [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    The results obtained in the monitoring of the atmospheric emissions of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Michoacan State, Mexico utilizing lichens as monitors of the presence of sulphur and arsenic, at the areas near geothermal sites, both under evaluation and production, are presented. The results are based on symptoms which included: chlorosis, necrosis, brown and reddish spots, loss of adherence to substrate, thalli disintegration and disappearance of sensitive species; and also on the amounts of sulphur and arsenic contained in the lichens thallus. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el monitoreo de las emisiones atmosfericas del campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico en el que se utilizaron liquenes como indicadores de la presencia de azufre y arsenico, en las areas cercanas a los sitios de pozos geotermicos tanto en evaluacion como en produccion. Los resultados estan basados en sintomas que incluyen clorosis, necrosis, manchas cafes y rojizas, perdida de adherencia al sustrato, desintegracion del talo y desaparicion de especies sensibles; asi como en los contenidos de azufre y arsenico en los talos liquenicos.

  4. Development and operational results of a real-time remote biological information monitoring device for the workers wearing protective clothes at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Workers must wear a respirator and protective clothing to prevent inhalation and contamination by radioactive materials when carrying out certain inspection, maintenance activities at nuclear facilities and other emergency situations. Temperature and humidity increase with time within the protective clothing during such work. This is because the protective clothing is necessarily impermeable so that heat and perspiration caused by physical labor remain. Therefore, the worker's body temperature and related heatstroke risk gradually increase. To date, workers wearing the protective clothing have been supervised by time management and individual subjective information. This conventional management method may not efficiently monitor any change of heat load and workers' related health conditions. We therefore combine objective physiological information (including measured worker's infrared tympanic temperature and heart rate) with individual subjective information, in order to reduce the risk of heatstroke. To this end, a remote (heat strain) monitoring device has been developed. In this paper, we present an overview of the system, the result of functional and efficiency evaluation and operational results obtained under actual working conditions. (author)

  5. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  6. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key microinvertebrates, 1994 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  7. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  8. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  9. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  10. Safety profile of modafinil across a range of prescribing indications, including off-label use, in a primary care setting in England: results of a modified prescription-event monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Miranda; Wilton, Lynda; Shakir, Saad

    2013-04-01

    Modafinil (Provigil) was marketed in the UK in 1998 to promote wakefulness in the treatment of narcolepsy. In April 2004, the licence was extended to include chronic pathological conditions; 2 years later, the prescription of modafinil was restricted to patients with shift work sleep disorder, narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Following a recent review of the safety data, the licence has been further restricted to only treat patients with narcolepsy. The review highlighted the degree of off-label usage of modafinil, including patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine the safety profile of modafinil in real-world clinical usage and across a range of prescribing indications, including multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted using the observational cohort technique of Modified Prescription-Event Monitoring. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians from July 2004 to August 2005. Patient demographics and information on prescribing behaviour were included in the questionnaire sent to the prescribing general practitioner (GP) 6 months after the initial prescription for each patient. The questionnaire sought data on any events that patient may have experienced during that time, reasons for stopping treatment with modafinil, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), potential interaction with contraceptives, and pregnancies. Incidence densities (IDs) were calculated for all events, and stratified according to indication and dose. Specific events were evaluated by requesting further information. Of the 4,023 questionnaires sent to GPs, 2,416 were returned (response rate 60.1 %). Of these, only those patients issued modafinil after April 2004 (with the associated broadening of the indications for treatment) were included in the study, resulting in a final cohort of 1,096 patients: 497 (45.3 %) male, median age of 52 years (interquartile range [IQR] 41-63), and 599 (54.7

  11. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  13. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  14. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  15. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  16. Communication of 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the IAEA concerning the establishment of the oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's export control on goods, technologies, materials and equipment related to nuclear and biological weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan enclosing a copy of the Gazette of Pakistan S.R.O. No.693(I)/2007, dated 11 July 2007, regarding the establishment of the Oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Materials and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004, including the formation and functioning of Strategic Export Control Division. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the enclosure thereto are circulated for the information of Member States

  17. A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.

    Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven well-discriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km2 area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest composition more than dispersal limitation or disturbance related factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%+/-7% and 83%+/-15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited

  18. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    v-qPCR could also be developed for monitoring other strains on plant surfaces not only biological control agents but also beneficial bacteria useful in the sustainable management of crop production. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in two impacted watersheds in Southeast Brazil, using the freshwater mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Mycetopodidae as a biological monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. Tomazelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the contamination of Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins (São Paulo State, Southeastern, Brazil for heavy metals (Cd and Pb, using the limnic bivalve Anodontites trapesialis as a biological monitor. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were higher than the control group in both basins, showing the bioavailability of this non-essential element in the basins. The concentrations were higher in the Mogi-Guaçu than in the Piracicaba basin, and in the slightly contaminated sites in both basins. There was no correlation between the degree of human impact and Cd and Pb concentrations, it was not possible to infer about concentrations of these heavy metals in the bivalves based only in a broad evaluation of human impact.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a contaminação pelos metais pesados Cd e Pb nas bacias dos rios Piracicaba e Mogi-Guaçu (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando o bivalve limnico Anodontites trapesialis como indicador biológico. As bacias estudadas apresentam diferentes graus de impacto, sendo a qualidade da água geralmente melhor na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. Os teores de Pb detectados nos bivalves não podem ser considerados críticos, contudo, houve acúmulo em relação ao grupo de controle em ambas as bacias, especialmente na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. As maiores concentrações dos elementos, especialmente Pb, foram observadas nos locais menos poluídos e na bacia menos degradada. Este fato sugere que estas concentrações não estão sendo afetadas apenas pelas atividades antrópicas nas bacias, mas deve-se considerar também fatores que afetem a biodisponibilidade ou fontes específicas e não pontuais.

  20. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  1. The need for a North American coordinated bird monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Bart; Ralph C. John

    2005-01-01

    Bird monitoring is at a crossroads. While monitoring programs have existed in North America for nearly a century, recent political, biological, sociological, and economic changes necessitate a new and more efficient approach. Fortunately we now have tools available to meet the demands, including powerful coalitions of the willing within agencies, organizations, and...

  2. A guide to toxicity assessment and monitoring effects at lower levels of biological organization following marine oil spills in European waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, C.; Vethaak, A.D.; Hylland, K.; Burgeot, T.; Köhler, A.; Lyons, B.P.; Thain, J.; Gubbins, M.J.; Davies, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    The usefulness of applying biological-effects techniques (bioassays and biomarkers) as tools to assist in evaluating damage to the health of marine ecosystems produced by oil spills has been demonstrated clearly during recent decades. Guidelines are provided for the use of biological-effects

  3. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue... Programme has a history of 45 years, and continues to build capacity in the fi eld of marine pollution research and management. Identify the need for monitoring Monitor physical, biological and chemical parameters in the vicinity of the outfall...

  4. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent

    2008-03-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  5. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 GSTT1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, T.C.D.M.; Schouten, T.; Cramers, P.; Maas, L.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Schooten, F.-J. van; Hopmans, P.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. Objective:

  6. Biological, chemical, and physical data from the Phytoplankton Monitoring Network from 13 Sep 2001 to 7 Mar 2013 (NODC Accession 0117942)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  7. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow water...

  8. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  9. Determination of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks for the biological dose monitoring in cardiac computerized tomography; Bestimmung von strahleninduzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen zum Monitoring der biologischen Dosis in der Herz-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Jasmin

    2013-11-12

    Background and aims: X-rays cause relevant DNA damage to cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most biologically significant radiation induced DNA-lesions. Recently a sensitive immunofluorescence microscopic method was developed to quantify x-ray induced DSBs as nuclear foci, even after doses as used in computed tomography. The method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX after formation of DSBs and distinct foci representing DSBs can be visualised. The number of foci correlates well with the delivered radiation dose. The importance of cardiac CT has increased during the last years. The radiation exposure of cardiac CT is rather high compared to other radiologic diagnostic procedures and techniques for dose-reduction receive increasing attention. In this context the purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the γ-H2AX-based method is able to measure x-ray induced DSBs in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Furthermore the objective was to evaluate whether CT-induced DSBs correlate with exposure parameters (dose length product, DLP) and to assess the influence of the scan protocols on the biological radiation damage. Materials and methods: 32 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography either using a 64-slice (n = 5: SOMATOM Sensation 64 {sup registered}) or a dual-source CT scanner (n = 27: SOMATOM Definition {sup registered}) were included in the study. Venous blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2.5 h, and 24 h after the CT scan. Additional venous blood samples obtained before CT were irradiated in-vitro at various radiation doses (10 mGy, 50 mGy, 100 mGy) to obtain reference values of foci. Lymphocytes were separated and incubated with a specific γ-H2AX primary and a fluorescent secondary antibody. The number of γ-H2AX-foci was quantified using a fluorescence microscope. Every distinct focus represents one DNA-DSB. The number of radiation-induced DSBs was calculated by subtracting the foci number

  10. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2013. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2013, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  11. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2015 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2015. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2015, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  12. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Perry, Jeanette [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2016. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2016, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  13. Manual of methods for use in the South African Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watling, RJ

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods used in the South African Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme for the analysis of toxic metals, nutrients, oxygen absorbed, chlorophyll, pesticides and bacteria are described. Sample types include biological material, sediments, estuarine...

  14. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H

    2001-01-01

    patients with serological tumor markers should take into account the stochastic variation, i.e. the probability that observed increases and decreases may solely be due to analytical imprecision and normal intra-individual biological variation. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characteristic......, the standard deviations, and the coefficients of variation differed among subjects, and iii) the steady state variability differed among the markers. In conclusion, our data indicate that the assessment of sequential CA 125, CEA, and TPA concentrations is more complex than hitherto recognized. We suggest......The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer...

  15. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    1999-12-01

    The Ecological and Compliance program, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 1999. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites (2) desert tortoise compliance (3) ecosystem mapping (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  16. [Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  18. Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Ivan, Doina; Kutzner, Heinz; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Grossmann, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Kacerovska, Denisa; Shelekhova, Ksenia V; Denisjuk, Natalja; Hillen, Uwe; Kuroda, Naoto; Mukensnabl, Petr; Danis, Dusan; Michal, Michal

    2009-05-01

    We present a series of 14 cases of cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas. The patients included 6 women and 8 men ranging in age at diagnosis from 34 to 93 years. All but 1 patient presented with a solitary nodule. There was no predilection site. One patient presented with multiple lesions representing metastatic nodules. Of 12 patients with available follow-up, 2 died of disease, whereas the remaining 10 patients were alive but 3 of them experienced a local recurrence in the course of the disease. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 1.2 to 6 cm. Microscopically, of the 14 primary tumors, 9 showed low-grade cytomorphology, whereas the remaining 5 neoplasms were high-grade lesions. The residuum of a hidradenoma was present in 5 of the 14 primaries. The mitotic rate was highly variable, ranging from 2 to 64 mitoses per 10 high-power field. The cellular composition of the tumors varied slightly, with clear cells, epidermoid cells, and transitional forms being present in each case. In 1 case, there was metaplastic transformation into sarcomatoid carcinoma. Glandular differentiation varied from case to case and appeared most commonly as simple round glands or as cells with intracytoplasmic lumens. Necrosis en masse was detected in 8 specimens. One specimen represented a reexcision and was unusual as it showed a well-demarcated intradermal proliferation of relatively bland clear cells accompanied by an overlying intraepidermal growth of clear cells resembling hidradenoacanthoma simplex. Despite the bland appearance, the tumor metastasized to a lymph node. Immunohistochemically, 5 of the 8 specimens studied for Her2/neu expression were negative, whereas 3 specimens from 2 cases yielded score +2, but all the 3 specimens with score 2+ subsequently proved negative for Her2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 10 primaries studied, 4 tumors showed positive p53 immunoreaction in more than 25% of the cells comprising the malignant portion of the lesions

  19. Biologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanov Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis (JIA are chronic, inflammatory, systemic, auto-immune diseases characterized by chronic arthritis leading to progressive joint erosions. The individual functional and social impact of rheumatoid arthritis is of great importance. Disability and joint damage occur rapidly and early in the course of the disease. The remarkably improved outcomes have been achieved initiating biologic therapy with close monitoring of disease progression. Biologic agents are drugs, usually proteins, which can influence chronic immune dysregulation resulting in chronic arthritis. According to the mechanism of action these drugs include: 1 anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, infiximab, adalimumab; 2 IL-1 blocking drugs (anakinra; 3 IL-6 blocking drugs (tocilizumab; 4 agents blocking selective co-stimulation modulation (abatacept; 5 CD 20 blocking drugs (rituximab. Biologics targeting TNF-alpha with methotrexate have revolutionized the treatment of RA, producing significant improvement in clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes not seen previously. The new concept of rheumatoid arthritis treatment defines early diagnosis, early aggressive therapy with optimal doses of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and, if no improvement has been achieved during six months, early introduction of biologic drugs. The three-year experience of biologic therapy in Serbia has shown a positive effect on disease outcome.

  20. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  1. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Lichens and mosses in air quality monitoring: A biological model proposal; Licheni e briofite nella valutazione della qualita` ambientale: Proposta di un modello di bioaccumulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A.; Minciardi, M. R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Troiani, F.; Bonotto, F.; Paonessa, F.; Leone, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Piervittori, R.; Fossa, V.; Laccisaglia, A. [Turin, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Vegetale

    1997-09-01

    In the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment`s environmental monitoring studies, a research about the biomonitoring of metal pollution (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) by lichens and mosses, in the extra-urban area of Saluggia (VC) was carried out in collaboration with University of Turin. The research, following a methodological approach, involved different plants and monitoring techniques. The mosses Grimmia pulvinata used as biomonitors were growing ``in situ`` on the contrary the lichens were transplanted. Several thallus of Pseudevernia furfuracea were collected from an uncontaminated area and exposed using two different techniques. The results confirmed the validity of such species as biomonitors of metal pollution. Although meaningful differences were pointed out between the different techniques, in many cases high accumulation rates were observed. A mathematical model of bioaccumulation was proposed, mainly to correlate the in-take of metals in the vegetal matrices with air metal concentrations and exposure time, obtaining a good experimental relationship.

  4. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  7. The EuBIVAS Project: Within- and Between-Subject Biological Variation Data for Serum Creatinine Using Enzymatic and Alkaline Picrate Methods and Implications for Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobene, Anna; Marino, Irene; Coşkun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Guerra, Elena; Bartlett, William A; Sandberg, Sverre; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sylte, Marit Sverresdotter; Røraas, Thomas; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Díaz-Garzón, Jorge; Tosato, Francesca; Plebani, Mario; Jonker, Niels; Barla, Gerhard; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2017-09-01

    The European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) European Biological Variation Study (EuBIVAS) has been established to deliver rigorously determined biological variation (BV) indices. EuBIVAS determined BV for serum creatinine using the enzymatic and alkaline picrate measurement methods. In total, 91 healthy individuals (38 males, 53 females; age range, 21-69 years) were bled for 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories. An equivalent protocol was followed at each center. Sera were stored at -80 °C before analysis. Analyses for each patient were performed in duplicate within a single run on an ADVIA 2400 system (San Raffaele Hospital, Milan). The data were subjected to outlier and homogeneity analysis before performing CV-ANOVA to determine BV and analytical variation (CV A ) estimates with confidence intervals (CI). The within-subject BV estimates [CV I (95% CI)] were similar for enzymatic [4.4% (4.2-4.7)] and alkaline picrate [4.7% (4.4-4.9)] methods and lower than the estimate presently available online (CV I = 5.9%). No significant male/female BV differences were found. Significant differences were observed in mean creatinine values between men and women and between Turkish individuals and those of other nationalities. Between-subject BV (CV G ) estimates, stratified accordingly, produced CV G values similar to historical BV data. CV A was 1.1% for the enzymatic and 4.4% for alkaline picrate methods, indicating that alkaline picrate methods fail to fulfill analytical performance specifications for imprecision (CV APS ). The serum creatinine CV I obtained by EuBIVAS specifies a more stringent CV APS than previously identified. The alkaline picrate method failed to meet this CV APS , raising questions regarding its future use. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Optimization of biologic therapy in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Mohammed; Lazarev, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can result in significant morbidity. Biologic therapy with anti-TNF medication has been effective in treating inflammation and reducing complications in CD. It is important for clinicians to have better knowledge of the various biologic therapies including mechanisms of action and optimization strategies. Areas covered: The review describes optimization of biologic therapy in CD including different mechanisms of loss of response, therapeutic drug monitoring in CD, clinical implications and management strategies which utilize drug monitoring, and areas of future development and research in optimization of biologic therapy. Expert opinion: Achieving adequate levels of the drug (antibody unbound) is one of the most important determinants of attaining clinical remission and mucosal healing. Drug level is also critical in determining if a patient requires combination therapy with an immunomodulator. Certain populations, including those with active perianal disease, may require higher serum levels to achieve healing or closure. Treat to target level is an algorithm that is not universally accepted and more data is need. Additionally, there are numerous assays that don't always correlate, especially regarding measuring anti-drug antibodies.

  9. Persistence of organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environments. Coordinated programme on isotope-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, L.

    1982-08-01

    A radiometric enzymic assay method was developed for quick measuring of organophosphorous insecticides in water samples. All steps of the assay procedure were carried out in scintillation vials. 50 μl enzyme solution (acetylcholinesterase of electric eel) and 50 μl buffer pH 7 were pipetted into the vial followed by 100 μl of water sample or aqueous solution of the insecticide and the mixture was incubated for 60 minutes. 50 μl 3 H-acetylcholine were added to the vial and the enzymic reaction stopped after 10 minutes by adding 200 μl buffer solution pH 2.5. 10 ml scintillation cocktail were then added and after shaking and 30 minutes standing the radioactivity was determined in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Acetylcholine remained in the water phase while 3 H-acetic acid released in enzymic hydrolysis may be extracted by an organic solvent. By this method, not only the parent compound but also some of its degradation products, which possess some anticholinesteratic activity can be measured. The method is suitable for combination with thin-layer chromatography for identification purposes. Using this method, we studied the degradation of the organophosphorous insecticides malathion, parathion, DDVP and imidan. The degradation in distilled water and natural water was compared. For example, the half-time of malathion in distilled water at room temperature was 6 days while in natural water (Danube river) it was 4 hours. The degradation processes were also studied in model systems containing sediment and water. Degradation was faster in models containing solid particles than in filtered water. The radiometric enzymic method was tested as analytical procedure for residue monitoring. Since 1978 a residue monitoring programme was in progress in the Danube river near Budapest. Occasionally high residue levels were detected in spring and early summer. The radiometric enzymic method has proved to be a useful analytical method for anticholinesterase pesticides in

  10. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  11. Developing biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Progress report, April 1, 1985--October 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    During the first year of this contract great efforts were made to develop methods for (1) characterizing bacteria from soil and sediment, (2) evaluating the ability of single and mixed soil bacterial isolates to, (a) bioconcentrate, (b) biodegrade and/or (c) precipitate inorganic and organic pollutants and (3) expanding current concepts for treating waste in aqueous (i.e. biological waste treatment system) and solid media (i.e. in situ soil (soil) treatment system). The development of the above methods are in the final stages of completion and we have as a result of these efforts isolated from soil (1) a mixed culture which precipitate toxic metals (i.e. mercury cadmium, lead etc.) and (2) single isolates which bioconcentrate a variety of toxic metals. Methods for screening soil bacterial isolates for their ability to concentrate, degrade and/or precipitate environmental pollutants have been developed. The development of those methods will allow the staff at ORRI to quickly screen hundreds of samples in our attempt to isolate bacteria capable of degrading, concentrating and/or precipitating inorganics and organics in aqueous and solid waste. The results of these studies are summarized below

  12. Developing biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Progress report, April 1, 1985--October 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    During the first year of this contract great efforts were made to develop methods for (1) characterizing bacteria from soil and sediment, (2) evaluating the ability of single and mixed soil bacterial isolates to, (a) bioconcentrate, (b) biodegrade and/or (c) precipitate inorganic and organic pollutants and (3) expanding current concepts for treating waste in aqueous (i.e. biological waste treatment system) and solid media (i.e. in situ soil (soil) treatment system). The development of the above methods are in the final stages of completion and we have as a result of these efforts isolated from soil (1) a mixed culture which precipitate toxic metals (i.e. mercury cadmium, lead etc.) and (2) single isolates which bioconcentrate a variety of toxic metals. Methods for screening soil bacterial isolates for their ability to concentrate, degrade and/or precipitate environmental pollutants have been developed. The development of those methods will allow the staff at ORRI to quickly screen hundreds of samples in our attempt to isolate bacteria capable of degrading, concentrating and/or precipitating inorganics and organics in aqueous and solid waste. The results of these studies are summarized below.

  13. Monitoring of the biological response to murine hindlimb ischemia with 64Cu-labeled vascular endothelial growth factor-121 positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Chen, Kai; Wang, Hui; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rollins, Mark; Cai, Weibo; Wang, David S; Chen, Ian Y; Gheysens, Olivier; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2008-02-19

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-121 (VEGF121), an angiogenic protein secreted in response to hypoxic stress, binds to VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) overexpressed on vessels of ischemic tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 64Cu-VEGF121 positron emission tomography for noninvasive spatial, temporal, and quantitative monitoring of VEGFR2 expression in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia with and without treadmill exercise training. 64Cu-labeled VEGF121 and a VEGF mutant were tested for VEGFR2 binding specificity in cell culture. Mice (n=58) underwent unilateral ligation of the femoral artery, and postoperative tissue ischemia was assessed with laser Doppler imaging. Longitudinal VEGFR2 expression in exercised and nonexercised mice was quantified with 64Cu-VEGF121 positron emission tomography at postoperative day 8, 15, 22, and 29 and correlated with postmortem gamma-counting. Hindlimbs were excised for immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microvessel density measurements. Compared with the VEGF mutant, VEGF121 showed specific binding to VEGFR2. Perfusion in ischemic hindlimbs fell to 9% of contralateral hindlimb on postoperative day 1 and recovered to 82% on day 29. 64Cu-VEGF121 uptake in ischemic hindlimbs increased significantly (P angiogenesis stimulated by treadmill exercise training.

  14. Exposure Assessment, Biological Monitoring, and Liver Function Tests of Operating Room Personnel Exposed to Halothane in Hamedan Hospitals, West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaei, Mohammad Hossien; Bahrami, Abdorrahman; Mirzakhani, Amin; Mahjub, Hossien; Assari, Mohammad Javad

    2017-11-04

    Occupational exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons has been associated with halothane hepatitis, an increase of liver enzymes, and congenital malformations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether bromide, a urinary metabolite of halothane, could be used as a biological marker of exposure to this anesthetic gas and assessment of associated exposure to halothane with any significant changes in conventional parameters of liver function (serum aminotransferase activities). A cross-sectional study. Seventy-five anesthesiologists, anesthesia nurses, operating room nurses, and surgeons (exposed group) and 75 matched unexposed individuals (reference group) were selected randomly from two public hospitals in Hamadan City, western Iran.  Atmospheric concentrations of halothane in the breathing zone of the exposed subjects and urinary bromide levels were measured by headspace gas chromatography. Similarly, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured by the enzymatic method using an automatic Prestige instrument. Mean atmospheric concentrations of halothane and urinary bromide levels for exposed subjects were 1.49 ±1.36 ppm and 0.83 ±0.29 mM, respectively. A relatively good correlation was found between exposure to halothane and urinary bromide levels (r=0.38). The chi-squared test results showed that the proportions of the subjects with abnormal ALT and AST among the women exposed were significantly higher than those of reference individuals (P<0.05). Urinary bromide can be used as a potential biomarker of exposure to halothane, although additional studies are necessary to further validate these initial findings.

  15. Método respirométrico para o monitoramento de processos biológicos Respirometric method for the monitoring of biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Andreottola

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os atuais métodos respirométricos voltados ao controle biológico em geral, com técnicas desenvolvidas para a aplicação em tratamentos de águas residuárias, principalmente no controle de processos por lodos ativados e recentes desenvolvimentos do método para a aplicação em sistemas de tratamento por fitodepuração (Wetlands. Descreve novos métodos que foram desenvolvidos no Laboratorio di Ingegneria Sanitaria-Ambientale (LISA da Università di Trento, Itália. Estes métodos baseiam-se em duas metodologias de laboratório para a aplicação da respirometria em fitoderuração: o primeiro caracteriza a atividade bacteriológica do solo com a finalidade de medir a concentração de O2 na fase gasosa, o outro avalia a concentração de O2 na fase aquosa.This paper presents current respirometric methods for general biological control using techniques developed for application in wastewater treatment, particularly for the control of the activated sludge process. It also presents recent developments of this method for application in treatment systems of Constructed Wetlands. New methods developed in the Engineering Laboratory (Lisa at the University of Trento (Italy are described. The methods use two distinct lab methodologies for respirometry application in Constructed Wetlands. The first one characterizes soil bacteriological activity measuring O2 concentration in the gaseous phase and the other one measures O2 concentration in watery phase.

  16. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roik

    Full Text Available Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C and salinity (39 PSU exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1. While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  17. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Torres, Paulo; Cannicci, Stefano; Narciso, Luis; Paula, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: → Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. → Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. → Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. → Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. → The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  18. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Torres, Paulo, E-mail: biol.paulo@gmail.co [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Cannicci, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cannicci@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Narciso, Luis, E-mail: lfnarciso@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Paula, Jose, E-mail: jppaula@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  19. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region. PMID:27828965

  20. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2016-11-09

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  1. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  2. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  3. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  6. Integrated study of labelled contaminant or substrate-biological species interactions in a selected aquatic ecosystem. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.S.

    1982-06-01

    Repetitive exposure of a eutrophic fish pond ecosystem, enclosed in limnocorrals to 30 ppb parathion resulted in elimination of the potentially dominant zooplankton species, Moina micrura. Consequently, the populations of the rotifers Brachionus and Asplanchna markedly increased. Changes in the zooplankton composition and abundance were followed by increased fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton photosynthesis, plankton respiration and community metabolism. Similar responses to parathion treatment were observed in previous studies under fish pond conditions. In the presence of fish the effect of parathion on the ecosystem was generally less pronounced and not uniform. The collapse of the zooplankton community and the rapid changes in limnological conditions in the control (untreated) limnocorrals severely limited the duration of the experiment. The results suggest that under eutrophic conditions, small enclosures may be useful for evaluation of the effect of toxicants on the ecosystem only in short term experiments with short lived chemicals. This document is out of INIS subject scope and is included because it is published by the IAEA

  7. The Use of UV-Vis Spectroscopy in Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Roberts; Aoife Power; James Chapman; Shaneel Chandra; Daniel Cozzolino

    2018-01-01

    Real-time analytical tools to monitor bioprocess and fermentation in biological and food applications are becoming increasingly important. Traditional laboratory-based analyses need to be adapted to comply with new safety and environmental guidelines and reduce costs. Many methods for bioprocess fermentation monitoring are spectroscopy-based and include visible (Vis), infrared (IR) and Raman. This paper describes the main principles and recent developments in UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor bi...

  8. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  9. Application of toxicity monitor using nitrifying bacteria biosensor to sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, T; Tanaka, Y; Okayas, Y; Tanaka, H

    2002-01-01

    Toxic substances may be included in wastewater influent and can damage biological processing of wastewater treatment, therefore continuous toxic-monitoring of wastewater influent is needed. This paper describes the potential toxic-monitoring applications of the toxicity monitor using a nitrifying bacteria biosensor to sewerage systems. The results of sensitivity tests show that aspects of wastewater do not affect the sensor sensitivity and confirm that the sensor can be applied to wastewater monitoring as it is. The monitor with a prototype of filtration system installed in a wastewater treatment plant is able to operate continuously for one month at least after the modification of filtration system and the optimization of operation conditions.

  10. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  11. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  12. Laboratory and ambulatory evaluation of vasomotor symptom monitors from the Menopause Strategies Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Newton, Katherine M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Joffe, Hadine; Reed, Susan D; Ensrud, Kristine E; Milata, Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate monitors for assessing vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in laboratory and ambulatory settings before use in the Menopause Strategies Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network clinical trials testing VMS therapies. This was a three-phase study. Phase 1 included laboratory testing of the Freedman and prototype Bahr Monitor, phase 2 included laboratory testing of the commercial Bahr Monitor and Biolog, and phase 3 included ambulatory testing of the commercial Bahr Monitor and Biolog. All phases enrolled midlife women with VMS, midlife women without VMS, and young women without VMS. The participants self-reported VMS by pressing event marker buttons. Questionnaires assessed demographics (all phases) and monitor acceptability (phases 2 and 3). Phase I testing was stopped because of sensitivity of the Freedman device to ambient humidity changes and lack of analytic software for the prototype Bahr Monitor. In phases 2 and 3, agreement between event-marked and commercial Bahr Monitor or Biolog-recorded VMS was higher in the laboratory than in the ambulatory setting; however, agreement between monitors was poor in two of three laboratory groups (midlife no VMS and young no VMS) and in all ambulatory groups. During ambulatory monitoring, the mean number of Bahr Monitor VMS was 16.33 in midlife women with VMS, 9.61 in midlife women without VMS, and 14.63 in young women without VMS (software version, March 2011). The Bahr Monitor was more acceptable than the larger Biolog, but feedback reflected annoyance at having to wear a device that itched and was visible under clothing. The Bahr Monitor and Biolog seem suitable for use in controlled laboratory conditions during short periods of time. However, the current versions of these monitors may not be suitable for ambulatory clinical trials at this time.

  13. Monitoring osseointegration and developing intelligent systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvino, Liming W.

    2017-05-01

    Effective monitoring of structural and biological systems is an extremely important research area that enables technology development for future intelligent devices, platforms, and systems. This presentation provides an overview of research efforts funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to establish structural health monitoring (SHM) methodologies in the human domain. Basic science efforts are needed to utilize SHM sensing, data analysis, modeling, and algorithms to obtain the relevant physiological and biological information for human-specific health and performance conditions. This overview of current research efforts is based on the Monitoring Osseointegrated Prosthesis (MOIP) program. MOIP develops implantable and intelligent prosthetics that are directly anchored to the bone of residual limbs. Through real-time monitoring, sensing, and responding to osseointegration of bones and implants as well as interface conditions and environment, our research program aims to obtain individualized actionable information for implant failure identification, load estimation, infection mitigation and treatment, as well as healing assessment. Looking ahead to achieve ultimate goals of SHM, we seek to expand our research areas to cover monitoring human, biological and engineered systems, as well as human-machine interfaces. Examples of such include 1) brainwave monitoring and neurological control, 2) detecting and evaluating brain injuries, 3) monitoring and maximizing human-technological object teaming, and 4) closed-loop setups in which actions can be triggered automatically based on sensors, actuators, and data signatures. Finally, some ongoing and future collaborations across different disciplines for the development of knowledge automation and intelligent systems will be discussed.

  14. OCT monitoring of pathophysiological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Shakhov, Andrei; Petrova, Galina P.; Zagainova, Elena; Snopova, Ludmila; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Chumakov, Yuri; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1999-04-01

    Based on results of clinical examination of about 200 patients we discuss capabilities of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in monitoring and diagnosing of various pathophysiological processes. Performed in several clinical areas including dermatology, urology, laryngology, gynecology, and dentistry, our study shows the existence of common optical features in manifestation of a pathophysiological process in different organs. In this paper we focus at such universal tomographic optical signs for processes of inflammation, necrosis and tumor growth. We also present data on dynamical OCT monitoring of evolution of pathophysiological processes, both at the stage of disease development and following-up results of different treatments such as drug application, radiation therapy, cryodestruction, and laser vaporization. The discovered peculiarities of OCT images for structural and functional imaging of biological tissues can be put as a basis for application of this method for diagnosing of pathology, guidance of treatment, estimation of its adequacy and assessing of the healing process.

  15. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006, (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  16. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June and November 2005 (NCEI Accession 0127074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  17. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June 2006 (NCEI Accession 0127075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  18. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002-2006 (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  19. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  20. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, November 2004 (NCEI Accession 0127073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  1. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002 (NCEI Accession 0127071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  2. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, August 2003 (NCEI Accession 0127072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  3. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  4. Radio-sensitivity and 40K, 3H, 14C levels in dark-striped field mice, apodemus agrarius coreae, as a potential biological monitor for enviro-radiation and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Song, Seung Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Choi, Hoon; Shin, Suk Chul; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishimura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To understand how environmental effects of radiation and radionuclides from radiation facilities relate to human beings, the development of an unmanned monitoring system is required. For the reasons of that, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests a method to evaluate the effects of radiation emitted from radiation facilities on marine water, freshwater, and habitats for land animals and plants on its Technical Report Series 190, 288, and 332. Recently, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication No. 91 (2003) was consecutively published to protect non-human animals and plants from environmental radiation and radioactive materials. This study examined the potential usefulness of dark-striped field mice as a biological indicator of enviro-radiation and radionuclides around nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage facilities. For the purpose, dark-striped mice were collected in regions of Korea where there are no radiation facilities. Their external morphological characters and isoenzyme patterns were observed. As a result, the most dark-striped mice scattered in Korea are Apodemus agrarius coreae

  5. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  6. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  7. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  8. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  9. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  10. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  11. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  13. Automated biomonitoring: living sensors as environmental monitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruber, D; Diamond, J

    1988-01-01

    Water quality continues to present problems of global concern and has resulted in greatly increased use of automated biological systems in monitoring drinking water, industrial effluents and wastewater...

  14. Biological treatment of polluted lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, S.

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques of lands cleansing exist; they include the thermal techniques, the biological treatment or the disposal. The Biogenie firm is specialized in the biological cleansing of soils on and outside site. (O.M.)

  15. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  16. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  17. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  18. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  19. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  20. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    98195 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Office of Naval Research ONR One Liberty Center 875...North Randolph St. 11. SPONSORING/MONITORING Arl ington, VA 22203-1995 AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for...tutorial, with each page consisting of text and an image. Each example’s tutorial is teacher -editable. Unlike the tutorials, the help screen works

  1. Molecular Biology Database List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, C

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Biology Database List (MBDL) includes brief descriptions and pointers to Web sites for the various databases described in this issue as well as other Web sites presenting data sets relevant to molecular biology. This information is compiled into a list (http://www.oup.co.uk/nar/Volume_27/Issue_01/summary/ gkc105_gml.html) which includes links both to source Web sites and to on-line versions of articles describing the databases. PMID:9847130

  2. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  3. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  4. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  5. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  6. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  7. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  8. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  9. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  10. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  11. Esterilização por óxido de etileno: II. Influência de corpos de prova no desempenho de monitores biológicos e sua avaliação Ethylene oxide sterilization: II. The influence of test specimens on the performance of biological monitors and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus A. Pinto

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância da garantia de esterilidade em produto médico-hospitalares e pela predominância da forma tubular dentre estes produtos, conduziu-se o estudo de monitores biológicos em que os corpos de prova apresentavam diferentes comprimentos e diâmetros. O sensor biológico foi constituído de esporos de Bacillus subtilis var. niger adquirido do mercado nacional sob tiras de papel. Após esterilização por processo industrial, seguiu-se a recuperação dos esporos sobreviventes através de inoculação dos suportes em caldo tioglicolato, caldo caseína-soja e este adicionado de azul de bromotimol. A capacidade promotora de crescimento destes 3 meios de cultura não apresentou diferenças. A eficácia esterilizante foi dependente do tamanho de corpos de prova. A determinação periódica do teor residual de gás nos corpos de prova, bem como a monitoração ambiental industrial indicaram a importância da legislação em vigor, devendo ser obedecida a fim de garantir inocuidade aos pacientes e operadores.In view of the importance of the assurance of the sterility of medical devices, with a large incidence of tubular forms, a study of biological monitors was undertaken, using paper as a carrier, the dimension of the test specimens being the variable considered. After the sterilization process in an industrial cycle, followed by the recovery of the surviving spores through inoculation of the carriers into thioglicolate broth, soybean-casein broth and this last with the addition of bromothymol blue. No differences were found between the growth promoting capacity of these 3 media. The effectiveness of sterilization was dependent on the dimension of the test specimens. The periodic determination of residual gas content on the test specimens, as well as the monitoring of the industrial environment demonstrate the need and importance of the legislation in force.

  12. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  13. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  14. Natural biology and management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Tyson, Mark D; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... helped triage patients but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced endoscopy with photodynamic imaging, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification and disease monitoring. Attempts at better...

  15. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  16. Some international activities in environmental health monitoring and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, V B; Ozolins, G; Hasegawa, Y; Pařizek, J

    1982-12-01

    Environmental health monitoring and surveillance include activities such as collection of information on the production and use of chemicals; preparation of inventories of waste discharges; measurement of physical, chemical and biological agents in air, water and food, at work place and at home; epidemiological investigations, and collection and analysis of environmental, and health statistical data. There are two main objectives of these activities: estimation of human exposure to potentially harmful environmental factors and timely detection of adverse health effects; and the assessment of environmental conditions in relation to established guidelines and standards. Environmental health monitoring and surveillance projects initiated, organized and implemented by the Specialized Agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system include monitoring of air and water quality and of food and animal feed contamination; pilot projects on air pollution exposure assessment and biological monitoring; and ionizing radiation surveillance. Principles of environmental and health monitoring in occupational environment, and of monitoring and surveillance of environmental health effects are outlined. Two examples are provided of national environmental health surveillance systems.

  17. Biological anti-TNF drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mônica Simon; Bendtzen, Klaus; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    is frequently caused by antibodies against immune-biologicals, known as anti-drug antibodies (ADA). ADA that neutralize circulating immune-biologicals and/or promote their clearance can reduce treatment efficacy. Furthermore, ADA can induce adverse events by diverse immunological mechanisms. This review...... provides a comprehensive overview of ADA in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF immune-biologicals, and explores the concept of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as an effective strategy to improve therapeutic management. Expert opinion: Monitoring circulating ADA and therapeutic immune......-biological drugs is helpful when evaluating patients with secondary failure. However, immunological tests for ADA vary considerably regarding their ability to detect different types of ADA. Several assays are not designed to determine ADA-induced drug neutralizing capacity, and they may report clinically non...

  18. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  19. Part 7: Monitoring of biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present state of the biota, in respect to the previous state and in respect to the development after the realised technical measures on both sides, was evaluated according to the data included in the Slovak-Hungarian joint monitoring covering the period from 1992 to 1996. The river branch water supply on the Slovak side was introduced in May 1993 through the intake structure at Dobrohost. On the Hungarian side the water supply is accomplished by the underwater weir put into operation in June 1995. The biological monitoring on the Slovak side was performed at six monitoring areas, where all the groups agreed in the joint monitoring were monitored. On the Hungarian side each group were monitored on different monitoring sites. The water supply introduced on the Hungarian side by the underwater weir operation has no impact on the Slovak side. Similar impact as it is now observed on the Hungarian side has been observed on the Slovak side since introduction of water supply in 1993. The increased amount of water discharged to the Danube was reflected by changes of the habitat of aquatic communities. The water supply on the Hungarian side was accomplished by the construction of the underwater weir and therefore a connection of the river branch system with the Danube at two factors have had very significant influence on the bio-tops existing in the river branch system and subsequently to the fauna and flora. Generally large amount of water became available, which was reflected in change of stagnant or slowly flowing water into water flow with higher velocity or in increase of the water surface. In some locations the water level returned to the state before damming, in others new bio-tops were created, and in some locations the previous bio-tops disappeared. To these changed conditions the aquatic fauna reacted the most rapidly.The terrestrial communities prove the necessity of flooding and raising of ground water level on some of the inundation areas, because in spite

  20. Regulatory Biology: Depressed Metabolic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, E. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Exobiological aspects of depressed metabolism and thermoregulation are discussed for subsequent development of biological space flight experiments. Included is a brief description of differential hypothermia in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. 21 CFR 868.2377 - Apnea monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Apnea monitor. 868.2377 Section 868.2377 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2377 Apnea monitor. (a) Identification. An apnea monitor is a... breath. The apnea monitor also includes indirect methods of apnea detection such as monitoring of heart...

  2. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows

  4. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows

  5. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas G Fox; J. Christopher Bernabo; Betsy Hood

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective...

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Smith, P.A.; Lauder, R.A.; Dixon, G.

    1983-01-01

    The ARL's radiation monitoring program is outlined. This includes the surveillance for the early detection of fresh fission products in ground-level air, monitoring during visits by nuclear powered warships and measurement of long-lived radionuclides. The radioactive fallout in Australia from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere has been monitored on a continuous basis since the 1950s but since 1974 the extent of this program has been reduced

  7. Monitor III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Monitor III is a totally portable version of the Monitor I and II systems in use at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) since 1976. The Monitor III system differs from the other systems in that it is capable of operating in any location accessible by truck. Although Monitor III was designed primarily for the handling and disposal of radioactive materials, it is also capable of performing the more sophisticated operations normally performed by the other Monitor systems. The development and operational capabilities of the Monitor remote handling system have been thoroughly reported since 1978. This paper reports on the commissioning of a new system with unique capabilities

  8. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  9. Chemical reporters for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Markus; Hang, Howard C

    2013-08-01

    Functional tools are needed to understand complex biological systems. Here we review how chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal labeling methods can be used to image and retrieve nucleic acids, proteins, glycans, lipids and other metabolites in vitro, in cells as well as in whole organisms. By tagging these biomolecules, researchers can now monitor their dynamics in living systems and discover specific substrates of cellular pathways. These advances in chemical biology are thus providing important tools to characterize biological pathways and are poised to facilitate our understanding of human diseases.

  10. Biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  11. To monitor or not to monitor?: editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief discussion about results for occupational exposure in New Zealand and the UK, a short editorial raises a number of questions about personal dosimetry practice. These questions include whether the right people are being monitored and whether less attention should be paid to the monitoring of certain groups of workers who are occupationally exposed to external beta/gamma radiation, and more to the monitoring of workers or members of the general public who are exposed to higher doses from radon daughters, so as to focus attention on the areas where the largest savings in collective dose could be achieved. (U.K.)

  12. Digital radiation monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Jinhu; Zhai Yongchun; Guan Junfeng; Ren Dangpei; Ma Zhiyuan

    2003-01-01

    The article introduced digital radiation monitor system. The contents include: how to use advanced computer net technology to establish equipment net for nuclear facility, how to control and manage measuring instruments on field equipment net by local area net, how to manage and issue radiation monitoring data by internet

  13. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  14. Digital biology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-07

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  15. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H.; Chastain, R.A.; Yayanos, A.; Davies, G.R.; Verdurmen, E.; Schiffman, P.; Bourcier, R.; de Baar, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  16. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  17. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in ...

  18. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  19. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  2. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    new ways of hypothesis-driven research. Development of compu- tational techniques for ..... genotype), (b) it allows performing simulations and monitoring the end-effect, which may be the given phenotype in .... perform together to enable the many functions of the E. coli cell appears to be a daunting task. However, we can ...

  3. Sampling and monitoring for the mine life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Virginia T.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Russell, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle provides an overview of sampling for environmental purposes and monitoring of environmentally relevant variables at mining sites. It focuses on environmental sampling and monitoring of surface water, and also considers groundwater, process water streams, rock, soil, and other media including air and biological organisms. The handbook includes an appendix of technical summaries written by subject-matter experts that describe field measurements, collection methods, and analytical techniques and procedures relevant to environmental sampling and monitoring.The sixth of a series of handbooks on technologies for management of metal mine and metallurgical process drainage, this handbook supplements and enhances current literature and provides an awareness of the critical components and complexities involved in environmental sampling and monitoring at the mine site. It differs from most information sources by providing an approach to address all types of mining influenced water and other sampling media throughout the mine life cycle.Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle is organized into a main text and six appendices that are an integral part of the handbook. Sidebars and illustrations are included to provide additional detail about important concepts, to present examples and brief case studies, and to suggest resources for further information. Extensive references are included.

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals to monitor gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L. I.; Morin, K. W.; Knaus, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology have opened the door to disease treatment by transferring genes to cells that are responsible for the pathological condition being addressed. These genes can serve to supplement or introduce the function of indigenous genes that are either inadequately expressed or that are congenitally absent in the patient. They can introduce new functions such as drug sensitization to provide a unique therapeutic target. Gene transfer is readily monitored in vitro using a range of histochemical and biochemical tests that are ''built in'' to the therapeutic gene cassette. In vivo, in situ monitoring of the gene transfer and gene expression processes can be achieved with these tests only if biopsy is possible. Scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the extent and location of gene expression, provided that an appropriate reporter gene is included in the therapeutic cassette. This overview includes a brief orientation to gene transfer therapy and is followed by a review of current approaches to gene therapy imaging. The concluding section deals with imaging based on radiolabelled nucleoside substrates for herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase, with emphasis on IVFRU, a stable potent and selective HSV-1 TK substrate developed in their laboratories

  5. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Genetic monitoring of agrocoenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukin, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    Mutants with high frequency of revertants appearance can be used as biological indicator of genetic monitoring of agrocoenosis. It differs from the initial form in dwarf-size of the shrub, the changed plate of leaf and sterility. The low limit of the mutant sensitiveness on the test of visible reverse mutations to the doses of gamma-irradiation is 0,2 Gy and to the rate of soil contamination by lead is 50 mg per 1 kg of soil. (authors)

  7. Offsite Environmental Monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Carroll, L.D.; Thome, D.J.; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.; Fontana, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents EPA's monitoring activities for CY 1992, the last year of nuclear testing prior to the moratorium. Monitoring data are included so that one may evaluate the contribution, if any, of nuclear testing to man's radiation exposure. (Total radiation exposure man received includes external exposure from naturally occurring, manmade materials in the environment, and internal exposure from natural and manmade radioactive materials in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat.) In 1992, there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site that could be attributed to current site activities. In 1992, there were 6 events. Offsite levels were assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying TL dosimeters and pressurized ion chambers; and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Monitoring personnel were placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test

  8. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Vannini

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions - The main objective of the MAPEC study is to evaluate the associations in children between air pollutants and early biological effects, and to propose a model for estimating the global genotoxic risk.

  9. Reconfigurable Sensor Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A reconfigurable sensor monitoring system includes software tunable filters, each of which is programmable to condition one type of analog signal. A processor coupled to the software tunable filters receives each type of analog signal so-conditioned.

  10. Infrastructure monitoring data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary objective of this project is to advance the development of a structural health monitoring : system (SHMS) for the Cut River Bridge. The scope includes performing an analysis from the fiber : optic strain gauge readings and making recommen...

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in the Beaufort Sea as part of the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA) from 1999 to 2007 (NODC Accession 0001921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains information specifically for the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA 1999 - 2002) and continuation of Arctic...

  13. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  14. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  15. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  16. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  17. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  18. Teaching systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R; Vilaprinyo, E; Sorribas, A

    2011-03-01

    Advances in systems biology are increasingly dependent upon the integration of various types of data and different methodologies to reconstruct how cells work at the systemic level. Thus, teams with a varied array of expertise and people with interdisciplinary training are needed. So far this training was thought to be more productive if aimed at the Masters or PhD level. At this level, multiple specialised and in-depth courses on the different subject matters of systems biology are taught to already well-prepared students. This approach is mostly based on the recognition that systems biology requires a wide background that is hard to find in undergraduate students. Nevertheless, and given the importance of the field, the authors argue that exposition of undergraduate students to the methods and paradigms of systems biology would be advantageous. Here they present and discuss a successful experiment in teaching systems biology to third year undergraduate biotechnology students at the University of Lleida in Spain. The authors' experience, together with that from others, argues for the adequateness of teaching systems biology at the undergraduate level. [Includes supplementary material].

  19. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  20. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  1. Ecotoxicology monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Mervyn

    1993-01-01

    .... It also discusses the biochemistry and mechanisms of the biological processes involved. * Moreover, the book surveys the current regulatory and legislative positions in Europe and the United States...

  2. Prediction of Depth of Sedation from Biological Signals Using Continuous Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper anesthesia is very important for patients to get through surgery without pain and then avoid some other problems. By monitoring the depth of sedation for a patient, it could help a clinician to provide a suitable amount of anesthetic and other clinical treatment. In hospital, a patient is usually monitored by different types of biological systems. To predict the depth of sedation from biological signals is able to ease patient monitoring services. In this study, continuous restricted Boltzmann machines based neural network is proposed to predict the depth of sedation. The biological signals including heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and body weight are selected as analytic features. To improve the accuracy, the signals related to the state of anesthesia including fractional anesthetic concentration, end-tidal carbon dioxide, fraction inspiration carbon dioxide, and minimum alveolar concentration are also adopted in this study. Using minimizing contrastive divergence, a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine is trained and then used to predict the depth of sedation. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms feed-forward neural network and modular neural network. Besides, it would be able to ease patient monitoring services by using biological systems and promote healthcare quality.

  3. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  4. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  6. ATLAS job monitoring in the Dashboard Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, L; Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Work...

  7. Biological indication in aquatic ecosystems. Biological indication in limnic and coastal ecosystems - fundamentals, techniques, methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunkel, G.

    1994-01-01

    Biological methods of water quality evaluation today form an integral part of environmental monitoring and permit to continuously monitor the condition of aquatic ecosystems. They indicate both improvements in water quality following redevelopment measures, and the sometimes insidious deterioration of water quality. This book on biological indication in aquatic ecosystems is a compendium of measurement and evaluation techniques for limnic systems by means of biological parameters. At present, however, an intense discussion of biological evaluation techniques is going on, for one thing as a consequence of the German reunification and the need to unify evaluation techniques, and for another because of harmonizations within the European Community. (orig./EF) [de

  8. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  9. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  10. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    Stolуarova M. A.; Shcherbina I. D.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS) 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has bee...

  11. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  12. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  13. Monitoring Mechanism in Preservation of Monuments in Hot and Wet Climate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lin, M. L.; Hang, L. W.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Historic monuments and buildings are critical cultural assets which cannot be presented by again by human beings. Longer affected by natural climate, environment and biological behavior (including human), resulting in damage and the need for repair. Therefore, UNESCO proposed periodic reporting and reactive monitoring in 2007, in order to achieve "early detection, early repair". This study discusses about suitable preservation monitoring methods for Taiwan. To shed light on damage and impact factors of historical buildings and cultural relics, the study is based on impact and sensor, monitoring method, monitoring period and maintenance personnel in order to propose standard operating procedures of monitoring method. To reduce the rate of the human and sensor monitoring, with the long-term monitoring data analysis, it is calculated that 30 minutes is the best period of data collecting. Besides, the study is adopted regression analysis to select temperature variable only then calculate humidity variable function. This study provides a reference monitoring method for monitoring personnel and maintenance personnel, and establishes a long-term monitoring data based information for damage and destroy in the future. Monitoring period and maintenance personnel can follow the data based to find out the damage points and problems, to keep the value of cultural assets.

  14. Monitoring and controlling the biological purification process in a waste water treatment plant using a respirometry analyser; Vigilancia y control del proceso de la depuracion biologica en una EDAR por medio de un analizador de respirometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    In a waste water biological treatment, we have to take into account that the activated sludge is a living and breathing process, and a lack of bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about control criteria on the biological reactor. For this reason, to get bioactivity information in a timely manner through the respiration analysis would be a real breakthrough in better process control. Therefore, to identify the respiration rates and calculate their derived parameters represents the guidelines of respirometry and can be considered as the most sensitive variables on the basis of which activated sludge process theory can be validated. (Author)

  15. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  16. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  17. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of particles correlated significantly to a positive beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising biomonitoring method that should be included in the surveillance of exposed workers.

  18. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, M.K.; Söletormos, G.; Petersen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer......, the standard deviations, and the coefficients of variation differed among subjects, and iii) the steady state variability differed among the markers. In conclusion, our data indicate that the assessment of sequential CA 125, CEA, and TPA concentrations is more complex than hitherto recognized. We suggest...

  19. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  20. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real