WorldWideScience

Sample records for include biological chemical

  1. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  2. The aesthetics of chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  4. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, ...

  5. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG), and is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, molecular biology, physiology, pathology, health sciences, ...

  6. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  7. Biology Today. Thinking Chemically about Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are applications of biochemistry. Included are designed drugs, clever drugs, carcinogenic structures, sugary wine, caged chemicals, biomaterials, marine chemistry, biopolymers, prospecting bacteria, and plant chemistry. (CW)

  8. Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicone, Santo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness. (EV)

  9. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  10. Chemical biology approaches for studying posttranslational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aerin; Cho, Kyukwang; Park, Hee-Sung

    2017-09-13

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a key mechanism for regulating diverse protein functions, and thus critically affects many essential biological processes. Critical for systematic study of the effects of PTMs is the ability to obtain recombinant proteins with defined and homogenous modifications. To this end, various synthetic and chemical biology approaches, including genetic code expansion and protein chemical modification methods, have been developed. These methods have proven effective for generating site-specific authentic modifications or structural mimics, and have demonstrated their value for in vitro and in vivo functional studies of diverse PTMs. This review will discuss recent advances in chemical biology strategies and their application to various PTM studies.

  11. Chemical reporters for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Markus; Hang, Howard C

    2013-08-01

    Functional tools are needed to understand complex biological systems. Here we review how chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal labeling methods can be used to image and retrieve nucleic acids, proteins, glycans, lipids and other metabolites in vitro, in cells as well as in whole organisms. By tagging these biomolecules, researchers can now monitor their dynamics in living systems and discover specific substrates of cellular pathways. These advances in chemical biology are thus providing important tools to characterize biological pathways and are poised to facilitate our understanding of human diseases.

  12. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  13. Olefin Metathesis for Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant ruthenium metathesis catalysts modified with charged moieties or hydrophilic polymers are soluble and active in water, enabling ring-openi...

  14. Biological and Chemical Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Martyn; Dittrich, Peter; McCaskill, John

    2011-01-01

    Biological and chemical information technologies (bio/chem IT) have the potential to reshape the scientific and technological landscape. In this paper we briefly review the main challenges and opportunities in the field, before presenting several case studies based on ongoing FP7 research projects....

  15. Biological, chemical and medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is an overview of the actual situation in Brazil, concerning three important areas of physics: biological, chemical and medical. It gives a brief historical of research in these areas. It talks as well, about perspectives and financing. It contains many tables with the main research groups in activity in Brazilian institutions. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Organometallic compounds: an opportunity for chemical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Malay; Gasser, Gilles

    2012-06-18

    Organometallic compounds are renowned for their remarkable applications in the field of catalysis, but much less is known about their potential in chemical biology. Indeed, such compounds have long been considered to be either unstable under physiological conditions or cytotoxic. As a consequence, little attention has been paid to their possible utilisation for biological purposes. Because of their outstanding physicochemical properties, which include chemical stability, structural diversity and unique photo- and electrochemical properties, however, organometallic compounds have the ability to play a leading role in the field of chemical biology. Indeed, remarkable examples of the use of such compounds-notably as enzyme inhibitors and as luminescent agents-have recently been reported. Here we summarise recent advances in the use of organometallic compounds for chemical biology purposes, an area that we define as "organometallic chemical biology". We also demonstrate that these recent discoveries are only a beginning and that many other organometallic complexes are likely to be found useful in this field of research in the near future. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Industrial chemical exposure: guidelines for biological monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauwerys, Robert R; Hoet, Perrine

    2001-01-01

    .... With Third Edition of Industrial Chemical Exposure you will understand the objectives of biological monitoring, the types of biological monitoring methods, their advantages and limitations, as well...

  18. Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring Additives on. African Black Soap and its Performance. IKOTUN, A. ... attribute of the soap includes gentleness on the skin, rich lather, protection against skin disorders ... soap, the effects of its modifications with some commonly used natural products, as well as the ...

  19. Olefin metathesis for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2008-12-01

    Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant ruthenium metathesis catalysts modified with charged moieties or hydrophilic polymers are soluble and active in water, enabling ring-opening metathesis polymerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Alternatively, conventional hydrophobic ruthenium complexes catalyze a similar array of metathesis reactions in mixtures of water and organic solvents. This strategy has enabled cross metathesis on the surface of a protein. Continuing developments in catalyst design and methodology will popularize the bioorthogonal reactivity of metathesis.

  20. Olefin Metathesis for Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant ruthenium metathesis catalysts modified with charged moieties or hydrophilic polymers are soluble and active in water, enabling ring-opening metathesis polymerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Alternatively, conventional hydrophobic ruthenium complexes catalyze a similar array of metathesis reactions in mixtures of water and organic solvents. This strategy has enabled cross metathesis on the surface of a protein. Continuing developments in catalyst design and methodology will popularize the bioorthogonal reactivity of metathesis. PMID:18935975

  1. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  2. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJBCS) is a journal published by International Formulae Group (IFG). It is devoted to the publication of contributions in all fields of biology including microbiology, parasitology, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, physiology, ...

  3. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700 000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30...... evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram......, an antidepressant, with osteogenesis imperfect and leukemia and bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor, with certain types of cancer, respectively. The server can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt/....

  4. Integrating chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Salom; Albert Mayfield; Tom McAvoy

    2011-01-01

    Research and management efforts to establish an effective biological control program against HWA has received significant support by the U.S. Forest Service over the past 17 years. Other federal and state agencies, universities, and private entities have also contributed to this overall research and management effort. Although a number of HWA-specific predator species...

  5. Chemical biology of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    CSIR-IIIM. Chemical biology of GPI anchors. • Organic synthesis, biosynthesis and cell biology of PI/GPI molecules. • Design and synthesis of structural and functional mimics of. PI/GPI t b bi l i l ti. PI/GPIs to probe biological questions. • Targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway for anticancer drug discovery. • Role of PI3K isoforms ...

  6. Discovery of Chemical Toxicity via Biological Networks and Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Habib, Tanwir; Guan, Xin; Escalon, Barbara; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J.K.; Antczak, Philipp; Edwards, Stephen; Taylor, Ronald C.; Vulpe, Chris; Loguinov, Alexandre; Van Aggelen, Graham; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia

    2010-09-30

    Both soldiers and animals are exposed to many chemicals as the result of military activities. Tools are needed to understand the hazards and risks that chemicals and new materials pose to soldiers and the environment. We have investigated the potential of global gene regulatory networks in understanding the impact of chemicals on reproduction. We characterized effects of chemicals on ovaries of the model animal system, the Fathead minnow (Pimopheles promelas) connecting chemical impacts on gene expression to circulating blood levels of the hormones testosterone and estradiol in addition to the egg yolk protein vitellogenin. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional gene expression data to characterize chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis that governs reproduction in fathead minnows. The construction of global gene regulatory networks provides deep insights into how drugs and chemicals effect key organs and biological pathways.

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of chromenes: biological and chemical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shivaputra A; Patil, Siddappa A; Patil, Renukadevi

    2015-01-01

    Chromenes constitute chemically important class of heterocyclic compounds having diverse biological and chemical importance. Development of environmentally benign, efficient and economical methods for the synthesis of chromenes remains a significant challenge in synthetic chemistry. The synthesis of chromenes, therefore, has attracted enormous attention from medicinal and organic chemists. Researchers have embraced the concepts of microwave (high speed) synthesis to produce biologically and chemically important chromenes in a time sensitive manner. This review will summarize the recent biological applications such as anticancer, antimicrobial, neurodegenerative and insecticidal activity of new chromenes prepared via microwave irradiation. The development of new methodologies for the synthesis of chromenes including green chemistry processes has also been discussed.

  8. Chromatin as an expansive canvas for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Beat; Muir, Tom W

    2012-04-17

    Chromatin is extensively chemically modified and thereby acts as a dynamic signaling platform controlling gene function. Chromatin regulation is integral to cell differentiation, lineage commitment and organism development, whereas chromatin dysregulation can lead to age-related and neurodegenerative disorders as well as cancer. Investigating chromatin biology presents a unique challenge, as the issue spans many disciplines, including cell and systems biology, biochemistry and molecular biophysics. In recent years, the application of chemical biology methods for investigating chromatin processes has gained considerable traction. Indeed, chemical biologists now have at their disposal powerful chemical tools that allow chromatin biology to be scrutinized at the level of the cell all the way down to the single chromatin fiber. Here we present recent examples of how this rapidly expanding palette of chemical tools is being used to paint a detailed picture of chromatin function in organism development and disease.

  9. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  10. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  11. Opportunities for Merging Chemical and Biological Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemists and metabolic engineers use largely orthogonal technologies to access small molecules like pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. As the use of biological catalysts and engineered organisms for chemical production grows, it is becoming increasingly evident that future efforts for chemical manufacture will benefit from the integration and unified expansion of these two fields. This review will discuss approaches that combine chemical and biological synthesis for small molecule production. We highlight recent advances in combining enzymatic and non-enzymatic catalysis in vitro, discuss the application of design principles from organic chemistry for engineering non-biological reactivity into enzymes, and describe the development of biocompatible chemistry that can be interfaced with microbial metabolism. PMID:24747284

  12. Construction of a Linux based chemical and biological information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, László; Vágó, István; Fehér, András

    2003-01-01

    A chemical and biological information system with a Web-based easy-to-use interface and corresponding databases has been developed. The constructed system incorporates all chemical, numerical and textual data related to the chemical compounds, including numerical biological screen results. Users can search the database by traditional textual/numerical and/or substructure or similarity queries through the web interface. To build our chemical database management system, we utilized existing IT components such as ORACLE or Tripos SYBYL for database management and Zope application server for the web interface. We chose Linux as the main platform, however, almost every component can be used under various operating systems.

  13. Chemically induced proximity in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Benjamin Z; Chory, Emma J; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2018-03-09

    Proximity, or the physical closeness of molecules, is a pervasive regulatory mechanism in biology. For example, most posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation promote proximity of molecules to play deterministic roles in cellular processes. To understand the role of proximity in biologic mechanisms, chemical inducers of proximity (CIPs) were developed to synthetically model biologically regulated recruitment. Chemically induced proximity allows for precise temporal control of transcription, signaling cascades, chromatin regulation, protein folding, localization, and degradation, as well as a host of other biologic processes. A systematic analysis of CIPs in basic research, coupled with recent technological advances utilizing CRISPR, distinguishes roles of causality from coincidence and allows for mathematical modeling in synthetic biology. Recently, induced proximity has provided new avenues of gene therapy and emerging advances in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  15. Perspective: Reaches of chemical physics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebele, Martin; Thirumalai, D

    2013-09-28

    Chemical physics as a discipline contributes many experimental tools, algorithms, and fundamental theoretical models that can be applied to biological problems. This is especially true now as the molecular level and the systems level descriptions begin to connect, and multi-scale approaches are being developed to solve cutting edge problems in biology. In some cases, the concepts and tools got their start in non-biological fields, and migrated over, such as the idea of glassy landscapes, fluorescence spectroscopy, or master equation approaches. In other cases, the tools were specifically developed with biological physics applications in mind, such as modeling of single molecule trajectories or super-resolution laser techniques. In this introduction to the special topic section on chemical physics of biological systems, we consider a wide range of contributions, all the way from the molecular level, to molecular assemblies, chemical physics of the cell, and finally systems-level approaches, based on the contributions to this special issue. Chemical physicists can look forward to an exciting future where computational tools, analytical models, and new instrumentation will push the boundaries of biological inquiry.

  16. Auxin Chemical and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxins function as key regulators at the intersection between developmental and environmental events and the response pathways that they trigger. Naturally occurring members of this hormone group include indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl...

  17. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  18. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine; Weinhold, Nils; Edsgärd, Daniel; Roque, Francisco S; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Bora, Alina; Curpan, Ramona; Jensen, Thomas Skøt; Brunak, Søren; Oprea, Tudor I

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emergent area that studies drug action across multiple scales of complexity, from molecular and cellular to tissue and organism levels. There is a critical need to develop network-based approaches to integrate the growing body of chemical biology knowledge with network biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700,000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30,578 proteins. We gathered over 2-million chemical-protein interactions, which were integrated in a quality scored human PPI network of 428,429 interactions. The PPI network layer allows for studying disease and tissue specificity through each protein complex. ChemProt can assist in the in silico evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram, an antidepressant, with osteogenesis imperfect and leukemia and bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor, with certain types of cancer, respectively. The server can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt/.

  19. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A

    2006-01-02

    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  20. Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander

    Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather has been widely considered during the recent decades. Such modelling includes interactions of atmospheric physics and chemical/biological aerosol concentrations. Emitted aerosols are subject to atmospheric transport, dispersion...... and deposition, but in turn they impact the radiation as well as cloud and precipitation formation. The present study focuses on birch pollen modelling as well as on physical and chemical weather with emphasis on black carbon (BC) aerosol modelling. The Enviro-HIRLAM model has been used for the study...

  1. Biological and chemical terrorism: recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeller, T P

    2001-12-01

    Primary care physicians will be on the front line in detecting and managing any future terrorist attacks that use chemical or biological agents. This article reviews how to recognize and treat disease caused by exposure to nerve agents, blistering agents, hydrogen cyanide, ricin, anthrax, smallpox, plague, and botulinum toxin.

  2. Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Metabolic Engineering: Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals. Ram Kulkarni. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 233-237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Wearable Sensors for Chemical & Biological Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.

    2017-08-31

    One of PNNL’s strengths is the ability to conduct comprehensive technology foraging and objective assessments of various technology areas. The following examples highlight leading research by others in the area of chemical and biological (chem/bio) detection that could be further developed into a robust, highly integrated wearables to aid preparedness, response and recovery.

  4. Chemical biology of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    CSIR-IIIM. Chemical biology of. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Ram Vishwakarma. CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu. N ti l I tit t f I l. N. D lhi. National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. Piramal Life Sciences Ltd, Mumbai ...

  5. Polyketide stereocontrol: a study in chemical biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira J. Weissman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of reduced polyketides in bacteria by modular polyketide synthases (PKSs proceeds with exquisite stereocontrol. As the stereochemistry is intimately linked to the strong bioactivity of these molecules, the origins of stereochemical control are of significant interest in attempts to create derivatives of these compounds by genetic engineering. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding this key aspect of the biosynthetic pathways. Given that much of this information has been obtained using chemical biology tools, work in this area serves as a showcase for the power of this approach to provide answers to fundamental biological questions.

  6. News: Synthetic biology leading to specialty chemicals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic biology can combine the disciplines of biology, engineering, and chemistry productively to form molecules of great scientific and commercial value. Recent advances in the new field are explored for their connection to new tools that have been used to elucidate production pathways to a wide variety of chemicals generated by microorganisms. The selection and enhancement of microbiological strains through the practice of strain engineering enables targets of design, construction, and optimization. This news column aspires to cover recent literature relating to the development and understanding of clean technology.

  7. Chemical and biological sensing using liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Rebecca J; Hunter, Jacob T; Miller, Daniel S; Abbasi, Reza; Mushenheim, Peter C; Tan, Lie Na; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2013-01-01

    The liquid crystalline state of matter arises from orientation-dependent, non-covalent interaction between molecules within condensed phases. Because the balance of intermolecular forces that underlies formation of liquid crystals is delicate, this state of matter can, in general, be easily perturbed by external stimuli (such as an electric field in a display). In this review, we present an overview of recent efforts that have focused on exploiting the responsiveness of liquid crystals as the basis of chemical and biological sensors. In this application of liquid crystals, the challenge is to design liquid crystalline systems that undergo changes in organization when perturbed by targeted chemical and biological species of interest. The approaches described below revolve around the design of interfaces that selectively bind targeted species, thus leading to surface-driven changes in the organization of the liquid crystals. Because liquid crystals possess anisotropic optical and dielectric properties, a range of different methods can be used to read out the changes in organization of liquid crystals that are caused by targeted chemical and biological species. This review focuses on principles for liquid crystal-based sensors that provide an optical output.

  8. [Biological and chemical risks in haemodialysis centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandis, D; D'Orsi, F; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, F; Soldati, P S

    2006-01-01

    Haemodialysis technique was introduced in 1965 for people afflicted to chronic renal insufficiency, permitting them to survive. The method purifies patient blood who is connected to the equipment by tubes. The equipment uses saline solutions and water and it operates by osmotic pressure and by filtration. In this paper biological and chemical occupational risks are analysed. Main biological risks are caused by haematic viruses such as HIV, HBV, HCV. Chemical risks are mainly caused by disinfection products such as acid, basic and saline solutions. Workers exposed to chemical and biological risks are nursing staff, doctors, assistants, maintenance men. The paper analyses these risks and it shows prevention and protection solutions to reduce significantly the risks. The S.Pre.S.A.L. (Prevention and Protection Service in Work Places) operators of ASL RMC (Health Local Agency of Rome) visited six haemodialysis centres situated in Rome in the ASL RMC territory. They verified the application of safety and healthy measures by use of a check list about risk assessment, the lay-out, the equipment, the preventive and protective measures and the application of law. Experimental data were organized in relation of legislative accomplishments and technical measures. The aim of our work was to improve workers' safety in the haemodialysis centres, proposing the better technical solutions to realise this objective.

  9. Modelling biological and chemically induced precipitation of calcium phosphate in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-06-01

    The biologically induced precipitation processes can be important in wastewater treatment, in particular treating raw wastewater with high calcium concentration combined with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal. Currently, there is little information and experience in modelling jointly biological and chemical processes. This paper presents a calcium phosphate precipitation model and its inclusion in the Activated Sludge Model No 2d (ASM2d). The proposed precipitation model considers that aqueous phase reactions quickly achieve the chemical equilibrium and that aqueous-solid change is kinetically governed. The model was calibrated using data from four experiments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR and finally validated with two experiments. The precipitation model proposed was able to reproduce the dynamics of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation and later crystallization to hydroxyapatite (HAP) under different scenarios. The model successfully characterised the EBPR performance of the SBR, including the biological, physical and chemical processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 61 ... Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: occurrence, biology, and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2017-01-04

    Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.

  15. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivera, Baldomero M.; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively...... studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products—venom components from predatory marine cone snails—this review provides a rationale for why...... a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as “Chemical Neuroethology”, linking...

  16. A Chemical Reaction to the Historiography of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2017-11-01

    This article examines the often-overlooked role of chemical ideas and practices in the history of modern biology. The first section analyses how the conventional histories of the life sciences have, through the twentieth century, come to focus nearly exclusively on evolutionary theory and genetics, and why this storyline is inadequate. The second section elaborates on what the restricted neo-Darwinian history of biology misses, noting a variety of episodes in the history of biology that relied on developments in - or tools from - chemistry, including an example from the author's own work. The diverse ways in which biologists have used chemical approaches often relate to the concrete, infrastructural side of research; a more inclusive history thus also connects to a historiography of materials and objects in science.

  17. Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander

    forecasts. The BC modelling study was performed for a modelling domain covering most of the Northern Hemisphere with focus on the EU and Arctic regions. Verification of BC concentrations against observations showed a good agreement for the EU air quality measurement sites. However, the Arctic region turned......Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather has been widely considered during the recent decades. Such modelling includes interactions of atmospheric physics and chemical/biological aerosol concentrations. Emitted aerosols are subject to atmospheric transport, dispersion...... and deposition, but in turn they impact the radiation as well as cloud and precipitation formation. The present study focuses on birch pollen modelling as well as on physical and chemical weather with emphasis on black carbon (BC) aerosol modelling. The Enviro-HIRLAM model has been used for the study...

  18. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  19. Organic chemistry and biology: chemical biology through the eyes of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J

    2009-12-18

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists "see" the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations.

  20. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  1. Modeling dynamics of biological and chemical components of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassiter, R.R.

    1975-05-01

    To provide capability to model aquatic ecosystems or their subsystems as needed for particular research goals, a modeling strategy was developed. Submodels of several processes common to aquatic ecosystems were developed or adapted from previously existing ones. Included are submodels for photosynthesis as a function of light and depth, biological growth rates as a function of temperature, dynamic chemical equilibrium, feeding and growth, and various types of losses to biological populations. These submodels may be used as modules in the construction of models of subsystems or ecosystems. A preliminary model for the nitrogen cycle subsystem was developed using the modeling strategy and applicable submodels. (U.S.)

  2. Effects of industrial chemicals and radioactive materials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been written on the effects of radiation and toxic chemicals on biological systems. In this communication general considerations regarding these topics will be discussed very briefly; the major emphasis will be focused on the effects of chemicals, namely ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) on Amoeba, Advantages to the use of amoeba for studying the effects of radiation and chemicals include the following: large mononucleate unicellular organisms having a long generation time; opportunity to study cellular organelles and biochemical and genetic alterations in a single cell system; and a long cell cycle, the stages of which can be synchronized without resorting to chemical treatment or temperature shock and thereby readily permitting study at defined stages of the cell's life cycle. This, in turn, is discussed in light of current disposal methods for this type of waste and how it might be safely disposed of

  3. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  4. Chemical biology of peroxynitrite: kinetics, diffusion, and radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael

    2009-03-20

    Peroxynitrite is formed by the very fast reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals, a reaction that kinetically competes with other routes that chemically consume or physically sequester the reagents. It can behave either as an endogenous cytotoxin toward host tissues or a cytotoxic effector molecule against invading pathogens, depending on the cellular source and pathophysiological setting. Peroxynitrite is in itself very reactive against a few specific targets that range from efficient detoxification systems, such as peroxiredoxins, to reactions eventually leading to enhanced radical formation (e.g., nitrogen dioxide and carbonate radicals), such as the reaction with carbon dioxide. Thus, the chemical biology of peroxynitrite is dictated by the chemical kinetics of its formation and decay and by the diffusion across membranes of the species involved, including peroxynitrite itself. On the other hand, most durable traces of peroxynitrite passing (such as 3-nitrotyrosine) are derived from radicals formed from peroxynitrite by routes that represent extremely low-yield processes but that have potentially critical biological consequences. Here we have reviewed the chemical kinetics of peroxynitrite as a biochemical transient species in order to estimate its rates of formation and decay and then its steady-state concentration in different intra- or extracellular compartments, trying to provide a quantitative basis for its reactivity; additionally, we have considered diffusion across membranes to locate its possible effects. Finally, we have assessed the most successful attempts to intercept peroxynitrite by pharmacological intervention in their potential to increment the existing biological defenses that routinely deal with this cytotoxin.

  5. Micro- and nanomechanical sensors for environmental, chemical, and biological detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Philip S; Craighead, Harold G

    2007-10-01

    Micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems, including cantilevers and other small scale structures, have been studied for sensor applications. Accurate sensing of gaseous or aqueous environments, chemical vapors, and biomolecules have been demonstrated using a variety of these devices that undergo static deflections or shifts in resonant frequency upon analyte binding. In particular, biological detection of viruses, antigens, DNA, and other proteins is of great interest. While the majority of currently used detection schemes are reliant on biomarkers, such as fluorescent labels, time, effort, and chemical activity could be saved by developing an ultrasensitive method of label-free mass detection. Micro- and nanoscale sensors have been effectively applied as label-free detectors. In the following, we review the technologies and recent developments in the field of micro- and nanoelectromechanical sensors with particular emphasis on their application as biological sensors and recent work towards integrating these sensors in microfluidic systems.

  6. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...... chemical biology, drug repurposing, and off-target effects prediction....

  7. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  8. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  9. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, YZ; Lee, JK; Zhao, HM

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  11. Chemical equilibrium of ablation materials including condensed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, C. W.; Brinkley, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Equilibrium is determined by finding chemical composition with minimum free energy. Method of steepest descent is applied to quadratic representation of free-energy surface. Solution is initiated by selecting arbitrary set of mole fractions, from which point on free-energy surface is computed.

  12. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  13. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  14. The poison center role in biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, E P; Allswede, M P; Mrvos, R

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism countermeasures are a major priority with municipalities, healthcare providers, and the federal government. Significant resources are being invested to enhance civilian domestic preparedness by conducting education at every response level in anticipation of a NBC terroristic incident. The key to a successful response, in addition to education, is integration of efforts as well as thorough communication and understanding the role that each agency would play in an actual or impending NBC incident. In anticipation of a NBC event, a regional counter-terrorism task force was established to identify resources, establish responsibilities and coordinate the response to NBC terrorism. Members of the task force included first responders, hazmat, law enforcement (local, regional, national), government officials, the health department, and the regional poison information center. Response protocols were developed and education was conducted, culminating in all members of the response task force becoming certified NBC instructors. The poison center participated actively in 3 incidents of suspected biologic and chemical terrorism: an alleged anthrax-contaminated letter sent to a women's health clinic; a possible sarin gas release in a high school: and a potential anthrax/ebola contamination incident at an international airport. All incidents were determined hoaxes. The regional response plan establishes the poison information center as a common repository for all cases in a biological or chemical incident. The poison center is one of several critical components of a regional counterterrorism response force. It can conduct active and passive toxicosurveillance and identify sentinel events. To be responsive, the poison center staff must be knowledgeable about biological and chemical agents. The development of basic protocols and a standardized staff education program is essential. The use of the RaPiD-T (R-recognition, P

  15. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  16. Numerical Techniques for Chemical and Biological Engineers Using MATLAB A Simple Bifurcation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Elnashaie, Said SEH; Affane, Chadia

    2007-01-01

    All reactive chemical and biological processes are highly nonlinear allowing for multiple steady states. This book addresses the bifurcation characteristics of chemical and biological processes as the general case and treats systems with a unique steady state as special cases. It includes a CD-ROM which contains nearly 100 MATLAB programs.

  17. PSL Chemical Biology Symposia First 2016 Edition: When Chemistry and Biology Share the Language of Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Arnaud; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2017-05-18

    Chemical biology, the science of understanding biological processes at the molecular level, has grown exponentially with the development of chemical strategies to manipulate and quantify biology with unprecedented precision. Recent advances presented at the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres symposium are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nitrogenous air pollutants: Chemical and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the health effects and chemistry of gaseous and particulate nitrogenous air pollutants are presented. Specific topics include Fourier transform infrared studies of nitrogenous compounds, the mechanism of peroxynitric acid formation, N-nitroso compounds in the air, the chemical transformations of nitrogen oxides during the sampling of combustion products, the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy nitrates, and the effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung metabolism. Attention is also given to the interaction of nitrogen oxides and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions, the characterization of particulate amines, the role of ammonia in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, the relationship between sulfates and nitrates and tropospheric measurements of nitric acid vapor and particulate nitrates

  19. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  20. Bugs and gas: Agreements banning chemical and biological weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulak, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    The use of chemical or biological weapons, whether by a State or terrorists, continues to be a serious security concern. Both types of weapons are prohibited by multilateral treaties that have very broad membership, but both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention are facing major challenges. In particular, the continued use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war by government forces risks eroding the norm against the use of such weapons. This paper briefly explore the recent history of efforts to constrain chemical and biological weapons and outlines challenges for the future.

  1. News: Synthetic biology leading to specialty chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic biology can combine the disciplines of biology, engineering, and chemistry productively to form molecules of great scientific and commercial value. Recent advances in the new field are explored for their connection to new tools that have been used to elucidate productio...

  2. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    WORLD ARMA - MENTS AND DISARMAMENT. SIPRI Yearbook 1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. (REF JX1974 S775 1990) Pp. 107-133: "Chemical and...Report. Norton D. Zinder, Chairman. Washington: National Academy Press, 1984. (UG447 N33 1984) LEGACY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICA !L WARFARE Some 20th

  3. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  4. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  5. Chemical biology: Protein modification in a trice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Organometallic reagents have been developed that chemically modify proteins and peptides specifically at cysteine amino-acid residues -- potentially offering a general route to making therapeutically useful compounds. See Letter p.687

  6. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  7. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Chemical-Biological Read-Across (CBRA) approach infers each compound's toxicity from those of both chemical and biological analogs whose similarities are determined by the Tanimoto coefficient. Classification accuracy of CBRA was compared to that of classical RA and other methods using chemical descriptors alone, or in combination with biological data. Different types of adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, hepatocarcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and acute lethality) were classified using several biological data types (gene expression profiling and cytotoxicity screening). CBRA-based hazard classification exhibited consistently high external classification accuracy and applicability to diverse chemicals. Transparency of the CBRA approach is aided by the use of radial plots that show the relative contribution of analogous chemical and biological neighbors. Identification of both chemical and biological features that give rise to the high accuracy of CBRA-based toxicity prediction facilitates mechanistic interpretation of the models. PMID:23848138

  8. Extracting Chemical Reactions from Biological Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    positive example is due to incorrect chemical  recognition. In the sentence, “ lactic   acid ” is a chemical used as an adjective describing the  bacteria  and...d-gluconate False Positive A study of the effects of histamine histidine and growth phase on histamine production by lactic acid bacteria isolated...from wine is reported here. lactic acid => histamine n/a False Negative Human 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 17-HSD type 1 catalyzes

  9. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  10. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply...

  11. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  12. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-12-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.

  13. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... effects resulting in the perturbation of different proteins associated to particular diseases (e.g., cryptorchidism) were evaluated....

  14. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  15. A proposed chemical mechanism for biological phosphate removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an alternative for the ";all biological"; phosphate removal model. It is postulated that a chemical substance in wastewater reacts with orthophosphate under anaerobic conditions to make the so-called luxury uptake of phosphorus possible in biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge plants.

  16. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  17. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  18. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E.; Anwar, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This Study has been carried out to extract whey protein concentrate (WPC) from sweet whey and to study the chemical composition, amino acids composition, amino acid scores and to investigate the possible role of WPC in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in γ-irradiated rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups. Group 1, fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2, fed on diet containing 15% WPC instead of soybean protein. Group 3, rats exposed to whole body γ-radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4, rats exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet containing 15% WPC. The rats were decapitated 14 and 28 days post irradiation. Chemical analysis of WPC revealed that it contains high amounts of protein (44%), total amino acids (71%) and all essential amino acids (EAA), phenylalanine (37%), isoleucine cystine and threonine were the major EAA and high amounts of sulphur amino acids. Methionine gave rich chemical score (102.67%) also, isoleucine (119.95%) and phenylalanine+ tyrosine gave maximum chemical score (198.8%), respectively. Exposure to γ-irradiation caused significant elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), lipid per oxidation end product (TBARS) and iron (Fe) with significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in serum. Also, irradiated rats had significant decrease in copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) in serum. The histological examination of cardiac tissue showed severe structural damage. Irradiated rats fed on WPC revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be concluded that WPC must be added to diet for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway

  19. Biological and therapeutic properties of chemical propolis constituents.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucci, MC

    1996-01-01

    Chemical composition of propolis, mainly the compounds identified in the last fourteen years, is presented. The chemical constituents which may be relevant to its biological and therapeutical activities are discussed. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and pharmacological properties of propolis are presented. Some recent concepts about propolis and its use in medicine are showed.

  20. Group behaviour in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... a gel; the collection of finite clusters is a sol, a complex entity that retains properties of a fluid.7 ... lowest internal energy).8 The physico-chemical approach to studying the behaviour of biological .... 12 The relative abundances of the chemical elements are explained by invoking a particular history of the ...

  1. Chemical Biology of Microbial Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    than 100 years. New natural products (NPs) are continually discovered and with the increase in selective biological assays, previously described compounds often also display novel bioactivities, justifying their presence in novel screening efforts. Screening and discovery of compounds with activity...... by cyanobacteria were discovered through target-guided isolation based on NMR. The micropeptins displayed inhibitory activity towards serine proteases: chymotrypsin and elastase with IC50 values between 5.9 and 28.0 μM. In conclusion, this PhD study adds to the knowledge of bioactive NPs produced by filamentous...

  2. Introduction: Applying Chemical Biology to Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Stephan A; Ahern, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane-spanning proteins that control the flow of ions across biological membranes through an aqueous pathway. The opening or closing of this pore can be controlled by a myriad of physiological inputs (voltage, ligands, temperature, metabolites, pH), which in turn allow for the controlled flux of ions across membranes, resulting in the generation of minute electrical signals. The functional implications of ion channel function on physiological processes are vast. Electrical impulses, in the form of action potentials or diverse chemo-electrical signals, coordinate the syncytium of the heart beat, support a myriad of neuronal communication pathways, insulin secretion, and are central to the immune response, with more roles being discovered virtually everyday. Thus, ion channel function is a biophysical process that is central to biological life at many levels. And with over 500 channel-forming subunits known today in humans, this large class of proteins is also increasingly recognised as important drug targets, as inherited or acquired ion channel dysfunction are known causes of disease.

  3. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Kevin; Manard, Manuel; Weeks, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: (1) Direct air/particulate 'smart' sampling; (2) Selective, continuous real-time (∼1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS; and (3) Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security

  4. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kyle, Manuel Manard, Stephan Weeks

    2009-01-31

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: 1. Direct air/particulate “smart” sampling 2. Selective, continuous real-time (~1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS 3. Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security.

  5. Nucleic Acid Templated Reactions for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-06-21

    Nucleic acid directed bioorthogonal reactions offer the fascinating opportunity to unveil and redirect a plethora of intracellular mechanisms. Nano- to picomolar amounts of specific RNA molecules serve as templates and catalyze the selective formation of molecules that 1) exert biological effects, or 2) provide measurable signals for RNA detection. Turnover of reactants on the template is a valuable asset when concentrations of RNA templates are low. The idea is to use RNA-templated reactions to fully control the biodistribution of drugs and to push the detection limits of DNA or RNA analytes to extraordinary sensitivities. Herein we review recent and instructive examples of conditional synthesis or release of compounds for in cellulo protein interference and intracellular nucleic acid imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. The Chemical Information Ontology: Provenance and Disambiguation for Chemical Data on the Biological Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA). PMID:21991315

  7. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Hastings

    Full Text Available Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA.

  8. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors: From Chemical Biology to Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikuryayo, Ferdinand; Moosavi, Behrooz; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-04

    The development of new herbicides is receiving considerable attention to control weed biotypes resistant to current herbicides. Consequently, new enzymes are always desired as targets for herbicide discovery. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 1.13.11.27) is an enzyme engaged in photosynthetic activity and catalyzes the transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (HPPA) into homogentisic acid (HGA). HPPD inhibitors constitute a promising area of discovery and development of innovative herbicides with some advantages, including excellent crop selectivity, low application rates, and broad-spectrum weed control. HPPD inhibitors have been investigated for agrochemical interests, and some of them have already been commercialized as herbicides. In this review, we mainly focus on the chemical biology of HPPD, discovery of new potential inhibitors, and strategies for engineering transgenic crops resistant to current HPPD-inhibiting herbicides. The conclusion raises some relevant gaps for future research directions.

  9. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate physical and chemical environmental characteristics. (d) Physical tests and evaluation. The effect... physical tests and evaluations as are justified and deemed necessary. Such tests may include sieve tests... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical, biological, and physical...

  10. 75 FR 9437 - Wacker Chemical Corporation Wacker Polymers Division a Subsidiary of Wacker Chemie AG Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Chemical Corporation Wacker Polymers Division a Subsidiary of Wacker Chemie AG Including On-Site Leased.... and Yoh Managed Staffing South Brunswick, NJ; Wacker Chemical Corporation Wacker Polymers Division a... of Wacker Chemical Corporation, Wacker Polymers Division, a subsidiary of Wacker Chemie AG, including...

  11. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  12. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community

  13. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  14. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of wonder kelp--Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Bhatnagar, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Laminaria is a kelp that finds its place in the brown algae family. It has been an area of study for past many years, and its wonderful biological properties have always attracted medical professionals and researchers to explore more and more from this wonder kelp. The constituents of Laminaria include iodine, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Iodine compounds, TEA-hydroiodide in particular, are great lipolytic agents as they stimulate lipase activity. Laminarins on the other hand are used as a tumor angiogenic blocker. This genus of the kelps is also rich in algin, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that forms viscous colloidal solutions or gels in water leading to the use of kelp derivatives as bulk laxatives. It has great applications in cosmeceutical science, as well as some antibacterial properties have also been assigned to Laminaria. A deeper insight into the physical, biological, and chemical properties of this wonder kelp would lead to further exploitation of Laminaria for medicinal and cosmeceutical purpose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decree 152/013. It dictate norms concerning to the management of waste from the use of chemical or biological products in farming, forestry and agro fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This decree is about the norms concerning to the management of waste from the use of chemical or biological products in farming, forestry and agro fruit. This includes chemical or biological containers.

  17. Joining Forces: The Chemical Biology-Medicinal Chemistry Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Alleyn T; Ottmann, Christian; Arkin, Michelle; Auberson, Yves P; Timmerman, Henk; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-09-21

    The scientific advances being made across all disciplines are creating ever-increasing opportunities to enhance our knowledge of biological systems and how they relate to human disease. One of the central driving forces in discovering new medicines is medicinal chemistry, where the design and synthesis of novel compounds has led to multiple drugs. Chemical biology, sitting at the interface of many disciplines, has now emerged as a major contributor to the understanding of biological systems and is becoming an integral part of drug discovery. Bringing chemistry and biology much closer and blurring the boundaries between disciplines is creating new opportunities to probe and understand biology; both disciplines play key roles and need to join forces and work together effectively to synergize their impact. The power of chemical biology will then reach its full potential and drive innovation, leading to the discovery of transformative medicines to treat patients. Advances in cancer biology and drug discovery highlight this potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional pharmaceutical preparation for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvos, Rita; Piposzar, J David; Stein, Thomas M; Locasto, Donald; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2003-01-01

    The United States National Office of Domestic Preparedness has determined that the threat of a biological or chemical attack is very real. As an active participant of a 13-county regional task force, one of the roles of the poison center was to determine the pharmaceutical needs of the community in the event of a terrorist action and develop a financially responsible method of acquisition and storage. Working with local health officials, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify possible biological and chemical poisons. Treatment recommendations were identified and an estimated amount to treat 5,000 people for 24hrs was determined. Instead of purchasing the medications, a unique solution utilizing a regional pharmacy wholesaler was used. An important element in a biological or chemical terrorist event is the availability of the pharmaceuticals and the capability of delivering them rapidly. The poison center is the ideal agency to help coordinate this endeavor since it is familiar with contemporary therapy and will be aware of the number, location, and status of casualties. Based on the expense involved in the purchase and storage of a large quantity of medications, utilizing a local pharmaceutical distribution company is fiscally responsible. Rotation through normal stock and being readily accessible is another benefit. The poison center serves a number of roles in the surveillance, recognition, and treatment of biological and chemical terrorism. Assisting in the development, implementation, and procurement of a pharmaceutical cache is yet another role.

  19. Chemical analysis and biological potential of Valerian root as used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herb prepared from this plant was studied to determine the chemical composition of its essential oil, carried out phytochemical screening and biological activities on ... rat paw oedema model comparable to aspirin, indicating anti-inflammatory activity; but lacked analgesic activity on the acetic acid-induced writhing test.

  20. On the transition period from chemical to biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1991-06-01

    We discuss the consequences of the hypothesis that biological evolution was contemporary with an important event in chemical evolution, namely, the induction of a small chiral bias by the electroweak neutral interaction, amplified by the Salam enhancement factor, which we discuss in terms of familiar crystallographic terms. (author). 18 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Chemical and biological characterization of a crude venom extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sea-anemones, in common with other members of the phylum cnidaria (coelenterate) possess numerous tentacles containing specialized stinging cells of cnidocysts. Our main objective is to elucidate the chemical character and biological properties of this Nigerian species of sea anemone Bunodosoma ...

  2. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences: Chemistry Nobel Prize – 2013. Saraswathi Vishveshwara. General Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 347-367 ...

  3. Optimizing the Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Facility Location Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.14 Facility Location Problem Taxonomy ...at- tack on U.S. soil .” [42] – 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review 1.1 Background The use of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear (CBRN) weapon...demonstrate specific applications, and present previous solution techniques. 2.14 Facility Location Problem Taxonomy We begin first with a brief overview of

  4. Methylene Diphosphonate Chemical and Biological control of MDP complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aungurarat, A

    2000-01-01

    Technetium-9 sup 9 sup m MDP easy prepared from MDP kits which different sources such as OAP (In house), SIGMA. The resulting Tc 9 sup 9 sup m -MDP preparations were controlled in chemical and biological tests to compare the different results in these cases: radiochemical purity, the quantity of starting material and biodistribution result.

  5. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  6. Chemical and biological characteristics of Albion reef in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of heterotrophic bacteria, pico-cyanobacteria and benthic cyanobacterial mats was assessed in the cycling of organic carbon and nitrogen in the Albion lagoon, Mauritius. Surveys and sampling for biological and chemical parameters were undertaken at three locations along one northern (T1) and one southern ...

  7. Integrated Ph. D. Programme in Biological, Chemical and Physical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Integrated Ph. D. Programme in Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences at Indian Institute of Sciences Introductory Summer School on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 121- ...

  8. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSerrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s, thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s, which phenotypically resemble mutation(s of the encoding gene(s. A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1 a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2 a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3 an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound’s mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  9. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  10. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  11. Functional annotation of chemical libraries across diverse biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Li, Sheena C; Deshpande, Raamesh; Simpkins, Scott W; Nelson, Justin; Yashiroda, Yoko; Barber, Jacqueline M; Safizadeh, Hamid; Wilson, Erin; Okada, Hiroki; Gebre, Abraham A; Kubo, Karen; Torres, Nikko P; LeBlanc, Marissa A; Andrusiak, Kerry; Okamoto, Reika; Yoshimura, Mami; DeRango-Adem, Eva; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Brown, Grant W; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-genetic approaches offer the potential for unbiased functional annotation of chemical libraries. Mutations can alter the response of cells in the presence of a compound, revealing chemical-genetic interactions that can elucidate a compound's mode of action. We developed a highly parallel, unbiased yeast chemical-genetic screening system involving three key components. First, in a drug-sensitive genetic background, we constructed an optimized diagnostic mutant collection that is predictive for all major yeast biological processes. Second, we implemented a multiplexed (768-plex) barcode-sequencing protocol, enabling the assembly of thousands of chemical-genetic profiles. Finally, based on comparison of the chemical-genetic profiles with a compendium of genome-wide genetic interaction profiles, we predicted compound functionality. Applying this high-throughput approach, we screened seven different compound libraries and annotated their functional diversity. We further validated biological process predictions, prioritized a diverse set of compounds, and identified compounds that appear to have dual modes of action.

  12. Physico-chemical characterization and biological studies of newly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANJOY SAHA

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... of applications including biological, medicinal analyt- ical in addition to their vital role in organic synthesis and catalysis.22–26 We reported in previous articles the synthesis, characterization and biological influence of. Cu(II), Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes of analogous ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases.27 ...

  13. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas A; Anderson, Lindsey E; Hill, Casey J; Mostaghim, Afshin; Rodgers, Victor G J; Grover, William H

    2016-01-01

    The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs). "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond); "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics). "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders of magnitude, an

  14. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Hill

    Full Text Available The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs. "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond; "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics. "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders

  15. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  16. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  17. Chemical and biological evaluation of propolis of Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Rocha Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    The red propolis originally from the state of Alagoas has a chemical composition rich in isoflavones and has been used as traditional popular medicine presented as an antioxidant and antiviral properties. Its relevance to this study is mainly due to the same present several biological properties, among them: antimicrobial, anti-cancer, cytotoxic and anti-tumor. In this work it was performed the study of the fixed compounds present in hexane fraction of propolis, which presented three ester...

  18. Bridging the gap between cell biology and organic chemistry: chemical synthesis and biological application of lipidated peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carsten; Wagner, Melanie; Völkert, Martin; Waldmann, Herbert

    2002-09-01

    We have developed a basic concept for studying cell biological phenomena using an interdisciplinary approach starting from organic chemistry. Based on structural information available for a given biological phenomenon, unsolved chemical problems are identified. For their solution, new synthetic pathways and methods are developed, which reflect the state of the art in synthesising lipidated peptide conjugates. These compounds are used as molecular probes for the investigation of biological phenomena that involve both the determination of biophysical properties and cell biological studies. The interplay between organic synthesis, biophysics and cell biology in the study of protein lipidation may open up new and alternative opportunities to gain knowledge about the biological phenomenon that could not be obtained by employing biological techniques alone. This fruitful combination is highlighted using the Ras protein as an outstanding example. Included herein is: the development of methods for the synthesis of Ras-derived peptides and fully functional Ras proteins, the determination of the biophysical properties, in particular the ability to bind to model membranes, and finally the use of synthetic Ras peptides and proteins in cell biological experiments.

  19. Engineered ion channels as emerging tools for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2013-12-17

    Over the last 25 years, researchers have developed exogenously expressed, genetically engineered, semi-synthetic, and entirely synthetic ion channels. These structures have sufficient fidelity to serve as unique tools that can reveal information about living organisms. One of the most exciting success stories is optogenetics: the use of light-gated channels to trigger action potentials in specific neurons combined with studies of the response from networks of cells or entire live animals. Despite this breakthrough, the use of molecularly engineered ion channels for studies of biological systems is still in its infancy. Historically, researchers studied ion channels in the context of their own function in single cells or in multicellular signaling and regulation. Only recently have researchers considered ion channels and pore-forming peptides as responsive tools to report on the chemical and physical changes produced by other biochemical processes and reactions. This emerging class of molecular probes has a number of useful characteristics. For instance, these structures can greatly amplify the signal of chemical changes: the binding of one molecule to a ligand-gated ion channel can result in flux of millions of ions across a cell membrane. In addition, gating occurs on sub-microsecond time scales, resulting in fast response times. Moreover, the signal is complementary to existing techniques because the output is ionic current rather than fluorescence or radioactivity. And finally, ion channels are also localized at the membrane of cells where essential processes such as signaling and regulation take place. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our own work, of uses of ion channels and pore-forming peptides such as gramicidin in chemical biology. We discuss various strategies for preparing synthetically tailored ion channels that range from de novo designed synthetic molecules to genetically engineered or simply exogenously expressed or reconstituted wild

  20. Synthetic and systems biology for microbial production of commodity chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Martín, Héctor García

    2016-01-01

    The combination of synthetic and systems biology is a powerful framework to study fundamental questions in biology and produce chemicals of immediate practical application such as biofuels, polymers, or therapeutics. However, we cannot yet engineer biological systems as easily and precisely as we engineer physical systems. In this review, we describe the path from the choice of target molecule to scaling production up to commercial volumes. We present and explain some of the current challenges and gaps in our knowledge that must be overcome in order to bring our bioengineering capabilities to the level of other engineering disciplines. Challenges start at molecule selection, where a difficult balance between economic potential and biological feasibility must be struck. Pathway design and construction have recently been revolutionized by next-generation sequencing and exponentially improving DNA synthesis capabilities. Although pathway optimization can be significantly aided by enzyme expression characterization through proteomics, choosing optimal relative protein expression levels for maximum production is still the subject of heuristic, non-systematic approaches. Toxic metabolic intermediates and proteins can significantly affect production, and dynamic pathway regulation emerges as a powerful but yet immature tool to prevent it. Host engineering arises as a much needed complement to pathway engineering for high bioproduct yields; and systems biology approaches such as stoichiometric modeling or growth coupling strategies are required. A final, and often underestimated, challenge is the successful scale up of processes to commercial volumes. Sustained efforts in improving reproducibility and predictability are needed for further development of bioengineering.

  1. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  2. Free Radicals in Chemical Biology: from Chemical Behavior to Biomarker Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla; Masi, Annalisa; Melchiorre, Michele; Sansone, Anna; Terzidis, Michael A.; Torreggiani, Armida

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of free radicals in life sciences has constantly increased with time and has been connected to several physiological and pathological processes. This subject embraces diverse scientific areas, spanning from physical, biological and bioorganic chemistry to biology and medicine, with applications to the amelioration of quality of life, health and aging. Multidisciplinary skills are required for the full investigation of the many facets of radical processes in the biological environment and chemical knowledge plays a crucial role in unveiling basic processes and mechanisms. We developed a chemical biology approach able to connect free radical chemical reactivity with biological processes, providing information on the mechanistic pathways and products. The core of this approach is the design of biomimetic models to study biomolecule behavior (lipids, nucleic acids and proteins) in aqueous systems, obtaining insights of the reaction pathways as well as building up molecular libraries of the free radical reaction products. This context can be successfully used for biomarker discovery and examples are provided with two classes of compounds: mono-trans isomers of cholesteryl esters, which are synthesized and used as references for detection in human plasma, and purine 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyribonucleosides, prepared and used as reference in the protocol for detection of such lesions in DNA samples, after ionizing radiations or obtained from different health conditions. PMID:23629513

  3. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin eBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular virtual tissue model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  4. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  5. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  6. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants

  7. Thermotropic Liquid Crystal-Assisted Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Lawrence W.; Usol’tseva, Nadezhda; Mann, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    In this review article, we analyze recent progress in the application of liquid crystal-assisted advanced functional materials for sensing biological and chemical analytes. Multiple research groups demonstrate substantial interest in liquid crystal (LC) sensing platforms, generating an increasing number of scientific articles. We review trends in implementing LC sensing techniques and identify common problems related to the stability and reliability of the sensing materials as well as to experimental set-ups. Finally, we suggest possible means of bridging scientific findings to viable and attractive LC sensor platforms. PMID:29295530

  8. CHEMGENIE: integration of chemogenomics data for applications in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Chang, Charlie; Fox, Sean J; Cook, Erica; Barnard, Richard; Tellers, David; Wang, Huijun; Pertusi, Dante; Glick, Meir; Sheridan, Robert P; Wallace, Iain M; Wassermann, Anne Mai

    2018-01-01

    Increasing amounts of biological data are accumulating in the pharmaceutical industry and academic institutions. However, data does not equal actionable information, and guidelines for appropriate data capture, harmonization, integration, mining, and visualization need to be established to fully harness its potential. Here, we describe ongoing efforts at Merck & Co. to structure data in the area of chemogenomics. We are integrating complementary data from both internal and external data sources into one chemogenomics database (Chemical Genetic Interaction Enterprise; CHEMGENIE). Here, we demonstrate how this well-curated database facilitates compound set design, tool compound selection, target deconvolution in phenotypic screening, and predictive model building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photothermal stability of biologically and chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotko, Magdalena; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    We report here the influence of the irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses on the gold nanoprisms synthesized using biological and chemical methods. For the bio-mediated growth, we used plant extract as a source of reducing, structure-directing, and stabilizing agents, while for the chemical method, we applied three-step protocol, involving chemicals commonly used in the synthesis of nanostructures. Exposition of the nanostructures to the laser beam causes morphological changes, which affect their extinction spectra. These modifications were followed using absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The observed effects depend on the applied laser power and excitation wavelength. Under resonance conditions, rounding of the tips of triangular nanoparticles and transformation towards more stable, spherical form were noticed. These changes were faster under higher laser power. Such shape modifications were weaker under off-resonance conditions. Moreover, chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms were less susceptible to the morphological changes than those obtained using plant extract; however, their colloidal stability was disrupted by long-time irradiation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... CONTACT: Pamela K. Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability: Gerhard...

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans chemical biology: lessons from small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    How can we complement Caenorhabditis elegans genomics and proteomics with a comprehensive structural and functional annotation of its metabolome? Several lines of evidence indicate that small molecules of largely undetermined structure play important roles in C. elegans biology, including key pathw...

  13. Surface characterization of arsenopyrite during chemical and biological oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sha; Gu, Guohua; Xu, Baoke; Li, Lijuan; Wu, Bichao

    2018-01-16

    The surface properties of arsenopyrite during chemical and biological oxidation were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (S-XRD), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), accompanying with leaching behaviors elucidation. The moderate thermophile S. thermosulfidooxdians was used as the bioleaching microorganism. Leaching experiments showed that only 16.26% and 44.37% of total arsenic extractions were obtained for sterile acid and culture medium controls, whereas 79.20% of total arsenic was recovered at the end of bioleaching. SEM indicated that new products were layered on the surface of arsenopyrite after chemical and biological oxidation. As displayed in S-XRD patterns, scorodite and elemental sulfur were formed after acid leaching, while only elemental sulfur was detected in the residue leached by acid culture medium. During bioleaching, elemental sulfur was produced from day 4 and jarosite was produced from day 9. The results of iron and arsenic L-edge XANES were in good consistence with S-XRD. The accumulation of scorodite and jarosite on arsenopyrite surface should be the main reason for the hindered dissolution of arsenopyrite during acid leaching and bioleaching. These studies are pretty meaningful for better understanding the oxidation mechanism of arsenopyrite and evaluating arsenic risk to the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How chemistry supports cell biology: the chemical toolbox at your service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Neefjes, Jacques; Ovaa, Huib

    2014-12-01

    Chemical biology is a young and rapidly developing scientific field. In this field, chemistry is inspired by biology to create various tools to monitor and modulate biochemical and cell biological processes. Chemical contributions such as small-molecule inhibitors and activity-based probes (ABPs) can provide new and unique insights into previously unexplored cellular processes. This review provides an overview of recent breakthroughs in chemical biology that are likely to have a significant impact on cell biology. We also discuss the application of several chemical tools in cell biology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. About the names of the chemical elements, including the transfermium elements

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Chagas, Aécio Pereira

    1999-01-01

    The names of the chemical elements in Brazilian portuguese are presented, including a discussion of corresponding Brazilian nomenclature rules and translation of some parts of the pertinent IUPAC rules. The rules for naming groups of elements in the periodic table, as well as those for the symbolic indication of atomic number, mass number and electric charge of atoms, are also presented.

  16. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O 3 , NO x , Cl x , HCl, N 2 O 5 , ClONO 2 are calculated

  17. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  18. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  19. Improving integrative searching of systems chemical biology data using semantic annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems chemical biology and chemogenomics are considered critical, integrative disciplines in modern biomedical research, but require data mining of large, integrated, heterogeneous datasets from chemistry and biology. We previously developed an RDF-based resource called Chem2Bio2RDF that enabled querying of such data using the SPARQL query language. Whilst this work has proved useful in its own right as one of the first major resources in these disciplines, its utility could be greatly improved by the application of an ontology for annotation of the nodes and edges in the RDF graph, enabling a much richer range of semantic queries to be issued. Results We developed a generalized chemogenomics and systems chemical biology OWL ontology called Chem2Bio2OWL that describes the semantics of chemical compounds, drugs, protein targets, pathways, genes, diseases and side-effects, and the relationships between them. The ontology also includes data provenance. We used it to annotate our Chem2Bio2RDF dataset, making it a rich semantic resource. Through a series of scientific case studies we demonstrate how this (i simplifies the process of building SPARQL queries, (ii enables useful new kinds of queries on the data and (iii makes possible intelligent reasoning and semantic graph mining in chemogenomics and systems chemical biology. Availability Chem2Bio2OWL is available at http://chem2bio2rdf.org/owl. The document is available at http://chem2bio2owl.wikispaces.com.

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  1. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Training CBR-D Basic Engineering Core Course ( BECC ) Naval Training Center Great Lakes, IL Hospital Corpsman “A” School Naval Training Center Great Lakes...incorporation into CBR-D training. CBR-D courses that will be affected by the CPS ILE product include Basic Enlisted Common Core ( BECC ), Damage Control...Battledress Uniform BECC – Basic Engineering Core Course BES – Budget Estimate Submission BGAD – Blue Grass Army Depot BIDS – Biological Integrated

  2. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  4. Biological efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Yu, Dong Han; Lee, Byoung Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.; Geras'kin, Stanislav A.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina; Panek, Agnieszka; Wiechec, Anna

    2004-06-01

    This research project has been carried out jointly with INP (Poland) to develop technologies to assess the biological efficiency of interaction between radiation and chemicals. Through the cooperative project, KAERI and INP have established wide variety of bioassay techniques applicable to radiation bioscience, human monitoring, molecular epidemiology and environmental science. The joint experiment, in special, made it possible to utilize the merits of both institutes and to upgrade and verify KAERI's current technology level. All results of the cooperative research will be jointly published in high standard scientific journals listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which can make the role of fundamental basis for improving relationship between Korea and Poland. Research skills such as Trad-MCN assay, SCGE assay, immunohistochemical assay and molecular assay developed through joint research will be further elaborated and will be continuously used for the collaboration between two institutes

  5. Endowing carbon nanotubes with biological and biomedical properties by chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battigelli, Alessia; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Da Ros, Tatiana; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The scope of nanotechnology is gaining importance in biology and medicine. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as a promising tool due to their unique properties, high specific surface area, and capacity to cross biological barriers. These properties offer a variety of opportunities for applications in nanomedicine, such as diagnosis, disease treatment, imaging, and tissue engineering. Nevertheless, pristine CNTs are insoluble in water and in most organic solvents; thereby functionalization of their surface is necessary to increase biocompatibility. Derivatization of CNTs also gives the possibility to conjugate different biological and bioactive molecules including drugs, proteins, and targeting ligands. This review focuses on the chemical modifications of CNTs that have been developed to impart specific properties for biological and medical purposes. Biomolecules can be covalently grafted or non-covalently adsorbed on the nanotube surface. In addition, the inner core of CNTs can be exploited to encapsulate drugs, nanoparticles, or radioactive elements. © 2013.

  6. Biological and chemical characteristics of the coral gastric cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Casareto, B. E.; Yoshinaga, K.; Nakano, Y.; Fujimura, H.

    2012-03-01

    All corals have a common structure: two tissue layers enclose a lumen, which forms the gastric cavity. Few studies have described the processes occurring inside the gastric cavity and its chemical and biological characteristics. Here, we show that the coral gastric cavity has distinct chemical characteristics with respect to dissolved O2, pH, alkalinity, and nutrients (vitamin B12, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and also harbors a distinct bacterial community. From these results, the gastric cavity can be described as a semi-closed sub-environment within the coral. Dissolved O2 shows very low constant concentrations in the deepest parts of the cavity, creating a compartmentalized, anoxic environment. The pH is lower in the cavity than in the surrounding water and, like alkalinity, shows day/night variations different from those of the surrounding water. Nutrient concentrations in the cavity are greater than the concentrations found in reef waters, especially for phosphate and vitamin B12. The source of these nutrients may be internal production by symbiotic bacteria and/or the remineralization of organic matter ingested or produced by the corals. The importance of the bacteria inhabiting the gastric cavity is supported by the finding of a high bacterial abundance and a specific bacterial community with affiliation to bacteria found in other corals and in the guts of other organisms. The findings presented here open a new area of research that may help us to understand the processes that maintain coral health.

  7. Exploring chemoselective S-to-N acyl transfer reactions in synthesis and chemical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Helen M.; McSweeney, Lauren; Scanlan, Eoin M.

    2017-05-01

    S-to-N acyl transfer is a high-yielding chemoselective process for amide bond formation. It is widely utilized by chemists for synthetic applications, including peptide and protein synthesis, chemical modification of proteins, protein-protein ligation and the development of probes and molecular machines. Recent advances in our understanding of S-to-N acyl transfer processes in biology and innovations in methodology for thioester formation and desulfurization, together with an extension of the size of cyclic transition states, have expanded the boundaries of this process well beyond peptide ligation. As the field develops, this chemistry will play a central role in our molecular understanding of Biology.

  8. Ozonation of estrogenic chemicals in biologically treated sewage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The present study shows that ozonation of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is likely to be a future treatment solution to remove estrogens and xeno-estrogens. The required ozone dose and electrical energy for producing the ozone were determined in two WWTP effluents...... for removal of 17 estrogenic chemicals. The estrogenic compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. The obtained values of Electrical Energy per Order (EEOs) for the treatment of the estrogens were in the range 0.14–1.1 kWh/m3 corresponding to 1.7–14 g O3/m3....... It is furthermore suggested that UV-absorbance is a useful parameter for online control of the ozone dose in a full scale application since the absorbance of the WWTP effluents and the remaining concentration of the estrogens and xeno-estrogens correlated well with the applied ozone dose....

  9. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  10. Imidazothiazole and related heterocyclic systems. Synthesis, chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascio, Mirta L; Errea, María Inés; D'Accorso, Norma Beatriz

    2015-01-27

    Fused heterobicyclic systems have gained much importance in the field of medicinal chemistry because of their broad spectrum of physiological activities. Among the heterocyclic rings containing bridgehead nitrogen atom, imidazothiazoles derivatives are especially attractive because of their different biological activities. Since many imidazothiazoles derivatives are effective for treating several diseases, is interesting to analyze the behavior of some isosteric related heterocycles, such as pirrolothiazoles, imidazothiadiazoles and imidazotriazoles. In this context, this review summarizes the current knowledge about the syntheses and biological behavior of these families of heterocycles. Traditional synthetic methodologies as well as alternative synthetic procedures are described. Among these last methodologies, the use of multicomponent reaction, novel and efficient coupling reagents, and environmental friendly strategies, like microwave assistance and solvent-free condition in ionic liquids are also summarized. This review includes the biological assessments, docking research and studies of mechanism of action performed in order to obtain the compounds leading to the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-04-01

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  12. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  14. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regional Centres of Excellence Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the initiative launched in May 2010 by the European Union to develop at national and regional levels the necessary institutional capacity to fight against the CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) risk. The origin of the risk can be: -) criminal (proliferation, theft, sabotage and illicit traffics), -) accidental (industrial catastrophes, transport accidents...) and -) natural (mainly pandemics). The initiative consists in the creation of Centres of Excellence for providing assistance and cooperation in the field of CBRN risk and the creation of experts networks for sharing best practices, reviewing laws and regulation, developing technical capacities in order to mitigate the CBRN risk. The initiative is complementary to the instrument for nuclear safety cooperation. Regional Centres of Excellence are being set up in 6 regions: South East Europe, South East Asia, North Africa, West Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia covering nearly 40 countries. A global budget of 100 million Euros will be dedicated to this initiative for the 2009-2013 period. (A.C.)

  15. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Recycling of dyehouse effluents by biological and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, R.; Doepkens, E. [Inst. of Biochemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction of the production integrated environmental protection by closing raw material cycles is shown exemplary for the textile finishing industry. Colored process water with a high content of dissolved organic dyes has always been a non-trivial problem for the sewage engineering sector. The recycling of process water of textile mills is often hindered by remaining color of water-soluable azo dyes after conventional wastewater treatment. Rising costs of emitted wastewater, lawful limits and restricted availability of water makes it of great interest to introduce sophisticated techniques helping to purify dye effluents and to recycle process water. A combined biological and chemical process of purification and recycling of residual dyehouse split flows into the production was developed, investigated and installed by a textile finishing company which produces 330,000 m{sup 3} colored wastewater effluents per year. The process contains anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage-products and the decolorization and partial oxidation of traces of dyeresiduals by advanced oxidation. (orig.)

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  18. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: The Threat According to the Current Unclassified Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-31

    bioterrorism will differ greatly from responses to nuclear and chemical terrorism , probably much more closely resembling responses to �emerging infectious...Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. With respect to CBRN threats from non-state actors, the authors contend...not probable; should it occur, �it would more likely be chemical or biological than nuclear, with chemical terrorism perhaps the most likely prospect

  19. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    special focus is on the production stage but upstream emissions assessed to be of possible significant importance are included (e.g. estimated emissions from pigment production) or handled in the sensitivity analysis. The functional unit is 1 ton of sheet feed offset produced printed matter, i.e. printed......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  20. Exploration of the central dogma at the interface of chemistry and biology: 2010 Yale Chemical Biology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the term "central dogma" was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year's Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology.

  1. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  2. Chemical countermeasures: Dispersants overview of dispersant use (including application) and research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    I will attempt in twenty minutes to summarize the state of research on oil spill dispersants as I perceive it. The expertise I bring to this task includes 20 years of experience with the fate and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, including participation in the 1973 and 1981 NRC studies and three years as chairman of the NRC committee on oil spill dispersants. I More recently I served on a committee of the International Maritime Organization which reviewed the open-quotes Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment.close quotes That report will be published this year. However, my statements in this paper are not made as a representative of either NRC or IMO. They are my own interpretation of scientific literature cited in the above reviews. Dispersants are chemical formulations, which include surface active agents, designed to decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water. Because the first attempts to disperse oil on a large scale, at the Torrey Canyon spill of 1967, used highly toxic degreasing agents, dispersants have an undeserved reputation for toxicity. In fact, for twenty years dispersant formulations have been developed with an emphasis on reducing their toxicity to marine life. The dispersal of oil in water has been documented in the laboratory by dozens of papers (see references in NRC 1989, pp 70-79), and in the field by dozens of studies (NRC 1989, pp 165- 193). The toxicity of commercial dispersant formulations (NRC 1989, pp 81-123) and dispersed oil (NRC 1989, pp 123-147) has been tested on a wide variety of marine organisms ranging from algae to salmonid fishes. The NRC review has been updated by the IMO/GESAMP (1992) study, but the conclusions remain unchanged

  3. Psychotria viridis: Chemical constituents from leaves and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA B.S. SOARES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The phytochemical study of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Psychotria viridis resulted in the identification of: the pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acid; the steroids, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; the glycosylated steroids 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol; a polyunsaturated triterpene, squalene; the esters of glycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol and triacylglycerol; a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons; the aldehyde nonacosanal; the long chain fat acids hentriacontanoic, hexadecanoic and heptadenoic acid; the ester methyl heptadecanoate; the 4-methyl-epi-quinate and two indole alkaloids, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and N-methyltryptamine. The chemical structures were determined by means of spectroscopic (IR, 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY and spectrometric (CG-MS and LCMS-ESI-ITTOF methods. The study of biologic properties of P. viridis consisted in the evaluation of the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cytotoxic activities. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, the substances 24-methylene-cycloartanol, DMT and a mixture of 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol showed cholinesterase inhibiting activity. This activity induced by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts was higher than 90%. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibit the growth and/or induce the death of the tumor cells strains B16F10 and 4T1, without damaging the integrity of the normal cells BHK and CHO. DMT also demonstrated a marked activity against tumor cell strains B16F10 and 4T1.

  4. Biological and chemical terrorism scenarios and implications for detection systems needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Chumfong, Isabelle; Edwards, Donna M.; Gleason, Nathaniel J.; West, Todd; Yang, Lynn

    2007-04-01

    Terrorists intent on causing many deaths and severe disruption to our society could, in theory, cause hundreds to tens of thousands of deaths and significant contamination of key urban facilities by using chemical or biological (CB) agents. The attacks that have occurred to date, such as the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo CB attacks and the 2001 anthrax letters, have been very small on the scale of what is possible. In order to defend against and mitigate the impacts of large-scale terrorist attacks, defensive systems for protection of urban areas and high-value facilities from biological and chemical threats have been deployed. This paper reviews analyses of such scenarios and of the efficacy of potential response options, discusses defensive systems that have been deployed and detectors that are being developed, and finally outlines the detection systems that will be needed for improved CB defense in the future. Sandia's collaboration with San Francisco International Airport on CB defense will also be briefly reviewed, including an overview of airport facility defense guidelines produced in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The analyses that will be discussed were conducted by Sandia National Laboratories' Systems Studies Department in support of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate, and include quantitative analyses utilizing simulation models developed through close collaboration with subject matter experts, such as public health officials in urban areas and biological defense experts.

  5. Acridones as antiviral agents: synthesis, chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, C S; Fascio, M L; García, C C; D'Accorso, N B; Damonte, E B

    2013-01-01

    Acridones are a class of compounds that have attracted attention in recent years for their wide range of biological properties, including selective inhibition of diverse human pathogenic viruses. The wide spectrum of antiviral activity includes DNA and RNA viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and Junin virus, among others, indicative of the involvement of cellular factors as potential targets of acridone derivatives. At the present, their precise mode of action is not clearly determined, although the predominant action seems to be centered on the synthesis of nucleic acids. Regarding this point, inhibitory activity against cellular and viral enzymes and the ability to intercalate into nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated for some acridone compounds. Then, the possibility of a multiple effect on different targets renewed interest in these agents for virus chemotherapy allowing a potent inhibitory effectiveness associated to less feasibility of generating antiviral resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the methods of synthesis, the antiviral properties of acridone derivatives, their mechanism of action, and structural characteristics related to antiviral activity as well as the perspectives of this class of compounds for clinical application against human viral infections.

  6. Experimental Simulations for Elimination of Biological and/or Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-10-01

    The threat of biological and/or chemical agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. The 2oo1 anthrax terror throughout the USA, 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway, and the like are evident for this threat. Elimination and decontamination of biological and/or chemical agents are needed for such an attack. Experimental simulation for elimination of biological and/or chemical agents using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch is carried out. The elimination of biological and/or chemical agents through the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and the decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant is presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) is also presented.

  7. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  9. Chemical composition and biological investigation of Pelargonium endlicherianum root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker Karatoprak, Gökçe; Göger, Fatih; Yerer, Mükerrem Betül; Koşar, Müberra

    2017-12-01

    Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. (Geraniaceae) roots and flowers are traditionally used in Turkey as a decoction treatment against intestinal parasites. Neither the chemical composition nor the potential bioactivity of the plant roots has been studied before. The phenolic content and effects of P. endlicherianum root extracts on antioxidant enzyme levels on A549 cells were studied for the first time. The chemical composition was analyzed via spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC MS/MS and HPLC) techniques. The antioxidant activity was determined at different concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 2 mg/mL using DPPH • and ABTS •+ radical scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid co-oxidation assay, protection of 2-deoxyribose and bovine brain-derived phospholipids against a hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation assay. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were also studied as well as the effects of the extracts on nitric oxide levels on IL-1β stimulated A549 cells. The key parameters for the most active ethyl acetate extract included the following: DPPH • IC 50 : 0.23 mg/mL, TEAC/ABTS: 2.17 mmol/L Trolox, reduction: 0.41 mmol/g AsscE, and protection of lipid peroxidation IC 50 : 0.05 mg/mL. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extract increased the SOD level significantly compared to control group (4.48 U/mL) at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL SOD, 5.50 and 5.67 U/mL, respectively. Apocynin was identified as the major component, and the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be rich in phenolic compounds. Pelargonium endlicherianum root extracts displayed antioxidant activity and increased the antioxidant enzyme levels in IL-1β stimulated A549 cells, while decreasing the NO levels.

  10. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt; Luís Carlos Timm; Klaus Reichardt; Luiz Fernando Spinelli Pinto; Eloy Antonio Pauletto; Danilo Dufech Castilhos

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Val...

  11. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  12. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  13. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhifi, Wissal; Bellili, Sana; Jazi, Sabrine; Bahloul, Nada; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens), and also sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens). Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc…) of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field. PMID:28930135

  14. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    molecular dynamics simulations and graph theory as applied to biological systems. Her group has developed network approaches to investigate functionally important amino acids in protein structures. Keywords. Quantum Chemistry, molecular mechanics, force fields, QM/MM hybrid method, systems biology, molecular ...

  15. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  16. Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Chiral and Achiral Separations of Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasa, Ayman L; Naumovski, Nenad; Maher, William A; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2017-07-18

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview about the applications of CNTs in chiral and achiral separations of pharmaceuticals, biologics and chemicals. Chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been directly applied for the enantioseparation of pharmaceuticals and biologicals by using them as stationary or pseudostationary phases in chromatographic separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography (GC). Achiral MWCNTs have been used for achiral separations as efficient sorbent objects in solid-phase extraction techniques of biochemicals and drugs. Achiral SWCNTs have been applied in achiral separation of biological samples. Achiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been also successfully used to separate achiral mixtures of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Collectively, functionalized CNTs have been indirectly applied in separation science by enhancing the enantioseparation of different chiral selectors whereas non-functionalized CNTs have shown efficient capabilities for chiral separations by using techniques such as encapsulation or immobilization in polymer monolithic columns.

  17. Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Chiral and Achiral Separations of Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman L. Hemasa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview about the applications of CNTs in chiral and achiral separations of pharmaceuticals, biologics and chemicals. Chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have been directly applied for the enantioseparation of pharmaceuticals and biologicals by using them as stationary or pseudostationary phases in chromatographic separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and gas chromatography (GC. Achiral MWCNTs have been used for achiral separations as efficient sorbent objects in solid-phase extraction techniques of biochemicals and drugs. Achiral SWCNTs have been applied in achiral separation of biological samples. Achiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been also successfully used to separate achiral mixtures of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Collectively, functionalized CNTs have been indirectly applied in separation science by enhancing the enantioseparation of different chiral selectors whereas non-functionalized CNTs have shown efficient capabilities for chiral separations by using techniques such as encapsulation or immobilization in polymer monolithic columns.

  18. Chemical Ligation Reactions of Oligonucleotides for Biological and Medicinal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Chemical ligation of oligonucleotides (ONs) is the key reaction for various ON-based technologies. We have tried to solve the problems of RNA interference (RNAi) technology by applying ON chemical ligation to RNAi. We designed a new RNAi system, called intracellular buildup RNAi (IBR-RNAi), where the RNA fragments are built up into active small-interference RNA (siRNA) in cells through a chemical ligation reaction. Using the phosphorothioate and iodoacetyl groups as reactive functional groups for the ligation, we achieved RNAi effects without inducing immune responses. Additionally, we developed a new chemical ligation for IBR-RNAi, which affords a more native-like structure in the ligated product. The new ligation method should be useful not only for IBR-RNAi but also for the chemical synthesis of biofunctional ONs.

  19. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M

    2004-09-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present.

  20. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  1. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  2. Chemical biology based on target-selective degradation of proteins and carbohydrates using light-activatable organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Kazunobu

    2013-05-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes, including serious diseases. The development of novel and innovative methods for selective control of specific proteins and carbohydrates functions has attracted much attention in the field of chemical biology. In this account article, the development of novel chemical tools, which can degrade target proteins and carbohydrates by irradiation with a specific wavelength of light under mild conditions without any additives, is introduced. This novel class of photochemical agents promise bright prospects for finding not only molecular-targeted bioprobes for understanding of the structure-activity relationships of proteins and carbohydrates but also novel therapeutic drugs targeting proteins and carbohydrates.

  3. What Can We Learn from Bioactivity Data? Chemoinformatics Tools and Applications in Chemical Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbeck, Lina; Koch, Oliver

    2017-01-20

    The ever increasing bioactivity data that are produced nowadays allow exhaustive data mining and knowledge discovery approaches that change chemical biology research. A wealth of chemoinformatics tools, web services, and applications therefore exists that supports a careful evaluation and analysis of experimental data to draw conclusions that can influence the further development of chemical probes and potential lead structures. This review focuses on open-source approaches that can be handled by scientists who are not familiar with computational methods having no expert knowledge in chemoinformatics and modeling. Our aim is to present an easily manageable toolbox for support of every day laboratory work. This includes, among other things, the available bioactivity and related molecule databases as well as tools to handle and analyze in-house data.

  4. Stochastic chemical kinetics theory and (mostly) systems biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Érdi, Péter; Lente, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. In recent years, due to the development in experimental techniques, such as optical imaging, single cell analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical kinetic data inside single living cells have increasingly been available. The emergence of systems biology brought renaissance in the application of stochastic kinetic methods.

  5. Controlled droplet microfluidic systems for multistep chemical and biological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, T S; Garstecki, P

    2017-10-16

    Droplet microfluidics is a relatively new and rapidly evolving field of science focused on studying the hydrodynamics and properties of biphasic flows at the microscale, and on the development of systems for practical applications in chemistry, biology and materials science. Microdroplets present several unique characteristics of interest to a broader research community. The main distinguishing features include (i) large numbers of isolated compartments of tiny volumes that are ideal for single cell or single molecule assays, (ii) rapid mixing and negligible thermal inertia that all provide excellent control over reaction conditions, and (iii) the presence of two immiscible liquids and the interface between them that enables new or exotic processes (the synthesis of new functional materials and structures that are otherwise difficult to obtain, studies of the functions and properties of lipid and polymer membranes and execution of reactions at liquid-liquid interfaces). The most frequent application of droplet microfluidics relies on the generation of large numbers of compartments either for ultrahigh throughput screens or for the synthesis of functional materials composed of millions of droplets or particles. Droplet microfluidics has already evolved into a complex field. In this review we focus on 'controlled droplet microfluidics' - a portfolio of techniques that provide convenient platforms for multistep complex reaction protocols and that take advantage of automated and passive methods of fluid handling on a chip. 'Controlled droplet microfluidics' can be regarded as a group of methods capable of addressing and manipulating droplets in series. The functionality and complexity of controlled droplet microfluidic systems can be positioned between digital microfluidics (DMF) addressing each droplet individually using 2D arrays of electrodes and ultrahigh throughput droplet microfluidics focused on the generation of hundreds of thousands or even millions of

  6. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...

  7. Advanced photonic structures for biological and chemical detection

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xudong

    2009-01-01

    One of a series of books on Integrated Microanalytical Systems, this text discusses the latest applications of photonic technologies in bio/chemical sensing. The book is divided into four sections, each one being based on photonic structures.

  8. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Large Item Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    the SUT should be inspected IAW TOP 08-2-50019. Inspection data, certificates of compliance, or similar documentation must be reviewed to ensure the...purity of the chemical agent and/or simulant used must be known (preferably 85% or greater) and recorded as test data. A purity certification must...approved contaminants [e.g., non-traditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial chemicals ( TICs ), toxic industrial materials (TIMs)] as specified in

  9. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LEAVES OF MORUS INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Pethakamsetty Lakshmi; Seru Ganapaty; K. Mary Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry belongs to the genus Morus of the family Moraceae. It is an economically important plant being used for sericulture. Studies have been reported on the chemical composition and nutritional potentials of some mulberry species worldwide. In the present study the chemical examination of Morus indica leaves on conventional extraction and various chromatographic methods, led to the isolation of five compounds- β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, cirisimaritin and quer...

  10. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity.

  12. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  13. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Phyto chemical and biological studies of certain plants with potential radioprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, N.H.M.I

    2008-01-01

    One of the promising directions of radiation protection development is the search for natural radioprotective agents.The present work includes: I- Screening of certain edible and medicinal plants growing in Egypt for their radioprotective activities. II- Detailed phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla endl. comprising: A-Phyto chemical screening and proximate analysis. B-Investigation of lipoidal matter. C- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of phenolic constituents. D- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of saponin constituents. E- Evaluation of radioprotective and antitumor activities. I- Evaluation of potential radioprotective activities of certain herbs: In vivo biological screening designed to investigate the radioprotective role of 70% ethanol extract of 11 different herbals was carried out by measuring the lipid peroxide content, as well as the activities of two antioxidant enzymes; viz glutathione, and superoxide dismutase in blood and liver tissues 1 and 7 days after radiation exposure. II : Phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla Endl A : preliminary phyto chemical screening, determination and TLC examination of successive extractives. B : Investigation of lipoidal matter. GLC of unsaponifiable matter (USM)

  15. Standoff detection of chemical and biological threats using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; De Lucia, Frank C; Munson, Chase A; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising technique for real-time chemical and biological warfare agent detection in the field. We have demonstrated the detection and discrimination of the biological warfare agent surrogates Bacillus subtilis (BG) (2% false negatives, 0% false positives) and ovalbumin (0% false negatives, 1% false positives) at 20 meters using standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) and linear correlation. Unknown interferent samples (not included in the model), samples on different substrates, and mixtures of BG and Arizona road dust have been classified with reasonable success using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). A few of the samples tested such as the soot (not included in the model) and the 25% BG:75% dust mixture resulted in a significant number of false positives or false negatives, respectively. Our preliminary results indicate that while LIBS is able to discriminate biomaterials with similar elemental compositions at standoff distances based on differences in key intensity ratios, further work is needed to reduce the number of false positives/negatives by refining the PLS-DA model to include a sufficient range of material classes and carefully selecting a detection threshold. In addition, we have demonstrated that LIBS can distinguish five different organophosphate nerve agent simulants at 20 meters, despite their similar stoichiometric formulas. Finally, a combined PLS-DA model for chemical, biological, and explosives detection using a single ST-LIBS sensor has been developed in order to demonstrate the potential of standoff LIBS for universal hazardous materials detection.

  16. Catalogue of methods of calculation, interpolation, smoothing, and reduction for the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of deep hydrology (CATMETH) (NODC Accession 7700442)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The document presents the methods, formulas and citations used by the BNDO to process physical, chemical, and biological data for deep hydrology including...

  17. Economics of resynchronization strategies including chemical tests to identify nonpregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Cabrera, V E

    2013-02-01

    Our objectives were to assess (1) the economic value of decreasing the interval between timed artificial insemination (TAI) services when using a pregnancy test that allows earlier identification of nonpregnant cows; and (2) the effect of pregnancy loss and inaccuracy of a chemical test (CT) on the economic value of a pregnancy test for dairy farms. Simulation experiments were performed using a spreadsheet-based decision support tool. In experiment 1, we assessed the effect of changing the interbreeding interval (IBI) for cows receiving TAI on the value of reproductive programs by simulating a 1,000-cow dairy herd using a combination of detection of estrus (30 to 80% of cows detected in estrus) and TAI. The IBI was incremented by 7d from 28 to 56 d to reflect intervals either observed (35 to 56 d) or potentially observed (28 d) in dairy operations. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of accuracy of the CT and additional pregnancy loss due to earlier testing on the value of reproductive programs. The first scenario compared the use of a CT 31 ± 3 d after a previous AI with rectal palpation (RP) 39 ± 3 d after AI. The second scenario used a CT 24 ± 3 d after AI or transrectal ultrasound (TU) 32 d after AI. Parameters evaluated included sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), questionable diagnosis (Qd), cost of the CT, and expected pregnancy loss. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all possible combinations of parameter values to determine their relative importance on the value of the CT. In experiment 1, programs with a shorter IBI had greater economic net returns at all levels of detection of estrus, and use of chemical tests available on the market today might be beneficial compared with RP. In experiment 2, the economic value of programs using a CT could be either greater or less than that of RP and TU, depending on the value for each of the parameters related to the CT evaluated. The value of the program using the CT was affected (in order) by (1) Se, (2

  18. Guiding the United States Government Response to an Overseas Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear Disaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hrycaj, Roman

    2001-01-01

    ... government response to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN) event overseas? In determining these factors, the author researched salient books, periodicals, published and unpublished papers, and credible Internet sites...

  19. Sample Preparation and Identification of Biological, Chemical and Mid-Spectrum Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, J. R; Dragon, D. C

    2005-01-01

    A general survey of sample preparation and identification techniques for biological, chemical and mid-spectrum agents was conducted as part of Canada's contribution to a joint NATO Allied Engineering Publication (AEP) handbook...

  20. Individual Preparedness and Response to Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Terrorist Attacks: A Quick Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    .... Many people know how to respond in such disasters as fires and earthquakes, but few would know what to do if someone were to use a chemical, radiological, nuclear, or biological weapon in their vicinity...

  1. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  2. In Situ Measurement of the Infrared Spectral Extinction for Various Chemical, Biological, and Background Aerosols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gurton, Kristan

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a series spectral extinction measurements on a variety of aerosolized chemical and biological simulants over the spectral range 3-13 microns using conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR...

  3. Leader Development in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense: Trained and Ready

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    2001-01-01

    .... Careful and deliberate preparation and emphasis on leader development now will obviate the devastating role of WMD in the future and ensure that the Army is nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) trained and ready...

  4. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  5. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses

  6. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of biology of Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae) recently introduced in Lake Toho (Benin, West Africa). S A Montcho, F A Laleye. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v2i1.39729 ...

  7. Group behaviour in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... This permits an additional, typically biological, explanation for it in terms of reproductive advantage, whether of the individual or of the group. .... that of variation, makes it possible for a mode of long-term evolutionary change that is .... An alien, non-human intelligence looking at our world would presumably ...

  8. XFELs open a new era in structural chemical biology

    OpenAIRE

    Fromme, Petra

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography, the workhorse of structural biology, has been revolutionized by the advent of serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray free electron lasers. Here, the fast pace and history of discoveries are discussed together with current challenges and the method’s great potential to make new structural discoveries, such as the ability to generate molecular movies of biomolecules at work.

  9. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  10. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Beaulieu, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    During August 2000, responses of biological communities (invertebrates, fish, and algae), physical habitat, and water chemistry to urban intensity were compared among 30 streams within 80 miles of Boston, Massachusetts. Sites chosen for sampling represented a gradient of the intensity of urban development (urban intensity) among drainage basins that had minimal natural variability. In this study, spatial differences were used as surrogates for temporal changes to represent the effects of urbanization over time. The degree of urban intensity for each drainage basin was characterized with a standardized urban index (0-100, lowest to highest) derived from land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. Multivariate and multimetric analyses were used to compare urban index values with biological, physical, and chemical data to determine how the data indicated responses to urbanization. Multivariate ordinations were derived for the invertebrate-, fish-, and algae-community data by use of correspondence analysis, and ordinations were derived for the chemical and physical data by use of principal-component analysis. Site scores from each of the ordinations were plotted in relation to the urban index to test for a response. In all cases, the primary axis scores showed the strongest response to the urban index, indicating that urbanization was a primary factor affecting the data ordination. For the multimetric analyses, each of the biological data sets was used to calculate a series of community metrics. For the sets of chemical and physical data, the individual variables and various combinations of individual variables were used as measured and derived metrics, respectively. Metrics that were generally most responsive to the urban index for each data set included: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) taxa for invertebrates; cyprinid taxa for fish; diatom taxa for algae; bicarbonate, conductivity, and nitrogen for chemistry; and water depth and temperature

  11. Probes & Drugs portal: an interactive, open data resource for chemical biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škuta, Ctibor; Popr, M.; Muller, Tomáš; Jindřich, Jindřich; Kahle, Michal; Sedlák, David; Svozil, Daniel; Bartůněk, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2017), s. 758-759 ISSN 1548-7091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1220 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : bioactive compound, ,, * chemical probe * chemical biology * portal Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 25.062, year: 2016

  12. Chemical and Biological Defense: Designated Entity Needed to Identify, Align, and Manage DOD’s Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    PAIO) , the analytical arm of the CBDP Enterprise, assessed the physical infrastructure capabilities that support the CBDP Enterprise’s mission and...of the physical infrastructure of the CBDP Enterprise. Page 3 GAO-15-257 Chemical and Biological Defense use threat data and the results...PAIO study made recommendations to address “ physical ” infrastructure capabilities, whereas the 2008 Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP

  13. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian; Edsgärd, Daniel; Rigina, Olga; Gupta, Ramneek; Audouze, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical-protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein-protein interaction network, a protein-protein association network and a chemical-chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment. HExpoChem is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/HExpoChem-1.0/.

  14. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  15. Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollema, Harry S.; Metzger, Jörg W.; Both, Paula; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1996-01-01

    Nisin, a 34-residue peptide bacteriocin, contains the less common amino acids lanthionine, β-methyllanthionine, dehydroalanine (Dha), and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Several chemically modified nisin A species were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by two-dimensional NMR and electrospray

  16. Biocatalysis. Biological systems for the production of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Held, M.; Schmid, A.; van Beilen, J. B.; Witholt, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biocatalysis harnesses the catalytic potential of enzymes to produce building blocks and end-products for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Located at the interface between fermentation processes and petrol-based chemistry, biotransformation processes broaden the toolbox for bioconversion of organic compounds to functionalized products

  17. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    mechanics (MM) force fields, using physical concepts. However, great challenges had to be met in order to obtain relevant param- eters for a vast number of chemical groups and molecules to reproduce experimentally observable properties. Experimentally and quantum mechanically derived quantities have been exten-.

  18. The Microphenotron: a robotic miniaturized plant phenotyping platform with diverse applications in chemical biology

    KAUST Repository

    Burrell, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    numbers of individual chemical treatments with a detailed analysis of whole-seedling development, and particularly root system development. The Microphenotron should provide a powerful new tool for chemical genetics and for wider chemical biology applications, including the development of natural and synthetic chemical products for improved agricultural sustainability.

  19. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology developers to ensure that the representation of chemicals in the GO is both internally consistent and in alignment with the chemical expertise captured in ChEBI. Results We have examined and integrated the ChEBI structural hierarchy into the GO resource through computationally-assisted manual curation of both GO and ChEBI. Our work has resulted in the creation of computable definitions of GO terms that contain fully defined semantic relationships to corresponding chemical terms in ChEBI. Conclusions The set of logical definitions using both the GO and ChEBI has already been used to automate aspects of GO development and has the potential to allow the integration of data across the domains of biology and chemistry. These logical definitions are available as an extended version of the ontology from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/go/extensions/go-plus.owl. PMID:23895341

  20. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P; Adams, Nico; Bada, Mike; Batchelor, Colin; Berardini, Tanya Z; Dietze, Heiko; Drabkin, Harold J; Ennis, Marcus; Foulger, Rebecca E; Harris, Midori A; Hastings, Janna; Kale, Namrata S; de Matos, Paula; Mungall, Christopher J; Owen, Gareth; Roncaglia, Paola; Steinbeck, Christoph; Turner, Steve; Lomax, Jane

    2013-07-29

    The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology developers to ensure that the representation of chemicals in the GO is both internally consistent and in alignment with the chemical expertise captured in ChEBI. We have examined and integrated the ChEBI structural hierarchy into the GO resource through computationally-assisted manual curation of both GO and ChEBI. Our work has resulted in the creation of computable definitions of GO terms that contain fully defined semantic relationships to corresponding chemical terms in ChEBI. The set of logical definitions using both the GO and ChEBI has already been used to automate aspects of GO development and has the potential to allow the integration of data across the domains of biology and chemistry. These logical definitions are available as an extended version of the ontology from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/go/extensions/go-plus.owl.

  1. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model follows

  2. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, J.H. de

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model

  3. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  4. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt- Jacob (“mad cow...

  5. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived...

  6. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Biological and Chemical Aspects of Natural Biflavonoids from Plants: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Vanessa Silva; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Viegas, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Biflavonoids belong to a subclass of the plant flavonoids family and are limited to several species in the plant kingdom. In the literature, biflavonoids are extensively reported for their pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and antiprotozoal activity. These activities have been discovered from the small number of biflavonoid structures that have been investigated, although the natural biflavonoids library is likely to be large. In addition, many medicinal properties and traditional use of plants are attributed to the presence of bioflavonoids among their secondary metabolites. Structurally, biflavonoids are polyphenol compounds comprising of two identical or non-identical flavonflavonoid units joined in a symmetrical or unsymmetrical manner through an alkyl or an alkoxy-based linker of varying length. Due to their chemical and biological importance, several bioprospective phytochemical studies and chemical approaches using coupling and molecular rearrangement strategies have been developed to identify and synthesize new bioactive biflavonoids. In this brief review, we present some basic structural aspects for classification and nomenclature of bioflavonoids and a compilation of the literature data published in the last 7 years, concerning the discovery of new natural biflavonoids of plant origin and their pharmacological and biological properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  9. Biological and Chemical Technologies Research at OIT: Annual Summary Report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1 997 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1997 (ASR 97) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization; selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1 997; detailed descriptions of individual projects; and a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by the program.

  10. Tomato Derived Polysaccharides for Biotechnological Applications: Chemical and Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nicolaus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies concerning the isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. San Marzano cells and the description of a simple, rapid and low environmental impact method with for obtaining polysaccharides from solid tomato-processing industry wastes are reported. Their chemical composition, rheological properties and partial primary structure were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, GC-MS, 1H-, 13C-NMR. Moreover, the anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides obtained from cultured tomato cells were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay and the preparation of biodegradable film by chemical processing of polysaccharides from solid tomato industry waste was also reported.

  11. 2011 Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Survivability Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    System for additional CB protection • Worn with the CB RAM and CB balaclava Materials • Outer Layer: Flame Retardant Nonwoven Material (60/40 FR...Findings CB PRISM Integrated Filter Concept • Advantages: • Filter removed from front of face • High surface area available for filtration and...UNCLASSIFIED Traditional Threats • Chemical warfare agents (nerve, blood , and blister) • Agents designed for military operations/ applications • Toxic

  12. Receipt and Inspection of Chemical - Biological (CB) Materiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Procedures will be altered only after full consideration of any possible effects on the reliability and validity of the data to be obtained. Such...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 31-08-2017 2. REPORT...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 08-2-500A Receipt and Inspection of Chemical

  13. The effect on biological and moisture resistance of epichlorohydrin chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Beom-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks...

  14. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  15. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  16. Chemical Properties of Caffeic and Ferulic Acids in Biological System: Implications in Cancer Therapy. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Sarah S; Dantas, Bruna B; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Antônio M Araújo, Demetrius; Galberto M da Costa, José

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of caffeic and ferulic acids in biological systems have been extensively demonstrated. As antioxidants, these compounds prevent the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause cell lesions that are associated with the development of several diseases, including cancer. Recent findings suggest that the chemoprotective action of these phenolic acids occurs through the following mechanisms: regulation of gene expression, chelation and / or reduction of transition metals, formation of covalent adducts and direct toxicity. The biological efficacy of these promising chemoprotective agents is strongly related with their chemical structure. Therefore, in this study, we discuss the structural characteristics of ferulic and caffeic acids that are responsible for their biological activities, as well as the mechanisms of action involved with the anti-cancer activity. Several reports indicated that the antioxidant effect of these phenylpropanoids results from reactions with free radicals with formation of stable products in the cells. The chelating effect of these compounds was also reported as an important protective mechanism against oxidative. Finally, the lipophilicity of these agents facilitates their entry into the cells, and thus, contributes to the anticancer activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Indonesian propolis: chemical composition, biological activity and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Koendhori, Eko Budi; Tsvetkova, Iva; Naydenski, Christo; Bankova, Vassya

    2011-03-01

    From a biologically active extract of Indonesian propolis from East Java, 11 compounds were isolated and identified: four alk(en)ylresorcinols (obtained as an inseparable mixture) (1-4) were isolated for the first time from propolis, along with four prenylflavanones (6-9) and three cycloartane-type triterpenes (5, 10 and 11). The structures of the components were elucidated based on their spectral properties. All prenylflavanones demonstrated significant radical scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radicals, and compound 6 showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. For the first time Macaranga tanarius L. and Mangifera indica L. are shown as plant sources of Indonesian propolis.

  18. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  19. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    .e. endocrine disruptors) and the possibilities and relevance of including impact categories on land use and site-specific assessments have been addressed. Further, the special problems on how to deal with land fill and how to do normalization and weighting of impact potentials are also dealt with. The problem...

  20. Use of carbonates for biological and chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-09-09

    A system of using carbonates, especially water-insoluble or sparing soluble mineral carbonates, for maintaining or increasing dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in aqueous media. In particular, the system generates concentrated dissolve inorganic carbon substrates for photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, or abiotic chemical production of carbonaceous or other compounds in solution. In some embodiments, the invention can also enhance the dissolution and retention of carbon dioxide in aqueous media, and can produce pH buffering capacity, metal ions, and heat, which can be beneficial to the preceding syntheses.

  1. Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Guo, Shuhui; Gao, Hongwei; Tao, Hongxun; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-05-03

    Curcuma, a valuable genus in the family Zingiberaceae, includes approximately 110 species. These plants are native to Southeast Asia and are extensively cultivated in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and the West Indies. The plants have long been used in folk medicine to treat stomach ailments, stimulate digestion, and protect the digestive organs, including the intestines, stomach, and liver. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in investigations regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties, as well as in clinical trials of certain Curcuma species. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge on the chemistry and briefly discusses the biological activities of Curcuma species. A total of 720 compounds, including 102 diphenylalkanoids, 19 phenylpropene derivatives, 529 terpenoids, 15 flavonoids, 7 steroids, 3 alkaloids, and 44 compounds of other types isolated or identified from 32 species, have been phytochemically investigated. The biological activities of plant extracts and pure compounds are classified into 15 groups in detail, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.

  2. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  3. Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Genetic Aspects of Three Ocotea Species from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kelly da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea species present economic importance and biological activities attributed to their essential oils (EOs and extracts. For this reason, various strategies have been developed for their conservation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils and matK DNA sequences of O. caudata, O. cujumary, and O. caniculata were subjected to comparison with data from O. floribunda, O. veraguensis, and O. whitei, previously reported. The multivariate analysis of chemical composition classified the EOs into two main clusters. Group I was characterized by the presence of α-pinene (9.8–22.5% and β-pinene (9.7–21.3% and it includes O. caudata, O. whitei, and O. floribunda. In group II, the oils of O. cujumary and O. caniculata showed high similarity due amounts of β-caryophyllene (22.2% and 18.9%, respectively. The EO of O. veraguensis, rich in p-cymene (19.8%, showed minor similarity among all samples. The oils displayed promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC < 19.5 µg·mL−1 and MCF-7 cells (median inhibitory concentration (IC50 ≅ 65.0 µg·mL−1, respectively. The analysis of matK gene displayed a good correlation with the main class of chemical compounds present in the EOs. However, the matK gene data did not show correlation with specific compounds.

  4. Synthetic biology to access and expand nature’s chemical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smanski, Michael J.; Zhou, Hui; Claesen, Jan; Shen, Ben; Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode the biosynthetic potential to produce hundreds of thousands of complex molecules with diverse applications, from medicine to agriculture and materials. Economically accessing the potential encoded within sequenced genomes promises to reinvigorate waning drug discovery pipelines and provide novel routes to intricate chemicals. This is a tremendous undertaking, as the pathways often comprise dozens of genes spanning as much as 100+ kiliobases of DNA, are controlled by complex regulatory networks, and the most interesting molecules are made by non-model organisms. Advances in synthetic biology address these issues, including DNA construction technologies, genetic parts for precision expression control, synthetic regulatory circuits, computer aided design, and multiplexed genome engineering. Collectively, these technologies are moving towards an era when chemicals can be accessed en mass based on sequence information alone. This will enable the harnessing of metagenomic data and massive strain banks for high-throughput molecular discovery and, ultimately, the ability to forward design pathways to complex chemicals not found in nature. PMID:26876034

  5. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Nano-FTIR chemical mapping of minerals in biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Amarie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods for imaging of nanocomposites based on X-ray, electron, tunneling or force microscopy provide information about the shapes of nanoparticles; however, all of these methods fail on chemical recognition. Neither do they allow local identification of mineral type. We demonstrate that infrared near-field microscopy solves these requirements at 20 nm spatial resolution, highlighting, in its first application to natural nanostructures, the mineral particles in shell and bone. "Nano-FTIR" spectral images result from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy combined with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM. On polished sections of Mytilus edulis shells we observe a reproducible vibrational (phonon resonance within all biocalcite microcrystals, and distinctly different spectra on bioaragonite. Surprisingly, we discover sparse, previously unknown, 20 nm thin nanoparticles with distinctly different spectra that are characteristic of crystalline phosphate. Multicomponent phosphate bands are observed on human tooth sections. These spectra vary characteristically near tubuli in dentin, proving a chemical or structural variation of the apatite nanocrystals. The infrared band strength correlates with the mineral density determined by electron microscopy. Since nano-FTIR sensitively responds to structural disorder it is well suited for the study of biomineral formation and aging. Generally, nano-FTIR is suitable for the analysis and identification of composite materials in any discipline, from testing during nanofabrication to even the clinical investigation of osteopathies.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of extracts and essential oil of Boswellia dalzielii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoude, Midéko Justin; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Agbani, Pierre; Ayedoun, Marc-Abel; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2017-12-01

    Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified. The volatile compounds of organic extracts were identified before and after derivatization. Antioxidant, antihyperuricemia, anti-Alzheimer, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated. In the essential oil, 50 compounds were identified, including 3-carene (27.72%) and α-pinene (15.18%). 2,5-Dihydroxy acetophenone and β-d-xylopyranose were identified in the methanol extract. Higher phenolic (315.97 g GAE/kg dry mass) and flavonoid (37.19 g QE/kg dry mass) contents were observed in the methanol extract. The methanol extract has presented remarkable IC 50  =   6.10 mg/L for antiDPPH, 35.10 mg/L for antixanthine oxidase and 28.01 mg/L for anti-5-lipoxygenase. For acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the best IC 50 (76.20 and 67.10 mg/L) were observed, respectively, with an ethyl acetate extract and the essential oil. At 50 mg/L, the dichloromethane extract inhibited OVCAR-3 cell lines by 65.10%, while cyclohexane extract inhibited IGROV-1 cell lines by 92.60%. Biological activities were fully correlated with the chemical groups of the extracts. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts could be considered as potential alternatives for use in dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of diseases because of these extracts natural antioxidant, antihyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  9. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Rhododendron anthopogon Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbriella Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene δ-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used.

  11. A vastly increased chemical variety of RNA modifications that includes a thioacetal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Christina; Keller, Patrick; Kotter, Annika; Werner, Stephan; Duarte, Victor; Marchand, Virginie; Ignarski, Michael; Freiwald, Anja; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Dieterich, Christoph; Motorin, Yuri; Butter, Falk; Atta, Mohammed; Helm, Mark

    2018-04-06

    Recently discovered new chemical entities in RNA modifications have provided surprises with respect to functional groups that enlarge the chemical space of RNA. Using LC-MS, we found over one hundred signals of RNA constituents that contained a ribose moiety in tRNAs from E. coli. Feeding experiments with variegated stable isotope labeled compounds identified 37 compounds, representing new structures of RNA modifications. One structure was elucidated by deuterium exchange and high resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of msms2i6A (2-methylthiomethylenethio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine) was confirmed by methione-D3 feeding experiments and finally by synthesis of the nucleobase. The msms2i6A contains a thioacetal, which we demonstrated in vitro to be biosynthetically derived from ms2i6A by the action of the radical-SAM enzyme MiaB. This enzyme performs thiomethylation, forming ms2i6A from i6A in a first turnover. The newly discovered thioacetal is formed by a second turnover, now involving hydrogen abstraction from the previously introduced methyl group. Not only are thioacetals extremely rare in natural product chemistry, but also does this constitute a novel enzymatic mechanism for their formation. In conjunction with the pool of 36 new modification, this work describes a new layer of RNA modification chemistry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria... Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used...: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of international...

  13. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Functional nanostructured platforms for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  15. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  16. The chemical biology of branched-chain lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherji, Mridul; Schofield, Christopher J.; Wierzbicki, Anthony S.; Jansen, Gerbert A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Lloyd, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian metabolism of some lipids including 3-methyl and 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acids occurs within peroxisomes. Such lipids, including phytanic and pristanic acids, are commonly found within the human diet and may be derived from chlorophyll in plant extracts. Due to the presence of a

  17. A mini-review of chemical and biological properties of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Lihua; Xie, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Recently, isolation and characterization of bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources have attracted increasing interest. Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), belongs to the Curcubitaceae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and has been used as herbal medicine and a vegetable for thousands of years. M. charantia polysaccharides, as major active ingredients of M. charantia, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their various biological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, radioprotection, and hepatoprotection. The present review provides the most complete summary of the research progress on the polysaccharides isolated from M. charantia, including the extraction, separation, physical-chemical properties, structural characteristics, and bioactivities during the last ten years. This review also provides a foundation for the further development and application in the field of M. charantia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy: epoch-making biological and chemical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lančok, Adriana; Volfová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 461-470 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015088 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : biological tissue * boron chemistry * Fe2+ and Fe3+ * Mössbauer spectrometry * vivianite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  20. Chemical and biological agent incident response and decision process for civilian and public sector facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; Hirabayashi, Joy M; Mancieri, Saverio P; Jin, Alfred L; Folks, Karen J; Carlsen, Tina M; Estacio, Pete

    2002-04-01

    In the event of a terrorist attack or catastrophic release involving potential chemical and/or biological warfare agents, decisionmakers will need to make timely and informed choices about whether, or how, to respond. The objective of this article is to provide a decision framework to specify initial and follow-up actions, including possible decontamination, and to address long-term health and environmental issues. This decision framework consists of four phases, beginning with the identification of an incident and ending with verification that cleanup and remediation criteria have been met. The flowchart takes into account both differences and similarities among potential agents or toxins at key points in the decision-making process. Risk evaluation and communication of information to the public must be done throughout the process to ensure a successful effort.

  1. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  2. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  3. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  5. Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 - P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32% of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 - C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir's purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

  6. A class of chemical pinning centers including two elements foreign to HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad

    2003-01-01

    Very small deposits are formed when two foreign elements, A and B, are added to textured (RE)BCO. These deposits increase the J{sub c} of samples and hence the maximum trapped field. Deposit sizes are generally in the range 200-400 nm. Their chemical composition is (A{sub x},B{sub y})(RE)Ba{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x+y=1 and x=y{+-}0.1. Their structure is double perovskite. The deposits produce two types of pinning, one by refinement (e.g., of the Y211 phase) and the other due to the double perovskite deposits themselves. In those cases tested, the refinement increases J{sub c} by factors exceeding 1.33, and the deposits increase J{sub c} by factors exceeding 2, for a total increase by a factor exceeding 2.66. Element A can be U, W or Mo. Element B can be Pt or Zr. We speculate on possible additional elements in classes A and B.

  7. Cellular responses to implant materials: biological, physical and chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H

    1983-12-01

    Adhesion of bone and epithelial cells to the dental implant are vital to its retention in alveolar bone and to the prevention of infection via its 'gingival' margin. Studies of cytotoxicity, tissue irritability and carcinogenicity of implantable polymers, metals and ceramics and of tissue adhesion to them have been carried out in tissue culture and in animal experiments. The more similar the polymeric materials are chemically to living tissue the more easily are they dissolved and digested in the host. Therefore, implant materials having a molecular structure similar to protein or polysaccharide, e.g. Nylon, cannot be expected to function. On the other hand, silicones, polyethylene and Teflon (polytetrafluroethylene), which have molecular structures completely different from living substances, are generally more stable in the tissues. However, these polymers are hydrophobic and have little adhesion to living cells in spite of their high stability. They are not, therefore, suitable materials for the construction of implants. Studies on antithrombotic polymers have demonstrated the possibility of creating implantable polymers which have high stability as well as strong adhesion to the surrounding tissues. These properties may be conferred by grafting a hydrophilic polymer on to the surface of a hydrophobic polymer. Of the metals, Ti, Zr and Ta are fairly stable in living tissue, and allow cells to adhere strongly. Alloys of Co-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Ti-Al-V, Ti-Mo, Ti-Pd and Ti-Pt deserve to be better evaluated because they are low in density, have high mechanical strength, stability and corrosion resistance in living tissue, and there is direct adhesion to the surrounding tissues. Biodegradable or bioactive ceramics which induce bone formation around the implant do not have sufficient mechanical strength. Implant ceramics have to be stable, e.g. crystal alumina, vitreous carbon, synthetic hydroxypatite and silicon nitrate. These exhibit high biocompatibility and

  8. Chemical and biological evaluation of rejects from the wood industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed chemical characterization and microbiological evaluation of extracts obtained from the waste of woods marketed in Paraná State: Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma sp., Roxinho (Peltogyne sp., Jatobá(Hymenaea sp., Curupixá (Micropholis sp., Itaúba (Mezilaurus sp., Cedrilho (Erisma sp. and Imbúia (Licaria sp., whose botanical identifications were based on anatomical studies. The extracts were prepared with different solvents, analyzed by TLC and UV/VIS techniques, and tested against: Proteus mirabilis ATCC15290, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC27853, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus cereus isolated from the clinic. The ethanol extract from Peroba-rosa containing alkaloids showed activity against P. mirabilis. Itaúba, Jatobá and Imbúia methanol extracts containing phenolics, and the Roxinho ethyl acetate extract containing terpenoids and phenolics were active against K. pneumoniae, M. luteus, E. coli, S. aureus and P. mirabilis. P. aeroginosa, S. mutans and E. aerogenes were resistant to the extracts.Este estudo visa a caracterização química e a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos a partir de rejeitos resultantes do beneficiamento de madeiras nobres comercializadas no Paraná: Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma sp., Roxinho (Peltogyne sp., Jatobá (Hymenaea sp., Curupixá (Micropholis sp., Itaúba (Mezilaurus sp., Cedrilho (Erisma sp. e Imbúia-do-Norte (Licaria sp., cujas identificações botânicas basearam-se em estudos anatômicos. Os extratos foram preparados com diversos solventes, analisados por CCD e espectrometria UV/VIS, testando-se contra: Proteus mirabilis ATCC15290, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883

  9. Grasping the nature of the cell interior: from Physiological Chemistry to Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Ciara; Crowley, Peter B

    2016-08-01

    Current models of the cell interior emphasise its crowded, chemically complex and dynamically organised structure. Although the chemical composition of cells is known, the cooperative intermolecular interactions that govern cell ultrastructure are poorly understood. A major goal of biochemistry is to capture these myriad interactions in vivo. We consider the landmark discoveries that have shaped this objective, starting from the vitalist framework established by early natural philosophers. Through this historical revisionism, we extract important lessons for the bioinspired chemists of today. Scientific specialisation tends to insulate seminal ideas and hamper the unification of paradigms across biology. Therefore, we call for interdisciplinary collaboration in grappling with the complex cell interior. Recent successes in integrative structural biology and chemical biology demonstrate the power of hybrid approaches. The future roles of the (bio)chemist and model systems are also discussed as starting points for in vivo explorations. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  11. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  12. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina Toreti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis.

  13. Seeking the chemical roots of darwinism: bridging between chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2009-08-24

    Chemistry and biology are intimately connected sciences yet the chemistry-biology interface remains problematic and central issues regarding the very essence of living systems remain unresolved. In this essay we build on a kinetic theory of replicating systems that encompasses the idea that there are two distinct kinds of stability in nature-thermodynamic stability, associated with "regular" chemical systems, and dynamic kinetic stability, associated with replicating systems. That fundamental distinction is utilized to bridge between chemistry and biology by demonstrating that within the parallel world of replicating systems there is a second law analogue to the second law of thermodynamics, and that Darwinian theory may, through scientific reductionism, be related to that second law analogue. Possible implications of these ideas to the origin of life problem and the relationship between chemical emergence and biological evolution are discussed.

  14. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  16. Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Implementation Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capabilities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This poster highlights some of the details of our system's design decisions that support the data discoverability, access, display, download and interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data interface. Initial efforts to use existing metadata schemas were unsuccessful as they did not address our specific needs or were overly generalized and therefore more complicated than necessary. The database design has evolved over time as we have learned more about what information needs to be preserved to support multiple interfaces and to enable machine-to-machine interoperability. Our latest enhancements include database tables to store additional information about the field or variable names that further describe the experimental, at sea, and historical data in order to support our new geospatial interface. Other features will facilitate data interoperability, provide flexibility in supporting different input data formats, capture data provenance information and allow creation of metadata records that are in compliance with community adopted

  17. Physical, chemical, and metabolic state sensors expand the synthetic biology toolbox for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immethun, Cheryl M; DeLorenzo, Drew M; Focht, Caroline M; Gupta, Dinesh; Johnson, Charles B; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-07-01

    Many under-developed organisms possess important traits that can boost the effectiveness and sustainability of microbial biotechnology. Photoautotrophic cyanobacteria can utilize the energy captured from light to fix carbon dioxide for their metabolic needs while living in environments not suited for growing crops. Various value-added compounds have been produced by cyanobacteria in the laboratory; yet, the products' titers and yields are often not industrially relevant and lag behind what have been accomplished in heterotrophic microbes. Genetic tools for biological process control are needed to take advantage of cyanobacteria's beneficial qualities, as tool development also lags behind what has been created in common heterotrophic hosts. To address this problem, we developed a suite of sensors that regulate transcription in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in response to metabolically relevant signals, including light and the cell's nitrogen status, and a family of sensors that respond to the inexpensive chemical, l-arabinose. Increasing the number of available tools enables more complex and precise control of gene expression. Expanding the synthetic biology toolbox for this cyanobacterium also improves our ability to utilize this important under-developed organism in biotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1561-1569. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bufadienolides of Kalanchoe species: an overview of chemical structure, biological activity and prospects for pharmacological use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Toad venom is regarded as the main source of bufadienolides; however, synthesis of these substances takes also place in a variety of other animal and plant organisms, including ethnomedicinal plants of the Kalanchoe genus. Chemically, bufadienolides are a group of polyhydroxy C-24 steroids and their glycosides, containing a six-membered lactone (α-pyrone) ring at the C-17β position. From the pharmacological point of view, bufadienolides might be a promising group of steroid hormones with cardioactive properties and anticancer activity. Most of the literature concerns bufadienolides of animal origin; however, the medicinal use of these compounds remains limited by their narrow therapeutic index and the risk of development of cardiotoxic effects. On the other hand, plants such as Kalanchoe are also a source of bufadienolides. Kalanchoe pinnata (life plant, air plant, cathedral bells), Kalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of thousands) and other Kalanchoe species are valuable herbs in traditional medicine of Asia and Africa. The present review focuses on the available data on chemical structures of 31 compounds, biological properties and prospects for therapeutic use of bufadienolides from Kalanchoe species. Furthermore, it presents some new investigational trends in research on curative uses of these substances.

  19. Chemically induced aneuploidy in mammalian cells: mechanisms and biological significance in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshimura, M.; Barrett, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A literature review with over 200 references examines the growing body of evidence from human and animal cancer cytogenetics that aneuploidy is an important chromosome change in carcinogenesis. Evidence from in vitro cell transformation studies supports the idea that aneuploidy has a direct effect on the conversion of a normal cell to a preneoplastic or malignant cell. Induction of an aneuploid state in a preneoplastic or neoplastic cell could have any of the following four biological effects: a change in gene dosage, a change in gene balance, expression of a recessive mutation, or a change in genetic instability (which could secondarily lead to neoplasia). There are a number of possible mechanisms by which chemicals might induce aneuploidy, including effects on microtubules, damage to essential elements for chromosome function reduction in chromosome condensation or pairing, induction of chromosome interchanges, unresolved recombination structures, increased chromosome stickiness, damage to centrioles, impairment of chromosome alignment ionic alterations during mitosis, damage to the nuclear membrane, and a physical disruption of chromosome segregation. Therefore, a number of different targets exist for chemically induced aneuploidy.

  20. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  1. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  2. The biological exposure index: its use in assessing chemical exposures in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, L K

    1987-12-01

    Human exposure to chemicals in the workplace has traditionally been assessed by determining the concentration of an airborne chemical in the workroom air. More recently, biological monitoring has been used to assess worker uptake of chemicals by all routes of exposure. Both approaches for the assessment of exposure and uptake are complementary. This relationship is examined, along with the advantages and limitations of using biological monitoring. The concept of the biological exposure index (BEI), developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and information on the intended use and interpretation of BEIs are described. Examples are presented on the use of biological monitoring in NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations (e.g., carboxyhemoglobin in blood to assess exposure to carbon monoxide, urinary metabolites of trichloroethylene to assess exposure to trichloroethanol, and 2-ethoxyacetic acid in urine to assess exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol). The progress of current research studies on the biological monitoring of volunteers exposed to paint spray solvents is presented, along with speculation on the future directions of biological monitoring research.

  3. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; ; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are termed by the

  4. The journal of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B. B. S.; Peitersen, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense (www.JMedCBR.org) is a peer-reviewed scientific online journal focusing on the biology, chemistry, physiology, toxicology and treatment of exposure to threat agents. JMedCBR provides a central international forum for the publication of current research and development information on medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, as well as training, doctrine, and problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. JMedCBR is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Chem-Bio Technologies Directorate as part of its scientific outreach program in chemical and biological defense solutions for the Department of Defense. In addition to scientific and medical research, JMedCBR hosts an archive of related papers from authors in the field. Although organized into annual issues, articles are published on the web continuously. The complete JMedCBR is published electronically and is made available to the scientific community free of charge. JMedCBR is committed to providing its readers with quality scientific information and critical analyses. All submissions are peer-reviewed by an editorial board of recognized and respected international scientists who represent expertise in different aspects of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense. Contributions to JMedCBR must be original works of the author(s) and must not have been previously published or simultaneously submitted to other publications. The author(s) transfer the copyright of articles published in JMedCBR to the journal. A copyright transfer form must accompany each manuscript submission. For more information on submitting to JMedCBR, see the Authors' Guide, available at http://www.jmedcbr.org/authorGuide.html.(author)

  5. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... experiments performed in 5 liter bottles indicated that the denitrification rate can be instantaneously increased through the addition of either carbon source. The amount by which the rate was increased depended on the amount of carbon added. In the main experiments performed in a pilot scale alternating...... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  6. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Continuous exposure of aquatic life to estrogenic chemicals via wastewater treatment plant effluents have in recent years received considerable attention due to the high sensitivity of oviparous animals to disturbances of estrogen controlled physiology. The removal efficiency by direct UV......-up. The effect of different concentrations of H2O2 and different UV doses was investigated for all compounds in an effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Removal effectiveness increased with H2O2 concentration until 60 mg/L. The treatment effectiveness was reported as the electrical energy...... and the UV/H2O2-treatment were investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through set...

  7. Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Zadereev, E.S.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Prokopkin, I.; Barkhatov, Y.V.; Tolomeev, A.; Khromechek, E.B.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite

  8. Predicting in vivo effect levels for repeat-dose systemic toxicity using chemical, biological, kinetic and study covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Lisa; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Pham, LyLy; Clouzeau, Jacques; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Blanchet, Delphine; Noçairi, Hicham; Setzer, Woodrow; Judson, Richard; Grulke, Chris; Mansouri, Kamel; Martin, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e.g., study type, strain, administration route) in addition to multiple descriptor sets, including chemical (ToxPrint, PaDEL, and Physchem), biological (ToxCast), and kinetic descriptors. Using random forest modeling with cross-validation and external validation procedures, study-level covariates alone accounted for approximately 15% of the variance reducing the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 0.96 log 10 to 0.85 log 10  mg/kg/day, providing a baseline performance metric (lower expectation of model performance). A consensus model developed using a combination of study-level covariates, chemical, biological, and kinetic descriptors explained a total of 43% of the variance with an RMSE of 0.69 log 10  mg/kg/day. A benchmark model (upper expectation of model performance) was also developed with an RMSE of 0.5 log 10  mg/kg/day by incorporating study-level covariates and the mean effect level per chemical. To achieve a representative chemical-level prediction, the minimum study-level predicted and observed effect level per chemical were compared reducing the RMSE from 1.0 to 0.73 log 10  mg/kg/day, equivalent to 87% of predictions falling within an order-of-magnitude of the observed value. Although biological descriptors did not improve model performance, the final model was enriched for biological descriptors that indicated xenobiotic metabolism gene expression, oxidative stress, and

  9. Influence of physico-chemical treatment on the subsequent biological process treating paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khames Saad, Mouhamed; Moussaoui, Younes; Zaghbani, Asma; Mosrati, Imen; Elaloui, Elimame; Ben Salem, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of the biodegradation study of paper industry wastewater through physico-chemical treatment. Indeed, around 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal can be achieved by electroflocculation treatment. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of the COD of almost 91% has been obtained by biological treatment, with activated amount of sludge for 24 h of culture. Concerning the physico-chemical pre-treatment of the untreated, filtered and electroflocculated rejection effluents, it has been investigated through the degradation curve of COD studies.

  10. Enabling Technologies for Point and Remote Sensing of Chemical and Biological Agents Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    chemicals: brilliant cresyl blue ( BCB ; Sigma), phenylalanine (PHE; Sigma), diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP; Sigma), dimethyl methylphosphonate...microscopy BCB brilliant cresyl blue CBW Chemical and biological warfare CCD charged coupled device COTS commercial-off-the-shelf CT charge transfer

  11. Sideritis scardica Griseb., an endemic species of Balkan peninsula: traditional uses, cultivation, chemical composition, biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta

    2014-03-14

    Sideritis scardica Griseb. is an endemic species in the Balkan Peninsula. It is used in traditional medicine as a loosening agent in bronchitis and bronchial asthma; against the common cold and lung emphysema; in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs; and as an active constituent of dietary supplements for the prevention of anemia. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activity, cultivation, and extraction of Sideritis scardica and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which deserves further research. The present review is based on information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic search. These sources include Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Google scholar as well as local books on ethnopharmacology and botany of this plant. The reported data on phytochemical studies, biological activity, cultivation, extraction, and traditional uses have been reviewed. Variability in essential oil composition of wild growing and cultivated taxa depending on ecological conditions was discussed. Flavonoids, phenylethanoids, diterpenoids, aliphatic compounds, etc. identified so far have been summarized. A comparative study on the effectiveness of different methods, solvents, and parameters of extraction has also been discussed. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, gastroprotective, antiglioma, and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition as well as cultivation of the species as an approach for conservation of the natural habitats and provision of herb with high and permanent quality has also been presented. Sideritis scardica has become very popular and widely advertised herb in Europe. Although some of ethnobotanical uses have been proved through in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical class of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects

  12. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  13. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT...

  14. Control of Rhizoctonia solani in potato by biological, chemical and integrated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Velvis, H.; Lamers, J.G.; Mulder, A.; Roosjen, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of biological, chemical and integrated control on the formation of selerotia ofRhizoctonia solani on new potato tubers were studied in experimental fields. Sprouts of seed tubers, sprouted in daylight, were inoculated withVerticillium biguttatum, an ecologically obligate mycoparasite

  15. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of

  16. Chapter 7. Management strategies for dwarf mistletoes: Biological, chemical, and genetic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. F. Shamoun; L. E. DeWald

    2002-01-01

    The opportunity and need for management of mistletoe populations with biological, chemical, and genetic approaches are greatest for application to the dwarf mistletoes. Although much information is available on these management strategies (see reviews by Hawksworth 1972, Knutson 1978), significant research and development are still required for these to become...

  17. Some aspect of the physico-chemical and biological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspect of Physico-Chemical and Biological properties of Cross River was investigated once every month from May 2001-May 2002, measurements were made from the surface water at three locations, Ikot Okpora in Biase, Obubra, and Ikom. The temperature of the river varied from27.38±0.74°C at Ikot Okpora to ...

  18. The search for life's origins: Progress and future directions in planetary biology and chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The current state is reviewed of the study of chemical evolution and planetary biology and the probable future is discussed of the field, at least for the near term. To this end, the report lists the goals and objectives of future research and makes detailed, comprehensive recommendations for accomplishing them, emphasizing those issues that were inadequately discussed in earlier Space Studies Board reports.

  19. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  20. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingji; Borodina, Irina

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  1. Precautions against biological and chemical terrorism directed at food and water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A S; Swerdlow, D L; Juranek, D D

    2001-01-01

    Deliberate food and water contamination remains the easiest way to distribute biological or chemical agents for the purpose of terrorism, despite the national focus on dissemination of these agents as small-particle aerosols or volatile liquids. Moreover, biological terrorism as a result of sabotage of our food supply has already occurred in the United States. A review of naturally occurring food- and waterborne outbreaks exposes this vulnerability and reaffirms that, depending on the site of contamination, a significant number of people could be infected or injured over a wide geographic area. Major knowledge gaps exist with regard to the feasibility of current disinfection and inspection methods to protect our food and water against contamination by a number of biological and chemical agents. However, a global increase in food and water safety initiatives combined with enhanced disease surveillance and response activities are our best hope to prevent and respond quickly to food- and waterborne bioterrorism.

  2. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept ch......Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways....

  3. Chemical and biological tracers to determine groundwater flow in karstic aquifer, Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.; McLain, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the extent of pollution in groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula; however current population growth, both from international tourism and Mexican nationals increases the potential for wastewater release of a vast array of contaminants including personal care products, pharmaceuticals (Rx), and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens and Rx in groundwater can persist and can be particularly acute in this region where high permeability of the karst bedrock and the lack of top soil permit the rapid transport of contaminants into groundwater aquifers. The objective of this research is to develop and utilize novel biological and chemical source tracking methods to distinguish between different sources of anthropogenic pollution in degraded groundwater. Although several methods have been used successfully to track fecal contamination sources in small scale studies, little is known about their spatial limitations, as source tracking studies rarely include sample collection over a wide geographical area and with different sources of water. In addition, although source tracking methods to distinguish human from animal fecal contamination are widely available, this work has developed source tracking distinguish between separate human populations is highly unique. To achieve this objective, we collected water samples from a series of drinking wells, cenotes (sinkholes), wastewater treatment plants, and injection wells across the Yucatan Peninsula and examine potential source tracers within the collected water samples. The result suggests that groundwater sources impacted by tourist vs. local populations contain different chemical stressors. This work has developed a more detailed understanding of the presence and persistence of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and fecal indicators in a karstic system; such understanding will be a vital component for the protection Mexican groundwater and human health. Quantification of different pollution sources

  4. Diverse Cone-Snail Species Harbor Closely Related Streptomyces Species with Conserved Chemical and Genetic Profiles, Including Polycyclic Tetramic Acid Macrolactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quezada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles – comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs. To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus. In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.

  5. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  6. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  7. Descriptor Selection via Log-Sum Regularization for the Biological Activities of Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liang-Yong; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, De-Yu; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chai, Hua; Liang, Yong

    2017-12-22

    The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model searches for a reliable relationship between the chemical structure and biological activities in the field of drug design and discovery. (1) Background: In the study of QSAR, the chemical structures of compounds are encoded by a substantial number of descriptors. Some redundant, noisy and irrelevant descriptors result in a side-effect for the QSAR model. Meanwhile, too many descriptors can result in overfitting or low correlation between chemical structure and biological bioactivity. (2) Methods: We use novel log-sum regularization to select quite a few descriptors that are relevant to biological activities. In addition, a coordinate descent algorithm, which uses novel univariate log-sum thresholding for updating the estimated coefficients, has been developed for the QSAR model. (3) Results: Experimental results on artificial and four QSAR datasets demonstrate that our proposed log-sum method has good performance among state-of-the-art methods. (4) Conclusions: Our proposed multiple linear regression with log-sum penalty is an effective technique for both descriptor selection and prediction of biological activity.

  8. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  9. Mapping the patent landscape of synthetic biology for fine chemical production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Gök, Abdullah; Shapira, Philip; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-09-01

    A goal of synthetic biology bio-foundries is to innovate through an iterative design/build/test/learn pipeline. In assessing the value of new chemical production routes, the intellectual property (IP) novelty of the pathway is important. Exploratory studies can be carried using knowledge of the patent/IP landscape for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. In this paper, we perform an assessment of pathways as potential targets for chemical production across the full catalogue of reachable chemicals in the extended metabolic space of chassis organisms, as computed by the retrosynthesis-based algorithm RetroPath. Our database for reactions processed by sequences in heterologous pathways was screened against the PatSeq database, a comprehensive collection of more than 150M sequences present in patent grants and applications. We also examine related patent families using Derwent Innovations. This large-scale computational study provides useful insights into the IP landscape of synthetic biology for fine and specialty chemicals production. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  11. The physical effect of biological and chemical treatments on water repellent soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Loke, Meng Heng; Murphy, Daniel; Leopold, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Water repellence in soils is a naturally occurring phenomenon caused by long-chain hydrophobic organic molecules that affect millions of hectares of agricultural land in Australia. Breakdown of the hydrophobicity in soils has been attributed to both biological and chemical interactions, it being unclear which is the primary contributor. We employed a novel approach investigating the ability of bio-chemical treatments to breakdown the physical effects of water repellence using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The experiment consisted of sterile soil with a hydrophilic, heat treated outer section that framed a 4 cm3 severely hydrophobic inclusion. Treatments included wax-degrading microbes, a surfactant, the combination of the two, as well as controls, all on sterile and non-sterile hydrophobic soil. The experiment used 3D, borehole ERT to measure the electric resistivity in the soil after wetting. Electric resistivities were converted to volumetric water contents allowing determination of in-situ time-lapse water contents. On all treatments, over time, there was a visible decrease in the definition of the boundary between the water repellent core and the wetting soil, with the treatment defining the pattern and speed of wetting. We observed the wetting of the surfactant treated soil with a fast, stable wetting front. Return of repellence after drying had varied outcomes for the controls, both sterile and non-sterile, with some tests returning with severe water repellence while others with no repellence, the repellence more likely to return at the lower depth. The drying of soils with the surfactant treatment showed that there was a return of repellence on all depths of excavation and these ranged from low to severe repellence. The aim of this experiment is to a better understand the hydrological impacts of the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of water-repellent soils through how they affect the pattern and longevity of the breakdown.

  12. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  13. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  14. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC. Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Values of Ca, Mg, S, cation exchange capacity, Mn, P, Zn, and soil organic matter (SOM decreased in the soil profile, whereas Al, K, and MBC increased after leveling. Land leveling decreased in 20% SOM average content in the 0 - 0.20 m layer. The great majority of the chemical attributes did not show relations between their values and the magnitude of cuts and fills. The relation was quadratic for SOM, P, and total N, and was linear for K, showing a positive slope and indicating increase in the magnitude of these attributes in cut areas and stability in fill areas. The relationships between these chemical attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills indicate that the land leveling map may be a useful tool for degraded soil recuperation through amendments and organic fertilizers.

  15. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  16. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  17. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Plants from the Genus Sanguisorba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zefeng; He, Xirui; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaoyang; Huang, Linhong; Fang, Jia Cheng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Meimei; Bai, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the genus Sanguisorba have been treated as medicinal ingredients for over 2000 years. This paper reviews advances in the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus. To date, more than 120 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from these plants, especially from S. officinalis and S. minor. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, phenols and flavonoids are the primary biologically active constituents. Triterpenoids can be used as quality control markers to determine the quality of medicinal materials and their preparations. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that plants from the genus Sanguisorba exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including hemostatic, antibacterial, antitumor, neuroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. In Chinese medical practice, many drugs (e.g., tablets and powders) that contain S. officinalis roots have been used to treat leukopenia, hemorrhaging and burns. However, there is still a multitude of Sanguisorba species that have garnered little or no attention. Indeed, there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxic effects of these plants. Further attention should be focused on the study of these species in order to gather information on their respective toxicology data, any relevant quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the crude extracts, active compounds, and bioactive metabolites from Genus Sanguisorba.

  18. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  19. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Praveen Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  20. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  1. Biological conversion of methane to chemicals and fuels: technical challenges and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Yeub; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thu Thi; Nguyen, Linh Thanh; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2018-04-01

    Methane is a promising next-generation carbon feedstock for industrial biotechnology due to its low price and huge availability. Biological conversion of methane to valuable products can mitigate methane-induced global warming as greenhouse gas. There have been challenges for the conversion of methane into various chemicals and fuels using engineered non-native hosts with synthetic methanotrophy or methanotrophs with the reconstruction of synthetic pathways for target products. Herein, we analyze the technical challenges and issues of potent methane bioconversion technology. Pros and cons of metabolic engineering of methanotrophs for methane bioconversion, and perspectives on the bioconversion of methane to chemicals and liquid fuels are discussed.

  2. Poplar-type Propolis: Chemical Composition, Botanical Origin and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristivojević, Petar; Trifković, Jelena; Andrić, Filip; Milojković-Opsenica, Dusanka

    2015-11-01

    Propolis is one of the most used natural products known for centuries for its beneficial effects. Due to significant differences in chemical composition of samples originating from different geographic and climatic zones it is crucial to characterize reliably each type of propolis. This article comprises the latest findings concerning the poplar type propolis, i.e. it gives a cross section of chemical composition, botanical origin and biological activity of poplar type propolis in order to encourage further investigations that would indicate its beneficial effects.

  3. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  4. Effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on vegetative indices and essential oil content of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghhavani Shajari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vegetative part of coriander, (Coriandrum sativum L.. The experiment was carried out as split plot in time based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications and 12 treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments included: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, (2 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp., (3 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (4 cow manure, (5 vermicompost, (6 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (7 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (8 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (9 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (10 biosulfur + cow manure, (11 biosulfur + vermicompost and (12 control. Vegetative parts of coriander were cut at 5% of flowering stage in two dates (19 May and 5 June. Results showed that the highest plant height (28 cm and lateral branches (5.2 were obtained in combined application of biosulfur with cow manure treatment. The highest fresh and dry leaf weight, fresh and dry matter yield and stem dry matter weight were obtained in single application of chemical fertilizer. Single application of biosulfur increased leaf/stem ratio. The highest essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were observed in cow manure treatment (0.2% and 1753 g.ha-1, respectively. The maximum leaf/stem ratio were observed in the first cutting, while the highest lateral branches, stem fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were obtained in second cut. Overall, results of this study showed that the plant vegetative yield increased by using chemical fertilizer, while essential oil percentage and essential oil yield of coriander were improved by using organic and biological fertilizers.

  5. Biologic and chemical terrorism in children: an assessment of residents' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobitz, Erik P; Schmidt, James M; Poirier, Michael P

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the baseline fund of knowledge of pediatric and emergency medicine residents at a single institution in the medical management of pediatric victims of biologic and chemical terrorism. A test covering essential content was developed and validated by experts. The test was given anonymously to volunteer pediatric and emergency medicine residents at a single institution. The test was readministered 5 months after a lecture on the content. The 34 pediatric residents and 15 emergency medicine residents scored a median of 65% and 73%, respectively (P = .03). Residents from both specialties combined scored a median of 70% correct versus those residents who did not attend the lecture. Pediatric and emergency medicine residents are significantly unprepared to manage pediatric victims of biologic and chemical terrorism. Education curriculums on this topic must be incorporated into these residencies. The traditional lecture format may not be the most effective technique.

  6. Neurological aspects of biological and chemical terrorism: a review for neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coleman O; Adams, Harold P

    2003-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urge physicians to become familiar with chemical and biological weapons. Preparedness among neurologists is especially important because several of these agents affect the nervous system. This article reviews 4 agents that have a history of military or terrorist use: cyanide poisons, organophosphate poisons, botulinum toxin, and anthrax. Cyanide and organophosphate poisons are characterized by dose-dependent impairment of neurological function with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or dizziness at one end of the spectrum and convulsions and coma at the other. Neurological examinations help clinicians to differentiate these agents from other intoxications. Botulinum toxin has a delayed onset of action and results in descending paralysis and prominent cranial nerve palsies. Anthrax frequently causes fulminating hemorrhagic meningitis. Early recognition of these chemical and biological weapons is key to instituting specific therapy and preventing casualties within the health care team and the community at large.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines is summarized. The first section of the report reviews the chemical and physical properties of radiocerium relative to the biological behavior of internally-deposited cerium and other lanthanides. The second section of the report gives the sources of radiocerium in the environment and the pathways to man. The third section of the report describes the metabolic fate of cerium in several mammalian species as a basis for predicting its metabolic fate in man. The fourth section of the report considers the biomedical effects of radiocerium in light of extensive animal experimentation. The last two sections of the report describe the history of radiation protection guidelines for radiocerium and summarize data required for evaluating the adequacy of current radiation protection guidelines. Each section begins with a summary of the most important findings that follow

  8. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Work-related health inequalities are determined to some extent by an unequal exposure to chemical and biological risk factors of disease. Although their potential economic burden in the European Union (EU-25) might be substantial, comprehensive reviews focusing on the distribution of these risks across occupational groups are limited. Thus, the main objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the exposure to chemical and biological hazards across occupational groups. In addition, main industrial applications of hazardous substances are identified and some epidemiological evidence is discussed regarding societal costs and incidence rates of work-related diseases. Available lists of carcinogens, sensitisers, mutagens, reprotoxic substances and biological hazards were consulted. For each work-related hazard the main industrial application was identified in order to assess which ISCO occupational groups may be associated with direct exposure. Where available, information on annual tonnage production, risk assessment of the substances and pathogens, and other relevant data were collected and reported. Altogether 308 chemical and biological hazards were identified which may account to at least 693 direct exposures. These hazards concentrate on the following major occupational groups: technicians (ISCO 3), operators (ISCO 8), agricultural workers (ISCO 6) and workers in elementary occupations (ISCO 9). Common industrial applications associated with increased exposure rates relate among others to: (1) production or application of pigments, resins, cutting fluids, adhesives, pesticides and cleaning products, (2) production of rubber, plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and (3) in agriculture, metallurgy and food processing industry, Societal costs of the unequal distribution of chemical and biological hazards across occupations depend on the corresponding work-related diseases and may range from 2900 EUR to 126000 EUR per case/year. Risk of exposure

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Gigliarelli; Judith X. Becerra; Massimo Curini; Maria Carla Marcotullio

    2015-01-01

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  13. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model...

  14. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear training issues in India: A fresh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate training is the key to the right level of preparedness against any disaster, and Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) disasters are no different. The presence of contamination precludes rescue operations to commence soon after the event and it takes a systematic approach to detect and decontaminate the CBRN hazard. Achieving such interventions poses a critical challenge because humans do not possess any inborn, natural sensors with which to recognize these dangers...

  15. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 1: Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis , near neighbors of Bacillus anthracis was completed. • Re-initiated sequencing of Franciscella tularensis in FY01...Acrobat (. pdf ) file. The information in this report is updated as of February 28, 2003 unless specifically noted otherwise. Executive Summary The... pdfs /721report_jan-june2002. pdf . Chemical & Biological Defense Program Annual Report 6 a quantity of purported enriched uranium (which in fact

  16. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    conflict in the former Yugoslavia, Muslim forces deliberately positioned canisters of chlorine from the Tuzla industrial chemical plant to deter Serb...Listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes) Less than 24 hours Diffused light: 24 but not 48 hours In sun; soil surface: 12 days (2-3 cm...biological material Laboratories and storage facilities Radiological Nuclear fuel and medical sources Nuclear power plants , medical facilities, industrial

  17. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use.

  18. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker’s yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0±3.0–5.0% by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents.

  19. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  1. Dealing with the Data Deluge: Handling the Multitude Of Chemical Biology Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Rajarshi; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Southall, Noel; Jadhav, Ajit

    2012-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been an explosion in the amount and type of biological and chemical data that has been made publicly available in a variety of online databases. While this means that vast amounts of information can be found online, there is no guarantee that it can be found easily (or at all). A scientist searching for a specific piece of information is faced with a daunting task - many databases have overlapping content, use their own identifiers and, in some cases, have arcane and unintuitive user interfaces. In this overview, a variety of well known data sources for chemical and biological information are highlighted, focusing on those most useful for chemical biology research. The issue of using multiple data sources together and the associated problems such as identifier disambiguation are highlighted. A brief discussion is then provided on Tripod, a recently developed platform that supports the integration of arbitrary data sources, providing users a simple interface to search across a federated collection of resources.

  2. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  4. Assessment of the biological and chemical availability of the freshly spiked and aged DDE in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škulcová, L.; Neuwirthová, N.; Hofman, J.; Bielská, L.

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the ability of various chemical methods (XAD, β-hydroxypropylcyclodextrin - HPCD) and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)) to mimic earthworm uptake from two similar soils containing either spiked or aged p,p´-DDE, thus representing two extreme scenarios with regard to the length of pollutant-soil contact time and the way of contamination. The extent of bioaccumulation was assessed at fixed exposure periods (10 and 21 days) and at equilibrium derived from uptake curves by multiple-point comparison or kinetic modeling. The decision on the best chemical predictor of biological uptake differed. The degree of bioaccumulation at equilibrium was best predicted by XAD while HPCD rather reflected the extent of accumulation derived after 21 days when, however, steady-state was not reached for spiked p,p´-DDE. SPME seemed to underestimate the uptake of aged p,p´-DDE, probably of the fraction taken up via soil particles. Thus, the degree of predictability seems to be associated with the capability of the chemical method to mimic the complex earthworm uptake via skin and intestinal tract as well as with the quality of biological data where the insufficient length of exposure period appears to be the major concern. - Highlights: • The uptake kinetics of spiked and aged p,p´-DDE to earthworms/samplers was measured. • Three chemical methods were used to predict earthworm uptake. • Equilibrium was not reached within the OECD recommended 21 days for spiked p,p´-DDE. • SPME seems to underestimate the uptake of aged p,p´-DDE. • The best predictor of earthworm uptake seems to be the XAD method. - Capsule: The poor prediction of biological uptake by chemical methods may result from the absence of kinetic measurements and application of short exposure periods.

  5. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas

    of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Gdansk and the Belt Sea, most of which are characterised by scarce data on biological effects of hazardous substances. The data acquired will be combined with previous data (e.g. national monitoring activities, case studies, EU BEEP project) to reach the goals of WP2 and WP3......In the Baltic Sea Action Plan the urgent need to develop biological effects monitoring of hazardous substances and the assessment of ecosystem health has been clearly indicated. These goals will be tackled in the newly launched BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress...... and experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf...

  6. Geological and Chemical Factors that Impacted the Biological Utilization of Cobalt in the Archean Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Hao, Jihua; Prabhu, Anirudh; Zhong, Hao; Jelen, Ben I.; Meyer, Mike; Hazen, Robert M.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2018-03-01

    The geosphere and biosphere coevolved and influenced Earth's biological and mineralogical diversity. Changing redox conditions influenced the availability of different transition metals, which are essential components in the active sites of oxidoreductases, proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions across the tree of life. Despite its relatively low abundance in the environment, cobalt (Co) is a unique metal in biology due to its importance to a wide range of organisms as the metal center of vitamin B12 (aka cobalamin, Cbl). Cbl is vital to multiple methyltransferase enzymes involved in energetically favorable metabolic pathways. It is unclear how Co availability is linked to mineral evolution and weathering processes. Here we examine important biological functions of Co, as well as chemical and geological factors that may have influenced the utilization of Co early in the evolution of life. Only 66 natural minerals are known to contain Co as an essential element. However, Co is incorporated as a minor element in abundant rock-forming minerals, potentially representing a reliable source of Co as a trace element in marine systems due to weathering processes. We developed a mineral weathering model that indicates that dissolved Co was potentially more bioavailable in the Archean ocean under low S conditions than it is today. Mineral weathering, redox chemistry, Co complexation with nitrogen-containing organics, and hydrothermal environments were crucial in the incorporation of Co in primitive metabolic pathways. These chemical and geological characteristics of Co can inform the biological utilization of other trace metals in early forms of life.

  7. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  9. Chemical probes of quorum sensing: from compound development to biological discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael A.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can utilize chemical signals to coordinate the expression of group-beneficial behaviors in a method of cell–cell communication called quorum sensing (QS). The discovery that QS controls the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation in many common pathogens has driven an explosion of research aimed at both deepening our fundamental understanding of these regulatory networks and developing chemical agents that can attenuate QS signaling. The inherently chemical nature of QS makes studying these pathways with small molecule tools a complementary approach to traditional microbiology techniques. Indeed, chemical tools are beginning to yield new insights into QS regulation and provide novel strategies to inhibit QS. Here, we review the most recent advances in the development of chemical probes of QS systems in Gram-negative bacteria, with an emphasis on the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We first describe reports of novel small molecule modulators of QS receptors and QS signal synthases. Next, in several case studies, we showcase how chemical tools have been deployed to reveal new knowledge of QS biology and outline lessons for how researchers might best target QS to combat bacterial virulence. To close, we detail the outstanding challenges in the field and suggest strategies to overcome these issues. PMID:27268906

  10. Characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of propolis from Al-Bahah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakady, Yasser A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Franke, Raimo; Abutaha, Nael; Ebaid, Hossam; Baabbad, Mohannad; Omar, Mohamed O. M.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.

    2017-02-01

    Propolis has been used to treat several diseases since ancient times, and is an important source of bioactive natural compounds and drug derivatives. These properties have kept the interest of investigators around the world, leading to the investigation of the chemical and biological properties and application of propolis. In this report, the chemical constituents that are responsible for the anticancer activities of propolis were analyzed. The propolis was sourced from Al-Baha in the southern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Standard protocols for chemical fractionation and bioactivity-guided chemical analysis were used to identify the bio-active ethyl acetate fraction. The extraction was performed in methanol and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compounds are triterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 74.0%; steroids, with a relative concentration of 9.8%; and diterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 7.9%. The biological activity was characterized using different approaches and cell-based assays. Propolis was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-α-tubulin antibodies and cell cycle analysis indicated that tubulin and/or microtubules are the cellular targets of the L-acetate fraction. This study demonstrates the importance of Saudi propolis as anti-cancer drug candidates.

  11. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  12. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  13. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  14. Including Bioconcentration Kinetics for the Prioritization and Interpretation of Regulatory Aquatic Toxicity Tests of Highly Hydrophobic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, So-Young; Kang, Hyun-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, regulations of chemicals require short-term toxicity data for evaluating hazards and risks of the chemicals. Current data requirements on the registration of chemicals are primarily based on tonnage and do not yet consider properties of chemicals. For example, short-term ecotoxicity data...

  15. Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass. Asteraceae: Astereae): Ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Egas, Verónica; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Hernández, Tzasna; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; Delgado, Guillermo

    2017-01-04

    Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in Mexico in the treatment of rheumatism, topical skin inflammation, muscular pain colic, and other painful conditions associated with inflammatory processes, additionally has been used to treat dental diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. This species has also been used for the treatment of cancer and diabetes. This review provides up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, chemical constituents, as well as the biolological activities of H. inuloides. A literature search was conducted by analyzing the published scientific material. Information related to H. inuloides was collected from various primary information sources, including books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, monographs, theses and government survey reports. The electronic search of bibliographic information was gathered from accepted scientific databases such as Scienfinder, ISI Web of Science, Scielo, LILACS, Redalyc, Pubmed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. To date, more than 140 compounds have been identified from H. inuloides, including cadinane sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, phytosterols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, and other types of compounds. Many biological properties associated with H. inuloides. Many studies have shown that the extracts and some compounds isolated from this plant exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and chelating activities, as well as insecticidal and phytotoxic activity. To date, reports on the toxicity of H. inuloides are limited. A comprehensive analysis of the literature obtained through the above-mentioned sources confirmed that ethnomedical uses of H. inuloides have been recorded in Mexico to treat rheumatism, pain, and conditions associated with inflammatory processes. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated the activity of certain

  16. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  17. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  18. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  19. Combination of aquifer thermal energy storage and enhanced bioremediation: Biological and chemical clogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; van Gaans, Pauline; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the combination concept of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and enhanced bioremediation has recently risen due to the demand for both renewable energy technology and sustainable groundwater management in urban areas. However, the impact of enhanced bioremediation on ATES is not yet clear. Of main concern is the potential for biological clogging which might be enhanced and hamper the proper functioning of ATES. On the other hand, more reduced conditions in the subsurface by enhanced bioremediation might lower the chance of chemical clogging, which is normally caused by Fe(III) precipitate. To investigate the possible effects of enhanced bioremediation on clogging with ATES, we conducted two recirculating column experiments with differing flow rates (10 and 50mL/min), where enhanced biological activity and chemically promoted Fe(III) precipitation were studied by addition of lactate and nitrate respectively. The pressure drop between the influent and effluent side of the column was used as a measure of the (change in) hydraulic conductivity, as indication of clogging in these model ATES systems. The results showed no increase in upstream pressure during the period of enhanced biological activity (after lactate addition) under both flow rates, while the addition of nitrate lead to significant buildup of the pressure drop. However, at the flow rate of 10mL/min, high pressure buildup caused by nitrate addition could be alleviated by lactate addition. This indicates that the risk of biological clogging is relatively small in the investigated areas of the mimicked ATES system that combines enhanced bioremediation with lactate as substrate, and furthermore that lactate may counter chemical clogging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  1. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: a multivariate statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, M; Li, H; Banner, C; Rafter, J; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U

    1996-01-01

    The emission of diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects, e.g., cancer. The aim of the present study was to apply multivariate statistical methods to identify factors that affect the biological potency of these exhausts. Ten diesel fuels were analyzed regarding physical and chemical characteristics. Particulate exhaust emissions were sampled after combustion of these fuels on two makes of heavy duty diesel engines. Particle extracts were chemically analyzed and tested for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Also, the potency of the extracts to competitively inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the Ah receptor was assessed. Relationships between fuel characteristics and biological effects of the extracts were studied, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The most influential chemical fuel parameters included the contents of sulfur, certain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and naphthenes. Density and flash point were positively correlated with genotoxic potency. Cetane number and upper distillation curve points were negatively correlated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity. Between 61% and 70% of the biological response data could be explained by the measured chemical and physical factors of the fuels. By PLS modeling of extract data versus the biological response data, 66% of the genotoxicity could be explained, by 41% of the chemical variation. The most important variables, associated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity, included 1-nitropyrene, particle bound nitrate, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and emitted mass of particles. S9-requiring mutagenicity was highly correlated with certain PAC, whereas S9-independent mutagenicity was better correlated with nitrates and 1-nitropyrene. The emission of sulfates also showed a correlation both with the emission of particles and with the biological effects. The results indicate that fuels with biologically less hazardous

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.A.; Rivera, Mick

    1993-01-01

    This report contains physical, chemical, and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area collected during the late 1980's. The data were collected in support of the u.S. Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program in the Western United States to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxics in irrigation-induced drainage. The data have been used to support interpretations in several recent publications. This data report is the companion to a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey interpretive report that describes the geochemical and biological pathways of potential toxics, especially selenium, in the study area. The report contains data on concentra- tions of a broad suite of trace elements in soil, irrigation (Colorado River) water, drainwater, surface water (including the Salton Sea), ground- water, aquatic plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, bird eggs, and turtle eggs. Included, also, are light stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur), tritium, and radiocarbon data for selected aqueous samples and organochlorine-pesticide concentrations in biota. Geochemical samples were collected from more than 100 drainwater-collection sites, several surface- water locations, 15 fields, 3 multiple-depth lysimeter and piezometer installations, and the Alamo River Delta on the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, and from laboratory evaporations of Colorado River water. Biological samples were collected from 39 sites, including 16 Salton Sea shore locations, 5 streams, 7 freshwater impound- ments, 11 drainwater ditches, and 2 additional locations in the Imperial Valley. (USGS)

  3. Seasonal variations in chemical composition and in vitro biological effects of fine PM from Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Ferrero, Luca; Lo Porto, Claudia; Udisti, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2010-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) was collected in Milan over the summer (August-September) and winter (January-March) seasons of 2007/2008. Particles were analyzed for their chemical composition (inorganic ions, elements and PAHs) and the effects produced on the human lung carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. In vitro tests were performed to assess cell viability with MTT assay, cytokine release (IL-6 and IL-8) with ELISA, and DNA damage with COMET assay. Results were investigated by bivariate analysis and multivariate data analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to investigate the relationship between PM chemical composition and the biological effects produced by cell exposure to 12 microg cm(-2). The different seasonal chemical composition of PM showed to influence some biological properties. Summer PM samples had a high mass contribution of SO(4)(=) (13+/-2%) and were enriched in some elements, like Al, As, Cr, Cu, and Zn, compared to winter PM samples. Cell viability reduction was two times higher for summer PM samples in comparison with winter ones (27+/-5% and 14+/-5%, respectively), and the highest correlation coefficients between cell viability reduction and single chemical components were with As (R(2)=0.57) and SO(4)(=) (R(2)=0.47). PM1 affected cell viability reduction and induced IL-8 release, and these events were interrelated (R(2)=0.95), and apparently connected with the same chemical compounds. PM2.5 fraction, which was enriched in Ca(++) and Mg(++) (from soil dust), and Al, Fe, Zn, Ba Mn, produced cell viability reduction and DNA damage (R(2)=0.73). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological properties of carbon powders synthesized using chemical vapour deposition and detonation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, M; Batory, D; Grabarczyk, J; Kaczorowski, W; Kupcewicz, B; Mitura, K; Nasti, T H; Yusuf, N; Niedzielski, P

    2012-12-01

    Carbon powders can be synthesized using variety of CVD and detonation methods. Several interesting properties of carbon powder particles make them a very attractive material examined in many laboratories all over the world. However there is a lack of information discussing investigation of carbon powders directed to its application in pharmaceutical-cosmetic industry and medicine. Earlier investigation results proved that diamond powders present properties fighting free radicals. Presented work discusses the influence of carbon powder particles manufactured using MW/RF PACVD, RF PACVD and detonation methods onto hydro-lipid skin coat. Before the biological examinations physicochemical properties of carbon powders were determined. Grain size, shape and chemical composition of carbon powders were determined using the scanning electron microscopy. Surface functional groups were characterized by IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Structure and phase composition were investigated by means of the Raman spectroscopy. Results of allergy tests performed on laboratory mice proved that carbon powder particles synthesized using different methods do not cause allergy. In the following stage, the group of 20 patients applied the formula including carbon powder on their face skin. The influence of carbon powder onto hydro-lipid skin coat was determined by measurement of such parameters as: pH reaction, skin temperature, lipid fotometry and level of hydration. Additionally, macro pictures of places where the cream had been applied were registered. As the result of the investigation it was found that powders synthesized using various methods present different physicochemical properties which may individually affect the face skin parameters. The noticeable improvement of hydro-lipid skin coat kilter was observed.

  5. The chemical and biological characteristics of coke-oven wastewater by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.-E.; Hsing, H.-J.; Chiang, P.-C.; Chen, M.-Y.; Shyng, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale bubble column reactor was used to investigate the biological and chemical characteristics of coke-oven wastewater after ozonation treatment through the examination of selected parameters. Color and thiocyanate could be removed almost entirely; however, organic matter and cyanide could not, due to the inadequate oxidation ability of ozone to remove ozonated byproducts under given experimental conditions. The removal of cyanide and total organic carbon were pH-dependent and were found to be efficient under neutral to alkaline conditions. The removal rate for thiocyanate was about five times that of cyanide. The ozone consumption ratio approached to about 1 at the early stage of ozonation (time TOC ) increased to 30%, indicating that easily degraded pollutants were degraded almost entirely. The effect of ozonation on the subsequent biological treatment unit (i.e., activated sludge process) was determined by observing the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and the specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR). The results indicated that the contribution of ozonation to inhibition reduction was very significant but limited to the enhancement of biodegradation. The operation for ozonation of coke-oven wastewater was feasible under neutral condition and short ozone contact time in order to achieve better performance and cost savings

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acid amides from the Zanthoxylum genus - from culinary curiosities to probes for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruma, Jason J; Cullen, Douglas J; Bowman, Lydia; Toy, Patrick H

    2018-01-25

    Covering up to February 2017The pericarps of several species from the Zanthoxylum genus, a.k.a. the "prickly ash", have long been used for culinary purposes throughout Asia, most notably in the Sichuan (previously Szechuan) cuisine of Southwestern China, due to the unique tingling and numbing orosensations arising from a collection of polyunsaturated fatty acid amide (alkamide) constituents. The past decade has experienced dramatically increased academic and industrial interest in these pungent Zanthoxylum-derived alkamides, with a concomitant explosion in studies aimed at elucidating the specific biochemical mechanisms behind several medically-relevant biological activities exhibited by the natural products. This rapid increase in interest is partially fueled by advances in organic synthesis reported within the past few years that finally have allowed for the production of diastereomerically-pure Zanthoxylum alkamides and related analogs in multigram quantities. Herein is a comprehensive review of the discovery, total synthesis, and biological evaluation of Zanthoxylum-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid amides and synthetic analogues. Critical insights into how chemical synthesis can further benefit future chemical biology efforts in the field are also provided.

  7. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balam Muñoz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1 Use of cell cultures; (2 evaluation of gene expression; (3 the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics and (4 bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  8. The role of molecular biology in the biomonitoring of human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

    2010-11-12

    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the "omic" sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  9. Chemical and Biological Analysis of Malaysian Sting less Bee Propolis Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhamizah Ibrahim; Nurul Farah Shakila Mohd Niza; Muhammad Muslim Mohd Rodi; Abdul Jamil Zakaria; Zhari Ismail; Khamsah Suryati Mohd; Khamsah Suryati Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate chemical and biological profile of methanol extracts from Malaysian propolis produced by two commonly found sting less bee species, Heterotrigona itama (MHI) and Geniotrigona thoracica (MGT). Test samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate and ash content. Tests for phyto chemical screening by thin layer chromatography of both extracts revealed that presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and essential oils but steroids, saponin and coumarins only occur in MHI. Both extracts displayed a characteristic profile and vary from each other. Accordingly, MHI possess higher antioxidant activity with an IC 50 of 15.0 ± 0.21 μg/ mL compared to MGT with IC 50 of 270.0 ± 0.19 μg/ mL. MHI showed moderate nitric oxide scavenging activity, while MGT only showed mild inhibition. Antidiabetic activity was determined by α-glucosidase inhibition and found significantly better than that of acarbose (positive control). In conclusion, data gathered in this study revealed that bee species play role in determining the chemical and biological profile of particular propolis and should put into account in decision of further development for propolis. (author)

  10. Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding and quantitative (for predicting mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA; all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]-6-(phenylthiothymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1 and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis, respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions.

  11. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ''Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.'' The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue

  12. Chemical Biology of Hydropersulfides and Related Species: Possible Roles in Cellular Protection and Redox Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Lucía; Bianco, Christopher L; Toscano, John P; Lin, Joseph; Akaike, Takaaki; Fukuto, Jon M

    2017-10-01

    For >20 years, physiological signaling associated with the endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been of significant interest. Despite its presumed importance, the biochemical mechanisms associated with its actions have not been elucidated. Recent Advances: Recently it has been found that H 2 S-related or derived species are highly prevalent in mammalian systems and that these species may be responsible for some, if not the majority, of the biological actions attributed to H 2 S. One of the most prevalent and intriguing species are hydropersulfides (RSSH), which can be present at significant levels. Indeed, it appears that H 2 S and RSSH are intimately linked in biological systems and likely to be mutually inclusive. The fact that H 2 S and polysulfides such as RSSH are present simultaneously means that the biological actions previously assigned to H 2 S can be instead because of the presence of RSSH (or other polysulfides). Thus, it remains possible that hydropersulfides are the biological effectors, and H 2 S serves, to a certain extent, as a marker for persulfides and polysulfides. Addressing this possibility will to a large extent be based on the chemistry of these species. Currently, it is known that persulfides possess unique and novel chemical properties that may explain their biological prevalence. However, significantly more work will be required to establish the possible physiological roles of these species. Moreover, an understanding of the regulation of their biosynthesis and degradation will become important topics in piecing together their biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  13. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  14. Biological – chemical regeneration of desulphurization sorbents based on zinc ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šepelák Vladimír

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of air pollution is the combustion of fuels by various thermal and power plants, transport facilities, and metallurgical plants. Main components of industrial gases that pollute air are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and hydrogen sulphide. Sulphur has received a more attention than any other contaminant, because the sulphur released into the atmosphere in the form of sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide is a precursor of the “acid rain” formation. To meet environmental emission regulations, sulphur and other contaminant species released during the gasification of coal must be removed from the fuel gas stream. The removal of contaminat at high temperatures is referred to as hot-gas cleanup in general and hot-gas desulphurization in particular when sulphur species are the primary contaminants to be remove. In recent years, zinc ferrite is the leading candidate for hot-gas desulphurization, capable of removing sulphur-containing species from coal gas at gasifier exit temperatures. It can also be of being regenerated for a continuous use. The conventional methods of the regeneration of sulphurized sorbents are based on oxidizing pyrolysis of sulphides or on the pressure leaching of sulphides in the water environment at high temperatures. The first results of the experiments using the biological-chemical leaching, as a new way of regeneration of sulphurized sorbent based on zinc ferrite, are presented in this paper. The results show that the biological-chemical leaching leads to the removal of sulphides layers (á-ZnS, â-ZnS from the surface of the sorbent at room temperature. The biological-chemical leaching process results in the increase of the active surface area of the regenerated sorbent.

  15. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  16. Biological-inorganic hybrid systems as a generalized platform for chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangle, Shannon N; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-12-01

    An expanding renewable energy market to supplant petrochemicals has motivated synthesis technologies that use renewable feedstocks, such as CO 2 . Hybrid biological-inorganic systems provide a sustainable, efficient, versatile, and inexpensive chemical synthesis platform. These systems comprise biocompatible electrodes that transduce electrical energy either directly or indirectly into bioavailable energy, such as H 2 and NAD(P)H. In combination, specific bacteria use these energetic reducing equivalents to fix CO 2 into multi-carbon organic compounds. As hybrid biological-inorganic technologies have developed, the focus has shifted from phenomenological and proof-of-concept discovery towards enhanced energy efficiency, production rate, product scope, and industrial robustness. In this review, we highlight the progress and the state-of-the-art of this field and describe the advantages and challenges involved in designing bio- and chemo- compatible systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Joanna; Biedroń, Izabela; Mendrek, Barbara; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-11-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental-friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Different types of nanomaterials like copper, zinc, titanium, magnesium, gold, and silver have applied in the various industries but silver nanoparticles have proved to be most effective against bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. The antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles are widely known. Due to strong antibacterial property silver nanoparticles are used, e.g. in clothing, food industry, sunscreens, cosmetics and many household and environmental appliances. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized biologically and chemically on the biofilm formation. The biofilm was formed by the bacteria isolated from the water supply network. The commonly used crystal violet assay (CV) was applied for biofilm analysis. In this study effect of biologically synthesized Ag-NPs on the biofilm formation was evaluated.

  18. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces.

  19. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, M.P.M. van; Dorleijn, A.S.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes.

  20. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Dorleijn, A.S.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes.

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in Mobile Bay, Alabama in May 1989-December 1999 (NODC Accession 0116496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during ten years of near-monthly shipboard surveys carried out in Mobile Bay between May 1989...

  2. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2003-01-01

    ... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...

  3. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in Weeks Bay, Alabama (June 1990 - May 2000) (NODC Accession 0116469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: This dataset contains ten years of physical, chemical, and biological data collected during shipboard surveys in Weeks Bay, Alabama, between June 1990 and...

  4. USING LONG-TERM CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS TO ASSESS STREAM HEALTH IN THE UPPER OCONEE RIVER WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biological indicators of stream habitat and water quality. Chemical variables, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductance (SC), and turbidity are used to measure stream water quality. Many aquatic macroinvertebrates are sensitive...

  5. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, W. Brian; Bennett, R. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using 13 C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. In conclusion, by incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli.

  6. Physico-chemical and biological treatment of vegetable tannery effluents for the removal of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Mumtaz, M.; Aslam, T.; Anwer, T.

    2005-01-01

    Tannery wastewater samples were collected from vegetable tanneries located at Charsadda road Peshawar (Pakistan). The samples were chemically evaluated for parameters like; pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was found that the effluents contained very high COD (>10,000 mg O/sub 2//L) and high concentrations of TSS, TDS and BOD, which render it harmful for aquatic life when discharged into the Kabul River without any treatment. A process has been developed to detoxify the tannery effluents applying physicochemical followed by biological method (sequencing batch reactor, SBR). The TSS, COD and BOD5 were substantially decreased employing the developed treatment technique. Overall, BOD and COD were both decreased by more than 87 and 81% respectively, whereas TS was decreased by 98.74%. The resulting sludge from SBR was found to have good settling characteristics. (author)

  7. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-Molecule Sensing with Nanopore Confinement: from Chemical Reactions to Biological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao; Ying, Yi-Lun; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-03-25

    The nanopore can generate an electrochemical confinement for single-molecule sensing which help understand the fundamental chemical principle in nanoscale dimensions. By observing the generated ionic current, individual bond-making and bond-breaking steps, single biomolecule dynamic conformational changes and electron transfer processes that occur within pore can be monitored with high temporal and current resolution. These single-molecule studies in nanopore confinement are revealing information about the fundamental chemical and biological processes that cannot be extracted from ensemble measurements. In this concept, we introduce and discuss the electrochemical confinement effects on single-molecule covalent reactions, conformational dynamics of individual molecules and host-guest interactions in protein nanopores. Then, we extend the concept of nanopore confinement effects to confine electrochemical redox reactions in solid-state nanopores for developing new sensing mechanisms. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....

  10. Public health emergency planning for children in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenfeld, Michael T; Peacock, Georgina; Griese, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Children represent nearly a quarter of the US population, but their unique needs in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies may not be well understood by public health and emergency management personnel or even clinicians. Children are different from adults physically, developmentally, and socially. These characteristics have implications for providing care in CBRN disasters, making resulting illness in children challenging to prevent, identify, and treat. This article discusses these distinct physical, developmental, and social traits and characteristics of children in the context of the science behind exposure to, health effects from, and treatment for the threat agents potentially present in CBRN incidents.

  11. Recent developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, David J; Johnson, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling is a well-known biochemical technique that has grown significantly since the turn of the century, principally due to its combination with bioorthogonal/click chemistry reactions. This review highlights new developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. In particular, recent examples of clickable photoprobes for target identification, activity- or affinity-based protein profiling (ABPP or AfBPP), characterization of sterol- or lipid-protein interactions and characterization of ligand-binding sites are presented.

  12. Application study of nuclear technologies for integration chemical, biological and radiological technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Kon; Han, M. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, K. S.; Cha, H. K.; Moon, J.; La, K. H

    2001-02-01

    The projects are suggested the method to maximize the technology and research results which are being carried out by KAERI on the nuclear field. The study presents 1)the technology to rapidly and accurately determine and the nature of contamination, 2) the technology to predict the spread of contaminant and the magnitude of damage, and 3) the expert-aided decision making technology to identify the optimum counter-measures. And the solutions are also suggested the application to military technology in Chemical, Biological and Radiation field. In addition, I hope this kind of cooperation model come to be the good case of military civilian research harmony to improve the national competition capability.

  13. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  14. Formation of biologically relevant compounds of interest in chemical evolution from the radiolysis of succinonitrile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, G.; Juarez, C.; Negron-Mendoza, A.

    1991-01-01

    Low molecular weight compounds such as H 2 , CO 2 , NH 3 were identified among the radiolytic products. Irradiated samples exhibit positive biuret test. IR spectra of the dry residue confirm the presence of amide groups. These results suggest the presence of peptidic type material, which increased with the radiation dose. Other compounds identified were several di and tricarboxylic acids. The initial yield of formation of a variety of products was calculated from the concentration vs dose plots. Some of the radiolytic compounds are of biological importance and their formation is significant to chemical evolution studies. (author) 7 refs

  15. Optical monitoring of surface anchoring changes for nematic liquid crystal based chemical and biological sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang

    In this dissertation, optically monitoring the surface anchoring changes of liquid crystal (LC) due to the chemical or biological bindings is presented. The deformation of LC director with different anchoring energies is simulated using Finite Element Method and continuum theory of nematic LC. The optical properties of the LC film are simulated using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. First, the interference color method was used to monitor the anchoring change. The calculated and experimental interference colors of liquid crystal films due to the optical retardation of two orthogonal electromagnetic components at different surface anchoring conditions and applied voltages are studied. The calculated colors were converted into sRGB parameters so that the corresponding colors can be displayed on a color computer monitor and printed out on a color printer. A gold micro-structure was fabricated and used to control the optical retardation. Polarizing micrographs were collected and compared with the calculated colors. Second, the influence of a bias voltage on the surface-driven orientational transition of liquid crystals resulted from the weakening anchoring and anchoring transition is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The same interdigitated Au micro-structure was used in the nematic LC based chemical and biological sensors. With a suitable bias electric field, the process of the weakening anchoring energy and the uniform surface-driven orientational transition due to targeted molecules binding to a functionalized surface were observed optically. Finally, measurement of optical transmission was used to monitor the anchoring change. Polarizing micrographs were collected and compared with simulated textures. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes. These results show that these optical techniques are suitable for LC based sensing

  16. A Survey of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Yemeni Aromatic Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bhuwan K; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Setzer, William N

    2015-05-28

    Yemen is a small country located in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen's coastal lowlands, eastern plateau, and deserts give it a diverse topography, which along with climatic factors make it opulent in flora. Despite the introduction of Western medicinal system during the middle of the twentieth century, herbal medicine still plays an important role in Yemen. In this review, we present a survey of several aromatic plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen, their traditional uses, their volatile chemical compositions, and their biological activities.

  17. Validation of N-myristoyltransferase as an antimalarial drug target using an integrated chemical biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Megan H.; Clough, Barbara; Rackham, Mark D.; Rangachari, Kaveri; Brannigan, James A.; Grainger, Munira; Moss, David K.; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Heal, William P.; Broncel, Malgorzata; Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Brady, Declan; Mann, David J.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.; Tewari, Rita; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Holder, Anthony A.; Tate, Edward W.

    2014-02-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which leads to approximately one million deaths per annum worldwide. Chemical validation of new antimalarial targets is urgently required in view of rising resistance to current drugs. One such putative target is the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase, which catalyses the attachment of the fatty acid myristate to protein substrates (N-myristoylation). Here, we report an integrated chemical biology approach to explore protein myristoylation in the major human parasite P. falciparum, combining chemical proteomic tools for identification of the myristoylated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteome with selective small-molecule N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors. We demonstrate that N-myristoyltransferase is an essential and chemically tractable target in malaria parasites both in vitro and in vivo, and show that selective inhibition of N-myristoylation leads to catastrophic and irreversible failure to assemble the inner membrane complex, a critical subcellular organelle in the parasite life cycle. Our studies provide the basis for the development of new antimalarials targeting N-myristoyltransferase.

  18. Patterns in the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Composition of Icelandic Lakes and the Dominant Factors Controlling Variability Across Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Fourteen lakes were sampled in the southern and western area of Iceland in June of 2017. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes that produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse and located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Physical variables (temperature, oxygen concentration, and water clarity), chemical variables (pH, conductivity, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon concentration), and biological variables (algal biomass) were compared across the lakes sampled in these geographic regions. There was a large range in lake characteristics, including five to eighteen times higher algal biomass in the southern systems that experience active ash input to lakes. The lakes located in the Eastern Volcanic Zone also had higher conductivity and lower pH, especially in systems receiving substantial geothermal input. These results were analyzed in the context of more extensive lake sampling efforts across Iceland (46 lakes) to determine defining characteristics of lakes in each region and to identify variables that drive heterogeneous patterns in physical, chemical, and biological lake features within each region. Coastal systems, characterized by high conductivity, and glacially-fed systems, characterized by high iron concentrations, were unique from lakes in all other regions. Clustering and principal component analyses revealed that lake type (plateau, valley, spring-fed, and direct-runoff) was not the primary factor explaining variability in lake chemistry outside of the coastal and glacial lake types. Instead, lakes differentiated along a gradient of iron concentration and total nitrogen concentration. The physical and chemical properties of subarctic lakes are especially susceptible to both natural and human-induced environmental impacts. However, relatively little is known about the

  19. Quantifying the impact of an upwelling filament on the physical-chemical-biological interactions off SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, A.; Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, C.; Cardeira, S.; Madureira, M.; Rita, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling filaments are mesoscale structures of cold water that stretch seaward in a tongue-like shape with origin in the coastal upwelling zone. Filaments off the Iberian Peninsula are recurrent, showing similarities with those in the Californian coast. The Cape São Vicente, the SW tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the root of recurrent filaments observed in the satellite imagery during the upwelling season. However, the understanding of its physical and chemical impact on the biological productivity is rather limited. There, a relatively small filament ( 80 km long) was investigated through remote sensing and in situ multidisciplinary observations during an upwelling favourable wind relaxation event, but just after an intense upwelling period. A total of 42 CTD+Rosette casts up to 400 m depth were distributed on an almost regular grid of 15 km mean spacing guided by guided by satellite SST imagery transmitted to the ship in near-real time. The parameters sampled during the sea campaign included: velocity field sampled along the ship track through a hull-mounted 38 kHz RDI ADCP, meteorological variables, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, cadmium, lead and zinc. The extent of the impact of the filament was evaluated by quantifying the cross-shelf transports of several properties. The amounts conveyed by the filament were much stronger than those expected by the wind-driven Ekman mechanism, showing that it represents an efficient feature for the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter from the productive shelf towards the oligotrophic offshore region. Considering the periods of strong upwelling events and the extent of their duration along the year, the amounts of exported matter will certainly enhance the biological productivity of these waters, including its fisheries. These filament data contribute to better understand the physical-chemical-biological interactions of this regional ecosystem.

  20. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  1. The critical role of the Poison Center in the recognition, mitigation and management of biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, E P

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism counter measures are a major priority with healthcare providers, municipalities, states and the federal government. Significant resources are being invested to enhance civilian domestic preparedness through training in anticipation of a NBC terroristic incident. The key to a successful response, in addition to education, is integration of efforts as well as thorough communication and understanding the role that each agency would play in an actual or impending NBC incident. In anticipation of a NBC event, a regional counter-terrorism task force was established in southwestern Pennsylvania to identify resources, establish responsibilities and coordinate the response to NBC terrorism. Members of the task force include first responders, hazmat, law enforcement (local, regional, national), government officials, health departments, the statewide emergency management agency and the regional poison information center. The poison center is one of several critical components of a regional counter-terrorism response force. It can conduct active and passive toxicosurveillance and identify sentinel events. To be responsive, the poison center staff must be knowledgeable about biological and chemical agents. The development of basic protocols and a standardized staff education program is essential. The use of the RaPID-T (R-recognition, P-protection, D-detection, T-triage/treatment) course can provide basic staff education for responding to this important but rare consultation to the poison center.

  2. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla M. S. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous exposure of aquatic life to estrogenic chemicals via wastewater treatment plant effluents has in recent years received considerable attention due to the high sensitivity of oviparous animals to disturbances of estrogen-controlled physiology. The removal efficiency by direct UV and the UV/H2O2 treatment was investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through setup. The effect of different concentrations of H2O2 and different UV doses was investigated for all compounds in an effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Removal effectiveness increased with H2O2 concentration until 60 mg/L. The treatment effectiveness was reported as the electrical energy consumed per unit volume of water treated required for 90% removal of the investigated compound. It was found that the removal of all the compounds was dependent on the UV dose for both treatment methods. The required energy for 90% removal of the compounds was between 28 kWh/m3 (butylparaben and 1.2 kWh/m3 (estrone for the UV treatment. In comparison, the UV/H2O2 treatment required between 8.7 kWh/m3 for bisphenol A and benzophenone-7 and 1.8 kWh/m3 for ethinylestradiol.

  3. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas G Fox; J. Christopher Bernabo; Betsy Hood

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective...

  4. Kinetic target-guided synthesis in drug discovery and chemical biology: a comprehensive facts and figures survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosc, Damien; Jakhlal, Jouda; Deprez, Benoit; Deprez-Poulain, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    For the last 15 years, kinetic target-guided syntheses, including in situ click chemistry, have been used as alternative methods to find ligands to therapeutically relevant proteins. In this review, a comprehensive survey of biological targets used in kinetic target-guided synthesis covers historical and recent examples. The chemical reactions employed and practical aspects, including controls, library sizes and product detection, are presented. A particular focus is on the reagents and warhead selection and design with a critical overview of the challenges encountered. As protein supply remains a key success factor, it appears that increased efforts should be taken toward miniaturization in order to expand the scope of this strategy and qualify it as a fully fledged drug discovery tool.

  5. Disasters and mass casualties: II. explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Christopher T; Briggs, Susan M; Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Hirshberg, Asher; Lhowe, David W; O'Neill, Patricia A; Mead, Joann

    2007-08-01

    Terrorists' use of explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents constitutes the potential for catastrophic events. Understanding the unique aspects of these agents can help in preparing for such disasters with the intent of mitigating injury and loss of life. Explosive agents continue to be the most common weapons of terrorists and the most prevalent cause of injuries and fatalities. Knowledge of blast pathomechanics and patterns of injury allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents, their attendant clinical symptoms, and recommended management strategies is an important prerequisite for optimal preparation and response to these less frequently used agents of mass casualty. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the principles of management of catastrophic events. Stress is less an issue when one is adequately prepared. Decontamination is essential both to manage victims and prevent further spread of toxic agents to first responders and medical personnel. It is important to assess the risk of potential threats, thereby allowing disaster planning and preparation to be proportional and aligned with the actual casualty event.

  6. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, F; Picca, R A; Sportelli, M C; Cioffi, N; Sannino, A; Pollini, M

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag2O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinyl β-glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl β-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl β-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl β-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl β-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (γ/sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), 1 H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl β-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial β-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl β-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl β-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method

  8. The chemical and biological evolution of mature fine tailings in oil sands end-pit lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Weisener, C.; Ciborowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation described an innovative bench-scale technique to characterize oil sand tailings and their impact on sediment oxygen demand (SOD) for future end-pit lake model behaviour. SOD is a dominant contributor to oxygen depletion in wetlands. The function and sustainability of a wetland ecosystem depends on the biochemical processes occurring at the sediment-water interface. The biochemical reactions associated with natural sediment can change with the addition of oil sands processed material (OSPM), which can affect SOD and ecosystem viability. It is important to establishing the biotic and abiotic controls of SOD. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of current wetland reclamation designs, it is important to establish the biotic and abiotic controls of SOD. The REDOX chemistry of fresh tailings sediment (MFT) was measured in this laboratory microcosm to determine the chemical and biological influences, and to study the role of developing microbial communities as new mature fine tailings (MFT) age. The study evaluated the changes in the main chemical, physical and biological populations of the MFT in both aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. A combination of microelectrode arrays and DNA profiling at the tailings water interface was used in the study.

  9. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8545] Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the... determination was made that the Government of Syria used chemical weapons in violation of international law or... sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

  10. Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Haque, M.M.; Min, J.; Nguyen, P.T.; Telfer, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in

  11. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may

  12. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  13. Reliable discrimination of high explosive and chemical/biological artillery using acoustic UGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi

    2005-10-01

    The Army is currently developing acoustic overwatch sensor systems that will provide extended range surveillance, detection, and identification for force protection and tactical security on the battlefield. A network of such sensors remotely deployed in conjunction with a central processing node (or gateway) will provide early warning and assessment of enemy threats, near real-time situational awareness to commanders, and may reduce potential hazards to the soldier. In contrast, the current detection of chemical/biological (CB) agents expelled into a battlefield environment is limited to the response of chemical sensors that must be located within close proximity to the CB agent. Since chemical sensors detect hazardous agents through contact, the sensor range to an airburst is the key-limiting factor in identifying a potential CB weapon attack. The associated sensor reporting latencies must be minimized to give sufficient preparation time to field commanders, who must assess if an attack is about to occur, has occurred, or if occurred, the type of agent that soldiers might be exposed to. The long-range propagation of acoustic blast waves from heavy artillery blasts, which are typical in a battlefield environment, introduces a feature for using acoustics and other disparate sensor technologies for the early detection and identification of CB threats. Employing disparate sensor technologies implies that warning of a potential CB attack can be provided to the solider more rapidly and from a safer distance when compared to that which conventional methods allow. This capability facilitates the necessity of classifying the types of rounds that have burst in a specified region in order to give both warning and provide identification of CB agents found in the area. In this paper, feature extraction methods based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiresolution analysis facilitate the development of a robust classification algorithm that affords reliable

  14. A review of current techniques of Physico-chemical and biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of this fact, the soil is constantly subjected to various forms of abuse, including heavy metals pollution. The ecological destructive effect, high cost, and intensive labour requirement associated with ex situ physico-chemical remediation methods make the search for in situ remediation techniques inevitable. This paper ...

  15. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Egbuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51, fatty acids (four, and phenolics (six, were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  16. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  17. White mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with calcium chloride dihydrate: chemical analysis and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and biological properties of fast-set white mineral trioxide aggregate (FS WMTA), which was WMTA combined with calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2·2H2O), compared to that of WMTA. Materials and Methods Surface morphology, elemental, and phase analysis were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cytotoxicity and cell attachment properties were evaluated on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) using methyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay and under SEM after 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Results Results showed that the addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected the surface morphology and chemical composition. Although FS WMTA exhibited a non-cytotoxic profile, the cell viability values of this combination were lesser than WMTA, and the difference was significant in 7 out of 10 concentrations at the 2 time intervals (p < 0.05). HPLFs adhered over the surface of WMTA and at the interface, after 24 hours of incubation. After 72 hours, there were increased numbers of HPLFs with prominent cytoplasmic processes. Similar findings were observed with FS WMTA, but the cells were not as confluent as with WMTA. Conclusions The addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected its chemical properties. The favorable biological profile of FS WMTA towards HPLFs may have a potential impact on its clinical application for repair of perforation defects. PMID:28808634

  18. Technical Program of The Fifth World Congress on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Many countries worldwide were interested in the part that CBMTS industry played in the overall protection schemes required of all nations. It was idea to develop a baseline of information on antidotes and planned medical treatment for military and civilian medical casualties, in both peace and war. It was an almost complete lack of international communications across the full spectrum of chemical and biological medical treatment. Based on actual incidents that affected their chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries during their recent war, countries highlighted a danger that every country could face in the event of military actions, sabotage and especially terrorist actions, as well as major incidents or accidents involving these industries. Today TICS and TIMS and chemical and pharmaceutical industries and accidents and incidents whether by man or nature are part of our daily lexicon. The very tragic events 9/11 graphically demonstrated the importance of our CBMTS approach at bringing together the world's very best professionals in science and medicine to explore at the outer edges of science and technology, the most important issue facing the international community. Although the success in this approach has been continually documented for many years, CBMTS will continually rededicate our total efforts towards defining the issues, surfacing the problems across the NBC science and medical spectrum and applying the best efforts at developing solutions that would most benefit our world community

  19. Medicinal plants for the treatment of obesity: ethnopharmacological approach and chemical and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Junior, Luciano Mamede; de Almeida, Eduardo B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that has shown a steady increase in morbimortality indicators; it is considered a social problem and entails serious health risks. One of the alternatives in the treatment of obesity is the traditional use of medicinal plants, which supports the research and development of obesity phytotherapy. In this article, we provide information about ethnopharmacological species used to treat obesity, through an electronic search of the periodical databases Web of Science , Scopus , PubMed and Scielo , considering the period 1996-2015 and using the descriptors "plants for obesity", "ethnopharmacology for obesity" and "anti-obesity plants" in both Portuguese and English. We analyzed and organized data on 76 plant species, cataloged per the taxonomy, geographic distribution, botanical aspects, popular use, and chemical and biological studies of the listed plants. The anti-obesity effect of the cataloged species was reported, describing actions on the delay of fat absorption, suppression of enzymatic activities, mediation of lipid levels and increase of lipolytic effects, attributed mainly to phenolic compounds. Given these findings, ethnopharmacological approaches are relevant scientific tools in the selection of plant species for studies that demonstrate anti-obesity action. Deeper botanical, chemical, pre-clinical and clinical studies are particularly necessary for species that present phenolic compounds in their chemical structure.

  20. Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of Copper on the chemical composition and biological activity of basil essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Ishtiaq, Faiqa; Kanwal, Nazish; Rashid, Nosheen; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2017-10-01

    The present study is performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Cu as fertilizer on the chemical composition of basil essential oil and its biological activity including antioxidant and antifungal activities by employing Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of Cu is also determined on the vegetative growth and essential oil yield. Both, antifungal and antioxidant activities were found to be maximum with essential oils obtained at 0.04 mg/l concentration of Cu fertilizer. The results of the GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the linalool and estragole are found to be as a major chemical compound in basil essential oil. The Raman spectral changes associated with these biological components lead to the conclusion that estragole seems to have dominating effect in the biological activities of the basil essential oil as compared to linalool although the latter is observed in greater concentration.

  1. Physico-chemical and biological factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Thunell, Robert C.; Pospelova, Vera; Pinckney, James L.; Romero, Oscar E.; Tappa, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a 2.5-year-long sediment trap record of dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin, off Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). The site lies under the influence of wind-driven, seasonal upwelling which promotes high levels of primary productivity during boreal winter and spring. Changes in dinoflagellate cyst production is documented between November 1996 and May 1999 at ˜ 14-day intervals and interpreted in the context of in situ observations of physico-chemical and biological parameters measured at the mooring site. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are diverse (57 taxa) and dominated by cyst taxa of heterotrophic affinity, primarily Brigantedinium spp. (51 % of the total trap assemblage). Average cyst fluxes to the trap are high (17.1 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1) and show great seasonal and interannual variability. On seasonal timescales, dinoflagellate cyst production responds closely to variations in upwelling strength, with increases in cyst fluxes of several protoperidinioid taxa observed during active upwelling intervals, predominantly Brigantedinium spp. Cyst taxa produced by autotrophic dinoflagellates, in particular Bitectatodinium spongium, also respond positively to upwelling. Several spiny brown cysts contribute substantially to the assemblages, including Echinidinium delicatum (9.7 %) and Echinidinium granulatum (7.3 %), and show a closer affinity to weaker upwelling conditions. The strong El Niño event of 1997/98 appears to have negatively impacted cyst production in the basin with a 1-year lag, and may have contributed to the unusually high fluxes of cysts type Cp (possibly the cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides sensu Li et al., 2015), with cyst type Cp fluxes up to 11.8 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1 observed during the weak upwelling event of February-May 1999. Possible trophic interactions between dinoflagellates and other major planktonic groups are also investigated by comparing the timing and magnitude of cyst

  2. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  3. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VK Q , prepared by coupling vitamin K 3 , also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VK Q is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VK QH 2 , BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VK Q as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  4. Chemicals identified in human biological media: a data base. Third annual report, October 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, M.V.; Baldauf, M.F.; Martin, F.M. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    Data from almost 1600 of the 3800 body-burden documents collected to date have been entered in the data base as of October 1981. The emphasis on including recent literature and significant research documents has resulted in a chronological mix of articles from 1974 to the present. When body-burden articles are identified, data are extracted and entered in the data base by chemical and tissue/body fluid. Each data entry comprises a single record (or line entry) and is assigned a record number. If a particular document deals with more than one chemical and/or tissue, there will be multiple records for that document. For example, a study of 5 chemicals in each of 3 tissues has 15 different records (or 15 line entries) in the data base with 15 record numbers. Record numbers are assigned consecutively throughout the entire data base and appear in the upper left corner of the first column for each record.

  5. Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Zurlo, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The desire to develop and evaluate drugs as potential countermeasures for biological and chemical threats requires test systems that can also substitute for the clinical trials normally crucial for drug development. Animal models have limited predictivity for drug efficacy, as is well known from many disappointments in clinical trials. Traditional in vitro and in silico approaches are not really game changers here, but the substantial investment into novel tools now underway might bring about a second generation of alternative approaches. The avenue pursued focuses primarily on the development of a Human on a Chip, i.e., the combination of different three-dimensional (stem) cell-based organ equivalents combined with microfluidics. The prospects of such approaches, their impact on the field of alternative approaches, and necessary complementary activities are discussed. The need to adapt quality assurance measures and experiences from validation is stressed.

  6. Nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism: understanding the threat and designing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J D

    1999-01-01

    Today nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) terrorism is a serious issue. The threat of terrorist or rogue states acquiring and using NBC weapons has ushered in a new age of terrorism; an age that is far more dangerous than any previous period. It is an age of terrorism with which no one yet knows how to deal. This article reviews recent trends in terrorism, and identifies groups that have both the potential and the motive to use weapons of mass destruction. In addition, it discusses the design and implemention of effective measures to meet this threat, as well as the role of CISM teams in preparation for, and in the aftermath of, an incident involving NBC weapons.

  7. Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geone M. Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs, and the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae, with approximately 600 species. The present work provides a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus Justicia. In addition, the biological activities of compounds isolated from the genus are also covered. The chemical and pharmacological information in the present work may inspire new biomedical applications for the species of Justicia, considering atom economy, the synthesis of environmentally benign products without producing toxic by-products, the use of renewable sources of raw materials, and the search for processes with maximal efficiency of energy.

  8. Surface plasmon resonance based sensing of different chemical and biological samples using admittance loci method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sharmila; Ray, Mina

    2013-06-01

    The admittance loci method plays an important role in the design of multilayer thin film structures. In this paper, admittance loci method has been explored theoretically for sensing of various chemical and biological samples based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon. A dielectric multilayer structure consisting of a Boro silicate glass (BSG) substrate, calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) along with different dielectric layers has been investigated. Moreover, admittance loci as well as SPR curves of metal-dielectric multilayer structure consisting of the BSG substrate, gold metal film and various dielectric samples has been simulated in MATLAB environment. To validate the proposed simulation results, calibration curves have also been provided.

  9. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  10. Chemical and biological activity in open flows: A dynamical system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, Tamas; Moura, Alessandro de; Grebogi, Celso; Karolyi, Gyoergy

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological processes often take place in fluid flows. Many of them, like environmental or microfluidical ones, generate filamentary patterns which have a fractal structure, due to the presence of chaos in the underlying advection dynamics. In such cases, hydrodynamical stirring strongly couples to the reactivity of the advected species: the outcome of the reaction is then typically different from that of the same reaction taking place in a well-mixed environment. Here we review recent progress in this field, which became possible due to the application of methods taken from dynamical system theory. We place special emphasis on the derivation of effective rate equations which contain singular terms expressing the fact that the reaction takes place on a moving fractal catalyst, on the unstable foliation of the reaction free advection dynamics

  11. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  12. The effect of the chemical, biological, and physical environment on quorum sensing in structured microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Alexander R.; Stoodley, Paul; Stewart, Philip S.

    2006-01-01

    As researchers attempt to study quorum sensing in relevant clinical or environmental settings, it is apparent that many factors have the potential to affect signaling. These factors span a range of physical, chemical, and biological variables that can impact signal production, stability and distribution. Optimizing experimental systems to natural or clinical environments may be crucial for defining when and where quorum sensing occurs. These points are illustrated in our case study of S. aureus signaling in biofilms, where signal stability may be affected by the host environment. The basic signaling schemes have been worked out at the molecular level for a few of the major quorum-sensing systems. As these studies continue to refine our understanding of these mechanisms, an emerging challenge is to identify if and when the local environment can affect signaling. PMID:17047948

  13. Effect of chemically and biologically synthesized Ag nanoparticles on the algae growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Mražiková; Oksana, Velgosová; Jana, Kavuličová

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years green methods for preparation of silver nanoparticles has become necessary due to its friendly influence on ecosystem. In the present work antimicrobial properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) using green algae extract and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Chem-AgNPs) using sodium citrate against algae Parachlorella kessleri is investigated. Both used Bio-AgNPs and Chem-AgNPs exhibit long-term stability as demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. The results revealed stronger toxic effects of Bio-AgNPs on agar plates what was confirmed clear inhibition zone around wells impregnated with Bio-AgNPs. On the other hand Bio-AgNPs were confirmed to be less toxic in aquatic environments for the growths of green algae P. kessleri comparing to Chem-AgNPs.

  14. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  15. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  16. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  18. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants.

  19. Research on Chemical Composition and Biological Properties Including Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Angelica pancicii Vandas Aerial Parts and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Ksenija S; Trifunović, Snežana S; Ćirić, Ana D; Šakić, Željana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Todorović, Nina M; Matevski, Vlado S; Marin, Petar D; Tešević, Vele V; Džamić, Ana M

    2017-12-20

    The essential oil, different extracts, and isolated compounds of Angelica pancicii Vandas (Apiaceae) were investigated for the first time. The GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents of A. pancicii essential oil of aerial parts with bornyl acetate (8.08%), n-octanol (5.82%), kessane (4.26%), and β-selinene (4.26%) as the main constituents. Analysis of methanol extracts, using an HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS system, showed a total of 52 compounds in the aerial parts and 53 in the roots, indicating coumarins as the main constituents. In addition, new chromone (1) and six known furanocoumarins (2-7) were isolated from the roots and structurally elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods. The aerial part extracts exhibited higher polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity evaluated by three radical scavenging assays. Using a microwell dilution method, the strongest antibacterial activity profiles were determined for ethanol and methanol root extracts (minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) = 0.25-3.00 mg/mL), which were comparable to the activity of streptomycin (MBCs = 0.34-1.24 mg/mL), while the strongest antibacterial compound of A. pancicii was oxypeucedanin hydrate (MBCs = 0.50-8.00 mg/mL). Antifungal potential was in moderate extent, and the highest activity was obtained for root methanol extract (minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) = 4.00-14.00 mg/mL). Tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of the extracts and isolated compounds inhibited selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence determinants. The most reduced growth of P. aeruginosa colony was in the presence of isolated oxypeucedanin. Ethanol (17.36-46.98%) and methanol (34.54-52.43%) root extracts showed higher anti-biofilm activity compared to streptomycin (49.40-88.36%) and ampicillin (56.46-92.16%).

  20. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihioro Kodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (S1PC is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (SAC, an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE. The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960’s. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88–100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  1. Chemical and biological insights into uranium-induced apoptosis of rat hepatic cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; You, Yong [University of South China, College of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Hengyang (China); Du, Ke-Jie [University of South China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hengyang (China); Fang, Zhen [Anhui Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Wuhu (China); Wen, Ge-Bo [University of South China, College of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Laboratory of Protein Structure and Function, Hengyang (China); Lin, Ying-Wu [University of South China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Laboratory of Protein Structure and Function, Hengyang (China)

    2015-05-15

    Uranium release into the environment is a threat to human health, and the mechanisms of cytotoxicity caused by uranium are not well-understood. To improve our understanding in this respect, we herein evaluated the effects of uranium exposure on normal rat hepatic BRL cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis, uranyl nitrate was found to be transformed into uranyl phosphate particles in the medium and taken up by BRL cells in an endocytotic uptake manner, which presumably initiates apoptosis of the cell, although soluble uranyl ion may also be toxic. The apoptosis of BRL cells upon uranium exposure was also confirmed by both the acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining assay and the Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay. Further studies revealed that uranium induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the uranium-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, indicating both a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway and a death receptor pathway by a crosstalk. This study provides new chemical and biological insights into the mechanism of uranium toxicity toward hepatic cells, which will help seek approaches for biological remediation of uranium. (orig.)

  2. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  3. Synthesis of Effective Food Constituents toward the Development of Chemical Biology Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of various probes and immunogens for chemical-biological investigations of food flavonoids. We accomplished a large (gram)-scale asymmetric synthesis of a key intermediate, 5-aminopentyl deoxy epigallocatechin-3-gallate (APDOEGCg; 3), an analogue of green tea polyphenol EGCg, in which the key step was cationic cyclization utilizing neighboring group participation of the gallate carbonyl group. The synthetic APDOEGCg (3) was efficiently converted to a fluorescent probe 18 and an immunogen 19 by utilizing the high reactivity of the amine functional group. We confirmed the usefulness of these probes for imaging studies and the generation of antibodies, respectively. We also describe the efficient synthesis of a positron emission tomography (PET) probe [ 11 C]20 by incorporation of 11 C into EGCg (1), for which synthetic 4″-Me-EGCg (20) was utilized as an authentic sample. Our synthetic strategy was also applied for the practical synthesis of nobiletin (21), a polymethoxylated flavone from citrus. Synthetic nobiletin was readily converted to various probes by selective demethylation and incorporation of fluorescein, biotin or 11 C. These probes should be useful for a range of biological applications. Detailed examination of the mechanisms and further applications are in progress.

  4. Physical, chemical and biological studies of gelatin/chitosan based transdermal fims with embedded silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the physical, chemical and biological properties of composite chitosangelatin transdermal film along with silver nanoparticles as binding agent and determine the compatibility of the prepared amalgamation towards wound management. Methods: Transdermal film preparations were done by solvent casting method containing different concentrations of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles. The films were characterized by using scanning electron microscope for their morphology and the determination of silver metal was done by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Then a quantity of silver nanoparticles was further proceeded by physiochemical parameters (weight, thickness, temperature, solubility, absorption, tensile strength, in vitro drug release and skin permeation and biological parameters studies (anti-microbial, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. Results: The film prepared by utilizing 2 g of gelatin and 0.5 g of chitosan exhibited better results. The physiochemical parameters studies revealed higher concentration of silver nanoparticles would give better results. In vitro drug release studies through dialysis and skin permeation showed the release of drug versus time (h. These films had shown excellent inhibition against Streptococcus and Escherichia coli species. Cytotoxicity study by MTT indicated the mild toxicity existed as the concentration of silver nanoparticles increased. Reactive oxygen species generation studies of transdermal film by using 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay demonstrated that the fluorescent cells were found in the higher concentration, which indicated cell damage (reactive oxygen species generated. Conclusions: Based on these observations, in vitro performances against various characteristics of transdermal film, would be utilized as a distinct dressing material and patches accessible in market.

  5. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  6. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  7. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller, Jurg [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: j.keller@awmc.uq.edu.au

    2006-11-02

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required.

  8. Analytical applications of oscillatory chemical reactions: determination of some pharmaceuticaly and biologically important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Nataša D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel analytical methods for quantitive determination of analytes based on perturbations of oscillatory chemical reactions realized under open reactor conditions (continuosly fed well stirred tank reactor, CSTR, have been developed in the past twenty years. The proposed kinetic methods are generally based on the ability of the analyzed substances to change the kinetics of the chemical reactions matrix. The unambiguous correlation of quantitative characteristics of perturbations, and the amount (concentration of analyte expressed as a regression equation, or its graphics (calibration curve, enable the determination of the unknown analyte concentration. Attention is given to the development of these methods because of their simple experimental procedures, broad range of linear regression ( 10-7 10-4 mol L-1 and low limits of detection of analytes ( 10-6 10-8 mol L1, in some cases even lower than 10-12 mol L-1. Therefore, their application is very convenient for routine analysis of various inorganic and organic compounds as well as gases. This review summarizes progress made in the past 5 years on quantitative determination of pharmaceutically and biologically important compounds.

  9. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut; Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice; Keller, Jurg

    2006-01-01

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H 2 O 2 followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H 2 O 2 /L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required

  10. Chemical and biological studies on sweet biscuits produced from irradiated phaseolus beans flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of beans such as minerals, amino acids, total carbohydrates and fiber to produce high quality sweet biscuits for treating some special diseases. In this study, the Phaseolus beans flour was used as a new source of very important composition. Beans flour was irradiated at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 KGy) for preservation. Sweet biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10, 15% beans flour. All samples of sweet biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Biological assay was carried out in rats maintained on 15% either irradiated or non-irradiated beans flour sweet biscuits through determining the weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and investigating the internal organs. The results obtained showed that sweet biscuits containing 15% Phaseolus beans flour had highest content of protein, minerals and fiber and scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiated beans flour on the internal organs

  11. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Catalá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others.

  12. Physico-chemical and biological studies on water from Aries River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiuc-Keul, A; Momeu, L; Craciunas, C; Dobrota, C; Cuna, S; Balas, G

    2012-03-01

    Our work was focused on physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Aries River, one of the largest rivers from Romania. Water samples were collected from 11 sites along Aries River course. We have measured de (18)O and D isotopic composition of Aries River water in these locations and correlated these data with the isotopic composition of aquatic plants and with the pollution degree. Some ions from Aries River water were also analyzed: NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-) Cu(2+), Fe(3+). Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantify the level of water pollution of Aries River. All physico-chemical analyses revealed that the most polluted site is Abrud; the source of pollution is most probably the mining enterprise from Rosia Montana. Water isotope content increases from upstream to downstream of the locations analyzed. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution sources from this area: mine waters, industrial waters, waste products, land cleaning, tourism etc. The water eutrophication increases from upstream of Campeni to downstream of Campia Turzii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ZnO nanostructure fabrication in different solvents transforms physio-chemical, biological and photodegradable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Javed, Rabia; Tabassum, Saira; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Zia, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized in various organic solvents (acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) and water via coprecipitation process using zinc acetate as precursor. The resultant ZnO nanoparticles, nano rods and nano sheets are characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The variable size and geometry of nanoparticles depend upon medium used for synthesis. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures exhibit minor to moderate antioxidative (DPPH based free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidative potential and total reducing power) response. Mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities, excellent antileishmanial potential (IC50 up to 3.76), and good cytotoxic perspective (LD50 up to 49.4) is also observed by the synthesized ZnO NPs. The nanoparticles also exhibit moderate α-amylase inhibition response. Furthermore the nanostructures are evaluated for methylene blue photodegradation response within 60min time period. It is found that organic solvent alters shape, size and other physio-chemical properties of ZnO that ultimately modulate the biological, chemical, and environmental properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  15. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  16. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  17. From Molecules to Life: Quantifying the Complexity of Chemical and Biological Systems in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Life is a complex phenomenon and much research has been devoted to both understanding its origins from prebiotic chemistry and discovering life beyond Earth. Yet, it has remained elusive how to quantify this complexity and how to compare chemical and biological units on one common scale. Here, a mathematical description of molecular complexity was applied allowing to quantitatively assess complexity of chemical structures. This in combination with the orthogonal measure of information complexity resulted in a two-dimensional complexity space ranging over the entire spectrum from molecules to organisms. Entities with a certain level of information complexity directly require a functionally complex mechanism for their production or replication and are hence indicative for life-like systems. In order to describe entities combining molecular and information complexity, the term biogenic unit was introduced. Exemplified biogenic unit complexities were calculated for ribozymes, protein enzymes, multimeric protein complexes, and even an entire virus particle. Complexities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as multicellular organisms, were estimated. Thereby distinct evolutionary stages in complexity space were identified. The here developed approach to compare the complexity of biogenic units allows for the first time to address the gradual characteristics of prebiotic and life-like systems without the need for a definition of life. This operational concept may guide our search for life in the Universe, and it may direct the investigations of prebiotic trajectories that lead towards the evolution of complexity at the origins of life.

  18. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  19. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, W Brian; Jones, J Andrew; Bennett, R Kyle; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Palmer, Michael A; Schmidt, Samuel; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Koffas, Mattheos A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using 13 C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. By incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  1. Monitoring chemical and biological recovery at a confined aquatic disposal site, Oslofjord, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy M P; Pettersen, Arne; Eek, Espen; Glette, Tormod; Brooks, Lucy; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2017-09-01

    The recovery of the confined aquatic disposal (CAD) facility located at Malmøykalven in Oslofjord, Norway, has been assessed using an array of field measurement techniques. These methods were used prior to the disposal of dredged sediments as well as during 3 annual postdisposal monitoring campaigns. Traditional sampling to assess chemical recovery indicates that an immediate reduction in total sediment concentrations and surface sediments can be characterized as having good quality. Deposition of new material indicates that the quality of depositing material at the CAD is stabile and representative of the natural background quality in the area. Continued deposition of this material will improve the long-term chemical recovery of the CAD. A positive biological recovery of the benthic community has been observed and is expected to continue along a typical benthic succession pattern. To supplement traditional sampling, passive samplers were deployed at the CAD. Results suggest that the flux and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 16 and polychlorinated biphenyl 7 released from the CAD will continue to decrease over time. The combined results from these multiple lines of evidence indicate that the CAD and capping layer function as predicted 3 yr after the construction was completed. There is not only an improvement in the efficacy of the CAD itself but also a general improvement of the area, compared with the situation prior to disposal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2552-2559. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  3. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schineider Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS, were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  4. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  5. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  6. In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella da Silva; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Albano, Mariana; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Doyama, Julio Toshimi; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobials products from plants have increased in importance due to the therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO. EO chemical analysis showed a predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis), and the lowest activity was with Eugenia uniflora (from 50.80 mg/mL against MSSA to 92.40 mg/mL against both Salmonella sources and P. aeruginosa) EO. The time kill curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C. aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet requires further investigation because these interactions between the various chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect of essential oils against bacterial strains.

  7. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Implementation of a Collaborative Series of Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Spanning Chemical Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jennifer R.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Classroom undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students access to the measurable benefits of undergraduate research experiences (UREs). Herein, we describe the implementation and assessment of a novel model for cohesive CUREs focused on central research themes involving faculty research collaboration across departments. Specifically, we implemented three collaborative CUREs spanning chemical biology, biochemistry, and neurobiology that incorporated faculty members’ research interests and revolved around the central theme of visualizing biological processes like Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme activity and neural signaling using fluorescent molecules. Each CURE laboratory involved multiple experimental phases and culminated in novel, open-ended, and reiterative student-driven research projects. Course assessments showed CURE participation increased students’ experimental design skills, attitudes and confidence about research, perceived understanding of the scientific process, and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. More than 75% of CURE students also engaged in independent scientific research projects, and faculty CURE contributors saw substantial increases in research productivity, including increased undergraduate student involvement and academic outputs. Our collaborative CUREs demonstrate the advantages of multicourse CUREs for achieving increased faculty research productivity and traditional CURE-associated student learning and attitude gains. Our collaborative CURE design represents a novel CURE model for ongoing laboratory reform that benefits both faculty and students. PMID:27810870

  10. Free radical scavenging and antiatherogenic activities of Sesamum indicum seed extracts in chemical and biological model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Soni, Badrish; Dalwadi, Nirav

    2009-10-01

    An emerging consensus underscores the importance of oxidative events in vascular disease including excess production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), in addition to lipoprotein oxidation. Sesamum indicum has long been used extensively as a traditional food. The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant action of aqueous and ethanolic seed extracts from S. indicum using various in vitro ROS/RNS generated chemical and biological models. Results demonstrated that the graded-dose (25-1000 microg/ml) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts markedly scavenged the nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals and, showed metal chelating ability as well as reducing capacity in Fe(3+)/ferricyanide complex and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. In biological models, both extracts were found to inhibit metal-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fractions, human serum and LDL oxidation models. In lipoprotein kinetics study, both extracts significantly (Pindicum showed higher amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoid content as compared to their counterpart. The IC(50) values of both extracts were compared with respective antioxidant standards. Overall, ethanolic extract of S. indicum possess strong antioxidant capacity and offering effective protection against LDL oxidation susceptibility.

  11. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, ' Politehnica' University of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, C. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, C. [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, 285 Mihai Bravu, 030304 Bucharest (Romania); Saviuc, C.; Popa, M. [Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Microbiology Immunology Department, Aleea Portocalilor 1-3, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Departments of Materials Science and Biomedical Engineering, Troy, 12180-3590, NY (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We deposit magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  12. Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Zadereev, E.S.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Prokopkin, I.; Barkhatov, Y.V.; Tolomeev, A.; Khromechek, E.B.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite different mainly because both mean depth and maximum depth of lakes differ as well as their salinity levels differ. The chemocline of the Lake Shira, as in many meromictic lakes, is inhabited by b...

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and related biological responses measured in coastal fish using chemical and biological screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Bossi, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and biological responses in two fish species. The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was collected from various locations in the Baltic Sea and in fjords of Kattegat and Skagerrak, while......-PCB in muscle tissues were above OSPAR environmental assessment criteria (EAC) for PCB118, indicating a potential risk of adverse biological effects in the ecosystem, whereas levels of the total WHO-TEQs were below threshold for sea food suggesting limited risks for humans. No significant relationships between...... levels of DLC (expressed as WHO-TEQ), and biological responses such as the induction of CYP1A enzymatic activity and fry reproductive disorders were observed in eelpout. No marked relationship between WHO-TEQ and combined biological aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transactivity (expressed as Ah...

  14. Novel Nanotechnology of TiO2 Improves Physical-Chemical and Biological Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dellosso Cibim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance of glass ionomer cement (GIC added with TiO2 nanotubes. TiO2 nanotubes [3%, 5%, and 7% (w/w] were incorporated into GIC’s (Ketac Molar EasyMix™ powder component, whereas unblended powder was used as control. Physical-chemical-biological analysis included energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, surface roughness (SR, Knoop hardness (SH, fluoride-releasing analysis, cytotoxicity, cell morphology, and extracellular matrix (ECM composition. Parametric or nonparametric ANOVA were used for statistical comparisons (α≤0.05. Data analysis revealed that EDS only detected Ti at the 5% and 7% groups and that GIC’s physical-chemical properties were significantly improved by the addition of 5% TiO2 as compared to 3% and GIC alone. Furthermore, regardless of TiO2 concentration, no significant effect was found on SR, whereas GIC-containing 7% TiO2 presented decreased SH values. Fluoride release lasted longer for the 5% and 7% TiO2 groups, and cell morphology/spreading and ECM composition were found to be positively affected by TiO2 at 5%. In conclusion, in the current study, nanotechnology incorporated in GIC affected ECM composition and was important for the superior microhardness and fluoride release, suggesting its potential for higher stress-bearing site restorations.

  15. Biological characterization of chemically diverse compounds targeting the Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fletcher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fight against malaria, the discovery of chemical compounds with a novel mode of action and/or chemistry distinct from currently used drugs is vital to counteract the parasite’s known ability to develop drug resistance. Another desirable aspect is efficacy against gametocytes, the sexual developmental stage of the parasite which enables the transmission through Anopheles vectors. Using a chemical rescue approach, we previously identified compounds targeting Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A (CoA synthesis or utilization, a promising target that has not yet been exploited in anti-malarial drug development. Results We report on the outcomes of a series of biological tests that help to define the species- and stage-specificity, as well as the potential targets of these chemically diverse compounds. Compound activity against P. falciparum gametocytes was determined to assess stage-specificity and transmission-reducing potential. Against early stage gametocytes IC50 values ranging between 60 nM and 7.5 μM were obtained. With the exception of two compounds with sub-micromolar potencies across all intra-erythrocytic stages, activity against late stage gametocytes was lower. None of the compounds were specific pantothenate kinase inhibitors. Chemical rescue profiling with CoA pathway intermediates demonstrated that most compounds acted on either of the two final P. falciparum CoA synthesis enzymes, phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT or dephospho CoA kinase (DPCK. The most active compound targeted either phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS or phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC. Species-specificity was evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. No specific activity against T. cruzi amastigotes was observed; however three compounds inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes with sub-micromolar potencies and were confirmed to act on T. b. brucei CoA synthesis. Conclusions

  16. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  17. Leaf-litter breakdown in urban streams of Central Amazonia: direct and indirect effects of physical, chemical, and biological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Tavares Martins; Adriano Sanches Melo; José Francisco Gonçalves-Jr; Neusa Hamada

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization alters water physical and chemical variables and may affect leaf-litter breakdown in streams. Higher temperature and nutrient inputs in urban streams can stimulate microbial biomass, which can increase leaf-litter breakdown rates over rates in nonurban streams. On the other hand, urbanization can reduce leaf-litter breakdown rates by eliminating shredders. We evaluated physical, chemical, and biological factors that may directly and indirectly affect leaf-litter breakdown of Cous...

  18. The effect of different P fertilizer application (chemical, biologic and integrated on forage quality of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhia Zandiyeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the effect of different sources of P fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barely varieties, this experiment was conducted in Research Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran in 2010. The experimental treatments were arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh and 7 levels of P fertilizer viz: 1. Control (no fertilizer application, 2. Chemical P fertilizer (based on the soil test, 3. Biological P fertilizer (P solubilizing bacteria, 4. Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer, 5. Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, 6. Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer, 7. Biological P fertilizer + 25% chemical P fertilizer. The results indicated that the ash percentage in Fasieh was significantly higher than Bahman at Chemical P fertilizer, integrated and Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer. Except for Biological P fertilizer, DMD percentage was significantly higher in Fasieh compared to Bahman. The highest crude protein percentage was obtained for Fasieh in Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer for Bahman in Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, respectively. The water soluble carbohydrate content was significantly higher in Fasieh at Chemical P fertilizer and integrated fertilizer treatments compared to Bahman variety. The highest NDF in Bahman was observed when received Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer treatment, while the same results was obtained for Fasieh when received Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer and Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer.

  19. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-21

    The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.

  20. The Redox Chemistry and Chemical Biology of H2S, Hydropersulfides and Derived Species: Implications to Their Possible Biological Activity and Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Akaike, Takaake; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Wink, David A.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Nagy, Peter; Xian, Ming; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously generated and putative signaling/effector molecule. In spite of its numerous reported functions, the chemistry by which it elicits its functions is not understood. Moreover, recent studies allude to the existence of other sulfur species besides H2S that may play critical physiological roles. Herein, the basic chemical biology of H2S as well as other related or derived species is discussed and reviewed. A particular focus of this review are the per- and poly-sulfides which are likely in equilibrium with free H2S and which may be important biological effectors themselves. PMID:25229186